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Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь.
Е.А. Бахтадзе (глава 7, раздел «Модальные глаголы»), О.С. Симанович,
Л.М. Лещева (глава 7, раздел «Наклонение. Типы условных предложений»),
Т.В. Кудрейко (глава 7, раздел «Согласование времен»), Л.К. Козлова (глава 8),
Л.М. Лещева (глава 9).
Под общей редакцией д-ра филил. наук, проф. Л.М. Лещевой
доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры грамматики английского языка Минского государственного лингвистического университета Д.Г. Богушевич;
заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков Института государственной службы Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, кандидат филологических наук, доцент А.Г. Храмченков.
Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2006
hapter 7. VERBS
1. Correct any errors inserting either
to be able to
1) I read when I was four years old, but I not write very well.
2) His writing was so bad that I not read his letter at first, but with an effort I make out what he said.
3) We not afford to pay for our journey across Africa, but we make it in the end because the bicycle firm lend us the money.
4) When he arrived in Africa, no one tell Stanley if Livingstone was alive or dead, but after a long journey, we find him.
2. Rewrite the following sentences so that each sentence contains the modal verb
5) It’s hardly possible that he was puzzled by such a simple question.
6) I doubt that she was making notes of what he said.
7) It’s hardly possible that he feels more dead than alive.
8) It’s impossible that she is keeping to a milk diet.
9) I doubt that he has been cured of pneumonia so quickly.
10) Where is Silvia hiding? – I’m looking for her everywhere!
3. Complete these sentences with modal verbs to express possibility or uncertainty.
11) Where are you going for your holidays? – I haven’t finally decided but I...
12) What sort of car are you going to buy? – I’m not sure yet but I ...
13) I can’t find Monica anywhere. I wonder where she is. – She ...
14) Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? – I’m sure he was in the house at the time. He ...
15) Is Jack in his office? – I’m not sure. He...
16) Look! Sue’s going out. – I wonder where she is going. – She ...
4. Respond to the following questions. Express supposition implying uncertainty.
17) Her eyes are red. What’s the matter? (to cry)
18) Why is Ann absent? (to be interviewed)
19) He looks sick and tired. What’s the matter? (to catch a cold)
20) Where is the nurse? (to give injections to the patients)
to be able to
21) I think, when I’m twenty-five, then I ... get control of money.
22) I wonder if I ... ask your advice.
23) It ... never be forgotten!
24) I wish he ... have a pony of his own.
25) If a letter comes for me ... you please forward it to this address.
26) I ... help laughing.
27) The police were suspicious at first but I ... convince them that we were innocent.
28) The swimmer was very tired but he ... reach the shore before he collapsed.
29) I don’t think I ... drive you to the airport.
6. Make the following sentences negative
30) She must have been quite conscious of having made a mistake.
31) The telegram must have certainly come in time.
32) She must have been very careful. She didn’t spill a drop of milk.
33) They must have given us the correct information about the road.
34) The students have passed the tests. They must have understood the rules.
35) The dog must have recognised his master. It didn’t bark as we approached the house.
36) He must have been very experienced in sailing navigation.
7. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal verb to
express strong supposition
37) Evidently, the doctor is still examining the patient.
38) Surely, she is preparing her report now.
39) I will not bother you any longer; no doubt, you are tired of my talking.
40) Probably, Nancy has been given her impressions of England for an hour already.
41) Evidently, they have been treating him for pneumonia for a month.
8. Translate from Russian into English
42) Вы, должно быть, не узнали меня и поэтому не подошли ко мне.
43) Вы, наверное, и не пытались это сделать, иначе вы бы не говорили, что это легко.
44) Она, должно быть, заболела. Иначе она была бы уже на работе.
45) По-видимому, это труднее, чем вы предполагали.
46) В окнах нет света. Должно быть, опять никого нет дома.
47) Мне пора домой.
48) У вас очень много ошибок. Надо уделять больше внимания грамматике.
49) Этот вопрос надо решить немедленно.
9. Rewrite these sentences so that each sentence contains the modal verb
50) We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases.
51) It wasn’t necessary to walk. He took us in his car.
52) My employer said, ‘I shan’t require your work tomorrow’.
53) Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard.
54) Was it obligatory for us to vote?
10. Answer these questions. Show that a planned action was not carried out
using the modal verb
to be to.
55) Did they start on Saturday?
56) Did she wear that nice dress at the graduation party?
57) Did he join you in your trip?
58) Did they treat you to a ballet?
59) Did he take his child fishing?
60) Did she keep her birthday?
11 Complete each gap using
negative contracted forms
61) You ... take an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain.
62) Don’t lose your purse! You ... leave it in the bus.
63) Come on. We ... hurry. We ... be late.
64) We... make our own fun in the old days. There wasn’t any television there.
65) There is so much traffic now. You ... wait ages to cross the road.
66) This report isn’t so important. You ... type the report today.
12. Respond to the following remarks to criticise a past action
67) The accident happened because Tom was driving on the wrong side of the road.
68) He was not careful while crossing the road.
69) She didn’t hire a taxi and missed her train.
70) She left her umbrella at home and was caught in the heavy rain.
13. Respond to the following remarks making the following statements emotionally coloured
71) You are to go to the dean’s office to tell him all about your problems in your group.
72) Why don’t you go to the station to meet your friend?
73) Your friend is lagging behind the group. He needs your help.
74) Your friend misses lessons very often. You should talk to him to know the reasons.
75) You have done a wrong thing. Now you feel sorry.
Unit 10, 11
14. Put in
Open the brackets.
76) My grandfather always ... (get up)
at half past five.
77) ...we (go)
to the park? – That … (be)
78) I’m in terrible trouble. What ... I (do)
79) We ... (not to be)
here next September. It’s hard to believe, isn’t it?
80) I ... (not to listen to)
to any more of this nonsense.
81) You ... (do)
as I say!
82) My aunt loved writing letters. She … (write) twenty or thirty a week.
15. Translate from
Russian into English
83) Должно быть, она потеряла его адрес.
84) Вам бы следовало послушаться моего совета.
85) Подумать только! Она согласилась на это предложение.
86) С какой стати я должен это делать!?
87) И до чего дело дошло!
88) Страшно, что с ней случилась такая неприятность.
89) Случись так, что вы увидите Анну, расскажите ей обо всём, что произошло.
90) Ты будешь выполнять мои указания!
91) Неужели она так и не получила мое письмо?
92) Ты могла бы, по крайней мере, посоветоваться с сестрой!
93) Возможно, он боится, что ему сделают укол.
94) Я зря дожидался окончания программы.
95) Мы с вами договорились, что вы ничего не должны говорить!
96) Не двигайся! Стой, где стоишь!
97) Его, возможно, забрали в больницу вчера.
98) Я полагаю, это и есть твой дом!
99) Ей совсем необязательно присутствовать при нашем разговоре.
100) Ради чего я буду разговаривать с ней?
Unit 1 Meaning and use
or simply modals,
express modality, i.e. the speaker’s attitude towards the action in the sentence. The area of meaning referred to as modality is rather broad, and the degree of modality may be strong or weak. Thus, modal verbs are used to express:
shows strong necessity; need
shows weaker necessity; to have to
expresses necessity due to some circumstances);
is used for strong possibility; may
for weak possibility);
and ought to
are used to talk about duty, but ought to
is stronger,) etc.
Each modal verb may express a wide range of modality. Here is a quick reference to the major meanings of the modal verbs dealt in this chapter:
· can /could
express ability, possibility, uncertainty, doubt, astonishment, permission, prohibition;
· may/ might
express possibility, criticism, requests, permission, hope;
is used to express obligation, necessity, prohibition, supposition;
expresses obligation or absence of obligation;
· to have to
· to be to
is used for possibility, obligation, orders, and to express things fated to happen;
· ought to
express obligation, advice, deduction. Should
is also found in emphatic constructions and subordinate clauses;
· shall/ will/ would
are used for requests, orders, offers, and to describe characteristic habit, certainty or supposition.
have the following peculiarities in use:
- They are followed by the Infinitive (all types of the Infinitive are possible) (See Ch. 8) without the particle to
(with the exception of ought to, have to, to be to; need
may be used with and without to
): I must
water the flowers tomorrow
They must have been
right. This work can
be done at once.
But: I have to
work. She ought to
- They have no auxiliaries
in questions, negatives, tags and short answers:
you swim? – No, I can’t
. Dorothy shouldn’
t be doing that, should
- Many of them lack
the ending “-s”
in the Present Indefinite for the third person singular: She may
know her address. He can
play the piano.
But: He needs
to look his papers through. She has
to work hard
- Only some modals have past forms (could, should, would, might, had, was/were
). Certain past ideas can be expressed by a modal verb followed by a Perfect Infinitive (have
+ Past Participle):
You should have
me the truth.
- Besides a full negative form (should not, may not, need not,
etc.), modal verbs
have contracted negative forms: can - cannot – can’t,
– couldn’t, will – won’t, shall – shan’t, should – shouldn’t, may – mayn’t, might – mightn’t, would – wouldn’t, must – mustn’t, ought to – oughtn’t to, need (to) – needn’t
: I said that he couldn’t
it. He mustn’t
smoke. You needn’t
have no infinitives
. It is impossible to say: *to may
E x e r c i s e s
1. Read the following dialogue. Find the modal verbs in it, comment on their meaning, peculiarities of use, and fill in the chart arranging them from possibility to necessity.
