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Учебное пособие: «Международные отношения»

Название: «Международные отношения»
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Нижегородский государственный университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ

Учебно-методическое пособие

Рекомендовано методической комиссией факультета международных отношений для студентов ННГУ, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки 030700 «Международные отношения», 032300 «Регионоведение» и специальностям 030701 «Международные отношения»,

032301 «Регионоведение»

Нижний Новгород

2009

УДК 42.8(07)

ББК 143.21я.73

Ж 60

Ж 60 МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ. Составители: Жерновая О.Р., Бузуева Ю.С., Глазунова Н.А.: Учебно-методическое пособие. – Нижний Новгород: Нижегородский госуниверситет, 2009. – 55 с.

Рецензент: д.полит.н., профессор М.И. Рыхтик

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для развития компетенции студентов в области международных организаций, развития навыков и умений работы с текстами общественно-политического содержания и может использоваться в качестве основного учебного материала для студентов 3 и 4 курсов факультета международных отношений, изучающий английский язык как основной на продвинутом этапе обучения.

УДК 42.8(07)

ББК 143.21я.73

© Нижегородский государственный

университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского, 2009

Введение

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 3-4 курсов факультета международных отношений отделений «международные отношения» и «регионоведение». Данное пособие рассчитано для продвинутого этапа обучения английскому языку и ставит следующие цели: углубление языковых знаний и понимания оригинального английского текста, расширение словарного запаса, совершенствование навыков устной речи, а также анализа аутентичных общественно-политических текстов. Особое внимание уделяется развитию профессиональных навыков ведения дискуссии по современным проблемам, связанным с деятельностью таких международных организаций как Организация Объединенных Наций (ООН), Организация Северо-Атлантического Договора (НАТО) и Европейский Союз (ЕС).

Пособие представляет собой сборник аутентичных текстов по актуальным аспектам и современным политическим вопросам, и ставит целью развитие навыка самостоятельной работы с англо-английскими толковыми словарями.

Подобранные тексты снабжены аппаратом упражнений, направленных на дальнейшее совершенствование языковой, речевой и профессиональной подготовки студентов, а также навыков перевода в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.

Contents

Unit I: THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UN)

Part 1: How the UN works 6

Warm-up 6

Pronunciation 7

Reading 7

Scanning 8

Word Study 9

Talking Point 10

Part 2: UN structure 11

Warm-up 11

Pronunciation 11

Reading 11

Scanning 15

Word Study 16

Translation 17

Talking Point 18

Part 3: UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION REFORM 19

Rendering 19

Unit II: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)

Part 1: What is NATO 25

Warm-up 25

Pronunciation 25

Reading 26

Scanning 27

Word Study 28

Talking Point 30

Speaking 30

Part 2: NATO: Security Challenges and Risks 31

Warm-up 31

Pronunciation 31

Reading 31

Scanning 32

Word Study 33

Speaking 34

Part 3: NATO-Russia Relations 35

Warm-up 35

Pronunciation 35

Reading 35

Scanning 38

Speaking 39

Word Study 39

Talking Point 40

Unit III: THE EUROPEAN UNION

Part 1: The History and Enlargement of the European Union 41

Pronunciation 41

Warm-Up 42

Reading 43

Scanning 44

Word Study 45

Translation 47

Speaking 48

Talking Point 48

Part 2: The Structure and Objectives of the EU 49

Pronunciation 49

Warm-up 49

Reading 49

Scanning 51

Word Study 51

Speaking 53

Translation 53

Talking point 54

Unit I

THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UN)

Part 1

How the UN works

Warm-up

Read the following text and answer the questions:

1. What does the phrase “an international organization” mean in the conventional sense?

2. What is a noninstitutional aspect to the phrase “an international organization”?

3. In what ways can coordination of an international organization be performed? What do they involve?

4. What criterion is considered to be the most important for the existence of an international organization?

5. What does an international organization consist of?

International Organizations

The very term international organization is ambiguous. In the conventional sense, an international organization is an institution or structure similar to Congress or to a city council; it has a definite set of rules, members, agenda, places and times of meeting. A second meaning of the concept is implied as well. If organization is an arrangement of parts into a unified whole, then there is a noninstitutional aspect to the phrase international organization. The purpose of organization is conscious coordination of activity; the method of organization is to routinize coordination by such techniques as division of labour and task specialization. Coordination can be performed either formally or informally. When coordination is formal, it takes place within official structures and institutional machinery; this is the conventional significance of the term organization in international relations. Informal coordination involves an unwritten system of practices in which units of the system assume such roles as those of leader or nonleader. International organization in the second sense refers to informal role differentiation in the world polity. Often this second meeting has been called world organization.

In international relations, units that are most powerful take leadership roles; weak units are nonleaders. Thus, international organization in the first sense is a dependent variable of world organization, the second interpretation of the term. Informal organization is more basic than formal organization; characteristics of international structures are a function of the nature of the international arena. In the subsequent portion of this discussion the term international organization will be used to refer only to the meaning of the term in the conventional sense.

Not all organizations are international. Historically the types of units in the world political system have changed in form and in number. Traditionally, an international organization has been said to exist when many nation-states are linked together structurally. If this criterion were adopted, the study of international organization would date only from the year 1648, when the nation-state system was officially christened in the Peace of Westphalia. Previously there were other basic units – the empire, the city state, the free city, and the dynamic state. A loose definition of international organization would say that it consists of intergovernmental institutions, members of which perceive each other to be basic units of the world polity. Any world system may contain international organization.

Pronunciation

Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

Charter

harmonizing

sovereign

affecting

a vast array

survival

alleviation

environmental

reluctant

fluctuated

prominence

the Hague

the Netherlands

Reading

Read the text and find the answers to the following questions:

1. What is the UN?

2. What country is the UN situated in?

3. When was the UN established and for what purpose?

4. What are the main organs of the UN?

The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals nearly 200 countries.

When states become members of the United Nations, they agree to accept obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

UN members are sovereign countries. The United Nations is not a world government, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. It serves as a symbol of international order and global identity.

The United Nations is much more than a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the United Nations is engaged in a vast array of work that touches every aspect of people’s lives around the world.

Child survival and development. Environmental protection. Human rights. Health and medical research. Alleviation of poverty and economic development. Agricultural development and fisheries. Education. Family planning. Emergency and disaster relief. Air and sea travel. Peaceful uses of atomic energy. Labour and worker’s rights. The list goes on and on.

The UN’s influence in world affairs has fluctuated over the years, but the organization gained new prominence beginning in the 1990s. It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001. Still, the UN faces constant challenges. It must continually secure the cooperation of its member nations because the organization has little independent power or authority. But getting that support is not always easy. Many nations are reluctant to defer their authority and follow the dictates of the UN.

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them – the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat – are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at the Hague, the Netherlands.

Scanning

1. Answer the following questions:

1. How many countries does the UN membership total today?

2. What main principles does the UN Charter set out?

3. Is the UN just a forum for conflict resolution?

4. What do the countries joining the UN agree to accept?

5. Why does the UN have little independent power or authority?

6. What other purposes does the UN serve?

7. When did the UN gain its new prominence?

2. Give as much information as possible concerning the following notions:

the UN

the UN Charter

a world government

a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution.

the Nobel Peace Prize

UN Headquarters

3. Prepare the summary of the text in 10-12 sentences. Use the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.

Word Study

1. Give the definitions of the following words and phrases from the text and use them in the sentences of your own:

1. to be committed to

2. to total

3. obligations

4. to set out (basic principles)

5. to maintain (peace)

6. to harmonize (actions)

7. to resolve (conflicts)

8. a peacekeeper

9. a vast array

10. alleviation of (poverty)

11. to fluctuate

12. to gain (prominence)

13. to secure (cooperation)

14. to defer (authority)

15. headquarters

2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary:

1. ООН включает в себя 192 независимые страны, которые следуют основным принципам Устава ООН.

2. Целью этой организации является поддержание мира между народами и разрешение всех спорных вопросов путем переговоров.

3. Устав ООН был подписан в 1945 году 50 государствами в Сан-Франциско, Калифорния.

4. Штаб-квартира ООН находится в США с филиалами в Париже, Риме и Женеве.

5. При вступлении в ООН страны торжественно обещают разрешать все спорные вопросы мирным путем. Однако это обещание не всегда легко сдержать.

6. Основные задачи ООН по уставу – поддержание мира и безопасности, разрешение конфликтов, развитие дружественных связей между странами и обеспечение соблюдения прав человека.

7. ООН призывает страны воздерживаться от использования силы в межгосударственных отношениях. И разрешать конфликты мирным путем.

Talking Point

Express your opinion on the following questions:

1. Do you think the UN fulfils its mission today?

2. Do you think that the role of the UN is really very important in the modern world? Substantiate your point of view.

3. Is there any country in the world that the UN should refuse to admit as its member? Give your reasons.

Part 2

UN structure

Warm-up

Discuss the following questions in groups. Share your ideas with the class:

1. What roles do the bodies of the UN play in the world?

2. How have their tasks and functions changed over the years?

3. Who is the UN Secretary General now?

Pronunciation

Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

the Generally Assembly

medium

convoked

unanimity

maintenance

a threat

breach of peace

convened

unanimity

eligible

veto

severance

refugee

the Trusteeship Council

obsolete

hostile

perceived

Reading

Read the text and find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the main body of the UN?

2. What UN body suspended its work?

1. General Assembly

The General Assembly is composed of representatives of all member nations. All UN member states are represented in the Generally Assembly – a kind of parliament of nations which meets to consider the world’s most pressing problems. It’s like a global town hall, providing a powerful medium for countries to put forward their ideas and debate issues.

Each nation may send not more than five representatives to each session. Each nation is entitled to one vote.

The General Assembly meets in regular annual sessions and in special sessions when necessary. Special sessions are convoked by the Secretary General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the members of the UN.

