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Учебное пособие: Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса Нижний Новгород 2003

Название: Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса Нижний Новгород 2003
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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Министерство образования России

Волжская Государственная Инженерно-Педагогическая академия

Кафедра иностранных языков

Н.Х. Фролова, С.Е. Цветкова

Youth challenges

Проблемы молодежи

учебно-методическое пособие для студентов

1 курса

Нижний Новгород — 2003


ББК XX.X

X-XX

Фролова Н.Х., Цветкова С.Е.

Youth challenges. Проблемы молодежи: Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов. — Н. Новгород: Волжская Государственная Инженерно-Педагогическая академия, 2003. —40 с.

Фролова Н.Х. – к.п.н., доцент НФ ГУ– ВШЭ – составитель части 2.

Цветкова С.Е.– ст. преподаватель ВГИПА – составитель части 1.

Работа посвящена одной из основных тем обучения устной речи английского языка— проблемам молодежи: отношения поколений, ранние браки, проблема свободного времени, увлечение наркотиками, алкоголем и курением.

В учебно-методическом пособии рассмотрены наиболее характерные вопросы и проблемы, с которыми молодым людям приходиться сталкиваться как в Великобритании, так и в России. Данное учебно-методическое пособие содержит тексты, диалоги и упражнения, предназначенный для студентов разного уровня владения английским языком. Представление языкового материала дифференцированно. В первой части для начального уровня, во второй – для более продвинутого уровня владения иностранным языком.

Издание рассчитано на преподавателей и студентов высших образовательных учреждений, а также может быть полезно всем, кто интересуется вопросами и проблемами молодежи.

Рецензенты:

1. Поляков В.М. – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Волжская государственная инженерно-педагогическая академия;

2. Емельяова Н.А. – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Нижегородский филиал Государственного университета – Высшая школа экономики.

© Фролова Н.Х., Цветкова С.Е. 2003.

© ВГИПА, 2003.


Содержание:

1. Part 1.

14

2. Part 2.

119

Литература

240


Part 1

Topic

Public school

1. Vocabulary

education

oбразование

elementary school

среднее звено

high school

старшие классы

to admit

принимать

admission

зачисление

compulsory

обязательно

term

термин

a tracking system

дифференцируемая система

ability

способности

major subjects

специализированные предметы

to major

специализироваться

humanities

гуманитарные науки

science

естественные науки

private

частный

state supported

государственный

2. Text

Education in the USA

Peter Ivanov a Soviet exchange student is at Columbia University. He wants to know more about US public school education. Now he is having a talk with James Porges, an American student.

Ivanov: When do children start going to school in America?

Porgies: At the age of six. There are eight years of elementary school and four years of high school.

Ivanov: Does high school admit all children? Is admission automatic?

Porgies: Yes

Ivanov: Is elementary or high schooling compulsory here?

Porgies: Elementary schooling is. In most States students can leave school at the age of sixteen.

Ivanov: As for my country, high schooling is compulsory.

Porgies: That’s very good. I wish we had it too.

Ivanov: I came across the term a tracking system. What does it mean?

Porgies: It means that students are placed in-groups according to their ability in a specific subjects.

Ivanov: What subjects do students have during the four years high school programme?

Porgies: They have to study four or five major subjects a year. They may major either in the humanities or in science. They have classes in major subjects every day.

Ivanov: Do they have any other subjects?

Porgies: Yes, they usually have classes in physical education, music and art-several times a week.

Ivanov: I’ve read that there are private elementary and high schools in the country.

Porgies: Yes there are. More over their number has greatly increased.

Ivanov: Is there a difference between private and state supported schools?

Porgies: There’s a great difference. Private schools have better teachers, as the teacher salaries are higher there. Classes are not so numerous as in the State supported schools.

3. Reconstruct the text.

Education in the USA

Peter Ivanov a Soviet exchange student is at Columbia University. He wants to know more about US public school education. Now he is having a talk with James Porges, an American student.

Ivanov: When do children _____ going to _____ in America?

Porgies: At the age of six. There are ____ years of ______ school and _____ years of _____ school.

Ivanov: Does _____ school _____ all children? Is _______ automatic?

Porgies: Yes

Ivanov: Is elementary or ____ schooling ______ here?

Porgies: ________ schooling is. In most ______ students can _____ school at the _____ of sixteen.

Ivanov: As for my _____, high ______ is ______.

Porgies: That’s very ____. I wish we _____ it ____.

Ivanov: I came across the ____ a _____ system. What does it ____?

Porgies: It _____ that students are _____ in-groups according to their ____ in a specific ______.

Ivanov: What ____ do students have ____ the four years ___ school programme?

Porgies: They have to ___ four or five ___ subjects a ___. They may ___ either in the ____ or in ____. They have ____ in major _____ every ___.

Ivanov: Do they ___ any other _____?

Porgies: Yes, they usually have ____ in _____ education, music and __-several ____ a week.

Ivanov: I’ve read that there are ____ elementary and ___ schools in the _____.

Porgies: Yes there are. More ___ their _____ has greatly _____.

Ivanov: Is there a _____ between private and __________ schools?

Porgies: There’s a ___ difference. _____ schools have better ____, as the teacher ___ are higher there. Classes are not so ____ as in the State _____ schools.

Topic

Do you know that…

1. Vocabulary

to go to school

ходить в школу

at the age of…

в возрасте …

infant school

школа для детей 5-7 лет

the junior school

начальная школа

to take an examination

сдавать экзамен

to determine

определять

to fail in the exams

провалиться на экзаменах

non-grammar type

школа для слаборазвитых

college education

колледжское образование

the state primary school

государственная начальная школа

attendance

посещение

to last

длиться, продолжаться

lesson(s)

занятия

holidays

каникулы

preparatory school

подготовительная школа

free

бесплатно

to pay fees

платить деньги

a unified system

единая система

secondary education

среднее образование


technical school

техническая школа

a subject

предмет

advanced

продвинутый

Literature

литература

Mathematics

математика

Arithmetic

арифметика

Algebra

алгебра

Geometry

геометрия

Trigonometry

тригонометрия

History

история

European

европейский

Geography

география

natural science

естественные науки

ancient language

античный язык

Latin

латинский язык

Greek

греческий

French

французский

German

немецкий

Spanish

испанский

Italian

итальянский

commercial subjects

коммерческие предметы

type-writing

печатание

Shorthand

стенография

Book keeping

бухгалтерия

Accounting

бухгалтерия

Art

искусство

hand work

ручной труд

physical training

физическая культура

the General Certificate of

Education

аттестат зрелости

the General Education

общее образование

standard =level

уровень

To gain an entrance to…

добиться поступления

To pass examinations

сдавать экзамены

Grammar school

грамматическая школа

Modern school

современная школа

2. Text

English children start going to school at the age of 5. Between the age of 5 and 7 children go to infant school and between the age of seven and eleven to junior school. Until recently all children at the age of 10 and 11 had to take an examination which determined their future. Those who failed in their 11 plus exams were considered to be “non- grammar types” and had to go to modern schools which means no college education. The state primary schools are free. Besides the state primary schools there are many private institutions.

They don’t have a unified system of secondary education in Britain. Until some time ago they had modern schools, grammar schools and technical schools. There are big differences in the time devoted by each type of school to the same subjects.

From primary schools children go to secondary schools: public schools or county schools. Public schools are private schools where the fees are very high.