John and Anastasia meet on the way home from work.
– Hello, Anastasia. Are you going to Uncle Ari’s party next Thursday?
– I may go, but I’m still not sure.
– Does that mean that you’re not planning to go?
– I didn’t say that. I said that there is a possibility that I might not go. It’s still doubtful.
– Why don’t you know for sure?
– Well, I can come only if I get the night off from work.
– I really think that you should try to attend. We all have an obligation to be there. After all, Uncle Ari is the head of the family, and he will expect everyone to come. Remember, he is arriving from Athens and is bringing our newly married cousins, Christine and Theodore. There will be a large dinner. Most of the food will come from Uncle George’s restaurant.
– That sounds great, but I’m having trouble getting the evening off from work. What would you do in my place?
– In that case, I would try to get someone to replace me.
– I never thought of doing that. Perhaps I could convince my friend Barbara to switch with me.
– Oh, you really should try. In fact, you must be there. We won’t have a good time without you.
– Thanks, John. You’ve made me realize that I must come.
The modal verb can
has two forms: can
for the Present Indefinite Tense and could
for the Past Indefinite Tense. The equivalent expression to
be able to
supplies all the missing forms of the verb can
I don’t think I’ll be able
to explain it when I see her.
expresses ability or capability, possibility, incredulity or doubt.
to express ability or capability
is used to talk about general ability
in present and past (could
) in active and passive structures: I can
a little English. George could
the piano when he was a boy. Gold can
in these mountains.
To express the meaning of ability
is often found with verbs of perception
(receiving information through the eyes, ears, etc.
) hear, see, smell,
etc.: I can
music. I could
, or cognitive verbs
understand, follow, remember
: I can’t/don’t
what Edwin is talking about
It does not always add very much to the meaning and in this case can
is not rendered in Russian: Я слышу музыку. Я не понимаю, о чем говорит Эдвин.
The expression to be able
is also used to express ability or capability in present, future, and past but it is a little more formal and less usual than can
: Frank is good at computers. He can
write/is able to
Moreover, was/were able to
is used to say that ability or opportunity resulted in a particular action, to say that somebody ‘managed to do’
‘succeeded in doing’
something on one occasion: She was able to
translate the article without my help. = She managed
to do it.
these two sentences:
The children could
swim when they were quite young
(a past ability).
The children were able to
swim across the river
(a past action
To be able to
is also used in the following structures:
– It’s nice to be able to
to the Theatre.
· after a modal verb:
be able to
· in the Present Perfect Tense:
Dorothy has been able to
translate that article and I’m proud of her.
+ Perfect Infinitive
is used to talk about unrealized past ability or to criticize people for not doing things: You could
But you didn’t help.) (Russ.: Ты бы мог мне помочь) You could have told
me you were leaving.
(But you didn’t tell.) (Russ.: Ты мог бы мне сказать, что ты уезжаешь.)
to express possibility, choices and
may be used to talk about possibility
a) theoretical possibility
be quite cold here in summer
In this sense could
suggests a less definite possibility: It could
rain later this evening.
b) possibility due to existing laws
marry here when they are eighteen.
c) possibility due to circumstances or to choices and opportunities: You can
have the book when I have finished it. There are several ways out. You can
go to the police, you can
visit a lawyer or you can
forget all about that. What shall we do tomorrow? – Well, we could
is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.
Russian constructions могло (бы) быть и хуже, могло (бы) быть и лучше
expressing possibility or impossibility with comparative adjectives are rendered in English by could
and Indefinite Infinitive
: The situation couldn’t
. It could
found to talk about future probability
– the chances that something will happen: may/might
express this idea. (See Unit 3)
to express uncertainty, doubt,
astonishment and improbability
also convey the meaning of uncertainty, doubt
, and astonishment
(these meanings are closely connected).
is used to imply more uncertainty
it be time?
They are used in combination with different forms of the Infinitive and are found only in interrogative sentences (general questions): Can
he really be ill? Can
it be true? Can
she be singing in the next room
Sentences of this kind are often emotionally coloured
, and in Russian this construction is rendered as: Неужели? Неужели это правда? Неужели он болен? и т.д.
(or Perfect Continuous Infinitive
) are used to refer the action to the past:
he have told
a lie? Could
she have been waiting
are also used to talk about improbability
and are found only in negative sentences (all forms of the Infinitive are possible): It can’t
true. She can’
t be singing
in the next room.
is used to refer the action to the past
: He can’t
is also used in this meaning to make the statement less categorical: She couldn’t
In Russian it is rendered as: Не может быть, чтобы… Вряд ли это так…
to express permission, requests,
are used to:
· ask for
I use your pen? Can
· give permission
: You can
wait in my office.
· refuse permission
: You cannot
stay out late!
is more polite and formal than can
I borrow your book? Do you think I could
use your office?
To be allowed to
is used to say that the permission resulted in a particular action, something that really happened. I was allowed to
leave work early yesterday. We were allowed to
enter the showing room when we looked around the station.
are also found to offer to do things
for people, could
makes the offer more polite: Can
I help you? Could
I help you?
in set phrases
Learn the following set phrases
· Can’t help
means that you can’t stop yourself doing it, something makes you, even though you are being careful not to: She is a naughty girl but I can’t help
Its rendered as: не могу не делать чего-то).
· Can’t but/can’t help but +
show the same meaning: I can’t but
him about. I couldn’t but
It’s rendered in Russian as: не могу удержаться от…. or ничего другого не остается, как…
· Can’t stand/Can’t bear
something say that you dislike or hate doing something: She can’t bear
It is rendered in Russian as: терпеть не могу…
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning and the form of the modal verb
. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) You can see the sea from our bedroom window. (Can is used with a verb of perception expressing ability.)
2) I’m afraid I can’t come to your party next Friday.
3) You could join her much later if she wants you to go on the yacht.
4) I wish he could have a pony on his own.
5) It can’t be true!
6) I can’t help laughing.
7) Where’s Miss Laura? She came out right after me. Where can she be?
8) How could she have been so cold, so cruel to this adorable creature?
9) I could always stay up as a child.
10) Could I pick some roses as well?
11) Could you stop the car, please, for a moment?
2. Read the situations and write what you would say.
1) You’ve got a pound note but you need some change. You ask somebody to help you. Can you change a pound/Could you change a pound?
2) You want to borrow your friend’s camera: What do you say to him/her?
3) You have a car and you want to give somebody a lift. What do you say?
4) You have to go to the airport but you don’t know how to get there. You ask a passer-by.
5) You are telephoning the owner of a flat which was advertised in a newspaper. You are interested in the flat and you want to come and see it today. (Do you think I…?)
6) You want to leave work early because you have some important things to do. What do you ask your boss? (Do you think I…?)
7) You want to invite someone to come and stay with you for the weekend.
8) The person in the next room has some music on very loud. How do you ask him politely to turn it down? (Do you think you…?)
9) You have to carry some heavy boxes upstairs. Ask someone to help you.
10) You want your friend to show you how to change the film in your camera. What do you say to him/her?
3. Complete these sentences using the modal verbs
to be able to
. Sometimes it is possible to use either; sometimes only to
be able to
1) George has travelled a lot. He can or is able to
speak four languages.
2) Tom … drive but he hasn’t got a car.
3) I can’t understand Oscar, I’ve never … understand him.
4) He was very strong; he … ski all day and dance all night.
5) The car plunged into the river. The driver … get out but the passengers were drowned.
6) When you have taken your degree you … put letters after your name?
7) Don’t try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you … remember any of them.
8) Ask Ann about your problems. She should … help you.
9) I was a long way from the stage. I … see all right but I … hear very well.
10) I just seem to know nobody who I … ring and say I just feel awful and I haven’t a penny.
11) We … borrow umbrellas; so we didn’t get wet.
12) … you walk or did they have to carry you?
4. Arrange each of the following comments using the modal verb
into 6 groups according to their basic meaning. (One group will have five comments, the others two each). Think of your own examples
I can’t believe it.
I can’t work it out.
I can’t take it in.
I can’t bear it.
I can’t understand it.
I can’t cope.
I can’t manage.
I can’t take it.
I can’t help it.
I can’t put it out of my mind.
I can’t get over it.
I can’t stand it.
I can’t stop myself.
I can’t face it.
I can’t put up with it.
5. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs
to be able to
plus a notional verb.
1) Did you persuade Jennifer? ~ We tried hard but we couldn’t
persuade her to come with us.
2) I can’t sing now but I … very well when I was a child.
3) He can’t play tennis very well now but he … quite well when he was younger.
4) When she was at school she … faster than anyone else.
5) Did they find your house? ~ Yes, it took them a long time but they …
6) Did you win the match? ~ Yes, it wasn’t easy but I …
7) Ten years ago I … from one side of the lake to the other.
8) Did the thief escape? ~ Yes, the policemen chased the thief but he …
9) I looked everywhere for the book but I …
10) The fire spread quickly but everyone…
in the blanks with a modal verb to talk about unrealized past ability.
1) We didn’t go out last night. We could have gone
to the cinema but we decided to stay at home.
2) I … to the concert but I changed my mind.
3) He … the examination but he decided not to.
4) Fanny … a new car but she hadn’t got enough money.
5) Frank … me to mend my car but he didn’t want to do it.
6) Why didn’t you stop all that? You …some way.
7) Ken … his aunt to the station but he had no driving licence at that moment.
8) Jack … Edward £50 but he didn’t want to.
