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Учебное пособие: Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов Iкурса Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства

Название: Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов Iкурса Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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ФГОУ ВПО

«ПРИМОРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ

СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ»

ИНСТИТУТ ГУМАНИТАРНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

Кафедра иностранных языков

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания

по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I курса

Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства

Часть I

Уссурийск 2010

Составитель: Н.В. Кавтрова, старший преподаватель кафедры

иностранных языков ФГОУ ВПО «ПГСХА».

Английский язык: методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I курса Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства. Часть I/ сост. Н.В. Кавтрова; ФГОУ ВПО ПГСХА. – Уссурийск, 2010.- 60с.

Рецензент: Т.И. Скрипникова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент УГПИ.

Печатается по решению методического совета Приморской государственной сельскохозяйственной академии.

UNIT I

Разговорная тема: Семья. Мой родной город (село) .

Грамматика: Личные и притяжательные местоимения. Глаголы to be, to have (got ) . Оборот There is/are . Предлоги места. Род, число и падеж существительных. Общие, разделительные и альтернативные вопросы.

Part I

Грамматические упражнения

1. Вставьте вместо пропусков местоимения “I”, “you”, “he”, “she”, “it”, “we” or “they”.

1. … is a doctor, and … am a vet.

2. This is our house. … is very nice and comfortable.

3. What is this? … is my cat, … is not very friendly.

4. How are … ? - …’m fine, thanks. And …?

5. Meet tom and Betty, … are my best friends.

6. … am a first year student. … am very happy.

7. My sister is a teacher. … is thirty years old.

8. … are a very happy family.

2. Вставьте нужные притяжательные или личные местоимения.

1. … friend and I work together. … enjoy playing tennis.

2. They are from Canada, and … relatives still live there.

3. I like to spend … weekends with … family.

4. Look! This is … new house. Isn’t it nice?

5. Whose dog is this? – It’s … dog. He also has a cat and hamsters.

6. Ann and … mother are both teachers.

7. Michael is French and … wife is German.

8. … sister and I are American, but … grandparents are Greek.

9. Henry’s mother is a nurse. … name is Lucy.

10. Alice and Bill are doctors. And … son is a medical student.

3. Заполните пропуски притяжательными местоимениями:

Example: I see a girl, I see her.

1. I see a teacher, I see ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­… .

2. Please, read this letter, read … .

3. I know the boy, I know … .

4. I’m glad to meet both Tom and Ann, I’m glad to meet … .

5. Give me the book, give … to me.

6. I don’t like Ann’s brother, I don’t like … .

7. This task was given to you and to me, it was given to … .

4. Выберите нужную форму местоимения в скобках. Переведите предложения :

1. It may be (our, ours) dictionaries.

2. He has not read a line of (your, yours) .How can he criticize (your, yours) poems?

3. His composition is much more interesting than (your, yours) or (my, mine).

4. (Their, theirs) knowledge of the subject is not much superior to (our, ours).

5. I’m afraid they will take (her, hers) advice not (your, yours).

6. All (our, ours) clothes were extremely dirty, and (my, mine) especially so.

7. Will you help me to sort out the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (my, mine).

8. This is (your, yours) notebook, but where is (my, mine).

5. Вставьте “am”, ” are”, ”is”.

1. I … a first-year student. 2. My friend … an engineer. 3. Jack … a farmer. He … from a small Scottish town. 4.They … our new friends. They … from Wales. 5. My father … a school teacher. Ht … 55 years old. 6. Ann and Nick … at home now.

7. My native town … in the center of England. 8. Monkeys … very funny animals. 9. It … a dog. Its name … Spot. Spot … is very friendly. 10. Mr. Davidson … a University professor. He … a very intelligent man. His hobby … rugby. His students … very happy to have such a good teacher.

6. Вставьте “ have” or “has. 1. We … a lot of pets at home. 2. She … a lovely kitten. 3. They … a large family. 4. My friend … a new car. 5. This animal … four legs and a long tail. 5. I … two cousins, aunt and uncle.

7. Используйте глаголы “have” или “be” в нужной форме .

A. 1. They … a baby. It … very nice. 2. She … 30 years old and … a family of her own. 3. What country … you from? 4. The Browns … very big house. It … in the suburbs of Bath. The house … three floors. Cats … domestic animals. 6. They … different kinds of birds on their farm. 7. We … glad to meet you. 8. We … from Russia and we … a lot of friends in other countries. 9. Rob … a very strong boy. His hobby … sport. 10. They … a lot of pets at home and they … fond of them all.

B. My name … Simon. I … fourteen and I live in Wotton, a little village near Woodstock. I … two sisters: one of six months old and the other … seventeen. We also … two dogs, two cats, two rabbits, and a horse. My Dad works on a building site and My Mum … a housewife.

C. The Camel.

In some parts of the world there … large deserts. There … no trees and no water there. The only animal that can walk through the desert … the camel. The camel … very big. It … one or two lumps on its back, short ears and a long tail. The camel’s food … grass and branches of trees.

8. Образуйте форму множественного числа следующих существительных:

Foot, mouse, mink, deer, calf, tooth, child, fish, wife, hoof, goose, ox, sheep, swine.

9. Закончите следующие предложения одним из нижеперечисленных существительных во множественном числе:

Goose, sheep, deer, leaf, shelf, tooth, thief.

1. The baby is getting several new … .

2. I need more … for my book.

3. The police are looking for three … .

4. The Burtons have 50 … and 200 … on their farm.

5. … are eating … off those trees.

10. Прочтите следующие словосочетания. Переведите их на английский язык.

a) the floor of the room; the walls of our classroom; the name of the book; the number of the room; the rooms of the hostel; the library of the Institute; a student of the Forestry Institute; the engineer of the plant;

b) my mother's name; my father's work; my brother's wife; his wife’s book; her sister's friends; these students' future profession; our grandmother's garden; your friends' books.

11 . Измените предложения, используя там, где возможно, притяжательный падеж с помощью ‘s или (‘) .

1. The book of this author. – The author’s book.

2. I can’t see the bottom of the box.

3. The crew of the ship was small.

4. It’s the fault of no one.

5. Do you like the poetry of Pushkin?

6. That’s the leg of the table.

7. Where is the key of the car?

8. The sound of carriage was heard.

12. a ) Перепишите предложения и поставьте выделенные существительные в единственном числе. Произведите необходимые изменения.

1. We are students.

2. The books are on the table.

3. Our relatives are at home now.

4. They are pensioners.

5. You are at the Institute.

6. They have a daughter.

7. They are far from their house.

8. My friends are doctors.

9. Their parents are in the village.

10. We have much work.

b) Вставьте вместо пропусков глаголы am / is/ are / was / were . Обратите внимание на время .

Example : Last year their son was 26, so he is 27 now.

1. Today the weather ____ nice, but yesterday it ____ cold.

2. I ____ cold. Can I have something hot to drink?

3. I ____ hungry last night, so I had something to eat.

4. Where ____ you at 10 o’clock last Sunday morning?

5. Don’t buy these shoes. They ____ too expensive.

6. Why ____ you so tired yesterday?

7. We must go now. It ____ very late.

8. This time last year I ____ in England.

9. We ____ tired when we arrived home, so we went to bed.

10. Anton Chekhov died in 1904. He ____ a famous Russian writer.

11. “Where ____ the dogs?” “I don’t know. They ____ in the garden ten minutes ago.”

c ) Напишите следующие предложения в отрицательной и вопросительной формах.

1. She has a brown dog.

2. They are all friends.

3. My mother is a good cook.
4. They have many relatives.

5. Olga has a big family.

6. We have a fridge in the kitchen.
7. The telephone is on the desk.

8. They have two black cat.

d) Вставьте have got, has got, haven’t got or hasn’t got:

Example: 1. They like flowers. They have got a lot of roses in their garden.

2. Jane hasn’t got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.

1. Everybody likes Tom. He _____ a lot of friends.

2. Mr and Mrs Eastwood _____ two children, a boy and a girl.

3. An insect _____ six legs.

4. I can’t open the door. I _____ a key.

5. Quick! Hurry! We _____ much time.

6. “What’s wrong? – “I _____ something in my eye.”

7. Ben doesn’t read much. He _____ many books.

8. It’s a nice town. It _____ a very nice shopping centre.

9. Mother is going to the dentist. She _____ toothache.

10. “Where is my newspaper?” – “I don’t know. I _____ it.”

11. Julia wants to go on holiday she _____ any money.

12. I’m not going to work today. I _____ a bad cold.

13. Сделайте предложения вопросительными и отрицательными.

1. There are many faculties at our Institute.

2. There is a bus stop near our house.

3. There is a nice picture on the wall.

4. There are 12 students in our group.

5. There are 3 students at the lesson.

6. There is a big spots ground behind the school.

14. Переделайте предложения используя there is / there are .

Example: This room has two windows. – There are two windows in the room.

The dog is in the room. – There is a dog in the room.

1. The city has many monuments.

2. The children are in the yard.

3. This family has two children.

4. The car is near the house.

5. A week has 7 days.

6. A lot of people are at the stadium.

15. Переведите на английский язык.

1. В нашем городе два театра.

2. В вашей группе много студентов?

3. В моей комнате нет письменного стола.

4. Есть ли в библиотеке книги по английскому языку?

5. На столе лежит тетрадь.

6. На улице нет людей.

15. Запомните употребление следующих предлогов.

At ( a point / place ):

I met her at the bus stop. She lives at 43 Duke Road. He’s at work (not at home). They’re at a party tonight. He works at a factory.

On (a surface):

The book is on the desk. We sat on the floor. The cat is on the chair; on the road; on a farm; on the river bank; on the coast.

