364 , , : , , , , , , . , , , .
:
364150
(304)
(123)
(23)
(113)
(4)
(4814)
(5227)
(2616)
(3423)
(4214)
(1518)
(68)
- (2836)
(8269)
(50)
(50)
(762)
(2)
(5275)
(30)
(1222)
(43)
(20403)
(465)
(19)
(108)
(173)
(96)
(899)
(54)
(34)
(476)
(106)
(62792)
(3562)
, (6444)
(2165)
(21320)
(766)
(64)
(3145)
(60)
(17)
(588)
(1000)
(106)
(48)
(3)
(1167)
(8485)
(537)
: (2044)
(11657)
(532)
(21)
(7985)
(3721)
, (10549)
(88)
(58)
(36)
(2257)
(12491)
(91)
(797)
(1338)
(24)
, (214)
(1141)
(3)
(8)
(21697)
(7850)
(3801)
(682)
, (2881)
(475)
(1)
, (7100)
(8694)
, (4121)
(443)
(952)
(2967)
(23)
(748)
(4876)
(95)
(107)
(7)
(2004)
(15)
(663)
(240)
(39)
(25)
(624)
(16)
(2652)
(136)
(90)
(406)
(95)
(24)
(3463)
(4482)
(7216)
(4592)
(5386)
(3)
(2244)
(23)
(29)
(35)
(4517)
(20645)
- (666)
(119)
(2573)
(889)
(288)
(148)
, (1140)

:

:
:
: 05:07:17 03 2005
: 1777 : 3 : 3 : 3.7 :    

. 1

1 . 2

1. .. 2

2. . 16

2.1 .. 16

2.2 .. 18

2.2.1. ... 19

2.2.2 ... 21

2.2.3 . 24

3. . 28

3.1 BPAAEC TPAHCOPMATOP... 30

3.1.1 . 30

3.1.2 Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop. 32

3.1.3. aop. 36

4 . 40

4.1PMEHEHE BM P BTOMTCOPTOBX POKATHX CTHOB.. 40

4.1.1 C T . 40

4.1.2 . 41

4.1.3. Ccea ynpae copoc peo poa (CP) 43

4.1.4. Cceaoaoropacpo poaa (COP) 44

4.1.5. AC T aox poax cao. 46

4.1.6. Aoapoaa ccea popaoo ypae poa e. 50

5. .. 55

5. . 55

5.1. .. 55

5.2. . 57

5.3. ponopuoao- epae . 58

5.4. ponopuoao- uepeuae . 59

5.5 ponopuoao-uepao-uepeuae peyop. 60

1

1.

( controle -) , . , , .

, . . (), , , , , ; ; () , () .

. . , , .

, , . , . , , .

Q- , |Q|- , , q Q , Q :

Q=q |Q| (1)

(1) . , q |Q|. , . , 1 10, 100 ..

. . 1963 . 986761. . 986761 1978 . 105278 . 8.41781 . 1 1982 . ( 130) .

8.41781 , 1.

.

, (, ).

() , .

, , , , - .

, ( , .

: , , .

, .

, . : , , . : , , .

, , , , , ( ),

, , .. ( ), ( ). , () , ..

. . - .

(), , , , , ,, , , , , , , ( 26.20783. . ). 2 . , , , .

, , . , () :

05; 505; 020; 420 ;

01; 101;

0-; ޗ010;

50 400 0,2500,25; 00,5; 101; 02 ( 50 400 , , 010; 10010; 020 0,125 0,32 . 180);

{ 48 );

0,020,1 .

, .

, , , . , , . . , (, , , ).

. () , " . , (, ). 1/2 2 .

, , , , .

. , :

) , , , () (. . 4, , );

) , , , , (. . 4,,).

1 , , , () , .

, , , . .

.

(, , , -

.4. :

; () ; ; ; 1 ; 2 (); 3 ; 4 ; 5; 6; 7; 8 ( , ; - ); 9 .

, ), . , , - (), , .

- . , - , , .

- , .

, , . , .

: , ().

: ; ; , ; () .

, .

. , , . , .

, , .

, . . ; , ; .

, . , , .

, . , , -..., . .

( ). , , , () , . . .

, , . , , , . , . .

, , , .

, , , . , . .

. . , . , , , . , . , , - , , , . .

() - , , , , .).

( , ). -, , , .

, , .. , , , . ( ).

.

D- .

(2)

, , . ,

(3)

- () , :

(4)

I. , 70 68,5 .

(3) :

D=68,570=-1.5.

(4)

. , , , , .

(5)

, , , . , .

- . , , :

(6)

- ( ):

(7)

- , , , . , : ( , ); [ , ( ). , 50 50 50+50=100]; ( - ). , 3001600 1600300 ==1300.

, , , , . (5), (6) (7) :

(8)

(9)

(9) ( , , , , ...> ). , , . , , , 25 %.

, .

, , . . , ( , , , ..) , . - .

, , . , , .

.

- , , , , .

: 0,01; 0,015; 0,02; 0,025; 0,04; 0,05; 0.1; 0,15; 0,2; 0,25; 0,4; 0,5; 0,6; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0. , , ( , ). , , , , .

( ) , . , .

, , . . , .. .

, , .

, , . . , , . , v=1,5%, 1,5 ( ). , (p v==l,5 %) 1,5 ( ).

.

(6)

(10)

;

.

, (10) :

(11)

.

,

(12)

d , , ad , ;

.

, , , . .

, ( , d ). , 0,02/0,01, .

:

(13)

f ( =-d; f=d)

, . , .

2. 050

, .

0,05 ( ). :

, , . , , . . 1.

. , .

(14)

ʗ ; , .

, (7),

(15)

, , .

(16)

ŗ ; ė ( ); d ( 0,5 1,0 d=0,15; 1,5- d= 0,25).

(7) , , ;

(17)

(18)

, , d/.

3. 3- 1,5 , +300¸1600 . (16) ,

(17)

(18)

4. 1,0 0400. (14) :

.

(15) =K=l,0 %.

, , , . ( ), ( ), ( ) . .

- ; ,

, , , .

0,2 % 0,25 .

, .

1. .

( )

, %

(7),

1.0

1.0 1.0
, 0,25 0,25 0,25
(11) 0,2 0,2 0,2 ( )
(12) 0,02/0,01 0,02/0,01
Dg = Dg =(+b), Dg ; ; b , . __

(, 2 / 1 /). . , .

, , , , .

, , 100%, (X, Y , Z , U ...) :

(19)

X, Y, Z, U , .

.

, , i=1,2,n (19) :

(20)

5. , () -0806; -1-11, -. . . 0-5 , , 0900, , .

2. .

2.1

, . , , .

, .

, . , , , , , . .

, , . , , _. . , - , .

, .

, () . , , . , , .

, , , . , , .

, . . : ( ).

, , , .

. .

. . ( ) , .

, , , ; ; ; .

. . , , , .

, .

, , .

, (, , , ..), .

, , , .

, , . , , () .

. . , . , -, , .

; , , .

, . , .

, , , . .

, .

2.2

:

1) ;

2) , ;

3) .

, , .

( ) , . , . . .

, , : () (). , , , .

2.2.1.

: , , . , . :

D ;

n ;

.

, L:

. , .

. . . :

, . , , 15

, , , ,

. , , , ..

, , . , . , , , . . .

, - , . , , ( ). . .120.

3 , 1, 20 , 21, 22 23 24. , , , . 7 9. 20 , 17 5.

, , 5,

13 . 9 13 5. 7 13 .

, 5 , . 5 , .

, . 5

20 , .

. , 8 9. 8 18 4. , 9. 4 16 , . 5 .

, . 1,0%.

2.2.2

:

1) , - ;

2) ;

3) .

. 121.

1 2 , . . , , 2 1. .

.