7. Use the modal verb
followed by the appropriate infinitive.
1) You can’t have done (not to do)
it. I don’t believe it.
2) She … not (to stay)
at her friends all time.
3) I … (to help)
him but I didn’t know he needed help.
4) Such problems … not (to solve)
5) How … she (to work)
in the garden now? It is already dark.
6) I simply … not (to refuse)
. They would have been hurt.
7) He wasn’t old. … he … not (to be)
more than forty.
8) They … not (to be)
sister and brother.
9) She is too young. She … not (to suffer from)
constantly from insomnia.
10) … he … (to be operated)
8. Paraphrase the following sentences using the modal verb
in the meaning of astonishment, uncertainty or doubt.
1) Is it possible that she is still running a high temperature? – Can/could
she be still running a high temperature?
2) Is it possible that she is still worrying over such a trifle?
3) Do you believe that they live under bad conditions?
4) Do you believe that the patient has recovered?
5) It’s hardly possible that she is in now.
6) It’s impossible that the child is shivering with cold. He’s warmly
9. Read the dialogue, single out the patterns with the modal verb
. Comment on emotional colouring of the meanings. Reproduce this dialogue by heart: Think of your own examples.
- Marjory is still in hospital.
- Good heavens! Can it be true
! How awful! (Can is used to express astonishment.)
- But they say that tomorrow she will be back home from hospital at last! After fourteen months!
- Good gracious! Could she have been actually lying in bed for a year? Poor thing! It’s simply incredible!
- Laura is out again! She has gone to the club.
- Fancy that now. Can she be enjoying herself when her mother is ill? She could have stayed at home if she were a serious girl.
- Do you remember we are going to the concert? If you don’t make haste, we shall be late. We have only half an hour left before the beginning of the concert.
- Why? It can’t be half past six now! Your watch is at least ten minutes fast.
- And where can I have put my eye-glasses?
- Oh, here they are. Don’t make such a fuss. Let’s go!
10. Fill in the following spaces with either
to be able to
1) We will be able to
Mr. Browns lecture on British art next Tuesday.
2) I knew this town so I … (to advise)
him where to go.
3) He … (to speak)
French very well when he was at school.
4) I … (to get)
his new book last week.
5) … you (to translate)
the text last Friday? ~ No, I … (negative)
. ~ I … (to translate)
it next week.
6) When the garage had repaired our car we … (to continue)
7) At five years old he … (to read)
11. Translate into English.
1) Неужели она все еще ждет нас у станции метро?
2) Неужели она согласна?
3) Не может быть, чтобы он сказал это.
4) Неужели он все еще в больнице?
5) Не могу не смеяться при одном ее виде.
6) Терпеть не могу быть одной в доме.
7) Мне ничего не остается, как принять этот факт.
8) Мне ничего не оставалось, как приютить ее у себя.
9) Я не мог не восхищаться ее пением.
10) Не может быть, чтобы он так все легко воспринимал.
11) Не может быть, чтобы она не узнала нас.
12) Не может быть, чтобы она нам не доверяла.
13) Неужели она так и не получила мое письмо?
14) Неужели так никто и не видел, как он это сделал?
15) Не может быть, чтобы они не осознали опасность.
16) Ты можешь взять словарь. Мне он больше не нужен.
17) Можно мы возьмем Джека с собой?
18) Нет, малыш, зимой мороженое на улице есть нельзя.
19) Вы не могли бы продиктовать мне эту страницу?
20) Вы не могли бы привести свой пример? Нельзя давать примеры только из учебника.
21) Вы можете сейчас продиктовать письма? – Нет, я собираюсь принять несколько посетителей сейчас.
22) Вы не могли бы представить меня некоторым из своих коллег?
23) Когда бы я мог увидеться с вами?
24) Не могли бы вы передать ему мои наилучшие пожелания?
Unit 3 May/might
The modal verb may
has two forms: may
for the present tenses and might
for the past tenses. The expression to be allowed
and to be
can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb may
: You are to stay in bed until you are allowed
to get up.
is chiefly used to express permission
It is also used to express uncertainty, criticism,
§ 1 May/might
to express permission
· to grant
: You may
watch TV for as long as you like.
· to ask for
I borrow your umbrella
It is more polite than Can
I borrow your umbrella
is also used, it is very polite and formal but is less common: Might
I join you?
To be allowed to
is also used to ask about permission
, yet there is a difference.
I take a photo of you? = Will you allow it?
we allowed to
take photos? = What is the rule?
· to refuse
You may not
put TV оn!
To make these sentences past the expression to be allowed
is used (not might
): I may
go today. – I was allowed
to go that day.
is used when the main verb is in the past: He told
me that I might
smoke in the room
§ 2 May/might
to express possibility
and might +
are used to express possibility
in the present or future. Might
is mostly used as a less definitive or more hesitant form of may
. It suggests a smaller chance, when you think something is possible but not very likely.
go to London tomorrow.
(≈a 50% chance)
come with me.
(≈a 30% chance)
must be used:
· when the main verb of the sentence is in the past: He
that he might
be late that night
(Reported Speech) But: He
be late tonight”.
· in conditional sentences: If
you poured hot water into, it might
means ‘it is possible that it is not
. (=It’s possible that it is not true)
and might +
are used in speculations about
actions: He may/might
· when the main verb of the sentence is in the past: He said/thought
that she might
have missed the plane;
· in sentences with unreal condition: If
he had taken
the other road we might
§ 3 May/might
to express wishes, persuasive requests, and criticism
always comes at the beginning of the sentence: May
you both be very happy! May
God be with you!
is not used in this case.)
is often used to make requests or suggestions
in the affirmative clauses: You might
try asking your uncle for a job.
occurs to talk about the past criticizing
something or somebody:
. (but you didn’t) It sounds like a reproach.
§ 4 May/might
in set phrases
Learn the following set phrases
· May/might as well +
are a very mild and unemphatic way of expressing an intention
. It also suggests or recommends an action because there is nothing better, nothing more interesting and etc: I may as well have
something to eat. I might as well stay
at home tonight.
It is rendered in Russian as: пожалуй, будет лучше, если я…
· It might have been
means ‘things are not so bad after all’. (могло (бы) быть и хуже)
· He might have been taken
He looked like her brother'. (можно было (бы) принять за …)
§ 5 Compare may
for permission and
Notice some peculiarities in the usage of may/can
is more common when the speaker gives
permission: You may
borrow my book = ‘I give you permission to take it’
, or in impersonal statements
concerning authority: An accused person may
(=has the right) to appeal). A police officer may
ask for your driving license.
Though in informal English, in colloquial speech can/could
is used: He can
borrow my car.
would be much more usual than may
in the meaning ‘to have permission’
: I can
leave / I’m allowed
is more usual than can/could
in indirect speech: He
leave the room / She
leave the room.
expresses future probability
doesn’t express this idea: We may/might
go hunting this autumn
(Not *we can go
Both cannot/could not
and may not/might not
are used to express improbability.
But the degree of faith expressed by may not/might not
are less, this verb points to a less definitive improbability or possibility.
(Perhaps it is not true).
It can’t be
(It is certainly not true).
He may/might not have understood
(Perhaps he didn’t understand).
He can’t/couldn’t have understood
(He certainly didn’t understand).
occurs when there is an idea of condition
: Why don’t you ring him? You can/could
use my mobile phone.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning and the form of the modal verb
1) The telephone went on ringing. Ann said: ‘It might be Edmund. – It suggests a smaller chance, when you think something is possible but not very likely.
2) He might have missed his plane. If he drives, he may be here at any moment.
3) Supper passed off better than it might have been expected.
4) His eyes were so close together that I honestly thought they might run into each other one day.
5) Well, don’t look on the black side of things. She may get over it in a few weeks.
6) He said I might come to him any day I liked.
7) After all I’ve done for them, they might be more thankful!
8) You might have told us this half an hour ago.
9) You might pay more attention to your lessons.
10) May God be with you!
2. Answer the questions using the modal verb
1) Do you know if Ruth is in her room? ~ I’m not sure. She may
be in her room.
2) Do you know if Irene likes ice-cream? ~ …
3) Do you know if they are married? ~ …
4) Do you know if she wants to go to the theatre? ~ …
5) Do you know if he is telling the truth? ~ …
6) Do you know if John has a car? ~ …
7) Do you know if he was serious? ~ …
8) Do you know if she was looking after the baby? ~ …
9) Do you know if they were listening to the news? ~ …
10) Are they ready? ~ …
3. Respond to each situation making up your own sentences.
1) I can’t find George anywhere. I wonder where he is: he might have gone
2) Look! She is going out. I wonder where she’s going.
3) Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time.
4) How do you think the fire started?
5) I wonder where Tom was going, when you saw him.
6) Ethel didn’t come to the party. I wonder why not.
7) The weather is dull. There are only black clouds in the sky.
8) Where are you going to hang that picture?
4. Use the modal verb
followed by the appropriate infinitive.
1) She asked me if she … (to switch off)
the radio: if she might
switch off …
2) We wish your journey … (to be)
3) Tell him he … (to warn)
me and not (to put)
me in such an awkward position.
4) The police … (to ask)
a driver to take a breath test.
5) I’ll wait a week so that he … (to have)
time to think it over.
6) He isn’t going to eat it; I … as well (to give)
it to the dog.
7) You … at least (to read)
8) You … (to write)
. I’m very annoyed that you didn’t.