In (an area or space):

Malawi is a country in Africa. She lives in Milan. He’s in the kitchen. The key’s in my pocket. Put it in the box. In the zoo; in the cage; in the stable; in Russia; in the backyard; in the sea; in the river; in the sun ; in the air; in the south; in the tree.

16. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на правильность перевода предлогов.

A. 1.Tina has several pictures on the walls of her room, but she hasn’t got any in the kitchen.

2. There is a lamp above her bed and a square carpet on the floor near it.

3. There are some books on a chair.

4. There is a clock and a tall plant in a pot on the bed-side table.

5. The family cat is sleeping in the armchair.

B. Majorca is an Island off the coast of Spain. It is east of Valencia, which is a large town in Spain. Palma is on the coast of Majorca. Many tourists come and stay in Palma. Soller is in the north of Majorca.

Тематический словарь

1. Прочитайте и запомните следующие слова :

parents – родители

relative – родственник

close relatives – близкие родственники

distant relatives – дальние родственники

sister – сестра

brother – брат

aunt – тетя

uncle – дядя

cousin – двоюродный брат или сестра

wife – жена

husband – муж

niece – племянница

nephew – племянник

son – сын

daughter – дочь

grandmothe r – бабушка

grandfather – дедушка

mother-in-law – теща/свекровь

father-in-law – тесть/свекор

stepfather – отчим

stepmother – мачеха

far - далеко

younger - младший

elder - старший

vegetable - garden - огород

2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания. Выучите их .

to get to the Academy

to attend lectures

to enter the Institute

to graduate from the Institute

to become a doctor

to be born

to be busy

to be fond of English

to be married

to be single

to be of age

to be retired

to consists of

it takes me 5 minutes

as for my friend

to live in a hostel (dormitory)

to rent a flat

to be a promising engineer

to be a first-year student

to have much work

to have a good time

3. Запомните названия следующих профессий :

an accountant – бухгалтер

a baby sitter – няня

a bank teller – кассир

a barber - парикмахер

a book-keeper – бухгалтер

a businessman – бизнесмен

a clerk – служащий

a computer programmer – программист

a construction worker – строитель

a cook – повар

a dentist – зубной врач

a doctor – врач

a driver – водитель

an economist – экономист

an electrician – электромонтер, электрик

an engineer – инженер

a farmer – фермер

a gardener – садовод, цветовод

a housewife – домохозяйка

an interpreter – переводчик (устный)

a librarian – библиотекарь

a manager – директор, служащий

a mechanic – механик

a nurse – медсестра

an officer – военнослужащий

a pharmacist - фармацевт

a plumber – водопроводчик

a policeman – милиционер

a salesperson – продавец

a secretary – секретарь

a tailor – портной

a teacher – учитель

a typist – машинистка

a waiter – официант

4. Используйте слова из столбиков А и В для образования предложения.

Example : My mother is a teacher.

A B

uncle a businessman

aunt a housewife

grandfather a student

grandmother a lawyer

cousin a pensioner

brother a cook

friend a schoolgirl

mother a farmer

sister a vet

5. Какое слово не принадлежит к данной группе слов?

Example: cat; dog; tree; mouse.

1. Doctor; teacher; sheep; farmer.

2. Brother; mother; father; housewife.

3. Professor; vet; student; teacher.

4. Plant; fish; insect; bird.

5. Village; town; city; backyard.

6. Forest; valley; greenland; yard.

7. Sea; river; mountain; lake.

6. Закончите предложения одним из слов из упр. 5.

1. My grandfather has got twenty hens , a horse and three pigs on his farm. He is a … .

2. My uncle loves animals very much. He always help them when they are ill. He is a … .

3. There is a … not from our country house. There are big trees in it. In summer we like to go there.

4. Where are the children? – They are in the … with their teacher.

5. London is the capital of Great Britain. It is very beautiful … .

6. London stands on the … Thames.

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

My Family.

Let me introduce myself. My name is Mike. I am 17. I live not far from Ussuriisk. The name of the village is Kamenushka. After finishing school I entered the State Agricultural Academy. Now I am a first-year student of the Forestry Institute. I am engaged in studying Botany and Ecology. But I go in for sports too, I like to play football and tennis. I live in a dormitory with my fellow students. There are some hostels for our students. My hostel is not far from the Academy. It takes me 5 minutes to get to the Academy.

As for my family, it is not too large. We are 5: mother, father, my elder brother, my younger sister and me. My parents live in the village. They have a nice house with a vegetable-garden near it. My parents are fond of working there.

My father is an engineer of forestry. He is a very busy man. He is 48. He has much work to do. As for my mother, she is a doctor at a local clinic. She is 48 too. She is fond of her work.

My elder brother Nick is 5 years older than I am. He graduated from Primorskaya State Academy of Agriculture last year. Now he is an engineer of forestry too. He has a family of his own. He is married to an economist. My brother and his wife have a daughter. My niece is a pretty small girl.

My younger sister is a pupil. Her name is Polina. She is in the 7th form. She would like to become a teacher.

We are all great friends and have good time together. Sometimes we go to the seaside or to the forest or simply watch interesting films on TV together.

We have many relatives: aunts, uncles and cousins. They live in different towns and villages of Primorye. We often visit them and we are glad to meet them at our place.

2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What is your name?

2. Where are you from?

3. What are you?

4. Where do you study?

5. What year are you in? (What year student are you?)

6. Do you live in a hostel?

7. Have you got a family? Is your family large or small?

8. What is your father?

9. What is your mother’s occupation?

10. Is she fond of her profession?

11. Do you have any sisters or brothers?

12. Have you got any relatives?

13. Is your sister married?

14. Who is the youngest in your family?

3. Скажите по-английски:

1. Мне 17.

2. Я первокурсник Института Лесного хозяйства

3 . Мне требуется 5 минут, чтобы добраться до института.

4. Мое общежитие недалеко от института.

5. Сколько времени вам требуется, чтобы добраться до дома?

6. Нас в семье 5.

7. Мой отец очень занятой человек.

8. Мой брат старше меня на 5 лет.

9. Жена моего брата – экономист.

10. Моя бабушка на пенсии.

11.Мы вместе хорошо проводим время.

12. У нас есть много времени.

1 3. У меня есть много друзей.

14. Его сестра хотела бы стать врачом.

4. Ответьте на следующие альтернативные вопросы:

Example: Are you a student or a teacher? – I am a student.

1. Is your family large or small? …

2. Have you got a cat or a dog? …

3. Are you from Moscow or from another city?

4. Are you married or single? …

5. Is your father a worker or an engineer? …

6. Is Moscow a city or a town?

7. Is Wales a country or a village? …

5. Дополните разделительные вопросы ,

Examples :

Steve is a forester, isn’t he?

They are not farmers, are they?

You have got a new home, haven’t you?

They have no pets, have they.

1. Your friend is American, …?

2. They are happy family, …?

3. You are not American, …?

4. Your family is not large, … ?

5. Your friend is not married, …?

6. Your cousin has a nice house, …?

7. Tom is your cat, …?

8. You have no birds, …?

6. Составьте вопросы .

Examples :

Your brother/ a policemen? – Is your brother a policemen?

Your sister / a cat? – Has your sister got a cat?

1. His parents / English? 2. They / Russian? 3. John and Polly / doctors? 4. Alison / pretty? 5. You home / big? 6. You / a student? 7. Your family / a large flat? 8. Your friend / a pet? 9. You / a diploma.? 10. You grandparents / a farm?

7. Перескажите текст, используя следующие слова и словосочетания:

1.About Mike: Mу name is, to be from, to finish school, to Enter the Institute, to be a first-year student, the Forest­ry Institute, some hostels, to be far from, it takes me.

2. About his parents: a busy man, to have much work, to be … years old, to be an engineer of forestry, to be fond of something.

3. About his brother and sister: to be ... years older than, to graduate from, to be married, my brother’s wife, to be in the 7th form, to become a teacher.

8. Составьте рассказ о своей семье.

9. Прочитайте фразы. Выучите их.

1. How are you? - Как ты?

2. I haven’t seen you for ages. - Сто лет тебя не видела.

3. See you then (later). - До встречи.

4. We are all fine. - У нас все прекрасно

5. We are pressed for time. - У нас мало времени.

6. We can have a cat. - Мы бы поболтали.

7. I am keen on football. - Я поклонник футбола.

8. More than likely. - По всей видимости.

9. What are you doing at the weekend? - Что ты делаешь в выходные

дни?

10. I have to look after my sister. - Я должна присмотреть малень-

кой сестрой.

11. I will keep in touch. - Я буду поддерживать связь.

12. I’m in a hurry. - Я спешу.

13. Can you do me a favour? - Не могли бы Вы мне сделать

одолжение?

14. Many kind regards to your sister! - Большой привет твоей сестре!

15. What do you do (for a living)? - Чем вы занимаетесь?

Как зарабатываете на жизнь?

16. What are you? - Кто вы по профессии

17. What is your profession? - Кто вы по профессии?

10. Прочитайте диалоги. Воспроизведите их .

a) Looking at Photos.

A: Good afternoon, is your wife in?

B: No, Jane isn’t home yet. Won’t you sit down?

A: Thank you. It’s a fine day, isn’t it?

B: Oh, yes, it’s very warm and sunny. While waiting would you like to have a

look at our family album?

A: Sure. Who are these people?

B: They are our parents. This man and woman are Jane’s parents, my mother-in-

law and my father-in-law. And here are my parents.

A: I see. Your mother is very young and beautiful in this picture.

B: And father? He is still a very handsome man, isn’t he?

A: How old is he?

B: He is 67, but he is still very handsome. And this is our son Martin. He is nineteen. He is a student.