Any matter within the scope of the charter may be brought before the General Assembly which may make recommendations on all except issues on the agenda of the Security Council. However, the General Assembly in November, 1950, decided that if the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity among its permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security, in any case where there appears to be a threat to peace, breach of peace or act of aggression, the Assembly may consider it and recommend collective measures including, in the case of a breach of peace or act of aggression, the use of armed forces to maintain or restore peace. In such cases, the General Assembly may be convened within 24 hours in an emergency special session.

2. Security Council

The Security Council consists of 15 members, 5 with permanent seats. The remaining 10 are elected for 2-year term by the General Assembly, they are not eligible for immediate reelection.

Permanent members of the Council: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. These nations were the winning powers at the end of World War II and they still represent the bulk of the world’s military might. Decisions of the Council require nine votes. But any of one of the permanent members can veto an important decision. This authority is known as the veto right of the great powers. As a result, the Council is effective only when its permanent members can reach a consensus.

The Security Council has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and members agree to carry out its decisions. The Council may investigate any dispute that threatens international peace and security. When the Security Council is handling a dispute or situation the General Assembly makes no recommendation unless the Council requests it.

The Security Council functions continuously, each member being represented at all times. It may change its place of meeting.

Any member of UN at headquarters may participate in its discussions and a nation not a member of UN may appear if it is a party to a dispute.

The Security Council may decide to enforce its decisions without the use of arms. Such measures include interruption of relations, break in transportation and communications, and severance of diplomatic relations. If such measures fail the Council may call on UN members to furnish armed forces and assistance. The right of individual or collective self-defense is not prohibited by membership in the UN, and if a member nation is attacked it may do what is necessary, reporting this to the Security Council, which may take independent action. However, the Council encourages regional arrangements or agencies by means of which local disputes can be settled without getting as far as the Council, after the Council has approved this method.

3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 member countries elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. The Council is concerned with financial and technical assistance to the less developed countries, the international protection of refugees and aid to the world's children.

ECOSOC coordinates many specialized agencies that provide a variety of social, economic and related services. The agencies operate independently but work with other programs in the UN. Those programs include the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Labour Organization (ILO, and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

4. Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council was established to oversee the transition of a handful of colonies to independence. The last of those colonies gained independence in 1994, making the Trusteeship Council obsolete.

5. International Court of Justice

Thе principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the International Court of Justice , also known as the World Court. It is the judicial arm of the UN. It sits at the Hague in the Netherlands. It is composed of fifteen judges who are elected by the Security Council and the General Assembly. A country is not required to participate in the court’s proceedings, but if it agrees to participate, it must abide the court’s decisions.

6. Secretariat

The administrative functions of the United Nations are carried out by the Secretariat. The Secretariat consists of some 6,000 members, 3,600 of whom are at the United Nations headquarters in New York.

The Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council is at the head of the Secretariat.

7.Secretary General

The Secretary General is a powerful public figure who oversees the daily operations of the UN and plays a major role in setting the organization’s agenda in international security affairs. The Secretary General has the authority to serve as a neutral mediator in international conflicts and to bring hostile parties together to negotiate.

The Secretary General is formally chosen by the General Assembly, but he must first be nominated by the Security Council and win the consent of all five permanent members. The Secretary General serves a five-year term, which may be renewed. The Security Council can nominate a candidate from any country, but it’s an unwritten tradition that the position rotates geographically, with a secretary general chosen from a new region after every two terms. In 1997 the General Assembly created the post of deputy Secretary General to assist in the management of the Secretariat.

Past Secretaries General have come from various regions of the world, but it’s an unwritten rule that they never should come from one of the most powerful countries. This tradition is a response to concerns that a secretary general selected from such a country would not be perceived by other nations as objective and neutral. There is also a fear that such a selection would give the world’s most influential nations that much more power.

8.Agencies Related to the UN

Working in partnership with the UN in various economic, social, scientific and technical fields is a group of organizations related to the UN by special agreements. The agencies are:

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) —Международное агентство по атомной энергии (МАГАТЭ)

International Labour Organization (ILO) — Международная организация труда (МОТ)

Food and Agricultural Organization ( FAO ) — Организация по вопросам продовольствия и сельского хозяйства (ФАО)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) — Организация по вопросам образования, науки и культуры (ЮНЕСКО)

World Health Organization (WHO) — Всемир­ная организация здравоохранения (ВОЗ)

International Bank for Reconstruction and De­velopment (or World Bank) (BRD) — Международный банк реконструкции и развития (МБРР)

International Development Association (IDA) — Международная ассоциация развития (MAP)

International Finance Corporation (IFC) — Международная финансовая корпорация (МФК)

International Monetary Fund (IMF) — Между­народный валютный фонд (МВФ)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) — Международная организация гражданской авиации (ИКАО)

Universal Postal Union (UPU) — Всемирный почтовый союз (ВПС)

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) — Международный союз электросвязи (МЭС)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) — Международная метеорологическая организация (ВМО)

International Maritime Consultative Organiza­tion (IMCO) — Международная консультативная организация по морскому судоходству (ИМКО)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) – Организация Объединенных Наций по вопросам промышленного развития (ЮНИДО)

Scanning

1. Read the text and say whether these statements are true or false:

1. The General Assembly meets biannually in order to consider the world’s most pressing problems.

2. Special sessions are convoked by the Secretary Ge­neral at the request of the General Assembly or of a majority of the members of the UN.

3. Any of one of the permanent members of the Security Council can veto an important decision of the Council.

4. The right of individual or collective self-defense is not prohibited by membership in the UN, and if a member nation is attacked it may do what is necessary.

5. The Economic and Social Council consists of 34 member countries elected by the General Assembly for five-year terms.

6. Thе principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the Secretariat, known as the judicial arm of the UN.

7. The Secretary General who is appointed by the Security Council on the recommendation of the General Assembly is at the head of the International Court of Justice.

8. According to the UN Charter the position of Secretary General rotates geographically, with a secretary general chosen from a new region after every two terms.

2. Read the text again and answer the following questions using the active vocabulary:

1. What is the composition of the General Assembly?

2. How many votes is each UN member-country entitled to?

3. What matters may be brought before the General Assembly?

4. What are the functions of the General Assembly and how does it take its decisions?

5. In what cases may the General Assembly be convened within 24 hours in an emergency special session?

6. How many members does the Security Council consist of?

7. What countries have permanent seats in the Security Council and why?

8. Who are the remaining 10 members of the Security Council elected by?

9. What is the primary responsibility of the Security Council?

10. How does the Security Council function?

11. Who can participate in the discussions of the Security Council’s sittings?

12. In what way can the Security Council enforce its decisions?

13. In what cases can the Security Council furnish armed forces?

14. What are the functions of the Economic and Social Council?

15. Why doesn’t the Trusteeship Council function today?

16. What is the principal judicial organ of the UN? Where does it sit?

17. Who are its members elected by?

18. What organ carries out the administrative functions of the UN?

19. Who is at the head of the Secretariat?

20. What agencies work in partnership with the UN? Give some examples.

21. What authority does the Secretary General have in the UN?

22. Who is the Secretary General chosen by?

23. Can the Security Council nominate a candidate to the post of Secretary General from any country?

24. What post was created by the General Assembly in 1997?

25. Why shouldn’t the Secretary General come from any of the most powerful countries?

3 .Give as much information as possible concerning the following notions:

the General Assembly

the Security Council

the Economic and Social Council

the World Health Organization

the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

the International Court of Justice

the Secretariat

the Secretary General

4. Prepare the summary of the text in 20-25 sentences. Use the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.

Word Study

1. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases:

General Assembly, Secretary General, Deputy Secretary General, Security Council,

Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice,

most pressing problems, an emergency special session, within the scope of the charter,

lack of unanimity, the bulk of the world’s military might, a party to a dispute,

severance of diplomatic relations, to furnish armed forces, obsolete, hostile parties,

consent.

2. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases from the text:

страны-члены ООН, иметь право на что-либо, повестка дня, нарушение мира,

постоянное место (в Совете Безопасности ООН), непрерывно осуществлять функции (действовать), заниматься, интересоваться чем-либо, основной правовой орган, организации, связанные с ООН, работать в партнерстве.

3. Use the lexical units from the exercises above in the sentences of your own.

4. Give the definitions of the following words and phrases from the text and use them in the sentences of your own:

1. to be composed of

2. to convoke

3. to carry out (decisions)

4. to handle a dispute

5. to enforce

6. to call on

7. to encourage

8. to oversee

9. to abide (the court’s decisions)

10. to bring smb. together

5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary:

1. Каждая страна может послать на заседание сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН не более 5 представителей.

2. Чрезвычайные сессии ООН могут быть созваны Генеральным секретарем ООН по просьбе Совета Безопасности или по решению большинства членов Генеральной Ассамблеи.

3. Совет Безопасности ООН работает на постоянной основе с обязательным присутствием всех его членов на всех заседаниях.

4. В случае, если страна-член ООН подверглась нападению, она может предпринимать необходимые действия, уведомив об этом Совет Безопасности.

5. Генеральная Ассамблея ООН дает рекомендации странам-членам ООН и другим организациям ООН с целью укрепления международного сотрудничества в политических, экономических, социальных и других областях.

6. Генеральный секретарь ООН, назначаемый Генеральной Ассамблеей ООН по рекомендации Совета Безопасности, возглавляет Секретариат ООН.

Translation

Translate the following text from English into Russian using a dictionary:

What the UN does for peace

Preserving world peace is a central purpose of the United Nations. Under the Charter, member states agree to settle disputes by peaceful means and refrain from threatening or using force against other states.

UN efforts have produced dramatic results. The UN helped defuse the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 and the Middle East crisis in 1973. In 1988 a UN-sponsored peace settlement ended the Iran-Iraq war. In the 1990s, the UN was instrumental in restoring sovereignty to Kuwait and played a major role in ending civil wars in Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mozambique.