9) He said that we … (to use)
his office whenever we liked.
10) I don’t think I’ll succeed but I … (to try)
11) Two parallel white lines in the middle of the road mean that you … (not to overtake)
5. Read these situations and make up sentences with
may/might as well.
1) A friend has invited you to a party. You’re not very keen to go but there isn’t anything else to do, so you think you should go. You say: I might as well go.
2) You are in a café with a friend. You’ve just finished your drinks. You’re not in a hurry, so you think you should both have another drink. You say: We… What would you like?
3) Someone has given you a free ticket for a concert. You are not very keen on the concert, but you think you should go because you have a free ticket. You say: I… It’s a pity to waste a free ticket.
4) You’ve invited some friends to dinner but they haven’t come. The dinner has been ready for half an hour and you think you should begin without them. You say: We… I don’t think they are coming.
6. How would you ask for permission in these situations?
1) You’re at a friend’s flat. You want to make a phone call. ~ Can
I use your phone?
2) You need a calculator. The person sitting next to you has got one.
3) You have gone into a café. There people who you know from work were sitting at a table. You go over to the table.
4) You had to go to a lecture, but you were ill. Your friend went to the lecture and took notes. Next day you are well again and you see your friend.
7. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Право же, вы могли бы сделать это для меня.
2) Можете зайти к нам после семи, если хотите.
3) Ты могла бы, по крайней мере, посоветоваться с сестрой!
4) Оливер спросил, можно ли ему получить еще тарелку каши.
5) Больному стало лучше. Вы можете навестить его завтра.
6) Тебе можно быть и посерьезнее. Ты уже почти взрослый.
7) Она не была англичанкой, но ее можно было принять за нее.
8) Спроси их, можно мне пойти тоже с ними в поход?
9) Ты мог бы купить мне эту книгу! Ты знаешь, что она мне нужна.
10) Может быть, ей и не нравился новый учитель, но она его нисколько не боялась.
11) Может быть, на вас никто и внимания не обратит.
12) Где же мой паспорт? – Возможно, ты забыл его дома.
13) Возможно, его не было на лекции. – Но он говорит, что он там был.
14) Возможно, летом меня не будет в городе.
15) Он стоял довольно далеко от них и, возможно, не слышал их слов.
16) Может быть, он не знает, что ты серьезно болен.
17) У мальчика, возможно, высокая температура.
18) Его, возможно, забрали в больницу вчера.
19) Он, может быть, лежит в постели уже неделю.
20) Возможно, врач уже осмотрел всех больных, и его рабочий день подошел к концу.
21) У него, может быть, не было времени сегодня. Он, возможно, сделает это завтра.
22) Он, может быть, заболел. Он обычно очень рано встает.
23) Возможно, он боится, что ему сделают укол.
Unit 4 Must
has only one form. The expressions to have to
and to be
can be used to supply the missing tense forms of the verb must.
can be used after a past reporting verb as if it were a past tense: The doctor
that I must
is mostly used to express obligation
or urgent command
, very emphatic advice. It is also used to express prohibition
, and supposition
, bordering on assurance.
§ 1 Must
to express obligation and prohibition
expresses obligation, strong necessity:
a) arising out of the nature of things and consequently inevitable: Plants must
get water. All experience shows that man must
b) due to circumstances (in this meaning it is equivalent to to have to
): He must
is not used expressing past necessity
or future obligation
occurs in questions
to ask about what the hearer thinks is necessary. In this case must
may acquire additional shades of duty
I clean all the rooms? Must
he do it himself?
The absence of necessity
is expressed by need not
I go there tomorrow? – No, you needn’t
In negative sentences (must + not
) the modal verb must
expresses absolute prohibition
. In the opinion of the speaker, there is not choice at all: You mustn’t
make noise. The children are sleeping in the next room.
not smoke here!
§ 2 Must
to express a command and
an emphatic request
is used to express a command, an urgent (emphatic) request
go. You must
tell the truth
(‘It is your duty’ = a command).
You may borrow my book but you must
bring it back before six.
come to see us
= (emphatic request).
When you are in London you must
visit the National Gallery. You must
means ‘I must be off’, ‘It’s time for me to go.’
It is rendered in Russian as: Мне пора уходить.
§ 3 Must
to express supposition
is used to express supposition bordering on assurance
, the conclusion that something is certain or highly probable: He looks so pale. He must
In this meaning must
is used with all the forms of the Infinitive (the Indefinite Infinitive if the action refers to the present and the Perfect Infinitive if the action refers to the past) in affirmative sentences only. It corresponds to the Russian должно быть:
want me for something else.
What a comfort you must
have been to your mother!
have been waiting for us for an hour!
To express supposition referring to the future the modal word probably
is used: She will
In negative sentences supposition is expressed by means of the modal word evidently
, she did not
know my address.
+ verbs to fail, to distrust, to dislike, to disapprove, to disbelieve, to misunderstand
or words nobody, never, nothing
are used to convey supposition with strong probability with negative meaning: She must have failed
to pass her exams.
I must have misunderstood
Должно быть, я не понял Вас. Nobody must
the truth. – Должно быть, никто не сказал правду.
§ 4 Compare must
for supposition and
Notice some peculiarities in the usage of must
denotes supposition implying uncertainty
: He may
be an actor. His face is familiar to me.
Наверное, он актер. Его голос мне знаком.
denotes supposition implying strong probability
: He must
be an actor. His voice carries so well. – Должно быть, он актер, у него поставленный голос.
. In negative sentences it is impossible to use ‘may not’
as an answer to express prohibition. In this case must not
is used: May
I smoke here? ~ No, you mustn’t
). – Нет, нельзя.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning and the form of the modal verbs
. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Harry, you are horrible! You mustn’t say these dreadful things. – It is a strong prohibition.
2) Nothing must be done in a hurry.
3) You and I are friends, Basil, and we must always remain so.
4) I’m afraid I must be going, Peter.
5) ‘Perhaps he’s her son…’ ‘He may be her husband’. ‘Oh, but the difference in their ages!’
6) What you tell me may be true, but it happened many years ago.
7) He must have got this wound at the same moment when his horse was shot and fell over him.
8) Mr. Graham may have changed since then. It is very difficult to foresee anything.
9) ‘May I escort you home?’ – ‘No, you may not.’
10) ‘May I smoke in here?’ – ‘No, you mustn’t!’
2. Answer these questions using the modal verb
must + a notional verb.
1) ‘Is he British?’ – Yes, he must be British.
2) ‘Are they married?’ – Yes, they must …
3) ‘Is he serious?’ – No, …
4) ‘Were they in a hurry?’ – …
5) ‘Does Ann know a lot of people?’ – …
6) ‘Did Agnes know about that plan?’ – …
7) ‘Do they have much money?’ – …
8) ‘Was he driving carefully?’ – …
9) ‘Are they waiting for somebody?’ – …
3. Read these situations and make up
a sentence using the modal
with the proper form of the infinitive
1) The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. (to be asleep) I must have been
2) That dress you bought is of very good quality. (to be very expensive)
3) I haven’t seen Jim for ages. (to go away)
4) I wonder where my umbrella is. (to leave)
5) Don passed the examination. (to work hard)
6) She knew everything about our plans. (to overhear)
7) Jennifer did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (to misunderstand)
8) When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (to forget)
9) I don’t understand how the accident happened. (to be out of order)
4. Change the following sentences, making them opposite in meaning.
1) She must have understood that rule, the exercise is done well. - She must have failed to understand
that rule, the exercise is done in the wrong way. or
She must have misunderstood…
2) Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public.
3) He must have written to them of his arrival in due time.
4) She must have bolted the door forgetting that I was to come later.
5) He must have a fair chance of winning, he is in good form.
6) The man must have understood me, so he nodded his head.
5. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs
with the proper infinitive.
1) There are a lot of photographers at the airport today. They must
expecting someone famous to arrive.
2) It … (be)
a film star who’s come to the film festival.
3) Oh, look! Those three men they are enormous. They … (be)
over two meters tall.
4) They … (be)
basketball players. Our team has signed a contract with some new American players. It … be them.
5) They are so big! They … (have)
a very uncomfortable flight.
6. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Анна, должно быть, заболела, иначе, она была бы уже в театре, она никогда не приходит в последний момент.
2) ‘Где Павел?’ ~ ‘Не знаю, возможно, пошел на концерт’. ~ ‘Ну, это не очень любезно с его стороны: он мог бы взять билет и для меня’.
3) Никого сюда не впускать! Понятно!
4) Детей надо учить плавать как можно раньше.
5) Мы должны пойти домой до того как стемнеет.
6) Прекрати шуметь, уже поздно!
7) Тебе нельзя есть мороженое – у тебя больное горло.
8) Хватит рыдать! Слезами горю не поможешь.
9) Мы обязательно должны встретиться и обсудить все тонкости этого дела.
10) Уж он непременно должен быть в курсе всех событий!
11) Иностранец, очевидно, неправильно произнес название этого кушанья, и официант принес ему совсем другое.
12) Вы, должно быть, не в курсе дела, план какой программы изменился?
13) Вам, наверное, ничего об этом не сказали. Иначе вы бы пришли ранее.
14) Она, наверное, все знала, но не хотела меня расстраивать.
15) Очевидно, она сердита на вас, поэтому она не звонит и не заходит.
16) Он, наверняка, не знает о вашем отъезде, а то бы пришел вас проводить.