A: What a lovely face! Who’s this?

B: This is Jane’s cousin, my sister-in-law. Her mother, Jane’s aunt, is a famous actress, and her uncle is an artist, and a very good one. His son is also an artist.

A: This is a very old photograph… who’s this funny little baby? A boy, isn’t it?

B: Yes, and a very big boy now.

A: Oh! It is not you, is it?

B: It is!

b) Saying Hello.

- Harry, have you met Mr. Grey?

- No, we haven’t met.

- Come along then, I’ll introduce you to him, if you like.

- With pleasure.

- Mr. Grey, I should like to introduce Mr. Smith, a friend of mine.

- How do you do, Mr. Smith? Pleased to meet you.

- How do you do, Mr. Grey? I’m very glad to know you.

11. Заполните анкету :

First name _____________________

Surname ______________________

Date of birth ___________________

Place of birth __________________

Nationality ____________________

Occupation ____________________

Address _____________________

Part II .

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

My Native Village.

I live in the village. Our village is large and quiet modern. The streets in it are clean. I live there with my parents.

All the administrative buildings, a secondary school, a post-office, a canteen, a kinder-garten are in the central square. There you can also find a policlinic and some shops. The club is the main cultural center of the village. This is a modern, two-storied building with a cinema, a library, a sport hall and a dancing hall. The people of the village come here to attend meetings, to see a new film, to dance, to listen to music and to discuss the events of the country life. In front of the club one can see a large park with beautiful trees, bushes and flower beds.

There are four streets in the village. The collective farmers live either in private houses or in large comfortable flats and cottages with all modern conveniences: central heating, hot and cold running water, gas, electricity, telephone. Nearly all houses have a garden and a kitchen garden near them. Many villagers have cars of their own.

Our village is situated near the river, so both children and grown-ups like to spend their free time there swimming, fishing, boating, having fun. The farmers have very little free time as they have much work to do in every season.

The farmers of our farm cultivate crops, mainly different variety of cereals, such as rye, wheat, barley, oats; many kinds of vegetables – potatoes onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, salads – are grown in the fields near our village

Cattle-breeding is another important branch of farming. Cows, pigs, sheep are reared here. There are rich green grass pastures for them. They are used for milk and meat production. We also have a large flocks of fowl: geese, chicken, ducks, turkeys.

The agricultural production is highly mechanized. Tractors, lorries, harvesters, hay-cutters, threshers, hay-loaders work in the fields and gardens, on the farm. The farmers also apply fertilizers to get better yields of crops. Highly-qualified specialists – live-stock breeders, agronomists, agricultural engineers- use modern methods of farming. An important task of modern agriculture is to apply in practice an advanced experience.

My village is a very nice place to live. After graduating from the Academy I am going to come back and work there as my parents. “There’s no place like home” – they say.

__________________________________________________________

both children and grown-ups – как дети так и взрослые

mainly different varieties of cereals – главным образом различные сорта зерновых

large flocks of fowls – большие стаи (стада) домашних птиц

сattle- breeding – скотоводство

apply fertilizer – применять удобрения

2. Вставьте предлоги .

1. Pete lives … the country.

2. His village is … Primorski Region.

3. His parents work … the farm.

4. Many villagers live … comfortable houses and cottages … all modern conveniences.

5. The village is situated … the river.

6. There are large green grass pastures … cattle.

3. Подтвердите или опровергните правильность следующих утверждений:

1. You live in a town (a village)

2. Your village is rather small.

3. The farmers of your village grow only vegetables and fruits.

4. You love your home place very much.

5. You are going to be a forester.

6. The climate conditions are favorable foe agriculture in your region.

4. Ответьте на вопросы .

1. What village do you live in?

2. Where is it situated?

3. Is it large or small?

4. Where do villagers live?

5. What farm animals are bred there?

6. Have you got some greenhouses, processing plants or forester farm ?

7. What are your parents?

8. Do you have favorable climatic conditions for agriculture in your region?

9. What are you going to do after graduating from the Academy?

4. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста.

1. Where is Newcastle?

2. Is it big or small?

3. What buildings and industries does it have?

4. What kind of people live there?

5. Is the countryside beautiful near it?

6. What is there near the city?

My Home Town.

I came from Newcastle, a city in the Northeast of England. Newcastle is on the bank of the river Tyne. It is quite big, with a population of about 200,000 people. There is a cathedral and a university. There are five bridges over the river Tyne, which link Newcastle to the next town, Gates Head, where is one of the biggest shopping centers in the world, the Metro center.

A few years ago, the main industries were shipbuilding and coalmining, but now the chemical and soap industries are more important.

I moved from Newcastle ten years ago, but I often return. I miss the people who are so warm and friendly, and I miss the wild, beautiful countryside near the city, where there are so many hills and streams.

People who are born near the River Tyne have a special name. They are called “Geordies”. I am very pleased to be a “Geordie”.

5. Составьте рассказ о вашем городе или селе.

6. Прочитайте следующие рекламные тексты и выберите место, куда бы вы хотели поехать. Объясните свой выбор .

A. Hawaii is a state of the USA consisting of eight main islands in the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. It is a popular place for Americans to go on holiday. Hawaii is famous for its beautiful beaches and dark volcanoes. It is warm all the year round.

B. The Black Forest and the picturesque town of Baden Baden are in south-western Germany. Your holiday there will be peaceful and relaxing. The town is surrounded by marvelous scenery, clear lakes and tall mountains. There are a lot of interest places to visit including the town’s 15-th century palace and the Romans baths. There are nice streams and all kinds of plants in the Black Forest. The air is always fresh and the local dishes are very tasty.

C. The Kingsbroke campsite in the Rocky Mountains is a wonderful place for nature lovers. The rivers there are endless, the lakes are bottomless and the mountains are very high. The campsite is situated in a vast unpopulated area with the fresh air and unpolluted water.

D. Thailand is an exciting place for holiday, with peaceful green valleys, beautiful mountains and endless sand beaches. The sea water is always warm and the whole atmosphere is really fantastic.

7. Прочитайте и переведите пословицы .

1. There is no place like home.

2. Every country has its customs.

3. East or west - home is best.

4. A good name is better than riches.

5. Never do things by halves.

6. A good beginning makes a good ending.

7. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

8. When a friend asks there is no tomorrow.

Unit II.

Разговорная тема : Our Academy. British Universities.

Грамматика : Артикль. Числительные. Времена группы Simple. Специальные вопросы. Наречия частотности. Возвратные местоимения. Указательные местоимения. Порядок слов в английском предложении. Предлоги места и направления.Special questions.

Part I .

Грамматические упражнения.

1. Используйте определенный или неопределенный артикли, где необходимо.

1. My granny lives in … village. She’s got a cow and two pigs. … cow’s name is Dasha. I help my granny and look after … animals.

2. Who’s … boy standing near … window?

3. My brother is only eight. He goes to … school. He is in … second form. He is … hard-working clever boy and excellent pupil.

4. I don’t think it’s easy to study … foreign languages.

5. Where is … money? It’s on … table.

6. … earth goes round … sun.

7. What … lovely song!

8. At … night I had … terrible headache after I had drunk … lot of coffee in … evening.

9. Have you ever been to … Bolshoi Theatre?

10. Helen plays … piano really well.

2. Используйте нужный артикль с географическими названиями.

1. … Sahara is a great desert in … North Africa extending from … Atlantic Ocean to … Nile.

2. … United Kingdom consists of … Great Britain and … Northern Ireland.

3. … Lake Baikal is the deepest one in the world.

4. Does … Dnieper flow in … Belarus?

5. The highest mountains in the world are … Himalayas.

6. … Cardiff is the capital of … Wales.

7. Are … British Isles large?

3. Прочитайте следующие существительные на английском языке.

13, 15, 11, 100, 30, 100, 3000000, 253, 12, 50, 4001, 25034, 57681000, 6000045, 9000.

4. Прочитайте следующие числительные как даты.

981, 1812, 1939, 1905, 1945, 1900, 1917, 1240, 1165, 1303, 1330, 1999, 2000, 1264, 2002.

5. Прочитайте следующие даты на английском языке.

31.12; 08.03; 25.12; 14.02; 01.05; 23.02; 09.05; 02.09; 15.03; 11.06; 13.07; 13.12.

6. Скажите, когда мы отмечаем эти праздники.

Christmas Day; May Day; Women’s day; All Full’s Day; New Year; Victory Day.

7. Используйте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple .

1. Everybody in our family (to help) Mummy about the house. Dad (to walk) the dog. I (to water) the flowers, and my brothers (to clean) the rooms.

2. I (not to understand) that man because I (not to know) English.

3. Pat’ mother (to teach) students.

4. When it (to be) cold, we (to put on) warm clothes.

5. We (to have) lectures and tutorials every day.

6. Our family (to like) to watch TV in the evening.

8. Напишите следующие предложения в третьем лице ед. числа.

1. Terms end with examinations.

2. Classes begin at 8 o'clock.

3. The students learn a lot of subjects.

4. I answer the teacher's questions

5. They check my homework.

6. We translate the sentences from English into Russian.

7. They speak on various topics during the English class.

8. I learn many English words.

9. We read this text.
10. I do my work.

9. a ) Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной форме.

1. Most of the students live in a hostel.

2. The course of study lasts 5 years.

3. This exam takes place in June.

4. Classes end at a quarter past three.

5. The program stimulates the students’ interest.

b ) Напишите следующие предложения в отрицательной форме.

1. We do a lot of exercises during the English classes.

2. He goes to the Institute on week-days.

3. The teacher gives us English magazines.

4. The students take books from the library.

5. We check our homework.

10. Напишите глаголы в скобках в настоящем времени ( Present Simple ).