At every grammar school the places are free, to be won by boys and girls at the primary schools. The grammar schools are day schools and the hours of instructions are similar to those of primary schools, but the subjects are wider and more advanced: English (language and literature), mathematics (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry), history (English and European), geography, natural science, ancient languages (Latin and Greek), modern languages (French, German, Spanish, Italian and Russian), commercial subjects (type-writing, shorthand, book-keeping and accounting), art, music, handwork and physical training.

When boys and girls reach the age of sixteen they may sit for the General Certificate of Education, which shows that the holder has received a general education and has reached certain standards in the various subjects. There are, indeed three standards (or levels) ordinary (0- level), advanced (A- level) and scholarship.

In order to gain an entrance to a university, a boy or a girl must pass examinations in five subjects of which English and another language must be two and which must include either mathematics or a science. He or she must pass at least two of these five subjects at the advanced level.

3. Questions to the text

1) At what age do English children start going to school?

2) At what age do they go to infant school?

3) At what age do they go to junior school?

4) What children were considered to be “non- grammar types” until recently?

5) What schools are free in Britain?

6) Are there many private institutions besides the state primary schools?

7) What types of schools are there in Great Britain?

8) What school do children go from primary school to?

9) What can you say about public schools?

10) Are places at grammar schools free?

11) What can you say about the hours of instruction of grammar schools?

12) What can you say about the subjects in grammar schools?

13) At what age may boys and girls sit for the General Certificate of Education?

14) What examinations must the student pass in order to gain an entrance to a university?

15) How many subjects must the student pass?

4. Summary

English children start going to school at the age of…. Between the age of 5 and 7 children go to….School and between the age of 7 and 11 to…. School.

Until recently all children at the age of 10 had to take an…. which determined their future. Those who failed in their 11- plus exams were considered to be “… types”.

British state primary school is…. and attendance is…..

Besides the state primary schools there are many…. Institutions, kindergartens and preparatory schools. These schools are not…. The parents pay…

Topic

Panel talk (Part 1)

1. Vocabulary

burning problems

насущные проблемы

drug addiction

наркомания

alcohol addiction

алкоголизм

AIDS

СПИД

a psychologist

психолог

a physician

терапевт

a psychiatrist

психиатр

vital

жизненный

ecological threat

экологическая угроза

ozone layer destruction

разрушение озонового слоя

drug eater

наркоман

alcoholic

алкоголик

an addict

имеющий зависимость

to degrade

деградировать

society

общество

to suffer

страдать

a teenager

подросток

abuse

злоупотребление

to ruin

разрушать

health

здоровье

insensibility

раздражённость

apathy

апатия

frustration

расстройство, крушение

human values

человеческие ценности

a crime

преступление

a suicide

самоубийство

social vice

социальный порок

be doomed

быть обреченным

an overdose

передозировка

to steal

воровать

to rob

грабить

the distortion of the eternal conceptions of right and wrong

искажение вечных понятий хорошо и плохо

low cultural standard

низкий культурный уровень

social injustice

социальная несправедливость

2. Text

Ведущий: Today our panel looks on such burning problems as drug and alcohol addiction, AIDS and others. Let me introduce to you Mr. Smirnov, a psychologist. Mrs. Krasina, a school -teacher. You are welcome with your questions.

Студент: Do you really consider these problems so vital? It seems to me ecological threat and ozone layer destruction are much more important. It beats me why we talk so much about drug eaters and alcoholics. Just let them drink themselves to death – they deserve no better luck. It’s their own business after all.

Учительница: No doubt it is. But do remember that an addict is rapidly degrading and inevitably lost for society. His family is suffering. It’s a tragedy. The more so if the addict is a teenager.

Психолог: Can’t agree more. Drug and alcohol abuse are tragically destructive. They ruin youngster’s health, produce insensibility, apathy, frustration and what not! All human values lose their significance. It may leads to crimes and suicides. You see, it tends to be more of a social or individual problem.

Учитель: I fully share my colleges’ opinion. It breaks my heart to see normal young people turn into desperate good- for- nothing creatures. They are often doomed to die from an overdose or be killed in drug wars.

Студент: I wonder where they get the money to buy the stuff.

Психиатр: That’s quite to the point! They may steal or rob- which is also a social crime. They often indulge in various other intoxicants; pain killers, chemical goods… All these abominable mixtures are chewed, inhaled or smoked to produce a state of euphoria. It is nothing but hair- raising lunacy.

Студент: Why is the rate of drug addiction increasing?

Психолог : The causes are many and various. First comes the distortion of the eternal conceptions of right and wrong, low cultural standards, social injustice. The influence of such an environment is anything but beneficial.

3. Reconstruct the text.

Ведущий: Today our panel ____ on such ____ problems as drug and alcohol _____, AIDS and others. Let me _____ to you Mr. Smirnov, a _____. Mrs. Krasina, a _______. You are ____ with your ____.

Студент: Do you really _____ these ____ so ____? It seems to me ______ threat and ozone layer ______ are much more _____. It ____ me why we ___ so much about ___ eaters and _____. Just let them ____ themselves to ____ – they ____ no better ___. It’s their own _____ after all.

Учительница: No ____ it is. But do _____ that an ____ is rapidly ______ and inevitably lost for ____. His family is _____. It’s a _____. The more so if the ____ is a _____.

Психолог: Can’t ____ more. Drug and alcohol ____ are tragically _____. They ruin youngster’s _____, produce _____, apathy, _____ and what not! All human _____ lose their _____. It may leads to ____ and ____. You see, it ____ to be more of a ____ or individual ____.

Учитель: I fully ___ my colleges’ _____. It breaks my ____ to see normal young people ___ into desperate ______ creatures. They are often ____ to ___ from an overdose or be ___ in drug ___.

Студент: I wonder where they get the ___ to buy the ___.

Психиатр: That’s quite to the ____! They may ____ or rob- which is also a social ___. They often ____ in various other _____; pain killers, chemical goods… All these _____ mixtures are _____, inhaled or _____ to _____ a state of _____. It is nothing but hair- raising ____.

Студент: Why is the ___ of drug addiction _____?

Психолог : The ____ are many and _____. First comes the _____ of the eternal ______ of right and wrong, low cultural ______, social ____. The influence of such an ________ is anything but ____.

Topic

Panel talk (Part 2)

1. Vocabulary

a gloomy prospect

мрачная перспектива

a barbarian

варвар

a moron

идиот

a warning

предупреждение, предостережение

be cautious

быть осторожным

to prevent

предотвратить

to enlighten

просветить

to fail in the duty

не выполнять обязанности

overindulgence

чрезмерное потакание

severity

строгость

strict supervision

строгий надзор

utter negligence

полная небрежность

drug user

наркоман

disease

болезнь

AIDS

СПИД

a syringe

шприц

a cure

лечение

scientific data

научные данные

to spread

распространять

through blood

через кровь

an infected mother

инфицированная мать

prophylactic prevention and treatment

профилактическое мероприятие

и лечение

disposable

одноразовое

to test people for AIDS

проводить анализы на СПИД

2. Text

Ст: Do you mean to say that the future has nothing good in store for us? It turns out we have to face rather a gloomy prospect: the world of barbarians and morons if things are progressing (or people regressing in this way).

Пс: I’m sorry I didn’t really intend my words to produce such a nightmarish effect. It was rather a warning or a call to be cautious. It is your duty to prevent these ghostly things from spreading, to enlighten your pupils and their parents.