UN peacemaking brings hostile parties to agreement through diplomatic means. The Security Council may recommend ways to avoid conflict or restore or secure peace – through negotiations, for example, or undertake mediation, or recourse to the International Court of Justice. In the event of fighting the UN tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart. Peacekeeping operations may last for a few months or continue for many years.

Talking Point

Express your opinion on the following questions:

1. What recent actions or peacekeeping operations of the UN can you remember? Were they successful?

2. Do you think that the UN peacekeeping forces could substitute for NATO or EU forces in the future?

3. What role does the Secretary General play in the UN? How has it changed recently? Is the UN Secretary General an important political figure in the world?

Part 3

United Nations Organization Reform

Rendering

One of the most important issues of the UN reform today is the reform of the Security Council. Since the 1990s, there has been growing controversy over which countries should have permanent seats on the Council. Some nations believe that other countries beside the original five should be included. For example, Japan and Germany are powerful countries that pay large membership dues and make substantial contributions to the UN, yet they do not have permanent seats. There is no easy solution to this problem. Adding more permanent members creates its own set of complications, including how to decide which countries get a seat and which do not. If Germany joined, three of the permanent members would be European, giving that region an unfair advantage. Several proposals for addressing this problem have been considered, including adding Germany and Japan as permanent members, waiving veto power of the permanent members, and limiting Council membership to one year. Thus far, none of the proposals have been adopted, partly because the present structure works well for the five permanent members and they can veto any changes to it.

Read the following English and Russian articles about the UN reform and render them:

Article 1

Security Council reform must result in profound changes –

Assembly President

Security Council reform must be about more than just changing the composition of its membership, General Assembly President Srgjan Kerim says, calling on the body to be “based on an equilibrium of interests rather than a balance of power.” In an opinion column for the United Kingdom-based pan-Arab Al-Hayat newspaper, published yesterday, Mr. Kerim wrote that reform of the Council must lead to “a new culture of international relations” based on full respects for human rights, human security, responsibility to protect and sustainable development.

While changing the Council’s composition is a necessary first step, it should not be viewed as an end in itself.

Instead, Council members should be “ready to share responsibility, willing and able to act to protect human life – as the body of last resort – whatever and wherever the threat may be.”

Mr. Kerim said such ideas are needed because “our present institutional structures are too rigidly anchored in an international system where pre-eminence is given to the State as the primary interlocutor and agent of change.”

He called for renewal of the UN as a whole, for the Bretton Woods institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and for other international and regional bodies.

Speaking to reporters today at UN Headquarters in New York, Mr. Kerim echoed those remarks.

Council reform, he said, must have “a more profound meaning than just enlargement. It has to mean adaptation of the institutions, of the United Nations above all, and that goes for the General Assembly and the Secretariat as well. It all has to adapt to a new, very different world.”

Yesterday the President told a working group on Council reform that Member States should show “effective flexibility” in their negotiations on reshaping the 15-member body, and ensure that the concerns of all sides are taken into account, especially those currently underrepresented.

April 2008

Article 2

Momentum on Security Council reform must not falter –

Assembly President

Stressing the primary ownership and responsibility of Member States for reshaping the Security Council, General Assembly President Srgjan Kerim today urged countries to maintain the current momentum in a process that has been languishing for over a decade.

Reforming the Council is an integral part of strengthening the Organization, and must, therefore, “go hand in hand with the transformation of the wider United Nations system,” Mr. Kerim told the working group tasked with looking into issues such as equitable representation and increased membership on the 15-member body.

As such, “Member States should refrain from steps which could serve to undermine the current momentum and consensus to continue a process with the intention of achieving results-oriented solutions,” he added.

“Further steps must contain components and notions that will allow the membership to reach a general agreement on all aspects of Security Council reform, in particular on both the composition of the Council and its working methods,” Mr. Kerim said, stressing that any agreed changes to the Council must accommodate the interests and concerns of all sides, “especially those who are currently underrepresented.”

The President announced that he was appointing the Ambassadors of Bangladesh, Chile and Portugal to assist him in the working group. Together they will form a task force on Council reform to ensure that the process in conducted in a transparent and inclusive manner and to identify elements for “negotiables.”

Emphasizing that it would be up to States to identify and put forward a document to the task force that could serve as a basis for further negotiations, he called on delegations to begin consultations among themselves in various settings during the following weeks.

December 2007

Article 3

Реформа ООН неизбежна

Российская газета: Господин Генеральный секретарь, вы наряду с мировыми лидерами примете участие в торжествах по случаю 60-летия Победы над фашизмом. Известно, что в нынешнем году исполняется и 60 лет ООН, которая родилась на пепелище Второй мировой войны. Как вы расцениваете взаимосвязь двух дат?

Кофи Аннан: Годовщина Победы в этом году совпадает с 60-летием Организации Объединенных Наций, и это не просто случайное совпадение дат. Вы правы, ООН родилась на пепелище Второй мировой войны. Лидеры-мечтатели, создававшие Устав ООН, стремились навсегда исключить возможность повторения ужасов войны. И по сей день мы стараемся не отступать от нашей задачи - находить мирное решение кризисных ситуаций и защищать права каждого человека. В конце концов задачу ООН можно выразить теми же словами, что срывались с губ множества людей, отмечавших первый День Победы в той войне: "Это не должно повториться никогда".

РГ: Какие уроки Второй мировой войны остаются наиболее актуальными для международного сообщества? Удалось ли за истекшие 60 лет реально продвинуться к миру?

Аннан: Самый главный урок Второй мировой войны - и, думаю, мы вспомним об этом и в нынешний День Победы - это способность наций к единению. Что и продемонстрировало появление на свет ООН, в числе учредителей которой была и Россия.

Наша самая главная задача, как сказано в Уставе ООН, "избавить грядущие поколения от бедствий войны". С момента окончания войны мы без устали укрепляли систему коллективной безопасности с тем, чтобы будущим поколениям не пришлось столкнуться с подобными ужасами.

РГ: Спустя 60 лет после разгрома нацистской Германии идеи фашизма вновь набирают силу в отдельных кругах, а власти некоторых государств смотрят сквозь пальцы на выступления бывших эсэсовцев, неонацистов. Не кажется ли вам, что опасно эту тенденцию недооценивать?

Аннан: ООН всегда выступала против фашизма, с самого своего основания.

Как я уже говорил ранее, в этом году, когда отмечалось освобождение узников нацистских лагерей смерти, мы должны быть бдительны в отношении идеологий, основанных на ненависти и гонениях, не важно, где и когда они проявляются.

Где бы ни возникала ненависть, нам ни в коем случае нельзя отрицать происходящее либо оставаться безразличными, как это делали многие в то время, когда свою страшную работу выполняли нацистские фабрики смерти.

РГ: ООН в немалой степени оправдала свое предназначение. Но все же вы в своем недавнем докладе предложили провести серьезные реформы организации. Иными словами, признали, что потенциал ООН на этом центральном направлении используется далеко не полностью. Почему? То ли изначальный замысел был ущербным, то ли его плохо претворяли в жизнь?

Аннан: За последние шесть десятилетий ООН сделала многое для сохранения мира. Но, как я подчеркивал в своем упомянутом докладе "При большей свободе", организация должна учитывать происходящие со временем изменения, чтобы оставаться эффективной и справляться с новыми угрозами, например, с международным терроризмом и распространением оружия массового уничтожения. Если страны - члены ООН готовы решать эту трудную задачу и согласятся с предложенными мной рекомендациями, ООН сможет и дальше быть гарантом мира и стабильности в XXI веке.

У меня сложилось впечатление, что государства всерьез восприняли предложения по реформированию ООН. Не знаю, чем закончатся соответствующие переговоры, но я по-прежнему уверен, что представленные мной предложения предполагают всеобъемлющий подход к вопросам необходимого реформирования и все страны - участницы ООН смогут быть уверены, что их интересы будут полностью соблюдены.

Надеюсь, они воспримут предложения именно в таком духе. Уверен, что мировые лидеры примут серьезные решения на саммите в сентябре этого года.

РГ: Одна из актуальных проблем сегодня - выработка критериев для применения силы, которые бы позволили избежать военных акций, предпринимаемых отдельными странами или коалициями в обход Совета Безопасности. Ваше видение решения этой проблемы изложено четко. Дают ли вам начавшиеся в Нью-Йорке и в других местах дискуссии что-то новое: дополнительные аргументы или, может быть, сомнения?

Аннан: Обсуждение этих вопросов странами - участницами ООН продолжается, и пока преждевременно давать какие-то оценки. Сейчас лишь могу сказать, что приятно удивлен интересом и активным участием государств в тематических неформальных консультациях в рамках Генассамблеи в связи с докладом "При большей свободе". Думаю, такой высокий уровень интереса доказывает, что реформы могут быть осуществлены.

РГ: Может быть, ООН следует располагать силами быстрого реагирования с целью повышения своего антикризисного потенциала?

Аннан: Считаю удачной идею создания более широких возможностей, позволяющих быстрое размещение войск. В своем докладе я призвал страны - участницы ООН приложить силы для обеспечения эффективного потенциала организации, направленного на поддержание мира, отметил, что вклад государств должен соответствовать предъявляемым ими требованиям к организации. Считаю, что настало время решительных шагов для создания основанного на взаимозависимости миротворческого потенциала, который позволит ООН работать с соответствующими региональными организациями и иметь с ними предсказуемые и доверительные отношения. Думаю, что Россия могла бы внести здесь свой вклад.

РГ: Вы предложили для обсуждения два варианта расширения СБ ООН. Удобно ли вам - пусть неофициально - высказать свое мнение, какие государства являются наиболее реальными кандидатами для включения в расширенный состав Совета Безопасности?