, , , . , , . . 121,6. 3 1. - , , . .

, - , .

- . - , - , . , , . ,

- .

, N, - , .

, . 122. , . , . K . . R. .

. 123 - , . : , , . , ,

(187).

. 2 , 5 6. 1 5 . 4 7. 3, . , , . 8 . 9. , , 78 . : 38 /. .

2.2.3 .

, , , , . . 124,. 10, , , -

, ,

.124. :

; ; 1-7 ;8 ; 9 ; 10 .

2, 3 . . 8 . L . , L ( 1), - . , 1. L . . - , , , (. 124,6). , 1. 1 ( . 124, 7).

l ;

.

, , , . . (. 125). 1 8 . 4, 3 .

, ,

;

- .

.

ooyce . , , . IX. , . B , ,

Ha ., 126 epe . , Ha , , . n+1 (. , ). 1 , 4 5 , . 6 7. B , 16 14. 15, ceo . ( ). , , , 14 13.

, , , , A 1 4. , , , poopoao a A . Oa ape cypyc oyeoe cyapoe apee pecppyec op popo, oop paypyec eax p oo ooo 1 4 pocxo aep poaa peoceeo eeoo poxoa, a c ooio ooo 7 5 oceeo

Ha pc, 127 peea o-cxea eeoo cce caooo epe aooo. Teeoa epeaa aepa 3 noeea pou yx epa 5, pacooe ey coo o p yo. paypoay ay 6 ycaaa apaeo eco oc aep. Oeca oc aep aa axoc apaeo ococ, oopo eec . C oo epa cce 4 ocaec coeee opae aoo a ococ paep epeae aep, Ccea epa oe poc o paee cepoexao, oop ypaec o opooro popa y oepaopa poaoo caa. p oopoe cce epa paypoa a ye co o opae aoo, p o aao a oe coeeo c o oo aoo, a o opoy oy oo poec oce . C oo o cce oo ep y aooo peeax o 3,65 o 11 opeoc 3 .

3. .

3.1 BPAAEC TPAHCOPMATOP

3.1.1

Bpaaec () (BT) , . BT (., 9.1) ( ) . B , , , .. . BT : (C1 C2 C3 C4) ; (P1 P2 P3 P4) (, 11.1). (C1 C2) , C3 C4 . : P 1P2 P3P4, ( ) , BT . B yo oopoa poopa BT opaaec aca yo apya cpax py.

p pao paaxc pacopaopo ocoa a ao yoc ey ooa caopa poopa, oopa eec opeeeo yoao acoc o ya oopoa poopa.epoye c, aoe ycpy a ooo oye ooax poopa, cpoo cey o acoc. Ec BT coyec aece epeoo eea, o oopo poopa ocyecec ocpeco peyopoo exaa coo ooc, oop o cpaaec opyc BT, o opye . ec BT peaae pao pee oopoa poopa peeax opeeeoo ya, o aece ooo oye oecaoo coyc oo caopa, a aece opx oo poopa.

Ec BT paoae pee epepoo pae poopa, o oo pe opaoe cooae ooo: oo poopa coy aece ooo oye oecaoo, a oo caopa aece opx Ec oecaoa ooa aaec aopoo, o p opao cooa ooo a poope pe a oax oa, o ypoae ocpy, oae aeoc ooc B.

B acoc o paa yoao acoc C opo oo o ya oopoa poopa paaec pacopaop pae a ceye :

1. cyco-ocyc paacpacopaop (CKBT) y eo oa ape a xoe oo , axoec cyco acoc o ya oopoa poopa a, apee a xoe oo , axoeec ocyco acoc o ya oopoa poopa a;

2. e paac pacopaop (BT) y ero xooe apee axoc poeo acoc o ya ;

3. paac pacopaop ocpoe (BT) peaae pee eoepecx aa

Kpoe oo, paaec pacopaop oy pec aece acax pacopaopo (MBT) coacoa ape oex acao aoaecoro ycpoca, aopaaee, epecx a cxpoo c pacopaopx cceax caoo epea ya.

Ha pc 11.2 oaao ycpoco paaeoc pacopaopa, B opyce 1 pacooe xoa epe caopa 2, a oopoo yoe pacpeeee oo 3. B aax xoaoo cepea poopa 4 ae axoc pacpeeee oo 5 epec oa ooo pooa c o ea 6 ocyecec ocpeco eo 7 o-

ax oe 8.

3.1.2 Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop

Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop cyco pee. B o pee pao coyec oo oa ooa poopa cyca (pc 11.3, a). p e ce oo oye e occ o , oop coac a noo oye . Cec co opo ooo . oo ao e C , ea oopo a-

c o ya oopoa poopa . B pee xoocoo x () anpee a xoe cyco oo

(11.1)

e acaoe ecyee aee ape a xoe cyco oo, cooecyee yy oopoa poopa =90 p oe apy aa P1 P2 cyco oo ee e oc o . Coa oo a oo oo pao a cocae: o pooo oc, , o oepeo oc , ay caee aoo ooa oye (pc 11.3, )

Paaaee e cocae ooa o pooo oc oecpyec yeee oa ooe oye . caee aoo ooa oye, aoe ece oepeo cocae ooa , apyae cycoay acoc ape cyco oo o ya oopoa poopa oc opeoc paoy CKBT, opacay c yeee oa apy cpaee oo eeaeoo e ocyecec ye ceppo .

B cyco pee pao CKBT, oa coyec oo oa opa ooa, npeec cuepupoaue, ocoaoe a pee oecaoo oo . C o ooy aa a pecop copoee

(11.2)

e cooeceo ypeee copoee coa epeeoo oa copoee pooo, coex ooy c coo

Oo copoee pooo , oa B oce cyae ooy oa coy oo ooc, paccaoy a ecox opeee ocooro oa, B o cyae ypeee copoee coa epoe ceppoae CKBT ocyecec aae aopoo oo .

Cocaa aoo ooa poopa o oepe o oc cec c oecaoo ooo, ao C . Ta a ooa aya, o C coae e o , MC oo , apaey cooec c pao ea cpeo ooy (oo ec po ooe C MC ) B peyae oo o oepeo oc ye aeo cee ocae (coecpoa) opeoc, oycoea apyo CKBT, aoocc

Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop cyco-ocyco pee B o pec coyc oe ope oo , ceee pocpace ooceo py pya a 90 (pc 11.3,0). acoc ape a xoe oo o ya oopoa poopa opeeec (11.1), a acoc ape a xoe oo, opeeec paee, ya yoo c o oo ooceo oo a 90:

(11.3)

e - acaoe ecyee aee ape ooe p ee cooco ooe c ooo oye .

(11.1) (11.3) ceye, o a xoe CKBT oya a ape, oo oopx poopoao sin, a pyoe cos (pc 11.3, ),

Oo e oaoe apaep, ooy acao ecye ae apexooo aeoao:

(11.4)

apee a xoe CKBT, .e a ooe oye .Ta opao, ya (11.4), pae (11.1) (11.3) ae e

(11.5)

Paccop paoy CKBT p epaece arpyo a aax cyco ocyco ooo, .e , p oe apyo ex opx ooo oc o , oope coay ae oo (pc11.3, ). oepee cocae x ooo apae pooooe copo aco ao . oa aa oeca ye oo np paece MC cyco ocyco ooo o noepeo oc:

(11.6)

e oooe oe opx ooo.

To o opx ooax CKBT, cooecye oo oeca,

(11.7)

(11.8)

e oe copoe opx ooo. oce ocao (11.7) (11.8) (11.6) oy:

(11.9)

Cycyocycy ooea oaoo cy oaepy ooooo pooa, ooy ooe oaoe apaep:

a o, (11.9) ae e:

(11.10)

Ta opao, oaaaoecaoepex cocax oooxox ooo CKBT pocxop paece apyox conpoe cocyco ooax. Taaoecaaaec opu cu e pupo a ue .