1. Fishermen often (tell) tales about their catches.

2. My father (like) a lot of milk in his tea and few lumps of sugar.

3. Their children (go) to a private school.

4. My brother (sing) in Italian opera.

5. What you (see) over there?

6. We usually (spend) our holidays in Spain.

7. They often (come) to see me in my town house.

8. Anything that he (say) (be) worth listening to.

9. What this sentence (mean) ?

10. My English friends (live) in a nice house that (stand) on a hill that (overlook) lake Windermere which (be) in the Lake District.

11. Выберите нужную форму глагола .

a) do b) does c) is d) are e) have (has) d ) can.

1. … you help your mother about the house?

2. When … your mother’s birthday?

3. … he like to spend week-ends in town or in the country?

4. Your parents aren’t farmers, are they?

5. Who … your teacher of English?

6. … you speak a foreign language?

7. Whom … you discuss your problem with?

8. … she any English books at home?

12. Ответьте на вопросы :

Example: Do you ever study in the library?

I always do (usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never).

1. Do you ever spend your holidays abroad?

2. Does your brother ever play tennis?

3. Do you ever miss your English classes?

4. Do you ever go away on business?

5. Does your mother ever go shopping on Sunday?

6. Does your father ever go fishing?

7. Do you ever listen to the news in the morning?

13. Составьте предложения, обращая внимание на правильный порядок слов.

1. always – France - to – go – we – spring – in.

2. stay – hotel – a – usually – we – in.

3. plane – sometimes – by – go – we.

4. sometimes – train – go – we – by.

5. children – with – never – our – us – come.

6. we – restaurant – go – a – often - evening – Friday – to – on.

14. Составьте предложения .

1. Music, likes, very, classical, my father, much.

2. Time, he, in, always, come, his, to, does, classes?

3. Week, Ann, her, to, writes, a letter, parents, every.

4. Breakfast, have, you, usually, do , fruit, or, for, vegetables?

5. Didn’t, the meeting, to , Wednesday, the students, come, last.

15. Сделайте предложения отрицательными и вопросительными.

1. I lived in Moscow.

2. I met him at the station.

3. I enjoyed the party very much.

4. I bought myself a red jacket

.

16. Используйте следующие глаголы в прошедшем времени ( Past Simple ) .

Hurt, teach, spend, sell, throw, fall, catch, buy, cost.

Example: I was hungry, so I bought something to eat in the shop.

1) Tom’s father … him how to drive when he was 17.

2) Don … down the stairs this morning and … his leg.

3) We needed some money so we … our car.

4) Ann … a lot of money yesterday. She … a dress which … 50$.

5) Jim … the ball to Sue who … it.

17. Задайте несколько вопросов своему другу, который только что вернулся домой после каникул.

Example : where/ go? Where did you go?

food/ good? Was the food good?

1) how long/ stay there? ……..

2) stay in the hotel? …………

3) go alone? ………………..

4) how/ travel? …………..

5) the weather/ fine? …………

6) what/ do in the evening? …..

7) meet any interesting people? ……

18. Прочитайте предложения в настоящем, а затем в прошедшем времени.

Example: Tom usually gets up at 7. Yesterday he got up at 7.

(yesterday)

1. Tom usually wakes up early (yesterday morning). 2. Tom generally has a sandwich and a cup of tea for breakfast (yesterday). 3. Tom usually walks to work (yesterday). 4. He is usually late for work (2 days ago). 5. Tom is always busy at work (yesterday). 6. Very often Tom has lunch in a café (yesterday). 7. He usually goes out in the evening (last night). 8. If the weather is fine on Sunday, Tom goes for a picnic (last Sunday). 9. Tom usually works late (last week).

19. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по образцу.

Example : Why didn’t you phone me on Tuesday? (be away)

I didn’t phone you on Tuesday because I was away.

1. Why wasn’t Jane interested in the book? (not understand it). 2. Why didn’t you rush? (have enough time to reach the station). 3. Why didn’t you eat anything? (not be hungry). 4. Why didn’t Tom go to work yesterday? (not be very well). 5. Why didn’t Jimmy shave this morning? (not have time). 6. Why didn’t they come to the party? (be very busy). 7. Why didn’t your secretary bring the message to Mr. Clay? (not ask her). 8. Why didn’t you visit the Rockefeller Center in New York? (be short of time). 9. Why didn’t you participate in the cycle race when you were on holiday in the mountains? (not see the notice advertising it).

20. Сделайте предложения вопросительными и отрицательными.

1. The Smiths will go shopping tomorrow.

2. Frank will go to Spain for holiday.

3. The students will write the test next week.

4. Mike will speak Russian very well next year.

5. Jessie will cook a fruitcake on Sunday.

6. We’ll watch TV tonight.

21. Используйте слова в скобках в будущем времени ( Future Simple ).

1. In five years I (speak) English well.

2. Next year we (travel) around Europe.

3. I (call) you tomorrow and we (go out) somewhere.

4. In some fifty years people go to the Moon for the weekend.

5. She hopes she (sleep) well tonight.

6. He thinks he (live) in the same city in ten year’s time.

22. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование времен в следующих предложениях.

1. If both parents have got blue eyes, their children will probably have blue eyes.

2. If one parent is dark haired and one is fair-haired, their children will not necessary be dark-haired.

3. If a man but not his wife is colour-blind, their son wil l probably not be colour-blind.

4. If both parents are tall, their children will certainly be tall too.

5. If the destruction of the forest continues, we’ll have a lot of problems with the climate and our health.

6. If we lose the tropical forests, the air will contain much less oxygen and it will become difficult for us to breath.

23. Закончите предложения

.

1. When/If I have time, I’ll … .

2. As soon as we’ve got enough money, we’ll … .

3. If I am free the following weekend, I’ll … .

4. After I graduate from the University, I’ll … .

5. When my mother comes home tonight, she’ll … .

6. Before I have my summer holidays, I’ll … .

24. Заполните пропуски возвратными местоимениями, если необходимо .

myself himself herself

itself yourself ourselves

themselves yourselves

1. John, be careful! Don’t hurt … with the hammer.

2. Children, help … to sweets and juice.

3. We didn’t know who that man was. He hadn’t introduce … .

4. All my friends enjoyed … at my birthday party.

5. When my sister was making a pudding she burnt … on the oven.

6. It’s convenient to have an automatic cooker. It turns … on and off.

7. My father always repairs his car … .

8. My grandparents grow their vegetables … .

9. We usually paint the house … .

10. Look at the kitten. It’s washing … .

25. Измените предложения по образцам .

Model A: This is a room. – These are rooms.

1. This is a classroom.

2. This is a desk.

3. This is a bench.

Model B: That is a bag. – Those are bags.

1. That is a pen.

2. That is a pencil.

3. That is a box.

Model C: It is a desk . – They are desks too.

1. It is a page.

2. It is a box.

3. It is a bench.

26. Измените предложения по образцам .

Model A: These are good matches. This match is good too.

Those are bad matches. That match is bad too.

1. These are good cups.

2. These are bad plates.

3. These are small spoons.

Model B: This car is new. – These cars are new too.

That car is old. – Those cars are old too.

1. This park is old.

2. That tree is tall.

3. This house is tall.

27. Заполните пропуски предлогами направления.

1. Please, come … the room and sit … .

2. We went … the hill to watch the sunrise.

3. He entered the room and put the books … the desk.

4. I often go … the library after classes.

5. She took her mobile phone … … her bag and dialed his number.

6. The teacher told us to take our tests … her table.

7. How can I get the river, there are no bridges … it.

8. When our pets are not quite well, we take them to the veterinary clinic.

28. Изучите предлоги обозначения времени и заполните ими пропуски в предложениях.

At : at 5 o’clock; on Sunday.

In: in the morning; in May; in 1990.

For: for a long time; for three hours (days, weeks etc.).

During: during holidays; during the break.

By : by then; by that time.

From to: from 4 to 6 o’clock.

Before: before breakfast (work, the classes etc.).

After : after classes; after school.

1. I usually stay at the University … 9 a.m. … 2 or 3 p.m.

2. – What were you doing … this time a week ago?

- Oh, I was lying on the beach, enjoying the sun.

3. Our family usually gets up very early … the morning.

4. Where were you … December? I called you several times but you were not in.

– I was staying at my relatives’ … the whole month.

5. Call on me … 10 o’clock. I’ll be ready … that time.

6. – Where do you usually go after classes?

- I go home to have dinner.

- And … that?

- It depends. Sometimes I stay at home and watch TV, or I may go out with my

friends.

29. Обратите внимание на использование предлогов “ at , “ in ”, ‘ to and for ” в следующих предложениях. Заполните пропуски соответствующими предлогами.

In 1271 Marco Polo left for Persia.

Some time later he arrived in China.

In about 1294 he went back to Persia.

He arrived at Tabrin in 1294 or 1295.

At the end of 1295 he came back to Venice.

Last year I went … about twenty different countries. I came … England for the first time in 1998. We had rather a difficult journey this time. Our plane arrived … Manchester at 2.00 p.m., but our luggage got … Manchester three hours later. The car from the airport broke down, so we arrived … Manchester 7.00 p.m. The next day we left … London, and arrived … Heathrow airport without any problems, luckily.