Уч: That brings me to what I was going to say. Parents fail in their duty that’s where the shoe pinches. It is their overindulgence and severity, strict supervision and utter negligence that throws the young in the abyss. Many teenagers develop various complexes, have psychiatric problems, and take to drugs or alcohol.

Тер: I might as well add there is one more side to the problem. Drug users belong to the so-called risk group, which means drug addiction is inseparably connected with another disease AIDS. They help spread AIDS through dirty syringes.

Ст: May I ask you a question? Why is AIDS called the plague of the twentieth century?

Тер: You see, it is a global epidemic. It spreads disastrously. No cure has been found

as yet. More over, some people have developed the so called AIDS phobia.

Ст: How do people contact AIDS?

Тер: According to scientific data it spreads in three ways: through sexual contact, through blood, from an infected mother to her child.

Ст: And what about casual contacts? Are they dangerous?

Тер: No, they are not. AIDS is not believed to spread through every day’s ways: hand shake, mosquitoes, cats, sweat or saliva.

Ст: What should be and is being done to prevent the infection from spreading?

Пс: Association for combating AIDS has been founded in this country. Its main goals are to organise education, prophylactic prevention and treatment; to produce disposable equipment; to test people for AIDS and others.

Уч: But alongside with it each person should be cautious. It’s necessary to avoid casual love- affairs. Hygiene and marital fidelity may save you from getting infected. In plainer words, defence against AIDS depends on all of us taking responsibility for our actions.

В: Thank you for the participation in our talk. Our next meeting will be devoted to non- formal groups.

3. Reconstruct the text.

Ст: Do you mean to say that the ___ has nothing good in ___ for us? It turns out we have to ___ rather a gloomy ____: the world of barbarians and ____ if things are _____ (or people regressing in this way).

Пс: I’m sorry I didn’t really ____ my ___ to produce such a nightmarish ___. It was rather a ____ or a call to be ______. It is your duty to _____ these ghostly things from _____, to enlighten your ___ and their ____.

Уч: That brings me to what I was going to ___. ____ fail in their ____ that’s where the shoe ____. It is their overindulgence and ______, strict _____ and utter ______ that throws the ____ in the abyss. Many _____ develop various _____, have psychiatric _____, and take to drugs or ____.

Тер: I might as well ____ there is one more _____ to the _____. Drug users ___ to the so-called ___ group, which means drug ____ is inseparably ____ with another ____ AIDS. They help spread AIDS through dirty ____.

Ст: May I ask you a _____? Why is AIDS called the ___ of the twentieth ____?

Тер : You see, it is a global _____. It spreads _____. No ____ has been ____ as yet. More over, some people have _______ the so called AIDS ____.

Ст: How do people ____ AIDS?

Тер: According to scientific ___ it spreads in three ____: through sexual ____, through blood, from an infected ____ to her ___.

Ст: And what about ____ contacts? Are they _____?

Тер: No, they are not. AIDS is not believed to ____ through every day’s ____: hand ____, mosquitoes, cats, sweat or ____.

Ст: What should be and is being done to _____ the infection from ______?

Пс: Association for ______ AIDS has been _____ in this country. Its main ____ are to ____ education, prophylactic prevention and ______; to produce _____ equipment; to test people for AIDS and others.

Уч: But alongside with it each ____ should be _____. It’s necessary to avoid casual ___- affairs. Hygiene and marital _____ may save you from getting _____. In plainer ____, defence against AIDS _____ on all of us taking _____ for our actions.

В: Thank you for the _______ in our _____. Our next meeting will be _____ to non- formal ____.

Topic

British Universities

1. Vocabulary

state

государственный

a university

университет

independent government

независимое управление

to receive charters

получать права (устав)

status

положение

to define

определять

to grant degrees

жаловать (присуждать) степени

the form of examination

форма экзамена

the standards of knowledge

нормы знаний (уровень)

syllabus

программа обучения

to pass examinations

сдать экзамены

history

история

philosophy

философия

language

язык

literature

литература

social studies

общественные науки

commerce

коммерция

the first post graduate degree

первая степень

science

наука

faculty

факультет

post-graduate work

дипломная работа

to pay fees

платить деньги (вносить плату)

to award degrees

присуждать степени

to take degree courses

проходить курсы

polytechnics

политехник

college of Technology

технический колледж

to accept

принимать

to offer the lectures

предлагать лекции

to mark students work

оценивать работу студентов

local tutor

местный руководитель (репетитор)

to provide university level education

обеспечить образование на университетском уровне

2. Text

There are no state universities in Britain, each of the universities, of which there are 36 in England, one in Wales, eight in Scotland and two in Northern Ireland, has its own independent government. It is from the state, however, that they receive charters, which define their status and give them the power to grant degrees to students.

Each university it self decides on what conditions it will grant degrees, but the form of examination and intelligence required for a first degree (Bachelor of Arts or Science etc) are about the same at all the universities.

Each university has its own syllabuses and there are some quite important differences between one and another.

The Bachelor’s degree is given to students who pass examinations at the end of three or four years of study (Bachelor of Arts for history, philosophy, language and literature and sometimes some social studies or technology, or Bachelor of Science, of Commerce or of Music).

The first post-graduate degree is normally that of Master. In most universities it is only in the science faculties that large number of students stay to do post-graduate work. Oxford and Cambridge are unique in that, they give the Master of Arts degree automatically to any Bachelor who pays the necessary fees at any time after the seventh year from his first admission to the university.

In addition to the forty seven universities which can award degrees, there is a body called the National Council for Academic Awards (NCAA), which gives degrees to students who have taken degree courses at Polytechnics or Colleges of Technology.

Degrees are also now awarded by the “Open University”. This accepts adult students for spare-time study. It offers its lectures on television and radio, sets and marks students work by correspondence, has local tutors who see students at local technical colleges and has students in residence for short periods during holidays. It is an attempt to provide university level education for those who missed the boat during their school years.

3. Make up 12 special questions to the text.

Topic

Youth in Crises

1. Vocabulary

to take on the rights of adult hood

получать права взрослых

a teenager

подросток

Values

ценности

the media

средства массовой информации

to participate to

участвовать

to turn to crime

обращаться к преступлению

juvenile delinquents

несовершенно летние преступники

drug use

употребление наркотиков

to decrease

уменьшаться

alcohol abuse

злоупотребление алкоголем

to increase

увеличиваться

2. Text

At 18 years of age young people in the United States can take on the rights and the responsibilities of adulthood.

American teenagers begin to be influenced by the values expressed by their friends, the media (newspaper, television, magazines, etc) and teachers.

During this period of their lives young people also begin to participate to social activities such as sporting events and church group projects, as well to spend more time in the company of members of the opposite sex.

Some young people turn to crime and become juvenile delinquents. Drug use has decreased among young people in the United States, though alcohol abuse has increased. Many young Americans are joining organizations to help teenagers stop drinking. In some schools, students have joined anti-drug programs.

Young people with drug problems also can call special telephone numbers to ask for help. Another problem of American youth is pregnancy among young women.

Many community programs help cut down on the numbers of teenage pregnancies. They offer health care, contraceptive-counseling programs, social activities.

New programs to help troubled youth are created every year.

For example the city of New York and the Rheedlen Foundation provide an after – school program at a junior high school to help keep teens from becoming juvenile delinquents. Young people can go after school and talk with peer counselors (people their own age), receive academic tutoring or take part in athletic and social activities.

3. Make up 12 special questions to the text.

Part 2.

Marriage and family relations

“Marriage is a very important step in a person’s life” The concept of a happy marriage varies from individual to individual».