Ecapyoe copoee pa, o opoe ceppoae oyaeceo, aaae oo ao oecpyc oo, aco aoe CKBT oec peypyaooo oepeo oc:

(11.11)

o oo e a a, oo oye, apyae cycoa ao pacpeee ao y oyo aope CKBT, o ee opeoc paoe CKBT

Ma oo p oe coecpoa ye epoo ceppoa, .e a ce aoo ooa oecaoo oo

p oo opo ceppoa CKBT xooe copoee a aax CC2 oo oye ac o ooe poopa (o ya ). ooy o aa o, opee CKBT, ae e ac o ya Ha o ocoa eo anepepa, .eeo oopa apyox ocyece ooo opoo ceppoa. Cyoc oo eoa coco o, o opac

ae copoe apyo , p oopx oopo poopa y y copoy e ae ee oaa aepepa A, oo oye (pc 11.3, ).

oee o eo opoo ceppoa o oepa. Ta a p oo opo ceppoa oepee cocae ooo cyco ocyco ooo ao ypao, o eca ooe o e a C, Ceoaeo, copoe apyo opac a, o oaae oepa, eoo a o paoyo oecaoo oo C3C4, o ye o ooe poopa.

Tooc paaeoc pacopaopa pee CKBT opeeec cey oaae: opeoc ocpoee cyco (ocyco) acoc; acepe yex oe; epoye co oecaoo oo; ocaoo C; paoc oeo pacopa ey oo .

() , %

(11.12)

- a xoe CKBT o paceoo cycoaoo (ocycoaoo) aoa acoc xooo ape a oe oop6 poopa o acoo cpee po acoo cpe:

(11.13)

acae ooeoe opaeoe ooe xooo ape o paceoo; acaoe ecyee aee a-

pe xoo ooe [c, (11.4)].

Acuepu yex oe, opeeec p a CKBT co copo ao epx ooo o opye

(11.14)

e - acaooeoe opaeoe ooe (y, c) poopa CKBT o yo, pax 90, cooecyx aae

opeeecpoeax ooaoo anpeoye

(11.15)

e C oecaoo oo, epea a oax C3C4 p oao ape a ooe oye,

Ocaoa C yex ox opeeec poenx o acano e xooo anpe :

(11.16)

e ocaoa (aa) C, epea a oax opo oo,

Paoc ouueo pacopauu opeee ooee apaepax cyco ocyco ooo CKBT, %,

(11.17)

e aoee aeee ae oeo pacopa ey ooa. Cy ec acco CKBT, o xapaepyc oyc oaae, pee a 11.1.

11.1

0,005 0,01 0,02 0,05 0,1 0,2
0,08 0,12 0,3 0,6 1,2
0,006 0,01 0,025 0,05 0,1

0,005

0,01 0,02 0,05 0,1 0,2

B cxeax aoa apyc paccope yxoc BT pec orooce paaec pacopaop. O oo coyc ycpocax ooo ocea, a ae cxeaxc a yo oopoa. Tae BT oc oc, c ooceo o aepo (pc, 11.4), o ooe pe x oo c ou co oco aoap eo aap paepa ceao ocpy paaec pacopaop cpaac eocpeceo aoaecoe epeoe ycpoco- Caop 1 poop 2 ooocx BT apec acx npopa, oopx o o .

3.1.3. aop

acoc xooo ape eoo paaeoc pacopaopa o ya oopoa poopaa ee

(11.18)

e m ocoa ea, opeeea a epec apaepa BT

Ec , o acoc ea c opeoc e oee 1% peeax ee ya oopoa poopa o 0 o 60 (pc, 11.5,a) oyeyaao acoc pe ceyycxey e ooo BT: cyca ooa coeea oceoaeo c oecaoo ooo a ocyca ooa aya a eoe copoee (pc. 11.5, 6), ea oopoo paec ao, o oece ooe opoe ceppoae ooo p aao apye . opeee ae copoe coye ypaee

(11.19)

Ta opao, ooro opoo ceppoa ooo BT eoxoo, o copoee e ocyco oo o pao yoeoy ae copoe e cyco oo, a copoe oecaoo oo apy . Oao ooe opoe ceppoae ooo BT ooo p eeo apye . B cyae epeeo apy peec cxea epoo ceppoa (pc 11.5,0). oopo ooa oe ea oceoaeo c ocyc-

o ooo copoee , a oecaoa ooa aya a copoee . Copoe pa a, o ae oo oecaoo oo ocyco oo o oepeo oc ao coecpoa p o ae ya oopoa poopa . Tooc BT opeeec opeoc ocpoee eo acoc xooo ape o ya oopoa poopa aaoe 60 aee ocaoo C poeax. opeoc ocpoee eo y, %,

(11.20)

e cpeee aee acax ooex opaex oo xooo ape o paceoo p oopoe poopa BT a 60 o acoo cpee po acoo cpe.

(11.21)

ee paaec pacopaop ec ap acca ooc xapaepyc oyc pee e:

Tpacopaopa ccea caoo epea ya a paaxc pacopaopax

Bpaaec pacopaop, aaoo ceca, oo cooa pacopaopo ccee caoo epea ya, Ha pc 11.6 oaaa naa cxea ao epea. B aece a-a pea pee paaiec pacop . - , -, :

(11.22)

o ece x C e cxpoa cce oa o, oope, poxo r ooa poopa BT-pea, coa ycpy a oo . pocpaceoe ooee eopa opeeec yo oopoa poopa BT-aa,.e p oopoe poopa BT-aa a yo , eop ooa oopaaec a ao e yo- Cec c ooo caopa , oo ypye e C , ea oopo ac o ya paccoacoa cce . B ocao paoa paaxc pacopaopo paccapaeo ccee aaoa paoe ceco.

Ha xoeBT-peacoaec apee oopoe oaec a xo yce ooc . oce yce apee ocyae a ooy ypae O coeoo ae M. Bpaee poopa oo ae epe peyop P epeaec ypyey opay P0 paoeo exaa poopy -. oce oopoa poopa BT-pea a aa yo ccea pxo coacoaoe cocoe, p opo apee a xoe BT-pa . o ocec e, o oce oopoa poopa BT-pea a aa yo eop ooa oaaec paec epyp oc oo e ao e C.

B eoopx cyax pacopaopa ccea a opao, o e cxpoaa oo poopa BT-aa oo caopa BT-. Bae oaae pao cce caoo pea ya ooc opao yra, aaoro a ae. Tooc cce ye e e, e ee opeoc peex e paaxc pacopaopo. Kpoe oo, oe ooc cce eoxoo poec coacoae xooocopoe ooo poopaBT-aac xo c .

oaaee ooc cce caoo epea yra ec no peui oc c e o a u , pecaa coo paoc yox ooe cce. B acoc o opeoc ceoa pacopaopecce c paac pacopaopa ec a 11 acco ooc: +0,1; +0,2; +0,3; +0,5;+1; +2; +3; +5; +10; +20; +30 ,

Boeo pacopaopo cce acecaxccea aBToeceae oee coy ooc, oocec oee coo ooc paaxc . - -.

.

4 .

4.1PMEHEHE BM P BTOMTCOPTOBX POKATHX CTHOB

4.1.1 C T

, 5000 . pooca , cpeecope . . , . , , . . Haoee , , . Hepepe , , , .

H , , .

AC T ( ) , (CAP), .

Bopo , : ycao , , , , .

poae . pac . , , , , . ypae BM, BM, .

Ha . 67 AC T , , yxo . , , oxae , .

Baee CAP , , , BM, : CP; CO; COP.

H TO, , CH, CH, eeypoae CAP, CM, eeex ae CAPH, , , , . 1 4. eoopx ex AC T .