Тематический словарь

1. Прочитайте слова и словосочетания .

agricultural – сельскохозяйственный

agriculture - сельское хозяйство

various - различный

full-time – дневной

part-time – заочный

research - исследовательский, исследование

successfully - успешно

qualified квалифицированный

senior course - старший курс

academic – учебный

term – семестр

branch - ветвь, отрасль

department – отделение, отдел, кафедра

director - директор

post-graduate – аспирант

vacations – каникулы

hall of residence (syn. а hostel, dormitory) – общежитие

library - библиотека

snack-bar – буфет

curriculum – учебный план (института)

subject – предмет

to have an opportunity - иметь возможность

to last - длиться, продолжаться

to train specialists – готовить специалистов

to head – возглавлять

at the disposal - в распоряжении

to get practical knowledge – получать практические знания

to pass exam (test) - сдать экзамен (зачет)

to comprise – включать, охватывать, содержать

to combine - объединять, совмещать.

2. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Переведите их на русский язык. Выучите .

the only agricultural Institute;

various branches of agriculture;

a full-time education;

part-time department;

academic year;

to get diploma;

to be headed by the director;

post-graduate course;

highly qualified specialists;

at the disposal of the students;

to take the course of study;

to receive additional qualification;

rather favorable conditions;

curriculum comprises;

the students of senior courses;

the base of getting practical knowledge;

to have possibility

3. Прочитайте, переведите, запомните.

Land Management and Farming Institute

Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Institute

Forestry Institute

Farm Mechanization Institute

Economics and Business Institute

The Institute of Staff Upgrading and Retraining for agro-industrial complex

Humanitarian Studies Institute

Interpreter in the field of professional communication

4. Переведите словосочетания на английский язык:

Кафедра иностранных языков, старшекурсники, учебно-опытное хозяйство, посещать семинары и лекции, экзаменационная сессия, аспирантура, сдать экзамен, получить диплом, изучать курс, профессиональное обучение, специализированные предметы.

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Our Academy .

Primorskaya State Academy of Agriculture was founded in Primorsky Region in 1957 as an Agricultural Institute and in 1995 it was awarded the status of the Academy.

The Academy trains highly qualified specialists in various branches of agriculture, forestry and land management. It has both full-time and part-time departments. Some 4200 young people get their education here. There are 7 Institutes at the Academy: Land Management and Farming Institute, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Institute, Forestry Institute, Farm Mechanization Institute, Economics and Business Institute, The Institute of Staff Upgrading and Retraining for agro-industrial complex and Humanitarian Studies Institute. Besides, the students of the Academy have possibility to receive additional qualification “Interpreter in the field of professional communication”. The Academy is headed by the rector and each Institute is headed by the director. Our Academy has also a post-graduated course which trains research workers for agriculture.

There are many departments and structural divisions at the Academy, among them there is the Experimental and Training Farm which has 5,000 ha of arable land and Forestry Farm with 46,00 ha of the first category forests. They are the base of getting practical knowledge.

The course of study lasts 5 years. There are two terms during the academic year. Each term ends with the examinations which take place in January and in June and July. The students should work hard during the academic year to pass their exams successfully. The students have their vacations in winter and in summer.

They go to the Academy every day except Saturday and Sunday. The Academy teaching combines lectures, practical classes and seminars. The students have 3 or 4 classes every day. They have got rather favourable conditions for studies at the Academy: lecture-halls, some computer rooms, gymnasiums, a stadium, snack-bar, reading halls and library are at their disposal. Curriculum comprises a lot of subjects such as maths, history, foreign languages, chemistry, physics, biology, ecological problems, informatics for first-year-students and specialized subjects for students of senior courses which are necessary for their professional training. The students of our Academy live in comfortable halls of residence or rent rooms in town.

The Academy Program is rather complex and it stimulates the student’s interest in his future work. After graduating from the Academy young people go to work to different parts of Russia as agronomists, economists, veterinary surgeons, stock-breeding engineers and foresters.

6. Найдите начало предложений в тексте.

1. … the status of the Academy.

2. … and part-time departments.

3. … research workers for agriculture.

4. … the first category forests.

5. … at their disposal.

6. … for their professional training.

7. … and foresters.

7. Составьте предложения, используя правую и левую части:

1. The Academy trains… a) is headed by the Director.

2. They are the… b) to pass their exams successfully

3. The Academy is headed c) highly qualified specialists

by the Rector and each Institute …

4. The students should work hard d) the base of getting practical

during the academic year … knowledge.

5. The Academy teaching combines … e) it stimulates the student’s

interest in his future work.

6. The students have 3 or … f) lectures, practical classes and

seminars.

7. The Academy program is rather g) 4 classes every day.

complex and …

8. Выразите свое мнение, используя фразы:

- It’s true. You are right.

- It’s false. It is not so.

1. Our Academy was founded in 1957.

2. It was awarded the status of the Academy in 2000.

3. There are 5 Institutes at the Academy.

4. The Academy is headed by the director and each Institute is headed by the Rector.

5. The students of the Academy have possibility to receive the additional qualification “Interpreter in the field of professional communication”.

6. There are two terms during the academic year.

7. Each term ends with vacations.

8. The students go to the Academy every day except Saturday and Sunday.

9. After graduating from the Academy young people go to work to foreign countries as teachers and research works.

9. Ответьте на вопросы :

1. Where do you study?

2. What specialists does agricultural Institute train?

3. When was our Institute founded?

4. What are the Institutes at the Academy?

5. Is there a snack-bar at our Academy?

6. Is there a library at our Academy?

7. Does the course of study last 5 years?

8. Are there two terms during the academic year?

9. When do the examinations take place?

10. What subjects do you study?

11. Do you like you r winter and summer holidays?

12. What helps you to get practical knowledge?

13. Are there any hostels for the students?

14. Do you live in a hall of residence or rent a flat?

15. At what time do you come to the Academy?

16. What foreign language do you learn?

17. Are you fond of English?

18. Do you speak English at class?

19. Do you want to master English?

20. Do you work at your English regularly?

21. What do you do during the English class?

22. What do you think of the Academy program?

23. Where do young people work after graduating from the Academy?

10. Скажите по-английски:

1. Наша академия готовит специалистов по различным отраслям сельского хозяйства, лесного хозяйства и мелиорации.

2. В институте есть как дневное, так и заочное отделение

3. В академии 7 институтов.

4. Каждый институт возглавляется директором.

5. Наша аспирантура готовит научных работников.

6. Большинство лабораторий хорошо оборудованы.

7. Библиотека обеспечивает студентов литературой по специальным

предметам.

8. Курс обучения длится 5 лет.

9. В учебном году 2 семестра.

10. Каждый семестр заканчивается экзаменом.

11. Мы собираемся стать квалифицированными специалистами.

12. Занятия начинаются в 8 часов и заканчиваются в 3.15.

13. В нашем институте мы изучаем различные предметы, такие как

математика, физика, химия, биология, иностранный язык и др.

14. Что касается меня, я изучаю английский.

15. Я хочу овладеть английский.

11. Приготовьте сообщения по следующим темам:

The Primorsky State Agricultural Academy;

The course of study.

12. Прочтите следующие фразы. Выучите их:

1. May I introduce myself?

2. May I introduce you to my girlfriend?

3. Did you enjoy meeting them?

4. I enjoyed their company.

5. I’m a bit late.

6. Are you able to help me?

7. I can give you some practice.

8. What is the best solution to this problem?

13. Дополните диалог вопросами, задав их своему товарищу:

A)

You:________________________________________ ?

Ann: No. it’s not my hobby. It’s my profession.

You: _______________________________________ ?

Ann: I study at the Art Institute.

You: _______________________________________ ?

Ann: All you need are paints, brushes, and canvases – and talent!

You: _______________________________________ ?

Ann: I enjoy it very much.

B)

A: Hello! My name is Nancy Brown. What ___ your name?

B: Hi. I ___ Karla Lopes.

A: ___ you new here?

B: Yes, this is ___ first trip ___ the States. I arrived two days ___.

A: And why ___ you come to the States?

B: I ___ to the States ___ an exchange student. I plan ___ improve my English. I’ll ___ living ___ the Perrys ___ six months.

A: That’s great! I hope ___ enjoy you stay here.

B : Thanks.

Part II .

1. Прочитайте и переведите тексты:

Cambridge .

Cambridge is situated at a distance of 70 miles from London; the greater part of the town lies on the left bank of the river Cam.

Cambridge is one of the loveliest towns of England but its dominating factor is the University, a centre of education and learning. Newton, Byron, Darwin and many other scientist and writers were educated at Cambridge. The University consists of 27 colleges, the eldest of which was founded in 1284.

The University trains about 7.000 students. They study there for 4 years, 3 terms a year. The long vacation lasts 3 months. The students trained by a tutor. There is a close connection between the university and colleges, though they are separate in theory and practice.

The students studying literature and those trained for physics may belong to one and the same college. However the fact is that you are to be a member of a college in order to be a member of the University.

Until 1964, undergraduates (students studying for the first degree) had to wear black gowns but now they are only obliged to wear them for dinner and some lectures. This tradition is disappearing but one of which still exists is punting on the Cam. Many students feel that they have not been christened into the University until they have been fallen into the river Cam.

Students have an official excuse to let themselves loose once a year on Rag Day, when they invent different schemes to collect money for charity, play guitars, pianos, violins or even lie in beds, the bucket suspended over the street for moneybox be thrown into.

Notes :

tutor- руководитель группы студентов

degree- ученая степень

to punt- кататься на лодках с шестом

to let oneself loose- дать себе волю

Rag Day- день студенческих шуток

charity- благотворительность

to suspend- подвешивать

Oxford.

Oxford is like London: it is international, it is very old and it has great charm. It is also a town that grew up near the river Thames. The name Oxford means the part of the river Thames where the oxen (cattle) forded (crossed)?

Oxford is international because people from many parts of the world come to study at its university. They come to study at one of the twenty-seven men’s colleges or at one of the five women’s colleges that are the university: they join the university “family” that has more than 9000 members.

Oxford is old and historical. It has existed since 912. The university was established in 1249. The oldest of the twenty-seven men’s colleges is University College.