Unit 5 N e e d
can be used both as an ordinary verb in the meaning ‘require, be in need’
to rest sometimes.
reserve seats? We will need to
repair our house. He did not need
to be told twice. If we want to pass our exams we will need to
and as a modal auxiliary verb expressing immediate necessity
. (We needn’t
reserve seats – there will be plenty of room.).
2. As a modal verb need
has only one tense – the Present, and the same form is used for all persons.
The modal verb need
is mostly used in negative
sentences where need not
expresses lack of necessity
: You needn’t
where a negative answer is often expected: Need
you leave so soon?
(≈ surely not / I hope not). These questions can be answered with must
I type this letter again? ~ Yes, you must
. / No, you needn’t
. I needn’t
go to the dentist.
also occurs in combination with negative–type adverbs like hardly, never, seldom, rarely, scarcely
: She need
know what you have just told me.
is served to say that something was done unnecessary
: You needn’t have told
him about my plans.
Need + …
means ‘to require’: Your hair needs
cutting. The windows need
is not used to talk about habitual, general necessity.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning of the verb
Translate these sentences into Russian.
1) I was rather afraid of that he might act as though we were intimate friends. But I need not have worried. (something was done unnecessary).
2) You needn’t be afraid of telling me everything.
3) If you don’t like the dress you needn’t take it.
4) You needn’t have walked there. You could have taken a bus.
5) Need we continue working by this plan?
6) I needn’t bother about Margaret any more.
7) I have lots of time. I needn’t go home for hours.
8) “You rest”, she said. “I’ll certainly make the tea. You needn’t have asked me.”
9) Everything is packed, except my shirts, so you needn’t trouble.
10) Our friendship needn’t stop, need it?
11) This garden needs tidying.
12) What is right for us needn’t be right for others.
13) We spent a lot of money that we needn’t have spent.
2. Replace the phrases in italics with modal verb
or the full verb
1) Is it necessary
for you to go so soon? – Do you need to go so soon?
2) Is it necessary
for me to wait till you return?
3) It's not necessary
for them to wait.
4) It's hardly necessary
for me to explain it.
5) There is no need
for him to learn about this.
6) I don't think there is any need
for you to explain.
to fill the spaces in the following sentences.
1) You need not
ring the bell; I have a key.
2) Notice in cinema: Exit doors … be locked during performances.
3) You … drink this: it is poison.
4) We … drive fast; we have plenty of time.
5) You … drive fast. There is a speed limit here.
6) Candidates … bring books into the examination room.
7) You … write to him for he will be here tomorrow.
4. Add your comments to the sentences, using
1) The letter was so untidy, I wrote it out again. – Really? You needn’t have written
it out again.
2) He was so worried about being late that he sent the letter fax.
3) She was so worried about not getting a seat that she bought a first-class ticket.
4) We were not sure about sheets and towels, so we brought our own.
5) Nill was worried about not fulfilling the work.
6) I have paid the bill in advance.
7) Bill has spoken about that incident to Reagan. Reagan is very upset.
8) The old people thought the room was dirty, so they cleaned it out themselves.
9) I didn’t know that you were coming home, so I cooked my own supper.
Now rewrite these comments using
didn’t need to
1) – You didn’t need to write it again
2) …………. etc.
5. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Незачем было так торопиться. У нас было достаточно времени.
2) "Должны ли мы перевести всю статью сегодня?" - "Нет, не надо. Вы можете это сделать завтра.
3) Тебе больше не надо носить форму.
4) Ничего не говори, если не хочешь.
5) Возможно, что тебе придется ехать поездом.
6) Я зря дожидался окончания программы.
7) Не надо так громко говорить, я слышу.
8) Напрасно вы так волновались, все прошло отлично.
9) Надо починить крышу и перекрасить стены в доме.
10) Зря ты последовал его советам, я в нем не уверена.
11) Я думаю, что тебе надо проконсультироваться у опытного юриста.
12) Вам совсем не надо было ехать в такую даль.
Unit 6 To have (got)
The verb to have + Infinitive
or to have to
is not a defective verb. It has all the necessary finite forms and auxiliary verbs building up the interrogative
forms: I have to
work to make a living. Hugo has to
work. They had to
work? You didn’t have to
work. I will
not have to
The verb to have got
, or to have got
is used in colloquial and especially in American English. It is found in all kinds of sentences but it has no auxiliary verbs in the interrogative and negative forms: He hasn’t got to
he got to
To have (got) to
is served to convey obligation or necessity imposed
in present future or past: I have to
visit my sister. (Я должен = я вынужден, мне приходится = посетить сестру). You will have to
work to make your living. You had to
work to make your living.
Do not have/have not got
are served to say that there is no obligation
: Simon doesn’t have
tell Patrick about that accident.
E x e r c i s e s
Comment on the meaning of
have got to
. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Bill saw me and I had to tell him what had happened. (necessity due to some circumstances)
2) Something – he didn’t know what – had to be done at once.
3) I will have to go home and get some things from the laboratory.
4) He is almost giddy with anger, and has to steady himself on the chair.
5) He may have to go to Monte Carlo with his father.
6) I had to fight my tears back while listening to his stories.
7) Things that were dangerous had to be destroyed.
8) She will have to see that doctor.
9) You have got to think about me now.
10) What you have got to do is to destroy the thing that is upstairs.
2. Use a construction with the modal verb
in place of the words in italics.
1) It will be necessary
for him to try harder if he wants to win the prize. He will have to try harder.
2) It has been necessary
for them to save hard to buy their new hi-fi.
3) Because of the snow she has been finding it necessary
to walk to college.
4) It had already been necessary
for us to clear the office floor twice before the boss asked us to clear it again.
5) It would have been necessary
for me to pay twice as much to travel first class.
6) We are finding it necessary to
cut back on staff because of a shortage of orders.
Match these clauses with the
have (got) to
1) It’s getting late……
2) You broke the window…….
3) The car has broken down…….
4) Mother is away……..
5) I have got it all wrong……
6) Her son is ill……..
7) The date fixed in the bill is Friday………
a) So I am afraid we’ve got to walk.
b) So I have got to start all over again.
c) So we’ve got to look after ourselves.
d) So you have got to pay the bill on Thursday.
e) So we have to go home .
f) So you have to pay for it.
g) So she has to see the doctor.
4. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Нам пришлось ждать управляющего целый день.
2) Следующий рейс будет только утром. Тебе придется купить билет на поезд.
3) Если так будет продолжаться, то мы вынуждены будем принять меры.
4) Сколько вам пришлось потратить времени на перевод этой книги?
5) Ей совсем необязательно присутствовать при нашем разговоре.
6) Мне все приходится делать самому.
7) Вы не должны беспокоить Марту в такое тяжелое для нее время.
8) Не нужно было приходить так рано.
9) Мне не пришлось самому переводить эту статью вчера..
Unit 7 To be
or to be to
, is a modal expression that can be used only in two Tenses – the Present Indefinite (is, are
) and the Past Indefinite (was, were
The major meanings of to be to
are expressions of:
· an arrangement and order
We are to
meet at six. (part of a plan) The President is to
visit this country next month. (part of a
arrive tomorrow? (part of a plan) You are to
say nothing about it. (order, part of a plan)
NOTE: Was/were to
+ Perfect Infinitive
are used to show that a previously arranged event didn’t happen: I was to
you at six, but something urgent
· something that is destined to happen
: He gave up the idea of becoming an actor. It was to
It is rendered in Russian by ‘суждено’.
: Where is
be found? Nothing was to
To be to
may be used in if
. The main clause expresses a precondition – something that must happen first if something else is to happen: If we are to
get there by lunchtime we had better hurry up.
+ Passive Infinitive
is often found in notices and instructions
: This cover is
not to be removed
: Sometimes only the Passive Infinitive is used in this case: To be
three times a day after meals (on a medicine bottle).
Learn the following set phrases
· What am
do?- Что мне делать? Как мне быть?
· What is to
become of me?- Что со мною будет?
· Where am
go?- И куда же мне идти?
· Who is to
· What is to
be done?- Что теперь делать?
· Who is to
E x e r c i s e s
Comment on the meaning of the verb
to be to.
Translate into Russian.
1) I was to call on his office to clinch a deal at 9 o’clock in the morning, so I got up early in the morning. (an arranged plan
2) We are to see her tonight, if that boy doesn’t forget his appointment.
3) They were to have gone away together this morning at dawn.
4) Where am I to go?
5) My dear father, if I am to get married, surely you will allow me to choose the time, place and person.
6) “You are to bring an answer”, said the lady.
7) We were to have played a duet together.
8) Dorian wasn’t to be found.
9) What is to become of me?
10) I was to leave the Embassy with the military attache.
2. Fill in the blanks with
must, have to
1) You are to
take Juliet down to your club at once.
2) The work with method, one … begin from the beginning.
3) I … be getting sentimental.
4) Nowadays one … do nearly everything oneself.
5) I … think who she was talking about. She … have meant your father.
6) He … leave the vessel at Melbourne and go off at once to the gold – fields.
7) I had left my key at home, and my servant … let me in.
8) I … be mad, coming here like this.
9) We … dine together and then go to the Opera.
10) But who was it- Daniel or Matthew? It … have been one of the two.
3. Combine the modal verb
to be to
with the proper form of the infinitive in the brackets
1) I stood at the window, looking at them disappear, and my heart kept repeating ‘Good-bye, good-bye!’ I was not (to see)
them for nearly five years. – I was not to see them …
2) I was (to arrive)
in London by the ten o’clock train, but I couldn’t get a ticket for it and nobody met me.