. 67 :

1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10; 11 ; 12. : ( ); ; ; ; ; ; .

4.1.2 .

a AC T cao, cce o a ap coepa oe ao a eaa, y oa opa , cpecae epo opao, cpecaoopae oepao opa, aaac epea opa. Bopa aeaca oeca opa oe ocyecc a a aeeo BM, oe ce yn oporo peeoypoe ypae, a c peee ceanpoax cexycpoc, apep, popoeccopoo TC C2.

Hecop apaecxe pacooe oopyoa copoxcao, a cexcaaxycoo oo e ceye exooeceyac: ca cxoo aoo; eo yaco, oop xo, poe apeaexycpoc, apyoepe, eep pacopepoa, a ae ea aa a aooo e; coceoyaco paox ee, coepa cerpy ee; xoo () oa pacopeycpoca; yaco oe oooo poaa.

aoro yaco peaaeaaooa occea opaooocopooe. occeacoep aeo poaaeo eae, paye ce poaax . Cooyoc ax occe opaye ypoe cce opaooo . epaoaoe opaooecopooee eaa o caa, a aec ey e caa cxoo aooo ooo poye opay epx ypoe ccm. Bpeyaepee aa cee oppyec oepaa oe ecoaxoe yeoc eaa aa, axoeoc acae ooo .

epa opa o eae, oeae poae, oc pyy, a aea oppenpoa oc aoaecocooe, ocya o ao axcao oepaopa.

Texo-ooeca eoc cce opaooocopooe eaaoycoea: ycee poooc caa; copaee pacxoa epec pecypco; yyee yco.

e po caa ocaec ace ye poco, caxcoc eaox poeyo, cee pee p pee p ypae paoo . Pacxo epeecxpecypco copaaec ace yee pocoe, xoocxpeo arpeaex ee, coe aoo oceoaec . co pyayyac ace aoaa poeccapaee ao (ap) ocea .

occe oporoypo ypa o e aecuceynpeapeo aoacpo caa a aa . Ocoa e pee BMyeee pee a epecpoycaa copaee paa. p acpoecaa a o poepaep BM aocoe aoex ee a porpa paccae yca copoce ax poo cex e ae x ae a ao ocay . Ec oepaopcorace cpace ae, o ae oay a ayycao poa, p o yca ac eocpeceoypae ao. p ecoac oepaopaco ae copoce, paccax BM, o epeo ccey pe pyooypae ycaaae peyee a copoc ao, eocpeco ocy apyop copoce ra .

Aoaa poecca acpo peyeoo aopa ey aa paox ex o acoeo pee e oya paecoo pee, oocec a pyoc coa aeaeco oe aceco eopa eaa pax apax, a cooc epe paepo poaa

Haoee co eoo epe paepo poaapapaoao peeo pyoy . epeepaepo pyx pocx poe (apa, ecpa) caoc opeoc, oycoe e, o epeeycpoca, pacoee yx ao epeypx ococx, o opepoa ooc cep cee epeoo po. Oao xoa e o coepae oeaee paaee e ooceooc poa, ocae ocoepoc peyao epe. ooy paec eooo acoee pe ep c ocaoo pa ooc paep poeyox po-

e (oa, pepo oa ..).

Coaecce aoypae a a copopoa pooce pee x acpo caa cepaec ae e ocoeco, o e ooaoo cooec ey ooee aoo a coo apa, a a oce ac o ypyx eopa aoo cce, a oope e ecoooee aoo apa a oe . Meaoe aop paccac ycaaac apaee, p oa apo ao, pooa c oo BM, ocyecec o ooy pex apao, ao oopx aece pep oaoc paec y epeecx apa:

p aax oax oepex cee aoo oooo poaa, oece poxoo oeo copoc opeeec pacpeeee e paep apo;

p aax paepax aoo oeoo po opeeec oaoe oeco poxoo;

p aao oeo poe, ce poxoo oeo copoc opeec oae paep.

Texo-ooeca eoc pee cce aao acpo caa oycoea: ae oca po apo; ae papoca cee poaa; cee poaa p coe peoan OCTo (acpoa a yc); ae oea pee e oepa epcoao p epexoe a o

4.1.3. Ccea ynpae copoc peo poa (CP)

Ccea oeceae coacoae copoce pae ao ee, poay c aa aee epoo pye ee poay c aa ea ee eaa coo pye . o ooe ec poay a oex copocx capoa pe poa c e oe aeca .

Paccop paoy cce p oepa ococa a oooo ae eeex poeyax epoo rpy. eco coooee, ycaaaee c ey aee ooc ae paoc copoce eaa xoe oceyy e oe peye ec E oy a; yeoe aee; Lpaccoe ey e; copoc xoa ooc oceyy e; copoc xoa ooc peye e.

oepa ococa ae eaeeoxoo peaoa ao aop ypae, p oopo paoc copoce epeeo aeo oo ooc ocaec ocoo ao . Bcee copoc poaa ocyecec BM cey opao. Opeeec pe poxoe epe oo ooc cex eeex poeyo epoo py acoa yco o capoao eepaopa; co yco, ocyx ce o reepaopa o pe poxoe epe oo ooc eeeoo poeya ; e poxoen epe oo ooc eeeoo .

Copoc epeeo oa ooc opeec paen ec eeeoe paccoe epoo pye.Aaoo opeec copoc ax oo ooc . coxpae ee ae ao eeeo poeye eoxoo peypoa copoc pae cex ao nepepo py, pe ppaee copoc pae ao oo poopoao acoo copoc paen ao ao e

(3.1)

e oocea ea ppae copoc

paen ao i-

4.1.4. Cceaoaoropacpo poaa (COP)

Copoo poa, oyae pyax, papeaec ey oa, ycaoe a ocee e caa, a a epe aaae , a a paoepe , peaaee ya a xooe. Ocoe peoa, peee ey oa: oyee aaoro pa

coa ooc epoo pea.

Ha oce copeex epepx eocopx caax epe epc cce oaoo pacpo poaa, oeceae aca xo ooro, ayee cooae a xooa cee ca aapx cya xocoo ac caa. p oo peac e pae aa Oa x coco epe pacpaaeoo poaa, ocoy poecce pea c a ooc eeca: o pacooe ooceo o cay, oe opea epo epo y a oe ooc e aa ca.Ta opao, eocpeceoe epee ooc a xoe caa o pe eooo, a ooe poopoae ee apye, e ao o , . ae ceo a pae coyec oea, o oopo acpoa ee caa poecce poa paec ee. ooy opeeeoo opea Lo ooc, axoeoc a yace exooeco caa ey e pea eaa coao oo epe cao, oa cea oyac oce poa ocoa a

(3.2)

e oe a ano exooreco yace.Bopa aaa coco cocae aa pacpo p aax exoorecx peoax.

p pee a xoo papeae poaa oo pocxo a opao, o ce opeaee ac acao ooo , eoeco pa peae aaae epe (paoepe ), poe oo ocee y, a oopo oycaec ee , o e opoe eoopo peeo e Loc. peoa oycoe eoxooc ye cooae oeo oa xooa aeoc pacoppo ocee y.

p pacpoe ooo ac pacaa eye o acpoe a opeae acao oox paoepx n Lax, oo p oce a oo pacaa ooycaopa, ycaoeoo a opeeo pacco o pea opopyeo ooee pacaa, aec ccea oaoo pacpo, oeceaa aca xo ooo p o pacaa. a yaca oaoo pacpo L opcccc a cya pacco o ooycapa o pea L opea, poeo a oey pepae ac ooycaopa, L:

(3.3)

p pee a xoo paoepe o opeec yco

(3.4)

Lmax ; Lmin oa a pacpaaeo e,opeeea, a .

cea eoxooo pacpo a ocoa aepa L, oeoo o (3.2) (3.3) cooec c (3.4) opeee c pyo epo aaao , yaaxc pacae L,

re V co yaaxcpyo; v poaac, xapaepyaoepoeaa, yero oxo.

ocy oepeaa, poepecooocapac ocaoo eoycoo ocaa Loc:

,

y=0, 1, 2,

c ocaoW oaaece eee eoopooyco Loc, ..W >Loc, o pacpoapaec.