You can see the charm of oxford in the green fields and parks which surround the city and you can see the lawns and gardens which surround the colleges. You can see the charm of Oxford in the river Thames and its streams which pass near the city.

Have you learnt anything new about Oxford and Cambridge? What is it?

Do you know?

- There are 44 universities in Britain;

- The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and 13th centuries;

- University degree courses usually extend over 3 or 4 years, but in medicine, dentistry and veterinary service 5 or 6 years are needed;

- About 45% of full-time university students of Britain take arts or social studies courses, 41% science and technology, about 10% study medicine, dentistry, vet. service and so on;

- Admission to the University is done by examination and selection;

- Women are admitted on equal terms with men;

- The word “University”, like the word “College”, meant originally a society of people with a common employment.

-

2. Найдите в данном ниже списке русские эквиваленты следующих пословиц:

1. He will never set the Thames on fire.

2. Live and learn.

3. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.

4. It is never too late to learn.

5. Two heads are better than one.

6. Knowledge is Power.

7. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

8. Money spent on brain is never spent in vain.

9. Soon learnt soon forgotten.

_______________________________________________________

A . Учиться никогда не поздно.

B . Одна голова хорошо, а две лучше.

C . Знание – сила.

D . Недоучка хуже неуча.

E . Век живи, век учись.

F . Деньги, истраченные на образование, никогда не пропадут.

G . Он пороха не выдумает.

H . Быстро выученное – быстро забывается.

I . Утро вечера мудренее.

UNIT III .

Разговорная тема : Времена года и погода. Климат. Человек, растения и природа.

Грамматика: Безличные предложения. Participle I. Настоящее, прошедшее и будущее продолженное время. Модальные глаголы. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий. Предлоги. Повелительное наклонение.

Part I.

Грамматические упражнения

1. Переведите предложения .

1) It is cold in the room. Can you shut the window, please?

2) My book is on the table, it is interesting.

3) Sometimes it snows in the fall.

4) There is a picture in this room. It is very nice.

5) It is my friend’s room.

6) It seldom rains in October here.

7) Where is your notebook? It is in my bag.

8) It is important to know grammar rules.

2. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский.

1. Зимой холодно.

2. Это холодная зима.

3. Сегодня очень жарко.

4. Раннее утро. Тепло.

5. Который сейчас час? – Без четверти семь.

3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод причастия ( Participle I ).

1. Everybody looked at the dancing girl.

2. The woman standing at the window is my aunt.

3. Entering the room she turned on the light.

4. The boy playing the piano is Ann’s cousin.

5. She went out of the room leaving the door open.

6. Looking out of the window he saw his mother watering the flowers.

4. Сделайте предложения вопросительными и отрицательными.

1. John is writing a letter.

2. I am learning a new rule.

3. The students are discussing their classes.

4. Mother is cooking dinner.

5. We are having a party.

5. Составьте одно предложение из данных ниже двух. Обратите внимание на время.

Model : I shaved. The children had breakfast.

I was shaving while the children were having breakfast.

1. You had a bath. The girl washed the dishes. 2. You talked to Mary. I talked to John. 3. I made the tea. Jimmy cleaned the car. 4. Alison left the house. Graham fetched the car. 5. I had a holiday in France. My parents worked hard. 6. It rained. I walked up the hill. 7. The house burned down. We slept. 8. The children enjoyed playing card. Their mother chatted in another room.

6. Откройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужную форму .

1. George (fall) off the ladder while he (paint) the ceiling.

2. … (you/watch) TV when I phoned you?

3. Ann (wait) for me when I (arrive).

4. I … (not/drive) very fast when the accident (happen).

5. Tom (take) a photograph of me while I (not/look).

6. We (not/go) out because it (rain).

7. What (you/do) at this time yesterday?

7. Переведите предложения .

1. I’ll be visiting Helen this evening. Is there anything you want me to tell her?

2. We’ll be having supper in about twenty minutes, so don’t go out, please.

3. Peter will be carrying the tent, so he can’t carry these sleeping bags.

4. I’ll be giving a party on Sunday, please don’t fail to come.

5. I’ll be having my first judo lesson at this time next week.

8. Ответьте на вопросы .

Model: - Are you going to watch the match tomorrow? (work)

- No, I’m not going to watch it because I’ll be working.

1. Are you going to phone your friend now? (sleep)

2. Are you going to bed early? (go to a party)

3. Are you coming to the concert tonight? (do my homework)

4. Are you playing tennis with us tomorrow? (sit for an exam)

5. Are you going to visit us next week? (go to Scotland)

6. Are you going home immediately? (have a holiday first)

9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на использование модальных глаголов.

1. You can’t cross the street there. 2. You must heat the mixture for two hours. 3. You should control the temperature of the mixture. 4. It may rain today. Take your umbrella. 5. If he doesn’t know how to translate the phrase he should ask the teacher. 6. You mustn’t smoke here. 7. You can start the experiment today. 8. She can speak two foreign languages. 9. When he was a child he could play the piano very well. 10. I can’t drink my tea, it’s too hot. 11. You may take a day off, if you are tired. 12. May I have the test next week? 12. I can’t understand anything in this report. 13. It’s 11 o’clock, you must go to bed at once. 13. On some farms people must clean their shoes before they come into the barn. 14. I have to leave now because I have a lot of work to do at home. 15. He had to work hard last year as he needed a lot of money for his large family. 16. They will have to translate the whole text to understand the meaning of it. 17. You may come a little later tomorrow. 18. I can hear some noise outside. 19. Must I ring him up today? – No, you needn’t, you may do it tomorrow. 20. You have to go and tell him everything now.

10. Вставьте нужный модальный глагол .

1. You ____ finish the work today. You ____ do it tomorrow.

2. ____ I take your pen for a moment?

3. Students ____ talk at the lesson.

4. It ____ rain, you ___ take your umbrella.

5. My father ____ speak two foreign languages.

6. I’m in a hurry. Mike and I ____ meet in ten minutes.

7. The shop was closed, so we ____ come again the next day.

11. Используйте модальные глаголы “ must ”, “ mustn t ” или “ needn t ” вместо пропусков.

1. We haven’t got much time. We … hurry.

2. We’ve got a lot of time. We … hurry.

3. Farther gave me a letter. I … forget to post it.

4. You … come to the party if you don’t want to.

5. We have enough food at home so we … go shopping today.

6. This book is very old and expensive. You … look after it very carefully and you … lose it.

12. Измените предложения по образцу .

Model: I’m older than him. – He is younger than me.

1. I’m taller than her. - …

2. He’s bigger than me. - …

3. We’re younger than you. - …

4. Lions are faster than deer. - …

5. Elephants are heavier than bears. - …

6. Wolves are stronger than rabbits. - …

7. Cats can see better than mice. - …

8. They have less free time than their colleagues. - …

9. Vets know more about animals than cooks. - …

13. Откройте скобки и поставьте прилагательное в превосходную степень.

1. Insects make up (large) group of animals.

2. The fair fly is (tiny) insect on Earth.

3. The goliath beetle is (heavy) insect of all.

4. The butterfly is (attractive) insect.

5. (long) insect is a walking stick insect that can reach a length of 33 centimeters.

6. (fast) insect is the dragonfly. It flies at 58 kilometers an hour.

7. (dangerous) insect is the black widow spider.

8. The Nile is (long) river in the world.

9. Lake Superior in the USA is (big) freshwater lake in the world.

10. Every year many people climb up Mount Everest, (high) mountain in the world.

14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение слова most :

а) самый, очень ; б) большинство, большая часть.

1. Most needleleaf forests grow in the north of our country. 2. We discussed most important problems at the meeting yesterday. 3. Most students of our group speak English well. 4. Autumn is the most rainy season.

5. This text includes the most difficult words. 6. Most trees near our Institute are broadleaf.

15. Объясните значение следующих поговорок по-русски. Дайте их русский эквивалент .

1. Those speak most who have the least to say.

2. The busiest man finds the most time.

3. The more the man learns the more he can learn.

4. Second thoughts are best.

16. Заполните пропуски нужными предлогами.

1. When I was a child I spent every holiday … the seaside.

2. These days more and more people live … the suburbs of large cities.

3. My parents live … the tenth floor … an apartment block in the center of Moscow.

4. When he retires he will live … a bungalow … the sea.

5. If we have time we’ll go … the theatre tonight.

6. Her sister was born … Ireland, but she now lives … the United States.

7. … the evening I met my girlfriend; we went … a walk, looked … the moon and talked … love.

8. When I looked … … the window, snow was falling.

9. It’s raining heavily. Take your umbrella … … the bag.

10. They’re building a supermarket … front … our house.

11. Because of the heavy traffic I was late … work this morning.

12. Where is the nearest post office? – It’s just … the corner.

13. The metro station is over there, … the street.

14. How can I get the Moscow University? – Walk … the street, turn … the right … the traffic lights; you will see the University … your left.

15. The mole spends most of its life … the ground. Quite often it comes … the ground at night

.

17. Используйте повелительное наклонение:

Ask your fellow student to:

- open his (her) book

- close his (her) copybook

- give you his (her) pen

- take your pencil

- tell you the time

- tell you his (her) name

Ask your fellow student not to:

- talk so loudly

- leave the classroom

- look out of the window

- laugh at you

- forget to do the homework

- eat in class

18. Переведите на английский язык.

1) Подойдите к доске.

2) Напишите на доске предложение.

3) Не забывайте свои вещи в аудитории.

4) Будьте внимательны.

5) Не шумите.

6) Исправьте свою ошибку.

7) Перестаньте болтать.

8) Не разговаривайте по телефону во время занятий.