3) Remember that we are (to be)
at this place not later than eight.
4) Why are you so late? Didn’t you get my letter saying that was (to meet)
5) There was a violent storm that night and the ‘Stella” which was (to arrive)
at the port in the morning had to drop anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port.
4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the modal verb
to be to
. Translate your sentences.
1) We can see a lot of ancient buildings in the centre of London. – A lot of ancient buildings are to be seen
in the centre of London.
2) One can find various sorts of trees in Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens.
3) Nothing could be done under the circumstances.
4) One can visit several large museums in South Kensington.
5) It’s possible to buy all sorts of newspapers in Fleet Street.
5. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Нам не суждено было встретиться до его отъезда во Францию.
2) Позавчера я должен был встречать мою сестру, но мои часы, должно быть, отстали, и я опоздал.
3) Я должен ждать его здесь, так было решено.
4) Ей суждено было побывать в этих краях еще много раз, и она это знала.
5) Это должно было случиться. Никто не мог этому помешать.
6) Что теперь с ним будет? Куда ему идти? Что ему делать?
7) Хранить в прохладном месте, верхний клапан убирать нельзя. (инструкция)
8) Принимать по одной чайной ложке 2 раза в день после еды. (инструкция)
9) Если нам надо успеть до начала сеанса, то следует поспешить.
10) Мы с вами договорились, что вы ничего не должны говорить!
Unit 8 Must, to have to,
and to be to
Notice specific shades in the meaning of must, to have to, to be to.
indicates obligation imposed by the speaker
wipe your feet when you come in.
To have to
: I have to
wipe my feet every time I come in.
To be to
describes obligation resulting from an arrangemen
: I’m to
wait for her at the entrance.
Sometimes the idea of obligation is absent and to be to
expresses only a previously arranged plan: He is
to the office this morning.
Don’t have to
refers to an absence of obligation
: You don’t
refers to an obligation not to do something:
You must not
leave the room before the end of the exam.
is found to express obligation imposed by interna
: Visitors must
not feed the animals.
-(at the Zoo)
To have to
is used to express obligation imposed by external
: You will have to
cross the line by the footbridge.
has no past forms. But it is used in Reported Speech: He said
do it himself.
denotes an action in the past as a result of obligation or
necessity imposed by circumstances
: I had to
sell my car (I needed
denote a planned action
for the future which is viewed from the past: We were to
meet him at the station (It’s not clear from the sentence if the action will take place).
+ Perfect Infinitive
make it clear at once that the plan was not carried out
: We were to have met
him at the station. (But we didn’t meet)
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning and the form of the verbs
to, be to.
1) Don’t forget to bring the book tomorrow, I need it for my report – it refers to immediate necessity
2) You may keep the money I’ve given you, I don’t need it .
3) ‘Must I go there immediately?’ – ‘No, you needn’t. Wait till I ring you up.’
4) Need you bother about such trifles?
5) You will have to leave at six to catch the train.
6) We all have to learn how the world changes every day.
7) You saw me, and I had to tell you what had happened.
8) I don’t know what I’m to do.
9) We are to see her tonight, if that boy doesn’t forget about his appointment.
2. Replace the words in bold type by
etc, or a negative/ interrogative
1) I’ve been invited to a wedding; but I can’t go. Will it be
for me to send a present? Shall
I have to
send a present?
2) It isn’t necessary
for him to go on working. He had already reached retiring age.
3) Was it necessary
for you to wait a long time for your bus?
4) It is not necessary
for me to water my tomato plants every day.
5) It will be necessary
for them to get up early when they go out to work every day.
3. Change the following sentences into the negative and interrogative.
1) Mother has to cook dinner after work. – Does your mother have to cook? – No, my mother doesn’t have to cook.
2) He had to sit up late with his work.
3) You will have to get up early tomorrow.
4) The girl had to take care of her younger sisters and brothers.
5) She will have to do it once over again.
6) These documents have got to be filled in.
7) They had to cover the whole distance on foot.
8) Richard has got to finish his translation.
9) We shall have to speak to him about it.
4. Fill in the blanks with
with the proper form
of the Infinitive.
1) The man warned us that the place was dangerous to bathe in and we had to
look for a safer spot.
2) When I asked him why he was so late, he told me that he had missed an earlier train and … wait for another one.
3) I told you we … make haste if we wanted to find him in.
4) She … leave him at eight every morning at present.
5) Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrellas … be left at the desk.
6) He sees very badly: he … wear glasses all the time.
7) I ... do all the typing at my office.
5. Write a sentence with
must, have to
to respond to the remarks.
1) The sign says: ‘Passengers must show their tickets!’ So passengers have to
show their tickets.
2) The children have to be in bed by nine. Their parents said:
3) Laura has to get to work on time.
4) The police told Nick: ‘You must keep your dog under control.’
5) The students have to listen carefully.
6) The new sign says: ‘Visitors must report to the security officer.’
6. Put in
. Choose which is the best for the situation.
1) I have to
go to the airport. I’m meeting someone.
2) You … lock the door when you go out. There’ve been a lot of break-ins recently.
3) Jennifer … go to the bank. She hasn’t any money.
4) I … work late tomorrow. We’re very busy at the office.
5) You really … make less noise. I’m trying to concentrate.
6) I think you … pay to park here. I’ll just go and read that notice.
7) You rally … hurry up, Vicky. We don’t want to be late.
8) I … put the heating on. I feel really cold.
in the appropriate form.
1) I told you to stay with her every minute I was away. You are
not to be
2) There were thirty poems in the collection and he … to receive a dollar apiece for them.
3) You … to speak slowly at your lecture so that we can all understand you.
4) The night-coach by which Susan … to go was on the point of departure.
5) The time was fixed for his sailing. It … to take place almost immediately.
6) Much remained to be done; many domestic preparations … to be made.
7) I’m very sorry but I … to explain the urgency of the case.
8. Complete this article about learning to drive in Britain. Put in a positive or negative form of
be allowed to
In Britain you are allowed to
drive a car when you're seventeen. You (1) ..... get a special two-year driving licence before you can start. When you're learning, someone with a full licence always (2) ..... be in the car with you because you (3) ..... take the car on the road alone. You (4) ..... go to a driving school or a friend can teach you. The person with you (5) ..... take money for the lesson unless he's got a teacher's licence.
Before you (6) ..... have a full licence, you (7) ..... take a driving test. You can take a test in your own car, but it (8) ..... be fit for the road. In the test you (9) ..... drive round for about half an hour and then answer a few questions. If you don't pass the test, you (10) ..... take it again a few weeks later if you want to. In 1970 a woman passed her fortieth test after 212 driving lessons! When you’ve passed your test, you (11) ..... take it again, and you (12) ..... go on driving as long as you like, provided you are fit. Britain’s oldest driver was a Norfolk man who drove in 1974 at the age of 100.
Before 1904 everyone (13) ..... drive, even children. Then from 1904 motorists (14) ..... have a licence. But they (15) ..... take a test until 1935. In the early days of motoring, before 1878, cars (16) ..... go faster than four miles an hour, and someone (17) ..... walk in front of the car with a red flag.
9. Write a few sentences about learning to drive in your country.
10. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Он отказался от идеи стать актером. Так было суждено.
2) Я не знал в то время, что ему суждено было стать знаменитым артистом.
3) Они надеялись работать в одной школе. Но этому не суждено было сбыться.
4) Куда мне деваться? Что мне делать? Что со мной будет?
5) Кто будет украшать новогоднюю ёлку?
6) Кто виноват?
7) У нас поставили телефон, и нам теперь не нужно ходить к соседям.
8) Вам незачем идти на улицу; у соседей есть телефон.
9) У нас теперь построили стадион, и детям не приходится ездить далеко.
10) Им незачем ездить так далеко; можно заниматься в нашем читальном зале.
11) Можешь не отвечать на этот вопрос, если не хочешь!
12) Тебе не нужно отвечать на все вопросы письменно.
13) Если ничего серьезного не будет, можешь не звонить.
14) Не обязательно вам приходить самому. Можете прислать кого-нибудь.
15) Пойдемте пешком. Нам незачем торопиться.
16) Ему незачем беспокоиться. Все будет в порядке.
17) Нам не нужно было ходить в библиотеку. У нас были все необходимые книги.
18) К вечеру зуб перестал болеть, и он решил, что ему не надо идти к врачу.
19) Нам нужно будет позвонить вам или вы сами придете?
20) Много ли вам пришлось потратить времени на эту работу?
Unit 9 Should
and ought to
§ 1 Should
and ought to
and ought to
are very much alike in meaning and are often interchangeable.
has more stress on the meaning of moral obligation
, whereas should
is common in instructions
are used to talk about
· obligation, duty
and similar ideas:
say things like that. You ought to
You ought to
read this book. You should
read this book. It is very interesting.
may acquire additional shades of meaning, such as desirability: It’s late. You should
go to bed.
· in formal notices
and on information
: Students should
be prepared to answer questions on this point
NOTE: Ought to
is not used in this case.
or past actions
. The plane should
(I expect it is landing).
The letter should have arrived
(I expect it has arrived).
+ Continuous Infinitive
express the idea that the subject is not fulfilling his obligations
or that he is acting rashly or foolishly: He ought to
for the exams.
baseball for hours.