Ha pc. 68 pcaea o-cxea paccopeoo aopa pacpo np papea pacaa a paoepe .

4.1. 5. AC T aox poax cao

B peea yeeyca acox cooox popoaa oa popa yepcaao caaooooc. (C), ycaoe a earco eaypeco . Ca oeceae pooco 185 poepaepo poooox yapo paepa (pa ooc´coa ce) o 100´200 o 420´1000 , o 6 o 30 .

cxoe aoo acco o 18,8 , o o 3,6 o 11,4 ocya o a 1500. p copoc poa o 10,5 /c pooeoc epo oepe caa cocaa 1 , , poaa, a p oo pa C pacca a yc 1,6 , poooox .

epca ao ca HTMK oopyoa pe apeae ea c aa oo, oo e 1300, y epo peepc yepcao-ao pya ee, aa oopx coco ypcao cooraeo ee, epeepco coo yepcao e, yaca ope pe, xooa a yaco aooe.

Texooec poecc pooca ao aaec ceye. acoe aoo o caa a 1500 paa yaac a apyoe cea, pacoppyc poraa o oo aac e c ara oo. ee apee ao eac p oo ceax ycpoc, yaac a pee poa oac oo e 1300, poaa arooo oopo pooc a 515 poyco. aea poaa ooc ocyecec a 812 poyco oceoaeo yx epox yepcao-ao pyax a o poyc coo e, p epe e c ooc pooc c oa oo cooo ae. poaae coo e ooc oac poaa a yaco , a oopo aa ooca o o 100 papeaec a epe opae , ae a ec poaa oac ce xooo. Oce a apac a pooe pae a pa yx ao epeyp ococx ae poxo ceopc ocop ooe

B acoc o peyao opo a (ocya po a ca ooo poy arpyac ao, o oac a yac oe e ocyec pay ao a opoa peccax, pey eex ec, ooey papey a aaae , acy oop opo a ceopcx ceaax.

K exooec ocoeoc pooca aoa paccapaeo cae ceye oec: ape aooo eax c aao oo; oceoaey oy y poay ooc yepcax aox pyax ee e pee pacax oe oepeoo epeee eaa; ooy pe pacao a epe c peee epex epex , epex poaox ce cpec eyopoo ocaoa ooc a pe; aoaecy oppepoy papeaex ope co co ao , acoc o x eepayp; oepey aoy paccaoy epeeee ao xooax; pay ao yx ao epeypx ococx a poox aax; pacoppoae ao o ce ceaa eoo epeoc .

Ka o peeo xapaepc, exooec poecc aooo pooca ee cpeo-epep xapaep, pe eo ee p ocaoo aoox, oceoaeo pacooex o xoy exooecoo poecca yaco e, e, exa opea opeo poaa, xoo, exa oe, ca. Bce yac oac py o pya o xapaepy exoo; pyeoy cpoec oepa ypae (apep, pooe apea epec aca, a pe, apaaeoe a poay eaa oo e a o poyc, cocae o e cey); peyeo ooc epeee exao caa (o eco epo p pacae ao a xooe o cox oe epa p ycao ax exao ypcax aox ee); oey epepaaaeo opa. o ooe paccapa poecc ypa exoorec poecco aooo caa eo a cooyc aocax, o oo eacx poecco ypae a ao yaax yaco, .e. ocyec eepaa . B c c eecoopaa eoo ACT yepcaoo aooo caa a p aooe occe cooec c pe yaca exoocoo poecca: yaca apa aooo, yaca poa eaa, yaca pe, oxae yopaa. B coca AC T xo ae aoapoaa cncea copooe oepaoo ypae. Hapy c paceee AC T ceo caa a oee yacoe AC T cooec c xoo exooecoo poecca, pooc eee oaox yoax ypo ao yacoo AC T, B peyae oa cpyypa ocpoe AC T yepcaoo aooo caa oaaec aaoo AC T peepcoo ooo caa, pecaeo a . 43.

a cpyypa oocc y epapxecx oypoex cpyyp c eepaoa aoo ypaee exooec poecca a x ypox epapx (caooe ypaee epopoa epe cce aoaecoo peypoI ypoe; ecoe popao-oecoe ypaeeII ypoe), Aaa oa aclx cpae ypae a yacax apea aooo, poa, opea, oxae yop eaacoca III ypoe AC T, Kpoe oo, ec po epaoaoo oeexooo ypae, oop oocc aoapoaa ccea opaooo copooeIV ypoe exoa aoapoaa ccea apoa oepaoo ypae pooco V ypoe.

peyeca ao cpyyp oycoe ae ypaee oe exoorec yaca, oooc oaoo oa apaa aa aoana a o epa (ypo AC), a o opoa (yac caa), a ae xopoe pcocoeoc npooy cooa poBM.

cxo peoa oecee aeoc, a ypoe AC oe yopoa caocoeo, ooy o pao epxx ypoe epapx e ae pepae yopoa xypoe (I, II). Ka pao, ypoe II cpyyp oeceae ypaee exoec poecco o ec popaa, pae oepaopo, a ypoe III opye ypaee ypo II ye e yac oepaopa (apep, pae popa oa, cxo acecx coc eaa c cooae oee yc oeo poa paccae paoa pacpo a .).

peaa cpyyp ooypoeo AC T aox cao oy pee pane cepo ycaee cpeca ceo ex.Haoee yoao o oeco execx cpec (KTC), ocpoe a oo poepoo, ypoao ocpyo, aapao popao coeco ae, ec ceyee ceeco execx cpec: cee oec ceeca a ECypoe AC exa; ypae cee oec CM2, CM2Mypoe exox cce oepaoo ypae, yea pooca opaooo copooe eaa; ypae cee oec CM2, CM2M, CM1, CMlMepx ypoe ACT (oa ypae exooec poecco); popoeccope cyoec c c oeo, a ae oec execx cpec oax opaoo-ypax cce a ae pocxe c -oeo cee epa popoeccopo , KTC C2 ypoe AC T (ypoe II). aaoe ceeco execx cpec xapaepyec ae e cceoo aoecee aeo porpax oye ooo oepaox cce ooax oeco, oox opaoa ce poecc aoece cex oeco a ooo, a pax ypoe . Kpoe oo, a oa ooe paoa c oc epaa, pacooe ecox oepax o ceoro oeca, ee coe cocae eeyae epna ocaoo pae ycpoca c c oeo c cooecy popa oeceee.

eu aoauauu. Aa exooecoo poecca aooo caa oaae, o peee AC T eoxoo oecee ceyx ee:

) ocyece pa exooecx poecco, peaa oopx p pyo ypae eooa. K cy ax poecco oo oec ypaee pea oa ye oopeeoo c coo cee ooc (o 0,05 ) epeee ecox ax exao yepcax ee, a ae eyop ope eaa a ax ope pe;

) ocee cao poeo pooeoc p cox copocx poa (o 10,5 /c) c ae eoc a poa peyae coacoaoo oaoo ypae ooce poa exaa caa cooo aeca apea eaa eax, paoax cyeoaecoo ea pao poaoo caa;

) yca cooaeceo poy, o ocaec cpoo peaeae peo apea, poa coo ooc oooo ypae a exaa ee. oceee ocoeco cococye ae yee eepx ae oooc yca poy cyeo oe oyco;

) oe xoa ooo peyae paoaoo pacpo ao oa peo apea poa eaa;

) ce paa peyae cpooo coe peo poa, apea, opea oxae eaa, o, poe oo, cococye oe cpoa cy exaecoo epecoo oopyoa ce aapoc pocoe caa;

e) oo epopecypco p apee poae eaa peyae oaoo ee x exooecx poecco;

) yye opaa ypae pecae epcoay oeo oea oepao opa o paoe oopyoa, apaepax exooecoo poecca ycaeo poy, o oeceae yco ycopeoo oce ca poeo pooeoc cpoo ocoe p eoxooc poy ooo copaea;

) oee yco pya oepaopo pyoo ocyaeo epcoaa caa.