Аннан: Я не намерен обозначать поддержку тому или иному варианту по расширению Совета Безопасности. Какой из вариантов предпочтительнее - должны решать сами государства. Но в то же время я призываю всех к осознанию того, что, хотя консенсус и предпочтительнее, отсутствие полного согласия не должно приостановить попытки провести сейчас конкретную реформу. Статус-кво неприемлем. Многие из рекомендаций обсуждались на протяжении многих лет. Я призвал определиться к саммиту ООН в сентябре 2005 года, чтобы тогда наступила полная ясность в этом вопросе.

РГ: Насколько реально, на ваш взгляд, принятие уже в этом году Генассамблеей ООН всеобъемлющей конвенции о борьбе с терроризмом с учетом предложенного "Группой мудрецов" общеприемлемого определения терроризма?

Аннан: Считаю, что Генеральная ассамблея может принять всеобъемлющую конвенцию о борьбе с международным терроризмом уже в этом году. Этот документ мог бы включить в себя определение терроризма, предложенное "Группой мудрецов". Недавно мы, кстати, сделали еще один важный шаг в этом направлении: после многих лет переговоров Генеральная ассамблея приняла Международную конвенцию по борьбе с актами ядерного терроризма, инициатором которой выступила Российская Федерация.

РГ: Вы предлагаете взамен Комиссии ООН по правам человека образовать Совет по правам человека. Разделяете ли вы в связи с этим позицию России, которая критикует комиссию за излишнюю политизацию своей деятельности?

Аннан: Уверен, как и многие страны - члены ООН, что нынешние возможности Комиссии ООН по правам человека уже не успевают за новыми потребностями, они подорваны политизированностью и избирательным подходом к тем или иным вопросам. Мы уже пришли к тому, что снижающееся доверие к Комиссии по правам человека подрывает репутацию всей ООН. Вот почему я выступил с предложением создать более ответственный и представительный Совет по правам человека взамен нынешней комиссии.

Владимир Куликов, Александр Латыщев

Российская газета 7 мая 2005

Article 4

Большая перемена

Генеральный секретарь ООН Кофи Аннан выступил в штаб-квартире Комиссии ООН по правам человека в Женеве. И заявил, что она не справляется с возложенными на нее обязанностями. А это бросает тень на всю организацию в целом. Поэтому, полагает Генсек, следует "ампутировать больной орган" и создать новую структуру, которая бы занималась этой проблематикой. В состав учрежденной в 1946 году комиссии входят представители 53 стран. На ежегодные сессии, которые продолжаются шесть недель, она собирается раз в год. Комиссия является одной из основополагающих в ООН. Именно на нее возложена обязанность следить за соблюдением прав человека во всем мире. Однако, как утверждают критики, справляется с этой задачей она далеко не блестяще.

Гуманитарная катастрофа в суданской провинции Дарфур с особой остротой выявила несостоятельность Комиссии ООН по правам человека в Женеве, считает Кофи Аннан. Несмотря на очевидные зверства в Судане, резолюцию с осуждением позиции хартумских властей комиссия так и не приняла. Более того, представитель Судана был избран в ее состав еще на один год.

По мнению Генсека, то, как будет разрешаться ситуация именно в этой стране, станет экзаменом как для "отдельных сотрудников ООН, так и организации в целом".

Комиссия излишне политизирована, нередко ее члены занимаются лоббированием собственных интересов. А у некоторых стран, таких, как Китай, Куба, тот же Судан и Зимбабве, в области соблюдения прав человека у самих "рыльце в пушку".

В рамках своей амбициозной программы реформирования всемирной организации - она была обнародована в марте - Аннан намерен создать более компактный и мобильный постоянный Совет по правам человека.

Он мог бы проводить заседания по мере необходимости, в связи с конкретными проявлениями нарушений прав человека. Предполагается, что его членов будет избирать Генеральная ассамблея ООН большинством в две трети голосов. Они должны будут соответствовать определенным критериям.

Между тем Совет Безопасности ООН озаботился другой проблемой. И своей резолюцией 1595 инициировал международное расследование гибели бывшего премьер-министра Ливана Рафика Харири.

Согласно резолюции будет создана специальная следственная комиссия. На проведение всех необходимых мероприятия ей отводится 3 месяца. Однако в случае необходимости Генеральный секретарь ООН Кофи Аннан сможет продлить ее мандат на такой же срок.

Александр Зорин, Российская газета 9 апреля 2005

Unit II

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO)

Part 1

What is NATO

Warm-up

Discuss the following questions in groups. Share your ideas with the class:

1. How many members are there in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?

2. Look at the list of the countries below. Which of them are the members of NATO?

Belgium United States Australia Bulgaria Canada Ukraine Czech Republic Georgia Greece Estonia Denmark Macedonia France Germany Hungary Cyprus Iceland Italy United Kingdom Latvia Turkey Lithuania Bosnia Spain Luxembourg Slovenia Netherlands Slovakia Norway Romania Poland Portugal Albania Russia Croatia France

3. Who is the Secretary General of NATO?

4. What is the Washington treaty? When was it signed?

Pronunciation

Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

ally

allied

alliance

enduring

maintenance

cohesion

indispensable

intimidate

coerce

deter

deterrence

ministerial

assign

Reading

Read the text and find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the main purpose of NATO?

2. What are the main principles of NATO?

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington on April, 4, 1949.

NATO’s essential and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means.

Relations between North American and European members of the Alliance are the bedrock of NATO. These countries share the same values and interests and are committed to the maintenance of democratic principles, making the security of Europe and that of North America indivisible.

Based on common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the Alliance has striven since its inception to secure a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe. The achievement of this aim can be put at risk by crisis and conflict affecting the security of the Euro-Atlantic area. Therefore, the alliance not only ensures the defense of its members but contributes to peace and stability in this region.

The fundamental guiding principle by which the Alliance works in common commitment and mutual cooperation among sovereign states in support of the indivisibility of security for all its members. Solidarity and cohesion within the Alliance, through daily cooperation in both the political and military spheres, ensure that no single ally is forced to rely upon its own national efforts alone in dealing with basic security challenges.

The alliance is committed to defending its member states against aggression or the threat of aggression and to the principle that an attack against one pr several members would be considered as an attack against all which is proclaimed in Article 5 of the Treaty.

To achieve its essential purposes, as an alliance of nations committed to the Washington treaty and the United Nations Charter, the alliance performs the following fundamental security tasks.

- Security. NATO provides one of the indispensable foundations for a stable Euro-Atlantic security environment based on the growth of democratic institutions and commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes, in which no country would be able to intimidate or coerce any other through the threat or use of force.

- Consultation. The alliance serves as an essential transatlantic forum for allied consultations on any issues that affect their vital interests, including possible developments posing risks for members’ security and for appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern.

-Deterrence and Defense. NATO deters and defends against any threat of aggression against any NATO member state as provided for in Articles 5 and 6 of the Washington treaty.

NATO remains an inter-governmental organization in which each member country retains its sovereignty. All NATO decisions are taken jointly by the member countries on the basis of consensus. Each member country participates fully in the decision-making process on the basis of equality, irrespective of its size or political, military and economic strength.

NATO is headed by the Secretary General. He performs three main roles. First and foremost, he is the chairman of the North Atlantic Council, the Defense Planning Committee and the Nuclear Planning Group as well as the chairman of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the NATO-Russia Council, the NATO-Ukrainian Commission and the Mediterranean Cooperation Group. Secondly, he is the principal spokesman of the alliance and represents it in public on behalf of the member countries. Thirdly, he is the senior executive officer of the NATO International Staff, responsible for making appointments to the staff and overseeing its work.

The main decision-making body of NATO is the North Atlantic Council (NAC). It consists of permanent representatives of all member countries meeting at least once a week. Twice a year, or sometimes more frequently, the Council meets at a higher ministerial level when each country is represented by its minister of foreign affairs. Meetings of the Council also take place in defense ministers’ sessions. Summit meetings attended by heads of state or government are held in urgent cases or whenever particularly important issues have to be addressed.

Most of the meetings are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO, or, in his absence, by his Deputy.

The work of the Council is assisted by subordinate Committees which are responsible for specific areas of policy: the Defense Committee (deals with collective defense planning); the Nuclear Planning Group (is responsible for specific policy issues concerning nuclear forces); the Military Committee (deals with the military policy of NATO), etc.

NATO has no operational forces of its own, except those assigned to it by member countries or contributed by Partner countries for the purpose of carrying out a specific mission.

Scanning

1. Complete the following sentences:

1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is …

2. The main tasks of NATO at present are …

3. The fundamental guiding principle of NATO is …

4. According to Article 5 of the Washington treaty, …

5. The fundamental security tasks of NATO concern the spheres of …

6. NATO is an inter-governmental organization …

7. The head of NATO is …

8. The main decision-making body of NATO is …

9. The meetings of the North Atlantic Council are held at … levels.

10. The work of NAC is assisted by …

2. Answer the following questions:

1.What is NATO?

2. When was the Washington treaty signed?

3. What is essential and enduring purpose of NATO?

4. What is the bedrock of NATO?

5. What are the relations between NATO members based on?

6. What is the main aim of NATO? Is it difficult to achieve? Why/Why not?

7. In what way does the alliance contribute to peace and stability in the region?

8. What does the fundamental guiding principle of NATO consist in?

9. Does any ally rely only on itself in dealing with basic security challenges?

10. What principle is proclaimed in Article 5 of the Washington treaty?

11. What are the fundamental security tasks NATO performs?

12. In what way does NATO provide a stable security environment in the Euro-Atlantic area?

13. What burning problems do the allied consultations of NATO members tackle?

14. What does NATO’s deterrence and defense task consist in?

15. Who is NATO headed by?

16. What are the main functions of the Secretary General of NATO?

17. What is the North Atlantic Council?

18. What kinds of meetings and summits can be conducted by the member states?

19. In what cases are the summit meetings of heads of state and government conducted?

20. What functions do subordinate Committees perform?

21. Does NATO have operational forces of its own?

3. Give as much information as possible concerning the following notions:

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty

United Nations Charter

Secretary General of NATO

Deputy

Operational forces

4. Prepare the summary of the text in 10-12 sentences. Use the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.

Word Study

1. Translate the following words and word combinations from the text from English into Russian:

Alliance; essential; to safeguard freedom and security; to share values and interests; to be based on …; the rule of law; to secure; to affect; to contribute to peace and stability; commitment to…; to rely upon; to be proclaimed; peaceful resolution of disputes; to coerce; to pose risks; to deter; decision-making process; to make appointments; ministerial level; to be assisted; to assign; indispensable.