A group of students and their teacher are involved into discussion of marital problems and factors contributing to marital success. It is not a formal “teacher-student” relationship, but simply an open exchange of ideas».

Read the discussion and point out the problems they are talking over.

Dialogue 1.
Class Discussion

− I’d like to begin today’s talk by suggesting a starting point. What’s the basis of a happy marriage?

− Oh, it is a bit unexpected. It sounds just fine. What on earth shall we talk about?

− What with some students being married and others standing on the threshold of matrimony this seems a vital topic. There’s no denying the fact that we are greatly concerned with marital problems and behavior.

− But let’s return to the subject. What makes a marriage happy?

− Love. Mutual understanding. Financial security and self-reliance. Passionate attachment.

− I rather think marriage involves living with person, not merely loving him. In my opinion comradely affection and companionship matter more in the long run then passion.

− I don’t see, Mary, why you haven’t mentioned such important factors as cultural similarities and intellectual community. They are very important in choosing the right mate. Like should marry like. It stands to reason. People should have much in common to get along with one another.

− I for one, think financial security is of primary importance for marital success. Of course, money does not automatically bring happiness, but a lack of money certainly causes stress in any relationship.

− There is a lot to be said for money. But love comes first, I believe. In modern society people needn’t any longer marry for convenience.

− Don’t they? It depends on what we understand by a marriage of convenience. If a person marries for such reasons as having children, emotional security, a home of his own, is it a marriage of convenience? If it is, I’m all for it.

− I see what you mean, Kate. But let’s face it. Some people nowadays marry for the reasons of convenience and advantages to promote a career, to come into money or just to please their parents.

− By the way, parents may take a better choice than their children. They are wiser and may be better judges of character than young people. They know well what qualities are desirable in a spouse.

− I’m sure neither a marriage of love nor a marriage of convenience is bound to be a success. Both kinds of marriage take work, patience and perhaps a bit of luck. Happy homes are so rare.

− But what is wrong with marrying for love. I don’t think marriage is for everybody, I fell in love a dozen times and out of love as often. I don’t consider it a steady relationship. I’d rather stay a bachelor.

− Poor George, you sound too pessimistic. That’s bad luck. Wait and see...

− Let me have mу word. I believe marriage is what two people make it. The trouble with many modern couples is that they hurry into matrimony. Being madly in love with each other they don’t weigh all the factors important for a life-long union. They regard romance as the primary basis of a happy marriage.

− That is true. Marriage is different from love. That is why young реople are so often disappointed. The ideal they fall in love with has so little to do with reality.

− What really happens during the period of romance is an unconscious preoccupation of young people in a play of make-believe. The faults of their characters are not so obvious because they try to please their loved ones. If those faults sometimes do come into the open they are happily ignored, while the virtues are magnified and exaggerated out of all proportion.

− You have explained it so well that it seems to leave no hope for young people in love.

− I never meant to be so discouraging. You have a reasonable chance of matrimonial happiness if you know very well the person you are marrying, if you carefully weigh all the pros and cons and if you don’t expect marriage to be an everlasting honeymoon.

− Oh, marriage is a hard job.

Ex.1

Find the words and word combinations in the dialogue.

Начало (отправная точка), супружество, быть обеспокоенным, по моему мнению, вовлекать, не вызывает сомнений, дружеские отношения, жизненно важный, финансовая стабильность, страсть, духовное единение, первостепенная важность, недостаток денег, брак по расчету, брак по любви, по этим причинам, свой собственный дом, хорошо ладить, взвесить все «за» и «против», современные пары, непрекращающийся «медовый месяц», союз на всю жизнь, кстати, продвижение по службе, влюбиться, недостатки их характера, проигнорировать.

Ex.2.

Find the sentences in the dialogue .

Я полностью «за». Давайте признаем это. Давайте вернемся к предмету обсуждения. Это не выдерживает критики. Замужество это тяжелый труд. Тебе просто не повезло. Позвольте мне сказать свое слово. Идеал, в которого они влюбляются, не имеет ничего общего с реальностью. Замужество и любовь это разные вещи. Я лучше останусь холостяком. Я полагаю, что брак станет таким, каким его сделают двое. Я влюблялся сотни раз. Счастливые семьи — редкость.

Ex.3.

Find the masculine gender to the following words:

Feminine

Masculine

Wife

husband

Bride

Female

sister-in-law

Granddaughter

Cousin

Niece

girl friend

Stepmother

Ex.4

Comment on the situations.

1. You have fallen in love head over hills but your parents don’t approve your choice.

2. People say that you should keep your eyes wide open before marriage and quite close afterwards.

3. Marriage is like a lottery.

4. Young marriages are abnormal.

5. Marriages are made in Haven.

6. The main aim of marriage is recreation.

Ex.5

Write down the composition on one of the topics giving above.

Dialogue 2.

Computer dating

Interviewe r Come in.

Mr Bull Ah, good afternoon. My name’s Bull... John Bull. I’m looking for a girlfriend.

Interviewer Please sit down, Mr Bull. May I ask you some questions?

Mr Bull Oh, yes.. . What about?

Interviewer Ah.. . Music, for example... do you like music?

Mr Bull Yes, I do. I like classical music.

Interviewer Do you like pop music?

Mr Bull No, I don’t... and I don’t like jazz.

Interviewer How old are you, Mr Bull?

Mr Bull What! I don’t like personal questions!

Interviewer Oh, well... can you complete this form later, and send by post!

Ex. 1.

Make up the similar dialogues using the following material.

Surname: Smith

First Name (s): VIRGINIA

Age : 16

Occupation : student

Likes :

Colours : pink and yellow

Food: fruit, vegetables

Drink: milk, fruit juice

Recreation: dancing, swimming

Music: rock, jazz

Dislikes : politics, television, football, dogs

Date : 12 July

Signature:

Ex. 2.

Make up the similar dialogues using the following material.

Surname: Bull First

First Name (s): John George

Age : 65

Occupation: Farmer

Likes :

Colours : red, white and blue

Food: roastbeef, роrtatoes

Drink: beer, whiskey

Recreation: Fishing, chess.

Music: classical music

Dislikes : Pop music, danсing, children.

Date : 29.08 2003

Signature:

Ex. 3.

Make up the dialogues using the material about your group mates.

Surname:

Name(s):

Age: Occupation:

Likes:

Colours:

Food:

Drink:

Recreation:

Music:

Dislikes:

Date :

Signature:

Dialogue 3.

Prison

Tom Well.... Tomorrow we’re going to leave this place!

Fred Yes. What are you going to do first?

Tom Hmm. . . first, I’m going to rent a big car, meet my girlfriend and take her to an expensive restaurant. We’re going to have steak and drink champagne. What about you, Fred?

Fred My wife’s going to meet me outside the prison. Then we’re going to have tea with her mother.

Tom With her mother! You’re joking!

Fred No, I’m not. I’m going to work for my wife’s mother.

Tom Really? You’re not going to work for your mother-in-law!

Fred Yes. She’s got a little cafe in London.

Tom What are you going to do there?

Fred I’m going to wash up.

Tom What! Wash up! I’m not going to work! I’m going to have a good time!

Fred You’re lucky.. . . I’m going to rob a bank next week.

Tom Why?

Fred Because I’m happy in prison!

Dialogue 4.

I want you, Fiona

Charles Please marry me, Fiona. I want you, I need you, I love you.

Fiona I’m sorry Charles, but I can’t.