Ceoaeo, AC T, poe oecee ypae poecca, oopoe eooo peaoa p pyo ypae, opepoaa a oa ypae, e oopoo ec a oep:

, ,, pooeoc, aepao, epopcypco, aeca poy; ,,, cooc yaax oep; U ypaee.

cxo aeex ee aoaa, a ocoa exo-ooecoo aaa oea-ypae opeec ocoe y aoapoao cce ypae, paccapeoo yepcaoo aooo caa HTMK cocayACTcey:

cyooe ceoe apoae pao, oepaoe ypaee pooco oa apea eaa a yace eoecx apeaex ee c aa aa;

pacppoae eaa o pacaox coo eoec ea, arpyo, pacao epeeee arooo e, ae eaa e eo oae oo peepco e 1300 c coee peyeoo ea poa;

popaoe ypaee epeeee aoo exaa oo e 1300 c opeoc e oee 0,5 ;

popaoe ypaee pea oa copoc pea poa peepcx poeyoo pecoo pyax yepcax e, a oooe ypaee a exaa x ee c orpeoc e oee 0,05 oeceee cxpoa copoce ax poo x ee c ooco 0,51.0 % c eo a ae ooce;

ypaee pacoppoae eaa a yacax ee aooo caa;

paoa pacpo ao c eyop ocaoo ooc opea (opeoc e oee 20 ) paccaoo epex epex ope pe c opeoco 5,0 c yeo eepaypo oppc x ooe;

pacoppoae eaa a yacax ope pe apyooo yaca xooo;

popaoe ypaee exaa xooo c aa peypye ao paca ao c opeoc e oee 20 ;

cop opaoa exooeco opa o paoe exaecoo epecoo oopyoa a yacax ee rope pe, oepa ye pooca opo apaepo ooo poy;

oepaa c c AC exooo ypo, coca oopo xo aoapoaa ccea cee a eao o caa a caax caa, a ae aoapoaa ccea yeaaooo xoca AC exa.

4.1.6. Aoapoaa ccea popaoo ypae poa e

Oco y aoapoao cce popaoo ypae (AC) poa e:

ypaee pea oa p peepco poae oo e 1300, poeyoo peco rpyax yepcax ee a ocoa porpa, apaee paccax exooa caa;

ypaee copoc pea p peepco poae poeyoo pecoo yepcax ex, a ae p epeepco poa .coo e a ocoa aax popao copoce axaa, poca acao copoc poa ao poyce epex apaepo ooe eaa;

cxpoa copoce epopoo poeyoo pecoo py yepcax ee c e a ae ooce o aa aoo copaea ea aaeo apa, a ae aec ae aepo ycaoex ao;

ypaene pacoppoae eaa poaa p peepc poae ex epeae eaa ey e;

epee pecaee ocyay epcoay exooeco epocoo opa o eepaype eaa, ycx oeax poa, aax aecx aex pacopo ao, copocn epopoo, oax apex epecx ee, o eepaype ace epoaee, a ae oepao opa o yopoa AC;

aoaecoe peeppoae execx cpec peaa aoee oecex y ypae pea oa, a ae ypae copoc pea poa cxpoa poeyoo pecoo pyax ee;

aaeca paa, acapoae cao ypae, aa o oex oeca execx cpec c;

exapoaa oooa popa poaaepoapax;

oco opo paoococooc oeceee oooc oa execx cpec cce c oo ceapoax ceo ycpoca epaoaoo opo.

Ccea AC ocpoea a ae pa aoex yoax ycpoc: ycpoca ca oa porpa poa; pooo oooo peyopa; ycpoca ypae copoc pea poo; ycpoca ypae coo e; ycpoca oepaoo aoec oepaopo c cceo; occe copa, epo opao epea opa; occe ypae poaa.

B ccce ae coyec oec ao epo exooeco aoaa: ooe a ya oopoa ax exao ee; yce a yra poa ax poo ; a copoc-ycope ax po; a-epe caecoro oea poa; a ae eaa a a; oopee ooe opeo eaa a .

Cpyypa aoapoao cce popaoro ypae yaca poax ee, ae a cpyypa AC T ceo aooro caa,eepa. Ccea coco epx aoox occe ypae: ACӗ1300 oo e, ACӗPpoeyoo py ee, ACӗחpecoo py ee ACӗחcoo e, cax ey coo epe occe epo opao opa ypae poaa, a ae opaooepe opaopo oco ypae. Cpyyp occe ACӗP ACӗ ooc e, a cpyypy ACӗ1300 oo paccapa a ac cya x cpyyp e ycpoc ypae copoc pea cce ypae poaa. Taa eeaoaa cpyypa AC nooe peyae cocpeooe execx cpcc paoax cooecyx ee aeo copa y c, oc x oexoa, oe ocyae cce.

Ccea AC a yace yepcax ee yopye cey opao. Oepaop o ycpoca ca epoap c popaa poa, pae ycaaae eoxo pe pao aoa, a ae o ae ycox ye ooe ax exao, aecx aepo ropoax ao epax ao ycaaae ccey cocoe oa epoo poyca. p oae opeo eaa ccea ypae poaa, coy ca oopee, oeceae pacoppoae ooc paoe e aay ee e a copoc axaa. cpoco ypae copoc pea poo a ocoa opa o ao epo exooeco aoaa opeee exooecy cya, ypae copoc peo ao yepcao e cooec c aa aopa, ae oa poo oo peyop a epecaoy naye epe a poyco ca a cxpooe ypaee copoc pea epao e poao. B c c e, o pyoe ypaee pea oa a yepcao aoo cae paec eooo, a oa cce ypae oox ao ooe ax exao oe pec aap, cce ypae a exaa copoc pea poo, a ae ooe a ypoa paoa pee opeo peepa. Bo peepa ocyecec aoaec o ae oepaopa. npaee oo peepa pooc occeo c oepaopa c cceo ypae a ocoa cao oaa, oyx o ao, ex cpoee cxe ao.

Ha yace ypae poa e aee ec nocuceaynpaeupeuaunpoa, oopa peaye ceye y:

oa peo oa ocpeco oppe ee c poecco ao poyce cyecyx cxe poa c eo yee xoa ooo o eaa peyae poa ycoo oyco, a ae yee xoa ao epx ;

oa copocx peo poa ocpec oppe apaepo oee ypae peo acae pee c e oe pooeoc caa oepa peyeo eepay pacaa oe poa;

paoaoe ypaee exaa poax ee, acoc, ycaoo ax exao aaoe ooee, copoc pea ax oo porao c e oecee aao ooeoc;

o, xpaee oppepoy acco popa a;

ea peypx epeypx coco exooecoo poecca oopa poecca e, opo, copa opao opa;

oeceee aoec c oepa ocya epcoao;

opo xoa exooecoo poecca yopoa occe ypae;

cooaee ocyae y.

occea ypae pea poa coco : oa oa peo poa, oa ea coco, oopa oepaoro aoec, oa ypae exaa, oa opao opa, o opao opa o cy py ee ae ce n oeco opao opa, a oopx coep: ycpoca peopaoa opa, epe caecoo oea, epe yc poa, epe ooe eaa, epe pacaa, epe eepayp pacaa, epe o ooc, epe copoce exao e.