Тематический словарь

1. Прочитайте и выучите следующие слова и переведите словосочетания.

breeze – легкий ветер; a gentle breeze

cloud – туча, облако ; a big grey cloud

drizzle – моросящий дождь; it drizzles

dust - пыль; to raise dust

fog – туман ; dense (=thick) fog, fog clears (=lifts)

hail – град; it hails

hoar-frost – иней; hoar –frost on the trees

ice – лед; hard ice, ice melts

icicle – сосулька; an icicle hangs down

lightning – молния; lightning flashes, lightning strikes

mud – грязь; to stick in the mud

puddle – лужа; there are many puddles after the rains

rainbow – радуга; the rainbow came out

rainfall – осадки в виде дождя; annual (=yearly) rainfall

sleet – снег с дождем, мокрый снег; it sleets

slush – слякоть; the snow turns to slush

storm – буря; a heavy storm, a storm is gathering

Indian summer – бабье лето; a lovely period of Indian summer

thunder – гром; rolls (=claps) of thunder

wind – ветер; strong wind, wind blows

mild – мягкий; a mild afternoon

severe – суровый; severe climate

chilly – прохладный, холодный; a chilly autumn wind

clear – ясный; a clear day

degree – градус; three degree of frost

dry – сухой, засушливый; a dry year

to freeze (froze, frozen) – морозить, мерзнуть; to freeze hard

frost – мороз; light (=slight) frost

heat – 1) жара; 2) нагревать; intense heat

harvest season – время сбора урожая; early autumn is harvest season

temperature – температура; temperature Centigrade

weather – погода; what is the weather like today?

grow – расти, выращивать; to grow a tree

soil – почва; poor soil

sow – сеять; to sow crops

plow, plough – пахать; to plow soil

crop – с/х культура; to grow crops

1. Прочитайте и переведите словосочетания

а) на русский язык:

A breeze from the sea; covered with clouds, cloudy, cloudless sky; a dusty table; covered with ice; icicles on the roof; flash of lightning; a muddy road; puddles in the yard; heavy rain, in the rain, it rains hard (=heavily); a rainbow in the sky; a rainy day; snow melts, snowfall, snowstorm, it snows heavily (=hard); it thunders, thunderstorm; mild climate; severe cold; it clears up, clear sky; fall two degrees, rise three degrees, two degrees above zero, three degrees below zero, two degrees in the shade (in the sun); dry summer; it freezes, hard (=heavy, severe) frost, a frosty morning; the sun heats the ground, heated air; high (low) temperature, temperature rises (=goes up), temperature falls (=goes down); nasty (foggy, stormy, windy) weather, damp (raw, moist, wet) weather, a spell of fine (warm, lovely, sunny) weather, changeable weather, weather forecast.

b ) на английский язык:

Дует легкий ветер; небо покрыто серыми тучами; часто моросит дождь; густой туман, туманный день; идет гард; земля покрыта инеем; лед тает; вспышки молнии; грязные лужи; все цвета радуги; идет мокрый снег; снег превращается в слякоть; теплое бабье лето; гремит гром; сильный ветер; мягкий климат; суровая зима; прохладное утро; проясняется; 20 градусов в тени, 10 градусов мороза, 8 градусов выше (ниже) нуля; засушливый год; сильно подмораживает, ночные заморозки; сильная жара; низкая (высокая) температура, температура понизилась (повысилась); прогноз погоды, сырая погода, переменчивая погода.

2. Дайте определение каждому утверждению из левой колонки, используя слова из правой колонки:

1) a light gentle wind a) thunder

2) a small dirty pool of rain water on the road b) climate

3) a period of calm warm weather which c) puddle

sometimes happens in the early autumn d) weather forecast

4) water falling in drops from the clouds e) rain

5) the sudden loud noise which comes after f) fog

a flash of lightning g) breeze

6) a statement of what the weather is likely h) Indian summer

to be for the next day of few days

7) thick water vapour which is difficult to see

through

8) weather conditions of a place or area

3. Скажите по - английски :

Model: + 10° - ten degrees above (below) zero

3°↑ - temperature rises three degrees

+23°, - 4°, 5°↑, 2°↓, -11°, +17°, 4°↑, 6°↓

4. Подберите подходящие по смыслу существительные к данным прилагательным.

Model : dark – dark clouds, dark sky, dark night etc.

Thin, dense, mild, occasional, chilly, severe, thick, clear, hot, moderate, heavy, muddy, changeable, hard, cloudy, dry.

5. Используйте следующие прилагательные для описания:

a) good weather; b) bad weather.

Dreadful, lovely, beautiful, awful, nasty, marvelous, terrible, wonderful, miserable, fin .

Используйте эти же прилагательные в коротких диалогах.

Model :

- What a wonderful day we’re having today!

- Yes, isn’t the weather marvelous!

-

6. Прочитайте и переведите:

Seasons and weather

There are four seasons in the year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each of them lasts three months. Every season is beautiful and pleasant in its own way, but also has some negative features.

Every year begins in winter. Winter is the coldest season all over the Northern Hemisphere. In some regions it may be severe: hard frosts and heavy snowfalls become a real disaster. But in our country winters are usually comparatively mild. It often sleets instead of snowing, and the snow turns to slush. The puddles may be not frozen, but still it is cold because of strong northern wind. The most unpleasant thing about winter is that the sun sets early and rises late. The days are short and the nights are long. But when the weather is fine: the sun shines, the air is fresh and frosty and the ground is covered with snow, people go for a walk to the forests and parks, enjoy doing winter sports, such as skating, skiing, sleighing and hockey. Besides we celebrate the most popular holidays: the New Year and Christmas in winter. So this season is favourite for many people.

At the end of March the weather gets gradually warmer. The days become longer and sunnier. Spring comes and nature awakens after a long winter sleep. Everything is full of life and joy. All kinds of plants and flowers come out filling the air with their fragrance. Birds come back from the south and build nests for their young. Although the weather generally clears up, spring is sometimes a very rainy season. There may be occasionally heavy rains, even with hail, in springtime. Spring is a busy season for farmers and people whose hobby is gardening. They must sow and start cultivating most crops. And their hard work in spring will result in high yields of fruit, vegetables and cereals in harvest season.

Spring is followed by summer. The weather gets still warmer and often is very hot. Sometimes heat can be really unbearable. The sky is blue and cloudless almost every day. But heavy thunderstorms with flashes of lightning also occur in summer, they moisten the ground, which is essential for plants, and make the air fresher and easier to breath. There often appears a beautiful rainbow in the sky after the thunderstorm. Most people have their holidays in summer. They can go the seaside to lie in the sun and to swim in the sea, or just go hiking to the forest or to the mountains. In either way they come back to their work or studies refreshed and full of vitality.

Then autumn sets and the nature fades away. This season is also called “fall” because it is the period of falling leaves. The first part of autumn is the harvest time for many crops. Early autumn days are generally wаrm and nights are cool. As winter approaches, the air becomes chillier and frost often occurs at night. The sky is most overcast with low grey clouds. It often rains and drizzles. In October while the leaves are turning color and falling from the trees there comes the mild pleasant period of Indian summer. The days become noticeably wаrmer. The sun shines softly, the sky turns rich blue, the air is smoky and still, with almost no wind. Indian summer lasts from a week to 10 days, and sometimes for two weeks. In late November the freezing of lakes and streams and the first snowstorms mark the end of autumn.

7. Ответьте на вопросы :

1) What is the weather like in winter (spring, summer, autumn)?

2) What is the average temperature in winter (spring, summer, autumn)?

3) Which season is the hottest (coldest, rainiest) in the year?

4) What is the best season for tourism (sports)?

5) Why is autumn also called “fall”?

6) What period do we call Indian summer?

7) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each season?

8) Which is your favourite season and why?

8. Заполните пропуски нужными предлогами .

1) When the winter is mild, it often sleets instead ___ snowing, and the snow turns ___ slush.

2) The winters in our region may be rather cold because ___ strong northern wind.

3) Winter is a favourite season ___ many people.

4) The weather gets gradually warmer ___ the end of March.

5) Flowers fill the air ___ their fragrance.

6) There is often a rainbow ___ the sky ___ the thunderstorm.

7) People can enjoy lying ___ the sun in summer.

8) Indian summer usually lasts ___ a week ___ 10 days, and sometimes ___ two weeks.

9. Найдите и выпишите их текста пары антонимов.

The sun comes up in the east and goes down in the west. When the sun rises, it is morning. When the sun sets, it is evening. When the sun is in the sky, it is light. During the night, if the moon is not shining, it is dark.

December, January and February are the winter months. The summer months are June, July and August. In winter the days are short and the nights are long. In spring and autumn there are sometimes cold days, but there are also days when the weather is warm.

10. Составьте предложения из следующих слов.

1) drops, the, of, grass, fell, rain, the, on, first

2) is, summer, of, the, weather, October, called, Indian, sunny, in, spell

3) the, roofs, hang, of, the, icicles, from, houses

4) blue, great, the, sky, in, clouds, there, white, are

11. Составьте предложения с данными словами по образцу, учитывая, какой частью речи они являются.

Model:

- It often rains . (verb)

- There is often rain . (noun)

- It is often rainy . (adjective)

Sunny, sun, hot, snow (v.), snow (n.), wind, windy, cold (adj..), cool, cloud, cloudy, warm, fog, foggy.

12. Заполните пропуски в тексте данными ниже словами.

But, fairly, temperature, short, rains, know, changeable, people, winters, long, in a row, often, the weather, does.

Weather in Britain

In Britain ___ is very ___: it ___ a lot, but the sun often shines too. ___ can be ___ cold, with an average ___ of 5°C in the south; there is often snow.