+ Perfect Infinitive
a) an affirmative sentence indicates an unfulfilled
action in the past: He looks very ill. He should
b) a negative sentence means that an undesirable action was carried out: They shouldn’t have concealed
it from us.
§ 2 Must, should,
and ought to
Notice some peculiarities in the shades of meanings of must, should, ought to:
1. Should/ought to
in this meaning sounds too forceful
: You should
do it at once. You ought to
do it at once. You must
do it at once.
2. Should / ought to
+ Perfect Infinitive
show that the action has
not been fulfilled
though it was desirable:
You should have helped
(But you didn’t do that)
+ Perfect Infinitive
denotes conclusions about the past
: He must have come
§3 Emotional should
: in subordinate clauses,
is found in:
after adjectives and nouns expressing the importance (important, necessary, vital, essential, eager, anxious, concerned, wish):
It is importan
talk to me when she gets here. Is it necessary
my uncle should
be informed? It is his wish
the money should
be given to charity
· object clauses:
a) following the principal clause with it as a formal subject after such expressions as (it is wonderful, absurd, monstrous, natural, old, queer, strange, terrible, etc
It is absurd
such things should
happen to me. It was strange
be asking those questions
b) beginning with why
: I don’t know
· rhetorical questions
beginning with why:
I do that?
It’s rendered in Russian as: с какой стати…?
you have dinner with us?
· attributive clauses
beginning with why
after the noun ‘reason’
: I don’t see any
· subordinate clauses
after words expressing personal judgements
: It’s astonishing
that she should
say that sort of things to you. I’m sorry
think I did it on purpose
· after the words in case
, for bear that
, so that
, in order that
: She turned the radio down
wake the children up.
It is impossible to use ought to
for emotional colouring.
Learn some set phrases with should
· How should
· I’m sorry that you should
think so badly of me.
· That it should
come to this! (И до чего дошло дело!)
· To think that it should
come to this! (Только подумать, до чего дело дошло!)
· To think that it should have happened
to me! (Только подумать, что это произошло со мной!)
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning of the modal verbs
. Translate the sentences.
1) What do you think we ought to do about babies? – asking for an opinion about something.
2) He ought to be in looking after his mother.
3) I should have hated that, but I enjoyed going there so awfully.
4) You shouldn’t go out without an overcoat.
5) If you are interested in pictures you should look in at the British Museum.
6) Why should I tell you a lie?
7) Why shouldn’t I stay with you?
8) Why, where should I be without you?
9) Why in the world, shouldn’t you listen to me?
10) Should you find it necessary to communicate with me, send a message.
2. Give some advice to a person or express disapproval.
1) Your friend is always coughing because he smokes too much. – You should stop smoking.
2) Your friend has a bad toothache.
3) Your friend rides his bicycle at night without lights on.
4) Your friend is going to visit Greece.
5) The bus driver is driving too fast.
6) The tourists are discussing their further rout of the trip too loudly.
7) Two girls are arguing about the history of Westminster Abbey.
3. Complete these sentences.
1) I don’t suppose you’ll see Tom this evening but if you should see
him, can you ask him to phone me?
2) I don’t think Ann will arrive before I get home but …
3) I don’t think there will be any letters for me while I’m away but …
4) I don’t suppose you’ll need any help but …
5) The doctor recommended that …
6) Our advertising manager insisted that …
7) The museum guide suggested that …
8) The landlord demanded that …
. Complete these sentences using the modal verbs
1) Doctor! I think the patient stopped breathing. You must
2) I don’t think anything’s seriously wrong with the patient, but you … call in and see her if you have time.
3) Jeanie’s got a cold. I don’t think she … go to school today.
4) What Jeanie has is infectious. She … go to school.
5) If she has a high temperature, she … stay in bed until the doctor comes.
6) It won’t do her any harm to go out, but she … wear an overcoat, there’s a cold wind.
7) If a woman is expecting a child, and hasn’t had German measles, she … be vaccinated against it because it can carry a serious risk.
8) It’s not compulsory for children to be vaccinated against measles but in my opinion they … be.
5. Respond to the statements with constructive suggestions, using the words in brackets
1) John’s very overweight. (diet)
He ought to go
on a diet.
2) The train leaves in less than half an hour. (hurry up)
3) My handbag’s been stolen. (report to police)
4) We’re going to Africa on a safari holiday. (buy a good camera)
5) She stayed in the sun too long and was badly sunburst. (be more sensible)
6) You shall sit by me, and amuse me.
7) Now you shall look at it face to face.
8) Shall I leave the things here, sir?
9) I made a mistake about this afternoon. It shall not occur again.
10) If I come there you shall know about it.
11) You shall not slip through my fingers!
12) “ You shall see that Chris yourself tonight.”
6. Complete these sentences using the modal verbs
with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.
1) We should have called (call)
on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we … (attend)
an extra meeting. – We should have called on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we had to attend an extra meeting.
2) I … not (tell)
him this news; he was so much upset, but I really … (do)
so, for the circumstances demanded that.
3) You … (see)
him dance! You’ve missed a lot. I … (take)
you to the concert.
4) It was very hard work but we … (do)
5) The mother … ( punish)
the boy severely to make him understand he was not right.
6) Although it was very painful for the mother but she … (punish)
7. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь, на двадцать пятой странице нет таких слов.
2) Вам следует помочь ей, она ведь очень устала.
3) Вам бы следовало сделать то, что я вам говорила, тогда вы не оказались бы в таком глупом положении.
4) Вы должны были мне сказать, что вы больны.
5) Вы не должны позволять ей читать в сумерки, она может испортить глаза.
6) Я вас, должно быть, неправильно понял и поэтому пришел так рано.
7) Почему я должен хвалить вашу работу? Она неудовлетворительна.
8) Почему я должен принять его предложение? Я не согласен с ним.
9) С какой стати я должен ему помогать?!
10) Ради чего я буду разговаривать с ней?
11) И зачем ты поедешь туда?
12) Это лекарство следует держать в холодном месте.
13) Вам не следует разочаровываться.
14) Вам следовало бы прекратить спор, как только поняли, что вы неправы.
15) Вам следует еще раз обдумать это предложение, прежде чем отвергнуть его.
16) Он должен был бы отказаться от приглашения, если он был так занят.
Unit 10 S h a l l
is found to express obligation,
warning, promise, threat.
It is also used to ask for instructions.
is used in interrogative sentences with the first and third persons meaning obligation
or asking for instructions
get you some coffee?
answer the phone?
It is rendered in Russian as: Принести вам еще кофе? Кому отвечать по телефону? Shall
I open the window? What on earth shall
is used to express obligation
but it is always combined with the function of an auxiliary verb of the future tense. Shall
occurs in affirmative and negative sentences:
in Paris in 10 minutes. I shall
miss him terribly.
The verb is found with the second and the third person expressing promise, threat, warning.
have my answer tomorrow. You shall
stay just where you are! He shall
do as I say
I want to know all the gossip , all the scandal. – You shall
dear, you shall.
is often used with third person to refer to duties:
The officer shall
be responsible for the fleet of lorries. The President shall
hold office for 5 years.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning of the verb
. Translate the sentences.
1) The victory of peace can and shall be won. There shall be no war! Shall expresses promise
it is always combined with the function of an auxiliary verb of the future tense
2) He shall do it whether he wants it or not.
3) What shall I do with it?
4) You shall answer for it!
5) The senior manager shall be responsible for this department.
6) It was an incredible feat, one which I shall never forget.
7) A player shall not lift the seam of the ball for any reason.
8) Shall we sort you out and make you more comfy?
9) The Prime Minister shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen in this field.
10) Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.
11) I shall be calling fore you at seven o’clock.
12) The editor’s decision is final and shall evermore remain so.
2. Make offers for the following situations. Think of your own situations.
1) An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack.
2) A young woman is shivering and the window is open.
3) Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor.
3. Make suggestions to a friend for the following situations. You feel like ...
1) going for a swim? Shall we go for a swim?
Yes, let's./Yes. let's, shall we? No. I'd rather we didn't.
2) driving to the coast,
3) having a meal out this evening,
4) travelling first class,
5) having a holiday in.
6) going to the theatre,
7) visiting an art gallery,
8) baking a pie,
9) making a sea voyage,
10) climbing up the mountain,
11) calling a taxi,
4. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.
1) В котором часу мне приходить?
2) Ты никуда не пойдешь, пока не сделаешь уроки!
3) Не двигайся! Стой, где стоишь!
4) Эти глупцы будут делать то, что я им велю.
5) Сегодня ты выслушаешь меня, я не дам тебе уйти.
6) Они за всё мне ответят, вот увидишь!
7) Мне принести ещё кофе? – Да, спасибо.
8) Кому делать доклад? Кто будет отвечать за все?
9) Что же мы теперь будем делать!?
10) Финансовым отделом будет руководить Г-н Смитс.
Unit 11 Will and would
are considered to be the forms of the same verb. Its original meaning is volition
. However, in some of their meanings the use of will
is equal only to would
which denotes an actual fact in the past; in other meanings will
found alongside would
which expresses unreality in the present or serves as a more polite form of will.