o ypae exaa o cy py ee ae ce n oeco ypae exaa, a oopxcoep ycpoco oppoa aa m ycpoc ypae exaa o cy exao e, oxaexaoapoa . o ypae exaa peae aa ycao ax exao aaoe ooee, ypae copoc pea exao, acoc, pao opoee x o aao copoc, ypae poco eaa ao a aao copoc p ypae a poo, opoee poao o aao copoc oey poca eaa ao, aaa aao ypae. Peaec ae aaa ypae exaa py ee cooec c p pepe oa y pee a poa, oeceae coee pooro yco . ec pe pao ax exao aye ey poyca, pe peepca paox porao (pe opaa poaaeo ooc aa ooo poyca), pe peepca paox ao.

cpoco oppoa aa coep acc ecx paox popa poa, ee oopo e aa ao poyce epeac cooecye ycpoca ypae exaa.cpoco oppoa aa aoaec ocye epecpoy xox xapaepc yc ypae exaa (aaa aaoae) c yeo opex ypaex exao xox peypyex oopa, opo yopoa ycpoc ypae exaa. ce peca coo poe ooe yop, paoa o ooy aopy eao o a ypaeoo exaa oppye a ypae cce aaecoo ypa acoc, peayec aop peypoa coc poca eaa ao o ooe:

(3.5)

a y raoo epopoa; eoa a aoo, cea epe N c yco aaya oopoa poaoo aa ey e ooo yca; y ope aoo poacocopoc poca o o caoa; ,.

Moe ypae a exaa aaoa (3.5), oecoco o, ococaa =0a eco eoaao cec acoae ey porpao aa ey e exaa. Topoe y poca coo acoc y opoe epop o copoc paoyo cce perypa . acoc ya eoc peyopo, ooy oe (3.5) ec o oooe ,.

o ea coco oeaypae, a oepaoo aoec coep n eco o cy py ee oeceae:

ea peypx epeypx cpe coco exooecoooeaypae, a opeeee oeo axaa aoo a, poca aoo ao, paoa ax oo poao ocopoc poa, pee a aycaoec copoc, paxoo oeeypae, axcya;

oopa poeccaypae o oe coco oeaypae;

o oepapa opa, eoxoo ypae, oopaee xoa exooecoo poecca a ocax ypae rpya ee.

o o peo poa o aoec c py oa occe ypae pea oa a ocoe opa o epocox apaepax poa, eoepecx apaepax poaa, opa o ecoc ee, ooe poaa, coco ao, cyecyx cxe poa, oepao opa o poaaeo eae oeceae oa peo poa cooec c aa pep o . B xoe pee aa oppyc ac ao poyce o ypae ee, oopx poaaec aooa, oppe aa a e oa, oopeeo oeceaec aaa apaepo oee ypae copoc pea oee ea coco exoorecoo oea ypae. Oa peo poa coco peapeo opeee apaepo oe (3.5) , aaa x pea yco, a ae pacee acco oppe cxe oa cooec c aa pep o apaee papaoa aopa.

pa ce oec, coy ycpoco oya cpoee oy opo pax oo occe ypae pea oa, peaye paeey cpyypy aapaoro porpaoo opo aoc, o oeceae epeee peo pao eee cpae ypae p cox oaax. Hae , , .

5.

5.

yop, oope peaoa caape ee ao perypoa, aa . B ax peryopax oepa eppoa, epepoa, cypoa yoe a oco oe oc acoo oo. B ec c peaye aoa peypoa peyop epepo ec ec a pae . Paccop x.

5.1.

opoa aa peryop, y oopoo xoa ea caa c xoo eo coooee

(5.1)

oe epea (yce) peyopa, c ece apaepo eo acpo. Ka o, paee (5.1) oyaec pae (5.0) p yco, oa C2=C3=0. peyop copaeo aa -peyopo, a a o pea -ao peypoa.

Paccop paoy poopoaoo peyopa a pepe -peyopa poo ec, peaaeoo oepa aaoo ypo peepyape (c. c.2, ) oe apoo a (c, pc, 3). Hepyo e, o peypy opa p pax apyax oea perypoa aae pae ooe ceoaeo, cocoe paoec peypyeo ycpoca cce peypoa ye cyecoa p pax aex caa . Ta opao, p pee -peyopo eea caea oa: pa apya, paae oey peypoa, cooecy pae ae peypyeo . o ocec e, o epeeee peypyeo opaa ooe ooee, cooecyee oo apye, oe ocyeceo oo a ce ooe peypyeo . B pe ye eca eeaee ooe oo, yea e epea . Ho paec o cex cyax e epeee pe op e cpay opaaec a xoe oea , ceoaeo, a cae ee ooe peypyeo e (o) .Boece peyopa a peypy opa . cece oo oxoo opa, a a poo cyae ye coaac ooe perypyee oece, o oe pec eycooc cce peypoa -a (aaec epexo poecc) yee acaoo aecoo ooe. x coopae ceye yea aee. Ho yeee po yee aaoa ee caa o. C yeo oro cce c -peyopo ceye pa opeeeoe oaoe aee oea eo epea , oopoe eye pa p acpoe .

epexoa xapaepca -peryopa oaaa a pc. 103. . Hacpoe apaep poopoaoo peyopa aco peca e e d, opaooey epea, , e,

(5.2)

Bey d aa ceneepaoepocu, a ae uanaoopoccepoa ( eaecx ), ,

eo caa, copoc c, oo peypoa, npeeo poopoaoc. Ec pa ey d poeax, o oa oaae, aoy ooe peypyeo e (% o aca ooo ao ACP) epeee peypyeo opaa ooo paeo ooe pyoe. Cee cpaoepoc opeeec epexoo xapaepce -peyopa a o .

B aeco ooe -peryop ec [paee (34)]

epeaoa y -pey

(5.3)

oc -peyo ec x pcoa. p oe oyax oe ao peyop cpo po cceypeypoa paoecoecocoe. Oao -acoceo -peyopa a caeco o, .e. ocaoooooe peypyeo e, ooc peypoa, oeceaea a peyopa, cpaeo . Paeeoeaoc, o ye opaoaoo ae oea epea -peyopa oo aeo cee ye caecy oypeypoa, o ooe ceeee cceec -peyopo ae eopeec eooo. Paoc ey aca a ycaoc ae peypyeo e aa ocaoo epaoepoc -peryopa. Ee eyopee pae ooy -peyop oo pe a, e o exec yco p yopoa ACP aoeepeypoa oycaec aecaeco o peypoa. Hapyc -peyopa poo ec ocaoo poo pe -peyop epoo ec, coyee a yepcaepeyop caxpax exooecx poecco.

5.2. .

epa aa peyop, y oopx eee xoo e poopoao epay ee xoo, .e.

(5.4)

e oe epea -peyopa, xapaepy copoc coeoo exaa p ooe xoo e, a a pae (5.4) cye, o

(5.5)

paee (5.4) oyaec (5.0), oa 1=3=0. epa peyop copaeo aa -peyopo, a a o peaye -ao peypoa, -peryop aaae . pep acaecoro peyopa paccope paee (pc. 5). Ka ceye p pao acaecoo peyopa, peyp aoo a oy axoc paoeco coco p aao ae peypy e. coa, o poo epeeee peypyeo opaa poopoao epay ooe peypyeo e o ex op, oa e occaoc ee aaoe aee. B o coco ocooe paoe oe -peyopa o -peyopa. ooeo ocoeoc -peyopo ec peypoae e ocaooo ooe peypyeo e.