Charles Oh, Fiona. Why not?

Fiona Well, Charles. I like you I like you a lot. ..but I don’t love you.

Charles But Fiona, love isn’t everything.

Fiona Oh, Charles, you don’t understand... for me . love is everything.

Charles Do you love another man Fiona?

Fiona Yes, Charles, I do ...James.

Charles Not James Milton!

Fiona Yes, James Milton.

Charles But he doesn’t want you. He’s engaged.

Fiona I know.

Charles But Fiona, James isn’t a rich man. I can give you everything. What do you want? Clothes? Money? Travel? A big house?

Fiona No, Charles. I don’t want those things. I only want James.

Points for discussion :

1. What makes a happy marriage?

2. Do you believe in everlasting love?

3. What is true love?

4. Why is the honeymoon the most precious reminiscence in the marriage life?

5. What do you think of early marriages?

6. Can a family life be happy without children?

7. Do you approve homosexual marriages?

8. Is the wedding party necessary, what do you think?

9. Do you know many examples of perfect marriages?

10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing up with several brothers and sisters in the family?

11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of growing up as an only child?

12. At what age should a person get married?

Do the quiz and count how many points you have got. Find the total and check the results.

ARE YOU READY TO GET MARRIED?

1. How old are you?

e. 40+

a. 16-20 b. 21-25 c. 26-35 d. 35-40

2. Who do you live with?

a. your parents b. on your own c. your partner

3. What’s the longest relationship you’ve had so far?

a. three months or less b. three months to a year

c. one to two years d. longer than that

4. What do you think is the main reason most people marry?

a. to please their parents b. because they want children

c. it’s a way of telling the world how they feel about each other

d. so they can live together without social embarrassment

5. How much do you like to be on your own?

a. most of the time b. a couple of hours a day c. very little

6. How do you see yourself in your daydreams!

a. as a world famous star b. with a happy home life

c. with a busy career and social life that takes you out and about

7. How do you think marriage would improve your life?

a. it would stop you feeling depressed so often b. it would give you more confidence

c. you’d have someone to help you with the housework

d. there would be someone to look after you in your old age

e. you’d be sharing a home with your best friend

8. After a quarrel with your partner, who usually says sorry first?

a. your partner b. you hardly ever quarrel , c. you

9. If you suspected your partner of having an affair, what would you do?

a. have one yourself b. think hard to find the reason

c. ask your partner directly for the truth

10. How should a couple behave at a party?

a. meet people together

b. separate until it’s time to go home

c. spend some time together and some apart

11. When should a married couple have children?

a. within two years b. if the husband or wife wants them

c. when they both want them

12. How important is it to be faithful in marriage?

a. both partners should be free to do as they please

b. it’s important for the wife but not for the husband •”

c. both partners should be faithful to each other

ANSWER KEY

1. l.a-0b-lc-2d-le-0

2. a-0 b-1 c-2

3. a-0 b-1 c-2 d-3

4. a-0 b-1 c-2 d-3

5. a-0 b-1 c-2 d-3

6. a-0 b-2 c-1

7. a-0 b-2 c-1

8. a-0 b-1 c-0 d-1 e-2

9. a-0 b-2 c-1

10. a-2 b-0 c-1

11. a-0 b-1 c-2

12. a-0 b-1 c-2

WHAT YOUR SCORE MEANS

20-26 What are you waiting for? With your loving nature, you will enjoy a satisfying relationship and make someone a perfect partner.

13-19 Marriage could work for you, but not with someone who thinks a couple should do everything together. Don’t decide to have children unless you’re certain you want to make the necessary sacrifices.

0-12 Being single suits you perfectly as you’re not ready to make a full commitment. It would make you feel trapped and resentful.

Ex.1.

There are 12 statements below. Read each one carefully and decide if you agree or disagree with it. Then write A (if you agree) or D (if you disagree) on the right.

1. For women, financial support is one of the most important reasons for getting married.

2. A husband should support the family.

2. Women should work outside the home and make a financial contribution to the family budget.

3. A husband should share his earnings fairly with his wife.

4. A husband should help very little in the home, if the wife stays at home.

5. If the wife works full-time, housework should be shared equally between both partners.

6. Women should spend more time than men with children.

7. Mothers shouldn’t go out to work while their children are small.

8. A husband should have the last word on big decisions.

9. A woman’s career is just as important as a man’s.

10. Both husbands and wives should be free to have interests and friends of their own.

11. Older children should help with the housework.

12. Parents should always respect the wishes of their children.

Ex.2.

Compare your answers with other students’ and discuss the reasons for your opinions.

Ex.3.

Do the multiple choice.

The best years of your life?

1.................. people look back on 2......................... school with fond memories, but

while they are going through the 3 ............................ they can’t wait for it to be over.

One joke that students are very fond 4..................... repeating is that what they

like 5 . ................ about school is the 6.......................... And what they look 7.....................

to most of all is the end of the 8...................... and going on holiday. I think it

would be unrealistic to expect much enthusiasm form children for math 9 . . . . . . .a Monday morning. Oddly enough I was quite fond of school at the

time and I look back on most of my old teachers with 10

11 , I’m quite keen 12 my job and even enjoy the company

of noisy children. 13 ....... there are some things I expect from my classes if

we’re all to get on 14............................ The first thing I 15......................... them is that I

won’t accept bullying or 16.................... towards 17.................. students. I hope I’m not

too strict or 18.................... but I do want all members of the class to feel respected.

1

A the most

B most

C much

D little

2

A the

B a

q . __

3

A exercise

B experience

C execution

D expectation

4

A of

B on

C at

D with

5

A good

B better

C the best

D best

6

A intervals

B breaks

C interruptions

D pauses

7

A toward

B forward

C to

D for

8

A term

B year

C course

D classes

9

A in

B at

C during

D on

10

A affection

B effect

C affectation

D efficiency

11

A Nevertheless

B Moreover

C Although

D Despite that

12

A of

B with

C at ‘

D on

13

A In addition

B Moreover

C However

D Therefore

14

A good

B better

C the best

D well

15

A say

B speak

C tell

D talk

16

A irrespect

B disrespect

C unrespect

D inrespect

17

A other

B another

C the other

D others

18

A out-of-date

B up-to-date

C modern

D old-fashioned

TEXT 1.

Work or Family: There’s a Problem

When the XX-th century began most of American families shared one characteristic: the wife didn’t work outside the home. The only exceptions were black women. If a wife worked it meant that her husband was not able to support a family. By contrast to the beginning of the century, in the 1990s over 60% of women were in the work force. The transformation was relatively quick. The two major reasons for that were the Great Depression and the World War II — when most women just had to start working. They became electricians, machinists, carpenters, as well as lawyers, engineers, physicians and proved that they could do this sort of work not worse than men.

As work for married women is now accepted and commonplace, the internal character of American families has greatly changed. Most women have to combine family and work outside the home. There is the so-called Super-mom — the woman who tries to juggle a career with a family. Others have come to the conclusion that the dual role can often cause them to be mediocre at both. So they’ve given up their career to stay home with children. Some view it as a temporary solution until their children start school. But even when at home, women pursue various interests. They participate in all kinds of organizations, e.g., English-teaching committees for the foreign-born, in fund-raising activities for the colleges they graduated from, the jog in the morning with friends, etc. All that gives them a feeling of achievement.

The major worry for most is that if they decide to go back to work they’ll have problems with finding jobs. Many women say they continue reading in their fields so that they won’t fall behind. Others say that they communicate with their former colleagues to keep up with what is going on. Otherwise, they say, you feel that you’re “a bit out of touch.”