2. Translate the following words and word combinations from the text from Russian into English:

Выполнять особую миссию; быть приверженным чему-либо; постоянный; основные принципы; начало; экстренные случаи; сохранять свободу и безопасность; на уровне министров; постоянный; установление демократических принципов; делать назначения; председатель; справедливый; подвергать риску; влиять на…; обеспечивать; сохранять суверенитет; сферы общих интересов; основной принцип; приверженность чему-либо; совместные консультации союзников; войска в состоянии боевой готовности; солидарность и единство; мирное разрешение конфликтов; иметь дело с основными угрозами безопасности.

3. Match the words from the first column to the words from the second one:

a. alliance 1. chair

b. essential 2. threaten

c. safeguard 3. protect, secure

d. affect 4. union

e. deal with problems 5. vital, very important

f. intimidate 6. influence

g. preside over 7. resolve

h. principal 8. main, major

i. bedrock 9. basic principles

4. Give definitions to the following words and word combinations:

1. alliance

2. bedrock

3. the rule of law

4. common commitment to something

5. cohesion

6. basic security challenges

7. indispensable

8. forum for consultations

9. fields of common concern

10. inter-governmental

11. sovereignty

12. consensus

13. operational forces

5. Use the lexical units from the exercise above in the sentences of your own.

6. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the lexical units from the previous exercises:

1. Основными способами разрешения конфликтов являются проведение мирных переговоров, участие посредников, а также отказ от применения силы.

2. Одним из основополагающих принципов Конституции любого демократического государства является верховенство закона.

3. Распространение оружия массового поражения, наркоторговля, глобальный терроризм представляют угрозу безопасности и стабильности во всем мире.

4. В особых случаях, при угрозе безопасности отдельного государства или всего мирового сообщества, Совет Безопасности ООН может собраться для экстренного заседания.

5. Многие европейские государства объединили свои усилия в деле сохранения мира и стабильности в регионе, решения наиболее актуальных проблем, а также соблюдения прав человека.

Talking Point

Discuss the following questions in groups. Share your ideas with the class:

1. Does NATO need any standing army?

2. Is NATO the right organization to assume the regional security responsibilities in Europe?

3. Are the peace-keeping missions of NATO effective? Give examples.

4. Can fears that NATO may potentially abuse its military might translate into tensions and insecurity in Europe?

Speaking

1. Speak on the topic “NATO: its role and tasks today”.

2. Find an article in the current press concerning the present day activities of NATO in different parts of the world. Prepare the analysis of the article.

Part 2

NATO: Security Challenges and Risks

Warm-up

Discuss the following question in groups. Share your ideas with the class;

What possible risks and challenges might pose a threat to the security of the Alliance?

Pronunciation

Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

strategic environment

at the periphery

ethnic and religious rivalries

the abuse of human rights

adversaries

weaponry

sabotage

Reading

Read the text and compare the ideas from the text with your own ones:

Despite positive developments in the strategic environment and the fact that large-scale conventional aggression against the Alliance is highly unlikely, the possibility of such a threat emerging over the longer terms exists. The security of the Alliance remains subject to a wide variety of military and non-military risks which are multi-directional and often difficult to predict.

These risks include uncertainty and instability in and around the Euro-Atlantic area and the possibility of regional crises at the periphery of the Alliance, which could evolve rapidly. Some countries in and around the Euro-Atlantic area face serious economic, social and political difficulties. Ethnic and religious rivalries, territorial disputes, inadequate and failed efforts at reform, the abuse of human rights, and the dissolution of states can lead to local and even regional instability. The resulting tensions could lead to crises affecting Euro-Atlantic stability, to human suffering, and to armed conflicts. Such tensions could affect the security of the Alliance by spilling over into neighbouring states, including NATO countries, or in other ways, and could also affect the security of other countries.

The existence of powerful nuclear forces outside the Alliance also constitutes a significant factor which the Alliance has to take into account if security and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area are to be maintained.

The proliferation of NBC (Nuclear, Bacteriological and Chemical) weapons and their means of delivery remains a matter of serious concern. In spite of progress in strengthening international non-proliferation regimes, major challenges with respect to proliferation remain. The Alliance recognizes that proliferation can occur despite efforts to prevent it and can pose a direct military threat to the Allies’ populations, territory, and forces. Some states, including on NATO’s periphery and other regions, sell, acquire or try to acquire NBC weapons and delivery means. Commodities and technology that could be used to build these weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means are becoming more common, while detection and prevention of illicit trade in these materials and know-how continues to be difficult. Non-state actors have shown the potential to create and use some of these weapons.

The global spread of technology that can be of use in the production of weapons may result in the greater availability of sophisticated military capabilities, permitting adversaries to acquire highly capable offensive and defensive air, land and sea-borne systems, cruise missiles, and other advanced weaponry. In addition, state and non-state adversaries may try to exploit the Alliance’s growing reliance on information systems through information operations designed to disrupt such systems. They may attempt to use strategies of this kind to counter NATO’s superiority in traditional weaponry.

Alliance’s security interests can also be affected by other risks of a wider nature, including acts of terrorism, sabotage and organized crime, and by the disruption of the flow of vital resources. The uncontrolled movement of large numbers of people, particularly as a consequence of armed conflicts, can also pose problems of security and stability affecting the Alliance. Arrangements exist within the Alliance for consultation among the Allies under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty and, where appropriate, co-ordination and their efforts including their responses to risks of this kind.

Scanning

1. Answer the following questions:

1. What is highly unlikely in NATO’s security environment?

2. What non-military challenges does NATO face today?

3. What do you think is meant by “powerful nuclear forces outside NATO” that constitutes a significant factor which the Alliance has to take into account?

4. What is understood by the proliferation challenge?

2. Comment on the following statements:

1. Today the biggest threat to NATO is a large-scale conventional aggression against the Alliance.

2. The existence of powerful nuclear forces outside the Alliance should be taken into consideration if security and stability are to be maintained.

3. The proliferation of NBC weapons and their means of delivery remains a matter of serious concern.

4. Non-military challenges pose the most serious threat to NATO today.

Word Study

1. Translate the following words and word combinations from English into Russian:

Emerge; face serious economic, political and social difficulties; ethnic and religious rivalries; the dissolution of states; armed conflicts; spill over into…; proliferation of NBC weapons; NBC weapons and delivery means; illicit trade; adversaries; cruise missiles; advanced weaponry; disrupt; sabotage; pose problems.

2. Translate the following words and word combinations from Russian into English:

Широкомасштабная агрессия с применением обычного вооружения; этнические и религиозные столкновения; нарушение прав человека; территориальные споры; вооруженные конфликты; представлять военную угрозу; распространение оружия массового поражения; противозаконная торговля, высокоэффективные наступательные и оборонительные системы воздушного, наземного и морского базирования; современное наступательное и оборонительное вооружение; крылатые ракеты; организованная преступность; нарушать.

3. Translate the following sentences from the text from English into Russian:

1. The security of the Alliance remains subject to a wide variety of military and non-military risks which are multi-directional and often difficult to predict.

2. Ethnic and religious rivalries, territorial disputes, inadequate and failed efforts at reform, the abuse of human rights, and the dissolution of states can lead to local and even regional instability.

3. Commodities and technology that could be used to build these weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means are becoming more common, while detection and prevention of illicit trade in these materials and know-how continues to be difficult.

4. The global spread of technology that can be of use in the production of weapons may result in the greater availability of sophisticated military capabilities, permitting adversaries to acquire highly capable offensive and defensive air, land and sea-borne systems, cruise missiles, and other advanced weaponry.

5. Alliance’s security interests can also be affected by other risks of a wider nature, including acts of terrorism, sabotage and organized crime, and by the disruption of the flow of vital resources.

Speaking

1. Look at the NATO security challenges and risks again and make up a chart defining which of them are of vital and peripheral nature:

Vital

Peripheral

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

2. Speak about the major security challenges and risks NATO faces today using the table above and the active vocabulary from the Word Study section.

Part 3

NATO-Russia Relations

Warm-up

Answer the following questions. Share your ideas with the class:

1. How could the relations between NATO and Russia be characterized after World War II?

2. Why was it difficult for NATO and Russia to iron out differences?

3. When did it become possible for NATO and Russia to improve the bilateral relations?

Pronunciation

Watch the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations. If necessary consult a dictionary:

confrontation

strategic priorities

collapse

emphasize

breakthrough

emergencies

perpetrate

pillar

cornerstone

earthquake

Reading

Read the text and name the main spheres of cooperation between NATO and Russia:

Since the end of the Cold War NATO member countries have regarded a positive relationship and cooperation with Russia as a priority. Over the years, much progress has been made in transforming old antagonisms based on ideological, political and military confrontation into fruitful cooperation based on common interests and continuing dialogue.

The creation of the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) in May 2002 marked the beginning of a more pragmatic relationship focused on activities, such as fight against terrorism, defense reform, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, military cooperation and training, civil emergency planning, theatre missile defense and preparing for possible peacekeeping operations.