Summers can be cool or warm, but the temperature ___ not usually go above 30°C. it is ___ cloudy, and there are rains for days or weeks ___. Days are ___ in summer and ___ in winter. There are sometimes fogs, ___ not so often as foreigners think. The British ___ never ___ what tomorrow’s weather will be like.

13. Скажите , соответствует ли это действительности .

1. It often pours with rain in the desert.

2. It gets quite chilly in the desert in the evening.

3. Thunder makes a noise.

4. Lightning can kill people.

5. A shower is a gentle breeze.

6. A spell of hot weather may end in a thunderstorm.

7. If it is humid, the air will be very dry.

8. Below zero, water turns to ice.

9. Heavy rain means that it is pouring with rain.

10. When it’s foggy, you need sunglasses.

14. Заполните пропуски в тексте необходимыми словами.

A. Drier, humid, spell, winds, hot, blows, snows, heavy.

The greatest influence of Japanese weather is the wind. During the summer it … from the Pacific, causing … and humid weather, but in winter the northwesterly … from Siberia are very cold and it … heavier on the mountains in the North West. The south-eastern parts receive cold dry air. Between June and mild July, there is a … of wet weather when the rice fields get the water vital for growth. After that, there is less … rain, but the air is still … . Autumn, however, is … and usually very pleasant.

B. melts, sleet, frost, blizzards, thaws, snowdrifts, slush, icy.

My first experience with real winter weather was when I went to Northern Canada. I was used to the sort of snow that falls in London, which quickly turns into brown … with the people walking on it. In fact most of the time I was in London, it didn’t really snow properly, it was mostly … . Apart from that, British winters meant a bit of white … in my garden and occasionally having to drive very carefully on … roads early in the morning. I had never experienced the … and … that can paralyse a whole city in less than an hour and close roads completely. However, when the earth finally … and all the snow … away in spring, everything comes to life again and looks more beautiful than ever.

15. Определите значение идиом в следующих предложениях. Дайте их русские эквиваленты. Составьте ситуации с ними .

1. Did you see that dog chase those two cats? It went like the wind .

2. I’m going to get up early tomorrow morning, come rain or shine.

3. I’m certainly not going to spend all my money. I’m going to save some for a rainy day.

4. I don’t think you should worry about the incident too much. It’ just a storm in a teacup.

5. Our teacher has tried to explain it to us several times, but I’m still in a complete fog.

6. I’ve enjoyed living here, but now there’s a cloud on the horizon. They are planning to build a new office block right opposite our house.

7. We are having a lot of problems at the moment, but we’ll weather the storm if we stay together.

16. Переведите пословицы .

- March winds and April showers bring forth May flowers.

- A wet and windy May fills the barn with corn and hay.

- Mist in May and heat in June make the harvest right soon.

- If the first of July be rainy weather, it will rain more or less forty days together.

- Everything is good in its season.

- Every cloud has a silver lining.

- The longest day will have an end.

- It never rains but it pours.

Part II .

1. Прочитайте слова и словосочетания. Выучите их.

plant – растение; сажать

grass – трава

grassland – травяные угодья

flower – цветок; цвести

blossom – цветок (на дереве); цвеcти (о деревьях)

high – высоко, высокий

height – высота

mountain – гора

desert – пустыня

species – вид, разновидность, род

ago – тому назад; (not) long ago

impossible – невозможный, невозможно; it’s impossible

without – без

to breathe – дышать

breath – дыхание

food – пища, продовольствие, корм; кормить, подавать (топливо, корм)

animal – животное; animal products

useful – полезный

use – употреблять, использовать, применять; in use

thing – вещь, нечто существующее

timber – лесоматериалы, строевой лес

wood – лесоматериал, лес

forest – лес

to change менять, изменять

exchange обмен

seed семя, зерно, семена; to seed

to develop развивать(-ся), разрабатывать

development развитие

grain зерно, структура (дерева)

knowledge знание

unknown – неизвестный

scientist – ученый

science – наука

certainly – конечно

simple – простой; simplicity

nature – природа; natural

earth земной шар, земля

ground почва, земля

land земля, суша

to link соединять, связывать

sunlight – солнечный свет

matter – материя, вещество; as a matter of fact; What is the matter?

leaf ( leaves ) – лист (листья)

during в течение (о времени)

to die – умирать; dead; death

necessary – необходимый

enough достаточно

population население

soon вскоре

to want хотеть, желать

conservation сохранение

protection - защита, охрана

to protect - охранять, сохранять

to keep держать, хранить

word слово

unit единица; единица измерения; установка

cell клетка (биологическая); ячейка

thin тонкий; редкий

thick толстый; густой

paper бумага

woody древесный;

2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие слова и словосочетания..

Plants, man and plants; grass, flowers, trees; trees grow everywhere; high in the mountains; far out in the ocean; polar regions, in many deserts and polar regions; over 350 000 species of plants; the giant sequoia trees; over 100 metres high, about 9 metres wide; living things; pines; impossible; without; we breathe, we breathe oxygen; animals eat plants; man built houses; useful products; to get food; fields of grain; to grow food plants; to sow the seeds; develop new plants; in this way man developed new plants; for example; for instance; wild corn; little ears of wild corn; to use grain; over large territory.

3. Прочитайте и переведите предложения.

1) Plants grow everywhere.

2) Plants grow in many deserts and polar regions.

3) There are over 350 000 species of plants.

4) We see some plants only with a microscope.

5) Sequoia trees are over 100 metres high and about 9 metres wide.

6) There are platans in Russia 2000 years old.

7) Life is impossible without plants.

8) Plants also give beauty.

9) Man began to change plants about 10 000 years ago.

10) Christopher Columbus came to the New World.

11) The new corn grew over large territories there.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Man and Plants

Plants – grass, flowers and trees – grow everywhere: high in the mountains, far out in the ocean and in many deserts and Polar Regions.

There are over 350 000 species of plants. Some are so small, that we see them only with a microscope; some are very large, such as the giant sequoia trees in California, they are over 100 metres high and about nine metres wide. Plants are very old living things. Pine trees live 300-350 years. There are platans in Russia 2000 years old.

Life is impossible without plants, everyone knows it. We breathe the oxygen which comes from plants; we eat the food which also comes from plants or from animals that eat plants. Many thousand years ago man built houses and made useful things from timber which he got from trees. He made his clothing from plants too.

Plants also give beauty. People like to look at flowers, at fields of grain, they like to be in the forest.

Man began to change plants about 10 000 years ago, when he began to grow the first food plants. The first farmers saw that there were good plants and not so good plants. They sowed the seeds of good plants from them. In this way man developed the basic food crops of the world. For example, the Indians developed little ears of wild corn into large ears with many grains, which we use today. When Christopher Columbus came to the New World the new corn grew over large territory there.

5. Перескажите текст по следующей схеме.

1. The title of the text (article). The title of the text is …

The text is entitled …

The text comes under the title…

2. The main idea of the text (article). The main idea of the text is …

The text is about …

The text is devoted to …

The text deals with …

3. The contents of the text (article). According to the text …

The author touches upon (illu-

strates, raises a problem of,

describes}

In conclusion …

The author comes to the con-

clusion that …

4. You opinion of the text (article). I found the text interesting (useful,

of no value, too hard to under-

stand)

I think (believe, should say, con-

sider)

In my opinion …

It seems to me …

From my point of view…

6. Прочитайте, переведите и воспроизведите диалог.

(Peter comes to see Kate in her hostel)

Peter: May I come in? Hello, Kate. I saw you in the reading room in the evening. What did you read?

Kate: Hello, Peter. I read about plants in the English encyclopedia. It was very interesting. Do you know how many plants there are in the world?

Peter: Haven’t got any idea. How many?

Kate: Scientists think, there are over 350 000 but nobody knows for sure. And do you know the difference between plants and animals?

Peter: Certainly. They look absolutely different.

Kate: Now I see you don’t. Plants make their own food; animals do not make food. They eat plants or other animals that eat plants. Isn’t it interesting?

Peter: It is, and very simple. Now I understand the difference between them.

Kate: Let’s read this encyclopedia tomorrow. I’m going to help you with your English, you know.

Peter : Thank you, Kate.

7. Прочитайте и переведите слова и словосочетания.

Organic nature; on the Earth, one third of the Earth; to live without plants; the cycle of nature; natural process; the sun gives energy; living things; to accumulate sunlight; to use sunlight; to give off oxygen, to give off oxygen during the natural process; to breathe in the oxygen; to breathe out carbon dioxide; water and minerals; after plants and animals die; a hectare of pine forest; 20 000 square kilometers; enough oxygen for the population; to play a very important part; conservation and protection of nature.

8. Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем.

Plants and Nature

Plants and animals are organic nature. On the Earth plants make one third.

Animals and man will not live without plants, because the cycle of nature links them. This natural process gives men and animals oxygen and food. The Sun gives energy for this process. Plants are special living things: they accumulate and make organic matter from inorganic in their leaves. Plants use sunlight and make their food; they give off oxygen into the air during this process. Man and animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide, which plants combine with sun energy, water and minerals from the soil and in this way make their food. After plants and animals die, rotting process will give back minerals to the soil, where plants will again use them.

Plants also play a very important part in conservation and protection of soil, water and animals. They protect soil from the wind and keep water in the soil.

Trees give off a lot of oxygen into the air. For example, a hectare of pine forest gives oxygen for ten people. It is necessary to have 1000 square kilometers of forest for ten million people.

If there are many parks and trees in a city and many forests around it, then its population will have enough oxygen to breathe.

9. Составьте аннотацию текста.

Кавтрова Надежда Викторовна

Английский язык: методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I курса Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства. Часть I

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