Men haven’t easily accepted changes in the family pattern with working women. Sometimes they show anger and resentment. One Atlanta attorney says, “My wife has her own career as a lawyer and when I arrive home from a tough day, all I want to do is put my feet up and have a drink — the sort of thing a man always expects. Instead I have to help with the household or attend to my children. I frequently have to cut short my own working day in order to pick up our eighteen-month-old son from day care or to spend time with my older child. Often I’m also the one who is on call in case of illness, who prepares many of the meals, and who keeps the house clean.”

On the one hand, a majority of men now believe that both sexes should enjoy equal employment opportunities, but on the other, most also believe that children may be harmed psychologically if their mothers work outside the home. This contradiction increasingly rules the Americans.

Ex.1.

Give opposites of the following words and word-combinations:

to fall behind —.................................. frequently —............................................

to change —........................................ working day —........................................

to harm —......................................... temporary job —......................................

Ex.2.

Do the multiple choice.

Changes in British Family

Most young people 1...................... get married, buy or 2......................... a house or a

flat and start a family. However, a great many changes 3.......................... in this

pattern of behavior. More and more people are living together without being

married. People tend to get married 4 than they 5

6 ....... marriage is still popular even among those whose first marriage has

failed. 7 trend is towards smaller 8 Very 9

children now grow up in large families and more and more adults are living

alone. It’s unusual to find three 10........................ living in one house as they used to

do in the past. It’s quite common for close 11........................... to live in different parts

of the country and many people 12.................... their uncles, aunts and cousins.

One reason for this is that British people move house every five years

13 They do this in order to change jobs or to buy a bigger and better

house.

1

a) obviously

b) amazingly

c) eventually

d) apparently

2

a) let

b) rent

c) borrow

d) lend

3

a) take place

b) take part

c) are taking place

d) are taking part

4

a) later

b) of late

c) lately

d) late

5

a) did

b) get used to

c) used to

d) have ever done

6

a) Besides

b) Nevertheless

c) Also

d) Therefore

7

a) The other

b) Other

c) Another

d) Others

8

a) household

b) housework

c) housing

d) house

9

a) many

b) few

c) little

d) much

10

a) generations

b) generators

c) genders

d) genii

11

a) friends

b) classmates

c) acquaintances

d) relatives

12

a) hardly ever met

b) hardly ever meet

c) had hardly ever met

d) will hardly ever meet

13

a) on average

b) on the whole

c) at least ,

d) at last

Role play 1.

STRICT PARENTS

Work in a group of 3 or 4 students.

Students A and B — you are extremely strict parents. Describe the way yoifr bring your child(ren) up. Give the reasons for this method of up-bringing.

Student(s) C (and D) — you are their child(ren). Describe your relations with parents.

The following words can .help you:

o not to allow children to do smth/not to let children do smth (stay up late, watch TV, play computer games, talk on the phone, etc.)

o to make children do smth (do homework, the washing up, exercise, go to music/ art school)

o to teach children to do smth (respect adults, teachers, people’s rights, etc.)

· to punish, to tell off

· to hit, to beat

· to foster in children love for work/studies/parents/art etc.

· to bring children up to love their country/parents etc.

Role play 2.

LIBERAL PARENTS

Work in a group of 3 or 4 students.

Students A and B — you are very kind parents. Describe the way you bring your child(ren) up. Give the reasons for this method of up-bringing.

Student(s) C (and D) — you are their child(ren). Describe your relations with parents.

The following words can help you:

· to love/adore/worship children

· to share the same interests

· to spoil children

· (dis)obedient, spoiled children

· to allow to do smth/to let do smth

· to hug children

· to foster in children love for work/studies/parents/art etc.

· to bring children up to love their country/parents etc.

· mutual understanding

· to teach children by your own example

Role play 3.

PROBLEM OF EARLY MARRIAGES

Work in a group of 3 or 4 students.

.Students A and B — you are both 17 and you have decided to get married. Explain your reasons. Describe your relationship.

Student(s) C (and D) — you are their parent(s) and you are worried. You don’t think they should get married at such a young age. Give your reasons. Have a talk with them.

The following words can help you:

· early marriage

· to keep/support family

· to earn money

· to get pregnant

· to have a baby;

· to take care of the baby

· to baby-sit

· daily routine

· deep feelings

· to rent a flat

· to be responsible

Role play 4.

PROBLEM OF LIVING TOGETHER

Work in a pair.

You are both 20. You love each other, but don’t want to get married so early. You are living together without being married. Describe your life and give some reasons for living together.

The following words can help you: to be tied down to be responsible to be cautious sexual fidelity to be tolerant to break up

· to make financial investments together

· to keep distance from the partner

· to be independent

· to be committed to each other

· to imply strong commitments

· to start a family

Role play 5.

PROBLEM OF DIVORCE

Work in a group of 3 students.

Students A and B — you have decided to file for a divorce. Give your reasons.

The following words can help you:

· to file for a divorce

· to give a divorce

· to agree to divorce smb

· to be unfaithful

· to find a common language

· to harm the child psychologically

· to have rows/to quarrel/to fall out

· our relationship went wrong

· to be fed up with

· to pay alimony

· the absence of mutual understanding

Role play 6.

PROBLEM OF HOUSE-HUSBAND

Work in a pair.

You’re husband (A) and wife (B). You’ve got two children (3 and 5 years old). A month ago B decided to go to work, and A had to stay at home with children, now he’s a house-husband. Explain your decision.

The following words can help you:

· to carry out duties

· to be responsible for

· to be fed up with staying at home

· lack of communication

· daily routine

· to earn more money

· a bread winner

· to help around the house

Role play 7.

PROBLEM OF ONE-PARENT FAMILY

Work in a pair.

Student A — you’re mother/father who brings her/his daughter/son alone. Describe your experience.

Student B — you are the daughter/son. Tell how you feel in such a situation.

The following words can help you:

· to have no time to look after the child

· to work long hours

· to miss the child/mother

· to lack parents’ attention

· to leave the child to himself

· to control (the lack of control)

· a weak connection between parents and

· children lack of mutual understanding

Role play 8.

LARGE FAMILIES

Work in a group of 4 students.

Students A and B — you are the parents; you’ve got four children. Describe your life, explain why you decided to have many children.

Students C and D — you are the children from this family. Tell about your life.

The following words can help you:

· to cope with problems

· to be friendly

· to look after younger brothers/sisters

· to help around the house

· to support each other

· mutual understanding

· quarrels, conflicts

· common interests

Role play 9.

The public school system

Stereotypical public schools:

· are for boys only from the age of thirteen onwards, most of whom attended a private ‘prep’ (= preparatory) school beforehand;

· take fee-paying pupils (and some scholarship pupils who have won & place in a competitive entrance exam and whose parents do not pay);

· are boarding schools (the boys live there during term-time);

· are divided into “houses’, each ‘house’ being looked after by a ‘housemaster’;

· make some of the senior boys ‘prefects’, which means that they have authority over the other boys and have their own servants (called “fags’), who are appointed from amongst the youngest boys;

· place great emphasis on team sports;

· enforce their rules with the use of physical punishment;

· have a reputation for a relatively great amount of homosexual activity;

· are not at all luxurious or comfortable.

Public schoolboys from Eton:

Historical background.