Today, NATO member states and Russia meet regularly as equals in the NATO-Russia Council to consult on current security issues and to develop practical cooperation in a wide range of areas of common interests. Awhile differences remain on some issues which may take some time to resolve, the driving force behind the new spirit of cooperation is the realization that NATO member states and Russia share strategic priorities and face common challenges, such as combating terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

The evolution of relations

The ideological and political division of Europe ended in 1989 with the fall of the Berlin Wall. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in 1991, and with the emergence of security challenges in the post-Cold War environment, NATO began establishing new forms of dialogue and cooperation with the countries of central and Eastern Europe and the member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

Cooperation in complex field conditions in the Balkans significantly reinforced mutual trust and strengthened the political will to take NATO-Russia cooperation to a new level. That transformation occurred in May 1997, with the signature of the Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security which provided the formal basis for NATO-Russia relations. It expressed the common goal of building a lasting peace and established the Permanent Joint Council as a forum for consultation and cooperation.

Several key events accelerated the process. On August, 12, 2000 the nuclear submarine Kursk sank killing 118 crewmen aboard, highlighting the urgent need for cooperation between NATO and Russia in responding to such tragic accidents. The terrorist attacks of the United States of September, 11, 2001 also emphasized the necessity of concerted international action to effectively combat terrorism and other common threats and challenges.

The NATO-Russia Council

After intensive negotiations the parties managed to achieve a breakthrough and issued a joint declaration “NATO-Russia Relations: a New Quality” in May, 2002.In this declaration the parties pledged to enhance their ability to work together as equals in areas of common interest and to stand together against common threats and risks to the security.

The NATO-Russia Council was also established by the agreement. The meetings of the Council are chaired by the NATO Secretary General and are held at different levels – at least once a month at the level of ambassadors, twice a year at ministerial level at summit level in urgent cases. Meetings are also held once a month between military representatives and twice a year at the level of chiefs of defense staff. The areas of common interests and concern for Russia and NATO include: combating terrorism, crisis management, non-proliferation, arms control and confidence-building measures, theatre missile defense, logistics, military-to-military cooperation, defense reform and civil emergencies.

The NRC has created several working groups and committees to develop cooperation in these areas and others, such as scientific cooperation and challenges of modern society. Views are also exchanged on current international issues affecting the security of the Euro-Atlantic area, such as the situation in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Georgia, Ukraine, Iraq, and the broader Middle East region.

Since its establishment, the NRC has evolved into a productive mechanism for consultation, consensus-building, cooperation, joint decision-making and joint action has become a fundamental pillar of the NATO-Russia partnership. The positive evolution of NATO-Russia cooperation offers good prospects for its future and its further development.

The fight against terrorism

Nowhere have positions between NATO member countries and Russia converged more clearly than in the fight against terrorism, which has become a major threat to international security and stability and requires an increasingly coordinated response. In the summer of 2004 a number of tragic events perpetrated by terrorists made the ambassadors strongly condemn terrorism in all its manifestations and renew their determination to strengthen and intensify common efforts to eliminate this shared threat.

Specific aspects of combating terrorism are also a key focus of activities in many areas of cooperation under the NRC, such as civil emergency planning, non-proliferation, airspace management, theatre missile defense, defense reform and scientific cooperation.

Addressing other new security threats

The aim is to establish a level of force interoperability that would enable NATO and Russia to work together quickly and effectively to counter ballistic missile threats against NATO and Russian troops engaged in a joint mission.

A NRC initiative on chemical, biological and protection is underway. Joint work is also being taken forward on nuclear issues and cooperation against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

The cooperation is also being undertaken in the field of airspace management to enhance air safety and transparency and to counter the threat of the potential use of civilian aircraft for terrorist purposes.

Defense Reform

Russia and NATO member countries share an interest in defense reform, given the common need for armed forces that are appropriately sized, trained and equipped to deal with the full spectrum of 21st century threats. The cooperation in the area of defense reform covers many different aspects including resource management, defense industry conversion, defense and force planning, and macro-economic, financial and social issues. Other areas of cooperation include managing military nuclear waste, strategic air transport and military infrastructure engineering, and logistics interoperability of NATO and Russian forces is also underway.

Military to Military Cooperation

A key objective of military-to-military cooperation is to improve interoperability between Russia and Allied forces, since modern militaries must be able to operate within multinational command and force structures when called upon to work together in peace-support and other crisis-management operations.

Progress in arms control

NATO and Russia also discuss issues related to arms control and confidence-building measures. Within this framework they reaffirmed their commitment to the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) as a cornerstone of European security.

Civil emergencies and disaster relief

The countries coordinate assistance from member countries to refugee relief operations during different conflicts, operations are also called upon to coordinate relief in the wake of flooding, earthquakes, landslides, fires and other disasters in different Partner countries.

Scientific and environmental cooperation

A key focus of current scientific cooperative activities under the NRC is the application of civil science to defense against terrorism and new threats, such as in explosives detection, examining the social and psychological impact of terrorism, protection against chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear agents, cyber-security and transport security. Environmental protection problems arising from civilian and military activities are another important area of cooperation.

Scanning

1. Say whether the statements are true or false. Give the correct variant:

1. NATO member countries have always regarded a positive relationship with Russia as a top priority.

2. The tragic events of September, 11 accelerated the revitalization of the bilateral relations between NATO and Russia.

3. The meetings of the NATO-Russia Council are held regularly.

4. The cooperation between NATO and Russia is fruitful.

5. NATO and Russia do not conduct any joint military training exercises as the problem is not acute.

2. Answer the questions on the text:

1. How could the relations between NATO and Russia be characterized after World War II?

2. What was the antagonism between the parties based on?

3. What issues are the relations between NATO and Russia focused on?

4. What body represents the joint efforts of NATO and Russia in establishing friendly relations?

5. What event marked a breakthrough in the relations between NATO and Russia?

6. What document established the basis for NATO-Russia relations?

7. When was NATO-Russia Council founded?

8. Who chairs the meetings of the Council?

9. What are the areas of common interest and concern for NATO and Russia?

10. What does the cooperation between NATO and Russia in the main spheres consist in?

3. Comment on the following statements:

1. Since the end of the Cold War, NATO member countries have regarded the development of a positive relationship and cooperation with Russia as a priority.

2. Today NATO member states and Russia share strategic priorities and face common challenges.

3. Several key events accelerated the process of improving NATO-Russia relations.

4. Since its establishment the NATO-Russia Council has become a fundamental pillar of the NATO-Russia partnership.

5. Nowhere have positions between NATO and Russia converged more clearly than in the fight against terrorism.

6. Russia and NATO member countries share an interest in defense reform.

7. A key objective of military-to-military cooperation between NATO and Russia is to improve interoperability between Russia and Allied forces.

Speaking

1. Complete the following table:

Spheres of Cooperation

Basic Activities

2. Using the table, speak about the ways of cooperation between NATO and Russia.

Word Study

1. Translate the following words and word combinations from English into Russian:

Ideological; political and military confrontation; evolving; consult on security issues; areas of common interest; face common challenges; fight against terrorism; proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; collapse; contribute troops and logistical support; reinforce; strengthen; accelerate; pledge; enhance; stand against; non-proliferation; confidence-building measures; theatre missile defense; pillar; perpetrate; counter ballistic missile threats; be underway; be undertaken; defense industry conversion; militaries; cornerstone; flooding; earthquakes; landslides; impact; cyber-security; bilateral.

2. Translate the following words and word combinations from Russian into English:

Считать проблему приоритетной; консультировать по вопросам безопасности; развивать практическое сотрудничество; иметь общие стратегические приоритеты; бороться с терроризмом; распад; оружие массового поражения; вывести на новый уровень; достичь прорыва; ускорять; противостоять; бороться с терроризмом; контролировать вооружение; катастрофы; осуждать терроризм во всех проявлениях; совершать; предприниматься; действовать под международным руководством; краеугольный камень; операции по спасению беженцев; наводнения; землетрясения; оползни; влияние; безопасность информационного пространства; двусторонний; противоракетная оборона; ликвидировать; быть в процессе реализации; военные; Договор об Обычных Вооруженных Силах в Европе.

3. Find the words in the text that correspond to the following:

1. to have identical threats

2. to combat terrorism

3. to deal with terrorism

4. to break the impasse

5. something of great importance on which everything is based

6. army

7. active opposition or hatred especially between people or groups

8. to have the same opinion on the primary directions in the strategy

9. to remove or get rid of completely

10. to be in the course of development

11. to increase in strength or amount

4. Make up 10 sentences to translate from Russian into English using active vocabulary.

Talking Point

Express your opinion on the following questions:

1. Can you say that NATO-Russia cooperation is fruitful enough?

2. Is the cooperation between NATO and Russia mutually advantageous? What benefits do the parties get from it?

3. Is it possible for Russia to join NATO? Does the expansion of NATO to the east threaten Russia’s security?

Unit III

THE EUROPEAN UNION

Part 1

The History and Enlargement of the

European Union

Pronunciation

1. Note the pronunciation of the following words:

supranational

intergovernmental

nationalism

to devastate

atomic

accession

remit

rigorous

to submit

invariably

unanimously

a mandate

a core

2. Watch the pronunciation and spelling of these words:

legal

ratification

to confer

Maastricht

Amsterdam

Nice

Lisbon

criteria

minorities

adherence

to integrate

accountable

to finance

3. Consult the dictionary and note the pronunciation of the following geographical names

1. Austria

2. Belgium

3. Bulgaria

4. Cyprus

5. The Czech Republic

6. Denmark

7. Estonia

8. Finland

9. France

10.The Netherlands

11.Poland

12.Portugal

13.Romania

14.Slovakia

15.Slovenia

16.Spain

17.Sweden

18.The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

19.Germany

20.Greece

21.Hungary

22.The Irish Republic

23.Italy

24.Latvia

25.Lithuania

26.Luxemburg

27.Malta

Warm-Up

Work in groups and answer the following questions:

1. How many members does the EU comprise? Look at the list of the countries and say which of them are not the EU members.