Cpaa pae (5.4) (41), , o -peyop aeco ooe ec eppy (acaec) . epeaoa y -peyopa

(5.6)

oe epea ec ece acpoe apaepo -peyopa. Ceye oe, ocopoc epeee coeoo exaa peypyeo opaa paec opaea ooy coooee (5.5) cpaeo p ooex xoo e, ex eoopoo acaoo ypo. p opax ycox pao ACP o ycoe coaec coaec ao peypoa (5.4). ooe oe peeoro ae, o ora peyop ceye paccapa a pee c ocoo copoc epeee eypyeo opaa, ocoeoc oopoo yy oca e.

oa epeaoy y -peyopa aca e

(5.7)

e ocoapeeerppoa, aco cyae eceapaepoacpo peyopa C yeopce (5.7) ao peypoa (5.4) -peyopa pe

(5.8)

oo eep, o a xo peyopa ocy oco ca . p ocoo xoocae xoo ca cooec c paee(5.8) eec o aoy

o cee pee aee xooocaacaoc pa xooy (). Oca ocoa pee eppoa -peyopapaa pee, eee ooporoc oea ocye a xo peyopa ocoorocaaca a xoepeyopa ocae ae, paoo ae xooocaa.

Heocao -peyopo ec ooceo ecoa copoc peypoap ooe peypyeo e peypyee oece aoe acae ooo eeo, copoc peypoa e ee, e oe eaTp -peyop e pe aoeax, eoaaxcaopaae, a a ccea, cocoa oea e caopaa -peyopa, eycoa, ooy a caocoeepeyop -peyop pe peo, xoo pe ACP oeecpeyopa, oppy pye ao peypoa, apepc -peyopa. Ka pao, -ao peypoa oppyec ecaocoe peryopo, a oo oye, ocpyo c cocao ac peyopa, peayeo oeeco, apep, -ao peypo. epexoa xapaepca -peyopa oaaa apc, 103

5.3. ponopuoao- epae .

poopoao-epa aac peyop, y oopx eee xoo e poopoao a ee xoo e, a epayee ee:

(5.9)

Bpaee (5.9) oyaec pe (5.0) p yco, oa 3=0. poopoao epa peyopcopaeo aa -peyopo, a a o, peaye -ao peypoa. Ka o pae (5.9), oe o paccopex epx yx o peyopo -peyop ee e acpo, opeeee ea, . pae (5.9) ceye, o p -peyope epe peypyeo opaa poopoao cyapoy oec o ee peypyeo e epaa, oo o pee oo ee, B o cyae peypy opa ye epeeac o ex op, oa cyecye ooee peypyo e o aaoro ae, ocaoo epaoepoc ccee e.

B aeco ooe -peyop oo paccapa a ccey, cocoy apaeo coeex yceoro eppyero ee, .e. -peryop aee ccee yx apaeo ex peyopo: -peyopa -peyopa(pc. 104, ). Oca c yeo pae (5.3) (5.7) epeaoa y -peyopa ee

(5.10)

Ec p acpoe -peryopaycao oe oy ey ocoo pee , oo pepaaec -peyop. Ec e p acpoe ycao oe - .


ycao oe -peyop.

aapye epexoe xapaepc eaoo -peyopa, pecaee a pc. 104,. oce caoopaoro ee xoo e oe pee xoa ea (ooee peypyeo opraa) o ece poopoa (caeco) ac aoa peypoa (5.9) oeo epexo epoaaoro ooe (oa ) ooe ooee (oa ) poopoaoe ooe peypyeo e coecyee acoey ae oea yce peea poopoaoc d. Bea opea , ae o ece ye erpao (acaeco) cocae coe exa peyopa ooeo epeeae peypy opa y e copoy , c ocoo copoc , poopo ooe peypyeo . B peyae oo xo ea oee ee eo eec cooec c acpoe a pee eppoa , apep o po 1 2. p acpoe pyopa a oee pe eppoa xoa ea eec o po 2. Ec pe eppoa pa ecoeoc o coooee opaaec y, epaoe ece peyopa ocycye o, a ye yaaoc e, paoae a poopoa (pa 3)

H-peyop co cpyypo cxeo (pc 104, a ) epeaoo ye a (5.10) oaae apaepa acpo pe eppoa e ac onea epea kp. epexoa xapaepca -peyopa oaaa a pc, 103,.

aee oo oopee o epexoo xapaepce peyopa a pe yee xooo aa (oce ooa pao poopoao ac) a ey pay xooy cay,

5.4. ponopuoao- uepeuae .

poopoao-epea oocc peyp, oaaecyapoe oece apeypy opa, poopoaoe a ooe peypye e, a copoc eeooe:

(5.11)

nocoa pee uepeupoau, xapaeya cee oec o pooo a peypyeo oec.

ao perypoa (5.11) oyaec pae (5.0) p 2=0, ooy poopoao-epe peyop opaaa -ao peypoa. B aeco ooe -peryop pecae o ccey apaeo coeex yceoo epepyeo ee. epeaoa y peyopa ee

(5.12)

5.5 ponopuoao-uepao-uepeuae peyop .

B poopoao-epao-epeax peyopax eee xoo e (oece a peypy opa) poopoao ooe peypyeo (xoo) e, epay oo ee copoc ee o e. ao peypoa aoo peyopa ee

(5.13)

(5.13) c paee (5.0), oo cea o, o paee (5.13) cooecye -aoy peypoa. ooy poopoao - epao-epea peyop copaeo aa peyopo.


Hapc, 106 oaao a eec xoo ca p caoopao ee caapaccoacoa peyopo: poopoaoo (pc.106, a), epaoo (pc, 106,6), poopoao-epaoo (pc, 106, ) poopoa-epao-epeaoo (pc, 106, ) ec.


Ka o pc, 106, , cpae -peyopa cey opao: p oe a xoe peyopa paccoacoa yce peyopa ep oe epeeae coe exa cpo, cpoo opoao, oecpy aey ac pac. ae paoy cyae epaop, oop eeo, o e poco eaey oy, pae peypye apaep aaoy ae, epeaop, peapy a copoc ee paccoacoa, opcpye paoy popa ex cyax, oa apaep aae cpo ooc o peyeoo ae. Kpoe epecex e apaepo, acpoe apaepa peyopo epepoo ec ooc ae eyceoc peyopa , opeey ay ey xooo caa, p oopo oaec oaa a coe exa. p ax eax eyceoc aac oe ace e coeoo exaa, oope oy pec cpoy xoy eo cpo, Opee ey eyceoc oo o opye , oycoe ooee peypyeoo apaepa; pya xapaepc epoo peopaoa.
/
:
? : letsdoit777.blogspot.com
21:37:31 18 2016
9000 " "? : business1777.blogspot.com ! C !
12:05:32 24 2015
?)))
15:57:55 07 2009

, :
... " ...
...
: ; ...
...
:
: : 5062 : 2
: 0 : 0 :    
...
1,1-1,5% .
, ...
: ,
: : 6178 : 3
: 2 : 5 :    
... .........4 ................................6 ...
, , , ...
, , - , ...
:
: : 12364 : 2
: 0 : 0 :    
3. - , . ...
- , ( ...
...
: ,
: : 9262 : 2
: 0 : 0 :    
- . . , ...
, .
2. , .. ( 4 ...
: ,
: : 7704 : 2
: 5 : 4 :    
.. ...
, , ( - , - ...
... ; , ; ...
:
: : 3525 : 2
: 2 : 4 :    
1. . 1.1 . 1.1.1 1.1 ...
, , (.6-1). ...
, . . .. ...
: ,
: : 3571 : 3
: 0 : 0 :    
...
1. 1.1 1.2 ...
, . . , , , ...
g. D N ( , ...
: ,
: : 8750 : 2
: 4 : 4.3 :    
4. 4.1. . ...
, ...
, ...
: ,
: : 4984 : 2
: 0 : 0 :    

, : (3444)



, ?

, .
, .
, .
, .
, .



(150724)
(1839)
Copyright 2005-2016 BestReferat.ru bestreferat@mail.ru

@Mail.ru