However, this traditional image no longer fits the facts. These days, there is not a single public school in the country in which all of the above features apply. There have been a fairly large number of girls’ public schools for the last hundred years, and more recently a few schools have started to admit both boys and girls. Many schools admit day pupils as well as boarders, and some are day-schools only; prefects no longer have so much power or have been abolished altogether; fagging has disappeared; there is less emphasis on team sport and more on academic achievement; life for the pupils is more physically comfortable than it used to be. Among the most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Winchester.

Ex.1.

Answer the questions.

1. At what age do children in GB usually start and leave school?

2. Describe the education reform in GB.

3. What is “a national school curriculum”?

4. What exams do school-leavers usually take?

5. Describe the system of higher education in GB.

6. Are their any differences between the education system in Britain and Russia?

7. Do you think higher education is really necessary to succeed in life?

Ex.2.

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word or word-combination.


1. follow up questions

2. ignorance

3. drew a question

4. tutor

5. spot

6. flummoxed

7. doomed to failure

8. failed

9. examiner

10. competition

11. entry exam

12. applicants


This is the third time I’ve failed my (a)............................ to University although my

parents hired a (b) ....... to improve my chances. The (c).............................. was very

stiff: as many as 10 (d)..................... were competing for one (e)............................ During

the exam in Russian history I (f) ...................... that totally (g)....................... me:

I couldn’t remember any dates or names. I realized I was (h)......................................... But

I didn’t want to show my (i)..................... and started chatting about something

irrelevant. The 0) ..... stopped me, asked some (k)......................... and I (1) ..... .’

Ex.3.

Fill in the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Students who pay for their own....................... (educate) tend to be more.......................

(respond) about studying. They have invested their money and this makes them

more ....... (sense) to (lose). They can’t drop out as

(ease) as those who have everything paid for because they come from

(wealth) families.

TEXT 2.

Youth CHALLENGES

There is a number of pressing social and economic problems affecting young people in Britain. These include unemployment, homelessness, drug misuse, racial tensions and problems encountered by the young disabled.

Employment and training

Helping young people to find employment has become a major issue during the last decade: there is today a higher percentage of unemployed young people than in other unemployed age groups.

Significant central government funding is provided for special training schemes to develop technical, administrative skills and to prepare young people for long-term employment. The Employment Department is the Government body principally responsible for Youth Training programmes.

The Government guarantees the offer of a suitable training to all young people, under the age of 18, not in full-time education or employment. Young people have the opportunity to achieve a minimum attainment, or other appropriate goals for those with special training needs. There is a strong emphasis on higher level skills, particularly at craft and technician levels.

The Government New Business Scheme, through which money has been provided to support new small business ventures, has helped to establish many young people in self-employment. A number of organizations such as The Prince’s Trust and Young Enterprise also offer financial assistance and advice to young people choosing this route.

Homelessness

Finding accommodation is often one of the first problems young people encounter when they leave home and many, particularly the-unemployed, face housing problems. The unemployed homeless suffer the worst deprivation because employers seldom take young people on without a permanent home address. In the worst cases homelessness leads to a cycle of despair with young people sleeping rough and turning to crime, prostitution and drug misuse. Much of Britain’s homeless population is centered around London and other large mega policies, a population which results from young people being lured by ‘the lights’ of the large cities believing that there are better opportunities but finding none.

The Young Homelessness Group provides a forum for exchange of information about the housing needs of young people and brings together organizations including the National Union of Students, the British Youth Council, Shelter, the National Association for the Care and Settlement of Offenders, CHAR (the Housing Campaign for Single People), the National Youth Agency, the Federation of Black Housing Organizations, and the British Association of Social Workers.

Further Education, Work and Training

The major national associations in the Youth Service have developed specific programmes aimed at dealing with young people at risk as well as with those already involved with drugs such as heroin or the newer wave of compounds such as ‘crack’ and ‘ecstasy’ which are causing serious concern.

Work with girls and young women

The general movement in society towards equal opportunities for women is reflected in Youth Service efforts to secure greater participation for girls and young women in youth organizations. Boys and young men still take a dominant role in activities and outnumber girls by approximately 3:2. As well as traditional bodies such as the Guides Association, whose numbers are still increasing, new organizations such as the National Organization for Work with Girls and Young Women (NOWGYW) focus on the development of opportunities for girls and particularly on building confidence and self-esteem. Counseling and other activities at youth clubs aim at making both boys and girls consider the status of women in society and challenge ingrained attitudes.

Multi-ethnic communities

Youth workers and volunteers in the Youth Service are committed to creating an ambience in youth clubs and centers where members from all groups feel welcome. Some youth and community organizations specifically serve the needs of ethnic minority groups helping young people to gain a sense of identity. A large number of self-help ethnic minority youth groups are grant-aided by the Commission for Racial Equality.

The disabled

All the major national organisations within the Youth Service welcome disabled young people into their clubs and associations to take part in a wide range of activities. Some disabled people require a specialist type of organisation and these have grown in number and sophistication in the last 20 years. Voluntary organizations and local authorities contribute both funds and people to help make this possible.

Provision for mentally handicapped people is made through Gateway Clubs which also have junior club membership for those under 16. They offer leisure-time activities and organize programmes within and outside the club to achieve integration and personal development and to bring mentally handicapped people into daily contact with non-handicapped helpers. The Physically Handicapped and Able Bodied Club (PHAB), like Gateway Clubs, provide opportunities for all kinds of pursuits.

Not least, the Government is committed to addressing problems of unemployment among disabled young people. This involves increasing the awareness among employers of the skills and talents offered by disabled people.

Ex.1

Answer to the following questions:

1. What problems do the young people face in Great Britain?

2. Are these challenges common to Russian youth?

3. Is unemployment of the young a serious problem in Russia?

4. How does our government take care of disabled people?

5. Why there are many homeless teenagers in the twenty first century?

6. What other problems can arouse, what do you think?

7. Does ethic discrimination exist in our community?

8. Is drug addiction of the young is the main threat of nowadays?

9. What is your attitude towards ethic and sex minorities?

Ex.2

Find synonyms to:

problem, mentally handicapped, junior, specialist, wide range of, aid, association, require, create, gain, identity, worker, self-esteem, despair.

Ex.3

Find English equivalents to the following:

“горячие” социальные вопросы, влиять на, проблемы молодежи (2), напряжение, недееспособный, проблема (вопрос), десятилетие, включать в себя, безработица, возрастные группы, важный (существенный), схема подготовки, развивать навыки, программа подготовки (обучения) молодежи, главным образом ответственный за, гарантировать, предлагать, моложе 18 лет, полная занятость, возможность иметь минимальные достижения, достигнуть, подходящие цели, нужды, особый «упор», особенно, технический уровень, поддерживать, обеспечивать, предприятие (2), финансовая поддержка, выбрать этот путь.

Ex.4

Find English equivalents to the following:

бездомные, жилье, страдать, постоянное место жительство (адрес), проводить в отчаяние, ночевать в плохих условиях, заняться (повернуться) преступностью, проституция, употребление наркотиков, население, мегаполис, лететь на «свет» большого города, снабжать информацией, соединять воедино, иметь дело с, быть вовлеченным, новые синтезированные наркотики, “крэк”, “экстази”, вызывать серьезные опасения (заботиться).

Движение за равноправие женщин, отражать, гарантировать (сохранять) места, главенствующая роль, превышать в числе, организация (совет), сосредоточиться на, удовлетворение и самоуважение, положение женщин в обществе, вносить вклад в, недееспособные, широкое разнообразие, умственно отсталый, младший, предоставлять возможность, вовлекать (включать).