Turkey

Russia

Denmark

Slovenia

Austria

Ukraine

Georgia

Latvia

Japan

Nigeria

Honduras

2. Which country holds the rotating presidency in the EU?

Reading

The European Union is a political and economic community of twenty seven member states with supranational and intergovernmental features, located primarily in Europe. It was established after the World War II.

The political climate after the end of the war favoured Western European unity, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent. One successful proposal for European cooperation came in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Community, established by the Treaty of 1951, in Paris. This had the aim of bringing together control of the coal and steel industries of its member states (principally France and West Germany), with the purpose that a war between them would not be possible. Two additional communities were created in 1957: the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Both of them were established by the Treaty of Rome.

Since then the EU has grown in size through the accession of new member states and has increased its powers by the addition of new policy areas to its remit.

The Single European Act (SEA, 1987) significantly expanded the EEC’s scope, called for more intensive coordination of foreign policy among members.

In 1993 the Maastricht Treaty established the current legal framework. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999) the EU also has at its disposal – the common strategy.

The Treaty of Nice (2001) introduced the possibility of establishing closer cooperation in the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) field for the implementation of joint actions and common positions. This closer cooperation may not be used for matters with military or defence implications.

The Lisbon Treaty, also known as the Reform Treaty, signed in December 2007, initiates ratification process in 2008 and is amending the existing treaties.

The Treaties do not officially confer legal personality on the Union, but there is a consensus among the political players that this should be done.

The EU currently has 27 independent sovereign countries which are collectively known as member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the UK, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta.

Any European country which respects the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law may apply to become a member of the Union. The Treaty on European Union sets out the conditions.

Applying for EU membership is the start of the long and rigorous process. The official starting point is that a country submits an application – although this invariably arises out of an already strong bilateral relationship with the EU. The application from a country wishing to join is submitted to the Council. The European Commission provides a formal opinion on the applicant country, and the Council decides whether to accept the application. Once the Council unanimously agrees a negotiating mandate, negotiations may be formally launched between the candidate and all the member states. This is not automatic though. The applicant country must meet a core of criteria before negotiations start.

The so-called “Copenhagen criteria” set out in December 1993 by the European Council in Copenhagen, require a candidate country to have:

- stable institutions that guarantee democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and protection of minorities;

- a functioning market economy, as well as the ability to cope with the pressure of competition and the market forces at work inside the Union;

- the ability to assume the obligations of membership, in particular adherence to the objectives of political, economic and monetary union.

In addition the EU must be able to integrate new members: it needs to ensure that its institutions and decision-making processes remain effective and accountable; it needs to be in a position, as it enlarges, to continue developing and implementing common policies in all areas; and it needs to be in a position to continue its policies in a sustainable manner.

Scanning

1. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. The European Coal and Steel Community had the aim of bringing together control over the coal and steel industries of its member states.

2. The European Union is a cultural community of twenty two member states.

3. The European Economic Community was established by the Treaty of Lisbon.

4. The EU has increased its powers by the addition of new policy areas through the members.

5. The Treaty of Rome introduced the possibility of establishing closer cooperation in the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

6. There is no consensus among the political players about what should be done.

7. The so-called “Shengen criteria” sets out the prerequisite requirements for a country to join the EU.

8. The application from a country wishing to join the EU is submitted to the European Parliament.

9. Austria, Poland, Hungary and Norway are all the current member states of the EU.

10. Only after having accepted the application by the Council may the candidate-country formally launch negotiations with all member states.

11. Functioning market economy is deemed to be crucial for a candidate-country.

12. The EU is not eager to integrate new members.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the two main principles, which the activity of the European Union is based on?

2. What circumstances urged Europe to launch an integration process?

3. What is the name of the first European organization that made the further cooperation feasible?

4. What communities were established by the Treaty of Rome?

5. How many countries does the EU include?

6. When was the SEA established?

7. When was the field for the closer cooperation in the Common Foreign and Security Policy between the members established?

8. Is the Lisbon Treaty amending the existing treaties or is regarded as an additional one?

9. Do the treaties officially confer legal personality on the Union?

10. What are the prerequisite requirements for a country to join the EU?

11. What is the first stage of applying for EU membership for any country?

12. What does the treaty on EU set out?

13. What measures must be undertaken by the EU to integrate new members?

14. What role does the European Commission play in the country’s application process?

15. What core of criteria must be met by a candidate-country before the talks are launched?

16. Which administrative body of the EU sets out the “Copenhagen criteria”?

17. Why must a candidate country provide the adherence to the objectives of political, economic and monetary union?

18. What actions represent the top policy priority for the EU in terms of the process of its enlargement?

Word Study

1. Translate the following lexical units from the text from English into Russian, prepare questions with these lexical units, based on the text:

Supranational features, intergovernmental features, extreme forms of nationalism, to devastate, to bring together control (over), to call for, to initiate a ratification process, to establish the legal framework, to confer legal personality on, accession of (a country) to (the EU), remit, implementation of joint action, a rigorous process, to agree a mandate, to meet a core of criteria, the rule of law, protection of minorities, unanimously, invariably, to submit an application, in a sustainable manner, to integrate new members, to finance policies, to assume the implications of membership, to cope with the pressure of competition, accountable, adherence to the objectives of, a functioning market economy.

2. Translate the following word-combinations from Russian into English, restore the context of their use:

установить правовые рамки, наделять правосубъектностью, Закон о единой Европе, вступление (страны) в (ЕС), Европейское объединение угля и стали, осуществлять общий контроль (над), крайние формы проявления национализма, надгосударственные черты, Европейское экономическое сообщество, опустошать, требовать, Лиссабонский договор, усиленное координирование внешней политики, Амстердамский договор, договор Ниццы, начинать процесс ратификации, Европейской сообщество по атомной энергетике, принимать обязательства членства, принимать новых членов, финансировать политику, постоянно, действующая рыночная экономика, строгое соблюдение главных целей, понятный, принять мандат, неизменно, скрупулезный процесс, подать заявление, единогласно, соответствовать сути критериев, верховенство закона.

3. Find the words and word combinations that mean approximately the same in the text, use these lexical units in the examples of your own:

1. to cause so much damage to a place or area that most of it destroyed

2. the area of authority or responsibility of an individual or a group

3. to grant

4. the process of agreeing to a demand

5. conducted between or involving two or more governments

6. to need a particular action, behaviour, quality

7. the act of taking actions or making changes that you have officially decided should happen

8. jural scope

9. beyond the authority or jurisdiction of one national government

10. the belief that your own country is better than any other country

11. to begin or originate the process of making a written agreement official by signing it

4. Fill in the gaps using the words and word combinations from the previous exercises:

1. The European Union consists of 27 member states and it is characterized by ____ and ____ features.

2. One of the reasons for forming Western European Unity was an escape from the _____ _____ ____ ____ which had ____ the continent.

3. In 1957 there were created two additional communities, the first one is ______, and the second one is ______.

4. The most urgent action the European Single Act ____ ____ was ____ ____ ____ ____ ____.

5. The ____ of new members contributed to the EU size while the addition of new policy areas to its ______ has increased its powers.

6. One of the basic provisions of the Maastricht Treaty was the establishment of the ______.

5. How do you call people who live in the following countries?

1. Austria –

2. Belgium –

3. Bulgaria –

4. Cyprus –

5. The Czech Republic –

6. Portugal –

7. The Irish Republic –

8. The UK –

9. Lithuania –

10. Spain –

11. Sweden –

12. Germany –

13. The Netherlands –

14. Slovakia –

15. Slovenia –

16. Poland –

17. Denmark –

18. Hungary –

19. Italy –

20. Latvia –

21. Greece –

22. Malta –

23. Luxemburg –

24. Romania –

25. Estonia –

26. Finland –

27. France –

Translation

Translate the following sentences into English using active vocabulary:

1. Россия поддерживает деловые связи на взаимовыгодной основе с рядом западных стран, Канадой и США.

2. Плодотворное сотрудничество между нашей страной и Великобританией в различных областях началось с установления дипломатических отношений в 1924 году.

3. За последнее время значительно расширились политические, экономические и культурные связи между Россией и странами Евросоюза.

4. Европейский союз – это экономическая организация, основанная в 1951 году.

5. Широкое сотрудничество между странами-партнерами основано на принципах равенства и взаимного уважения.

6. Россия строит свои отношения с другими странами на принципах равенства и взаимовыгодного сотрудничества.

7. Россия постоянно увеличивает свой товарооборот со странами Евросоюза.

8. Обмен в области науки и культуры способствует взаимопониманию и сотрудничеству между народами.

Speaking

Use the following words and word-combinations to make up the summary of the text (not more than 15 sentences):

1. supranational features

2. intergovernmental features

3. extreme forms of nationalism

4. to devastate

5. to bring together control (over)

6. to call for

7. intensive coordination of foreign/home policy

8. accession of … to…

9. remit

10. to establish the legal framework

11. to initiate a ratification process

12. to confer legal personality on

13. to submit an application

14. unanimously

15. to agree a mandate

16. to meet a core of criteria

17. the rule of law

18. a functioning market economy

19. to cope with the pressure of competition

20. to assume the obligations of membership

21. adherence to the objectives of

22. to integrate new members

23. accountable

24. to finance policies

25. in a sustainable manner

Talking Point

1. How do the country members benefit from the membership in the EU?

2. What countries are the possible candidates to join the EU? Do they meet the requirements of the “Copenhagen criteria”?

3. Is Russia possible to join the EU? Explain your point of view.

Part 2

The Structure and Objectives of the EU

Pronunciation

1. Note the pronunciation of the following words:

consistency

solidarity

sustainable development

frontiers

monetary

to assert

to strengthen

acquis communautaire

corpus

2. Watch the pronunciation and spelling of the words and word-combinations:

human dignity

diversity

a pillar

coherence

commissioner

to monitor

compliance

execution

agenda

court

Warm-up

Work in groups and discuss the following questions:

1. Consult the dictionary and give definitions to the following words: council,

parliament, commission.

2. Being an organization of the supranational level what peculiarities of the structure can the EU possess?

Reading

Under the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty) the main task of the Union is “to organize, in a manner demonstrating consistency and solidarity, relations between the Member States and between their peoples.”

To achieve this, the Union has set a number of objectives:

- to promote economic and social progress, sustainable development, an area without internal frontiers and economic and monetary union;

- to assert its identity on the international scene;

- to strengthen the protection of rights through the introduction of a citizenship of the Union;

- to create an area of freedom, security and justice;

- to build on the acquis communautaire – the corpus of rules established by and in the context of the Union.

The Union is founded on the values: respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, the rule of law and human rights. It has its own symbols: a flag (twelve stars on a blue background), an anthem (Ludvig van Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy”), a motto (“United in diversity”), a currency (euro) and a Europe day (9, May).

The Union is a form of legal organization consisting of three pillars:

- the first corresponding to the European Community;

- the second comprising the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP);

- the third consisting of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.

It has a single institutional framework for the three pillars (essentially consisting of the European Council, the European Parliament, the Council of the Union and the European Commission). This ensures coherence and consistency in the Union’s actions across the pillars.

The European Commission consists of permanent civil service directed by commissioners. It has three primary functions: to formulate community policies, to monitor compliance with community decisions, and to oversee the execution of community law.

The Commission has shared its agenda-setting role with the European Council, which consists of the leaders of all member-countries. Established in 1974, the European Council meets at least twice a year to define a long-term agenda for European political and economic integration. The Council of the EU is the main decision-making institution of the EC and the EU. It consists of ministerial representatives. All community legislation requires the approval of the Council.

The European Parliament serves not only as a consultative body, but also it’s given joint decision-making power over community expenditures. The European Parliament is organized into transnational party groups based on political ideology – the Party of European Socialists, the European People’s Party, etc.

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) interprets community law, settles conflicts between the organizations, institutions, and determines whether members have fulfilled their treaty obligations.

Scanning

1. Say whether these statements are true or false:

1. The main task of the Union is “to organize, in a manner demonstrating consistency and solidarity, relations between the Member States and between their peoples”.

2. One of the objectives of the Union is to destroy an area of freedom, security and justice.

3. The Union has its own flag, an anthem, a motto, a currency.

4. There is not Europe day as a symbol of the Union.

5. The Union is a form of legal organization consisting of five pillars.

6. The third pillar of the Union consists of the police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.

7. The Union has a single institutional framework for the three pillars.

8. The European Commission has shared its agenda-setting role with the European Parliament.

9. The European Council was established in 1974 and meets at least ten times a year to define a long-term agenda for European political and economic integration.

10. The European Parliament serves as a consultative body of the Union.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the main task of the European Union under the Maastricht Treaty?

2. What are the main objectives set by the European Union?

3. What are the values which the Union is founded on?

4. Does the EU have a flag? What does it look like?

5. The legal organization of the EU consists of the three pillars, doesn’t it? What are they?

6. What primary functions does the European Commission have?

7. When was the European Council established?

8. What is the main decision-making institution of the European Community?

9. Does all community legislation require the approval of the Council?

10. What are the main functions of the European Court of Justice?

Word Study

1. Translate the following lexical units from the text from English into Russian, prepare questions with these lexical units, based on the text:

to demonstrate consistency and solidarity, sustainable development, internal frontiers, a monetary union, to assert one’s identity, to strengthen the protection of rights, the corpus of rules, respect for human dignity, diversity, a pillar, a single institutional framework, a commissioner, to monitor compliance with, to oversee the execution of a law, to define a long-term agenda, an agenda-setting role, a joint decision-making power, to settle conflicts, to fulfil treaty obligations.

2. Translate the following word-combinations from Russian into English, restore the context of their use:

внутренние границы, усилить защиту прав, выполнять обязательства договора, совместная власть принятия решений, Еврокомиссия, следить за выполнением закона, основной принцип, уважение человеческого достоинства, отстаивать собственную индивидуальность, устойчивое развитие, свод правил, урегулировать конфликты, роль определяющего повестку дня, гарантировать сплоченность действий и постоянство, Общая внешняя политика и политика безопасности, Европейская политика безопасности и обороны, строить долгосрочные планы.

3. Find the words and word-combinations that mean approximately the same in the text, use these lexical units in the examples of your own:

1. to express the quality of always being the same or always being good and loyalty and general agreement between all the people in a group, or between different groups because they all have a shared aim

2. common experience

3. a responsibility or obligation of determining the basic objectives of a meeting

4. a basic principle

5. to control, manage the process of carrying out a rule that people in a particular area must obey

6. to guarantee coordination of actions and perseverance

7. a collection of all the official instructions that say how things must be done

8. borders within the Union

9. constant, permanent growth of smth, so that it becomes bigger or more advanced

10. to resolve disputes

11. the quality of having variety and including a wide range of different people

12. the ability to behave in a way that shows you respect yourself and stay calm, even in a very difficult situation

13. a member of a commission

4. Find the odd-one-out:

1. consistency-coherence-variability-permanency

2. to uphold-to support-to sustain-to contribute

3. to assert-to aver-to confirm-to allege

4. variety-diversity-multiplicity-similarity

5. agreement-compliance-discord-consent

5. Fill in the gaps of the following sentences using active vocabulary:

1. Under the Maastricht Treaty the main task of the Union is to organize relations between the member states and their peoples so that the can ___________.

2. The first objective of the Union consists in promoting _________, an area without _______.

3. The second objective deals with _______ on the international scene.

4. The third objective concerns _______.

5. The Union should be built on _______ - the corpus ________ established by and in the context of the Union.

6. Among the values the Union is founded on the main one is _______.

7. The Union’s motto is “United in _______”.

Speaking

1. What do theses abbreviations stand for? Characterize each of them:

EC

CFSP

ESDP

ECJ

2. Use the following words and word combinations to make up the summary of the text (not less than 15 sentences):

1. to demonstrate consistency and solidarity

2. a monetary union

3. to assert one’s identity

4. to strengthen the protection of rights

5. acquis communautaire

6. the corpus of rules

7. diversity

8. a pillar

9. to ensure coherence and consistency

10. a commissioner

11. to define a long-term agenda

12. an agenda-setting role

13. a joint decision-making power

14. to settle conflicts

15. to fulfil treaty obligations

Translation

Translate the following text from Russian into English using a dictionary:

1. Основные институты Евросоюза

Европейский совет

Высший политический орган ЕС, состоящий из глав государств и правительств стран-членов и их заместителей — министров иностранных дел. Членом Европейского Совета является также председатель Еврокомиссии.

Совет определяет основные стратегические направления развития ЕС. Выработка генеральной линии политической интеграции — основная миссия Европейского совета. Наряду с Советом Министров Европейский Совет наделён политической функцией, заключающейся в изменении основополагающих договоров европейской интеграции.

Европейская комиссия

Европейская Комиссия — высший орган исполнительной власти Европейского союза. Состоит из 27 членов, по одному от каждого государства-члена. При исполнении своих полномочий они независимы, действуют только в интересах ЕС, не вправе заниматься какой-либо другой деятельностью. Государства-члены не вправе влиять на членов Еврокомиссии.

Штаб-квартира Европейской Комиссии находится в Брюсселе.

Совет ЕС

Совет Европейского союза, или, неофициально, «Совет Министров», наделён рядом функций как исполнительной, так и законодательной власти, а потому нередко рассматривается как ключевой институт в процессе принятия решений на уровне Европейского союза.

Европейский парламент

Европейский Парламент является собранием из 785 депутатов, напрямую избираемых гражданами стран-членов ЕС сроком на пять лет. Председатель Европарламента избирается на два с половиной года. Члены Европейского парламента объединяются не по национальному признаку, а в соответствии с политической ориентацией.

Основная роль Европарламента — утверждение бюджета ЕС. Кроме того, практически любое решение Совета ЕС требует либо одобрения Парламента, либо по крайней мере запроса его мнения. Парламент контролирует работу Комиссии и обладает правом ее роспуска (которым, впрочем, он никогда не пользовался).

Европейский суд

Европейский суд (официальное название — Суд Европейских сообществ) проводит свои заседания в Люксембурге и является судебным органом ЕС высшей инстанции.

В соответствии с Маастрихтским договором Суду предоставлено право налагать штрафы на государства-члены, не выполняющие его постановления.

Суд сыграл огромную роль в становлении и развитии права ЕС. Многие, даже основополагающие принципы правопорядка Союза основаны не на международных договорах, а на прецедентных решениях Суда.

Talking point

Express your opinion on the following questions:

1. Which is the most influential part of the EU? How is it expressed?

2. Can you say that the EU works effectively? Which parts of it would you rather were reformed?

3. Does the EU need a standing army? Explain your viewpoint.

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ

Составители:

Оксана Романовна Жерновая

Юлия Сергеевна Бузуева

Надежда Алексеевна Глазунова

Учебно-методическое пособие

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования «Нижегородский государственный

университет им. Н.И. Лобачевского».

603950, Нижний Новгород, пр. Гагарина, 23.

Подписано в печать . Формат 60´84 1/16.

Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная. Гарнитура Таймс.

Усл. печ. л. 2,5. Уч.-изд. л.

Заказ № . Тираж 300 экз.

Отпечатано в типографии Нижегородского госуниверситета

им. Н.И. Лобачевского

603600, г. Нижний Новгород, ул. Большая Покровская, 37

Лицензия ПД № 18-0099 от 14.05.01

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