TEXT 3.

HOME, SWEET HOME

The majority of young people between the ages of 16 and 19 also remain at, or very close to, home whether they are working, taking part in special employment training schemes or unemployed. During this period young people rely upon their home environment as a place of safety and security and upon their parents as the main providers of money, food and all the necessary amenities for life.

Leisure time

Most young people’s leisure time is spent in their home, shared with other members of the family, watching television or doing domestic chores, or spent in their own rooms where the most popular pursuits tend to be listening to music or reading. Young people also spend considerable time with their friends in other people’s homes.

Attitude to parents

In recent decades much has been made of the term ‘generation gap’, referring particularly to the gap in age, aspiration and understanding between young teenagers and their parents that often appears to be the cause of friction. However, research indicates that many young people still perceive their parents, rather than their teachers or other adults, as models from whom they draw their main beliefs and attitudes. Parents are also regarded as the main providers of advice about general problems as well as about employment.

Survey findings show that many young people have an ambivalent altitude to the constraints of parental authority. They aspire to the independence to go out where and when they want but they understand the fact that parents are concerned about where they are going and set times for them to return home.

What to do with spare time?

In common with young people all over the world, the young in Britain do not spend the greatest proportion of their time organizing or participating in clearly defined leisure pursuits. Some have hobbies which they will pursue at their leisure but many are more interested in general social interactions and activities that they can pick up and drop with ease and which do not entail particular responsibilities or planning - and particularly which do not cost money. Those at school or unemployed seldom have sufficient income to do what they please and are therefore restricted in the activities they may wish to pursue.

Young men and woman who have started in employment tend to join in pursuits which reaffirm their status as adults such as spending time in pubs, going to dances, concerts, discos and the cinema.

Also in common with young people in other countries, life on the streets is important. As children enter their teens there is a distinct graduation from the playground, garden or home to the street where young people meet and talk and start to develop their confidence. Street life ranges from groups of friends who meet together in streets, squares and parks, to visits to town centres to do window shopping and ‘see what’s going on’.

Pocket money

In response to surveys young people cite limited funds as the main reason why they have to be highly selective about what they do in their leisure time. There are a great many basic as well as luxury items that those with

money wish to spend it on, including clothes, records and CDs, saving for motorbikes or cars, before having enough money to make regular trips to discos, dances or the cinema, or even to pursue more specialized hobbies such as angling, bird watching or sailing.

Many young people use some of their spare time to earn money by working in shops or garages at weekends, delivering newspapers, or doing jobs such as gardening, decorating or car washing for people in their neighborhood.

Leisure pursuits are not all merely in search of fun and recreation. Young people are themselves involved in a wide range of organizations such as youth parliaments, youth councils and forums which organize activities. Religious groups and churches have established separate youth organizations (see page 8).

Ex.1

Find English equivalents to the following:

Большинство, оставаться, принимать участие в, полностью полагаться, домашняя обстановка, безопасность, снабженец, разделять, проводить свободное время, отношение, “разрыв поколений”, оказалось, трение, исследование показывает, взрослый, брать пример, восприниматься, совет, родительская власть, независимость, быть озабоченным, устанавливать время, деятельность, заняться и бросить с легкостью, определенные обязанности, стоить денег, недостаточный доход, быть ограниченным.

Ex.3.

Ask your friends:" What did they do?" and fill in the table.

Number of people

Activity

said they helped with housework

listened to music

watched television

read books and magazines

regularly visited friends’ homes

had friends to their homes

liked to spend most of their spare time either at home or at their friends’ houses

preferred to be at home because they did not feel safe on the streets

said they would do anything rather than stay at home

Ex.4.

Analyze the problem of time spending and having bad habits. Is there any link? Discuss the matter with your group mates.

Ex.5.

Ask your friends:" What do they think of their parents?" and fill in the table.

Number of people

Activity

would seek advice from their parents about personal problems

said they learnt about adulthood responsibilities from their parents

perceived their parents as the main source of income

wanted to stay in the same area after leaving school to be near their home

TEXT 4.

Sports and games

It is estimated that most young men and about half of young women in Britain either take a passive interest in a sport or actually take part in a sporting activity on a regular basis.

Young people participate in a wide range of activities including indoor and outdoor sports such as football, rugby, cricket, swimming, squash, tennis, running, athletics, pioneering, horse-riding, archery, snooker, pool, ten-pin bowling, darts, chess, backgammon and a great many other social games. Many of these activities are organised through school or through youth clubs; teams and groups are formed to compete with other schools and clubs using school and other local authority premises. Large commercial sports and leisure centres also have excellent facilities for sport and fitness development and usually offer discounted membership rates for young people.

Ex.1.

Fill in the correct word derived from the word in brackets.

Speaking about their children many parents are not sure they understand what decent values are. To prevent them from becoming ....... (spoil) and (greed) you shouldn’t indulge them too much.

To make sure they grow up well-.................... (manner) they should be.........................

(teach) to be polite from an early age. Children should be scolded for bad

(behave), which will be an ....... (effect) way of helping them to

(distinct) right from wrong. You need to reward your children when

they do. things well to give them a sense of................... (proud). You should try

to make your children ....... (tolerate) and.......................... (respect) of other

people’s................... (believe) by exposing them to...................... (differ) races and

cultures. Parents should try to place great..................... (important) on setting a

good example to their children, as children’s...................... (behave) is often an

(imitate) of that of their parents’.

Ex.2.

Translate into Russian

cautious

to imply commitments

to soften

researcher

rebellious

Ex.3.

Do the multiple choice.

When divorce is A...................... , two questions are often on the B........................... of

those involved: how fast and how much? The C ................. depend D....................

geography. If you decided to E’....... the problem quickly, divorce in

F.................. Dominican Republic, where the whole process is a matter of hours

and saves spouses months, in some G................. . , years of delay.

In California, that mean’s a minimum stay of six months, whereas in Nevada,

it means six weeks. In some European countries the waiting period is H

In England couples can I a divorce only after two-year separation. In

Ireland the waiting period is eternal — Irish authorities don’t J

divorce. An overnight K....................... is usually all that is required to get a divorce

in the Dominican Republic, and only one spouse L.............................. be present

M................... the hearing. The N....................... is that a Dominican divorce isn’t

cheap — about $5,000, according O........................... one of New-York-based divorce

attorney.

A

1. inessential

2. inevitable

3. inexpressible

4. ineffective

B

1. minds

2. heads

3. ideas

4. tongue

C

1. responses

2. replies

3. answers

D

1. of

2. at

3. in

4. on

E

1. do

2. solve

3. decide

4. get rid of

F

1. the

2. —

3. a

G

1. businesses

2. deals

3. cases

4. time

H

1. much more long

2. much longer

3. many more longer

4. much long

I

1. file for

2. apply for

3. ask for

4. appeal for

J

1. know

2. recognize

3. have

4. like

K

1. visit

2. stay

3. living

4. stop

L

1. must

2, should •

3. has to

4. ought to

M

1. at

2. on

3. in

4. after

N

1. backward

2. drawback

3. drawer

4. drawing

Q

1. with

2. in

3. to

4. on

Literature:

1. А.В. Кузьмин. Учите английский. Учите английскому. – Спб.: КАРО, 2003. –176 c.

2. Focus on Britain / January 1993.

3. Virginia Evans. Round up 6. – Longman, 2001. – 256 c.

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