§ 1 Will
for characteristic habit,
criticizing, natural tendency, and requests
describe characteristic habit/behaviour
or is used to criticise a person’s characteristic behaviour: In fine weather he will
often sit in the sun for hours. Marjory will
keep leaving her things all over the floor.
is used with the same meaning as used to
. It refers to repeated actions and events in the past:
When we were children we would
go skating every winter.
are found to express natural tendency
: Water will
boil at 100°С. I planted a yucca plant last year but it wouldn
’t grow because it didn’t get enough sun.
are used as a refusal to perform an action: Drink your milk, Jeremiah! – I won’t
. The car wouldn’t
start this morning.
are found as requests, orders, offers
you send me the bill, please? Would
you be quiet!
E X E R C I S E S
1. Comment on the meaning of the verb
. Translate the sentences.
1) You will not discuss this matter with anyone.
2) Will you drive me home?
3) He kicked pushed that door. It wouldn’t open.
4) He will leave his socks lying all over the place and it drives me mad.
5) The show will be open to the public at 2 p.m.
6) Won’t you stay here and have supper with us?
7) All right, I will forgive you.
8) My car won’t start!
2. Make requests for the following situations. You want someone to
1) hold the door open for you. Will/would you hold the door open for me?
2) dial a number for you
3) translate a letter for you
4) deliver some flowers for you.
5) show the way to the station.
3. Use a phrase with
in place of the words in italics.
1) She always used
to tell us a story before we went to bed. She would always tell us a story before we went to bed.
2) She still tells
us a story occasionally.
3) They only used to
discuss family matters with the priest.
4) He's very good, you know. He plays with that toy for hours on end
5) When he needed extra money, he used to
6) She doesn't always tell
the truth, I'm afraid.
§ 2 Will
for intention, insistence,
certainty or supposition
are used with the first person to express will, intention
: I say I will
do anything for him. We thought we wouldn’t
are served to imply insistence
It’s about forty minutes’ walk from here and if you will
come now I’ll go with you. If you would
help me I should make another attempt.
is not normally used after if-
clauses: If the weather is
fine, we will go to the bank of the river
may convey the meaning of certainty
about present or future situations: Don’t phone them now. – They will
be having dinner. This will
be the school, I believe
expresses certainty about the past: We can’t go and see them now. They will
is found to express that something was to be expected
. The meaning is rather sarcastical: ‘Paula is very brave.’ ‘Yes, she would
be brave.’ I don’t approve of his decision.’ ‘No, you wouldn’t
It is rendered in Russian as: этого и следовало ожидать.
Learn some set phrases:
· Boys will
be boys (Мальчишки остаются мальчишками)
· Accidents will
happen (Без несчастных случаев дело не обходится).
· Would rather
are followed by an Infinitive
They mean ‘to prefer’.
I would rather
in questions means ‘to object’: Would
The construction may express a polite request: Would
you mind getting
me a cup of tea?
E x e r c i s e s
1. Comment on the meaning of the verb
. Translate the sentences.
1) If you overcook the pancakes they will be difficult to roll.
2) I will say no more on this matter, important though it was
3) As many as ten million children will have been infected with the virus by the end of the decade.
4) The holidays will have done him the world of good.
5) He expressed the hope that on Monday elementary schools would be reopened.
6) It was half past nine; her mother would be annoyed because she was so late.
7) They said they would give the police their full cooperation.
2. Emma and Sadie are students. They've both got exams tomorrow. Complete their conversation using a
modal verb + be + the -ing
form of each verb in brackets. Use the modal verbs
ought to, might, must
You (1) (do) some work. You ought to be doing some work, Emma.
- Hello, Sadie. Aren't you doing any work? You (2) (revise) for the exams.
Sadie : –
I (3) (read) my notes if I had them, but I've lost them.
- Good Lord! How awful! Do you want to look at mine?
- No, thanks. It's okay. Don't worry, Emma. Exams aren't important.
: -Not important! You (4) (joke)
! I (look)
everywhere if my notes were lost.
- Well, I'll probably find them before tomorrow.
-Have you seen Lisa? She's got a book of mine.
-She was in here not long ago. Perhaps she's outside. She (5) (sit)
in the garden.
: – I'll go and have a look. Then I (6) (go).
I have to get to the library before it closes.
- What are you doing tonight, Emma?
- Revising, of course. Aren't you?
- I (7) (play)
tennis with Rebecca if the weather stays fine.
3. Oral Activity.
Say what you would be doing at the moment if today were a different day of the week. Find out what the other members of the class would be doing (or might be doing) if it were a Saturday or a Sunday.
4. Put in appropriate forms of the past
used to, will
. Alternatives are possible. Retell the story.
WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE.
The thing I remember most about my childhood was my visits to my aunt Charlotte in her lovely country house. She (1) (be)
used to be
a remarkable woman by any standards. She (2) (be)
really skilled at water-divining and she (3) (find)
water on the most unpromising bits of land. The farmers (4) (love)
her, especially as she (5) (never accept)
money for water-divining. “Water (6) (always find)
its own level” she (7) (say)
and “I know exactly where that level is.” “Water-divining is a gift from God and you don't accept payment for that.” She had a gift for noticing changes in the weather, too. “It’s going to rain soon,” she (8) (say)
. “I can feel it in my bones,” and she (9) (always be)
right! In her later years, she developed a bad back and (10) (often visit)
her osteopath. She (11) (never tired)
of telling us that her osteopath (12) (say)
as he massaged her painful back. “It’s going to rain, Charlotte, I can feel it in your bones!”
5. Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs
1) Can you walk as far as the car or shall
I bring it round?
2) I … not come down with you. I … go home.
3) If I’ve got him, they can’t take him. He … not go. I … not let him.
4) You’ve asked for my opinion and by God you … have it.
5) No harm … be done to your child. I … see to it.
6) If you … not take any steps you … never got rid of the malady.
7) When he grew blind he … sit hour after hour in those two rooms that he had painted, looking at his works with sightless eyes.
8) I let the young man to go where he … with my box and money.
9) My aunt … not hear of staying to dinner, lest she … by any chance fail to arrive at home.
6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1) Вы этого не сделаете. Запомните это!
2) Я сделаю эту работу к сроку, хотя бы мне и пришлось не спать всю ночь.
3) Магазин, должно быть, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, вы успеете купить хлеб.
4) Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но мы и слушать не хотели.
5) Не старайтесь доказать ему, что вы правы; его никогда нельзя убедить. Он очень упрямый.
6) Вы ответите за ваши действия.
7) Вам придется держать экзамен еще раз. Вам надо обратить большое внимание на грамматику.
8) Какое упражнение мне читать? – Можете начать с любого.
9) Я полагаю, это и есть твой дом!
10) Я не допущу, чтобы вы разговаривали со мной в таком тоне.
11) Дети – всегда дети.
12) Я скорее сделаю это сама, чем оставлю это своей сестре.
1. Peter, Jan and Lima are foreign students at an English-speaking university. Put each verb in brackets into the simple present, simple past or present perfect. What rules do governments usually make about people entering their country? Are there different rules for tourists, for students, and for people who want to live and work there? Discuss with other members of your class.
I'll be sad to leave here. But I (1) (have to)
leave at the end of my course.
- I still don't know if I can stay longer or not. I (2) (not be able to)
make any plans during the last two years, Lima. My problem was getting in here. I (3) (have to)
get a visa before I left home. I wanted to come here a year earlier, but I (4) (not allowed to)
Money is a problem, too. I (5) (not be allowed to)
work since I came here.
Ever since I came here, I (6) (have to)
report to the police every week.
2. Choose the most suitable words underlined.
1) I don’t think you could/should
tell anyone yet.
2) I couldn’t/shouldn’t
possibly leave without pain.
3) That mustn’t/can’t
be the place Patrick told us about.
4) There are times when the traffic here can/could
be really heavy.
5) We are enjoying our holiday though the weather could/must
6) You couldn’t/shouldn’t
really be sitting here.
7) You could/may
be older than me, but that doesn’t mean you are cleverer.
8) I might/should
suppose your job is rather difficult.
9) No member of the association must/shall
remove official documents from these premises without written permission.
10) You may/can
be in charge, but it doesn’t give you the right to be rude.
11) Although I tried hard I couldn’t/mightn’t
lift the suitcase.
12) This beach should be/shall be
13) I think you should/must
go to Brighton for a week.
Imagine that tomorrow you plan to go on a 15-mile walk in the country with three or four other people in your class. Discuss with them what you ought to wear and what you ought to take with you. Give reasons for your suggestions.
4. Put in
will have to, must, having to, has to, should, had to, have to, should have.
Retell the story.
The Post Office in Britain is famous for getting letters and parcels to their destinations. The problem is that we the public (1) have to
observe the rules. For example, we (2) ...... put a stamp on a letter. If we don’t, the recipient (3) ....... pay double. We often see the sign ALL LETTERS (4) ......... BE CORRECTLY ADDRESSED. These days, this means (5) ......... use postcodes. If you didn’t use a postcode, it’s no good complaining that your letter (6) ......... arrived sooner. Parcels are a problem because they (7) ........ be correctly packaged. If Aunt Sophia is going to send you a jar of your favourite jam, she (8) ........ wrap it up well. The most important thing we (9) ........ do is to address our letters and parcels legibly and correctly. This means clear handwriting and correct spelling. What we (10) ........ do and what we actually do are often miles apart. Recently, the Post Office (11) …….. deliver a letter which showed a name followed by the word ARIJABA. What is this, do you think? Arabic? Hindustani? Wrong both times! Say it out loud and you will see it is just plain (misspelt!) English: HARWICH HARBOUR!
5. Complete the sentences with appropriate modals (
can, must, may
1) It’s a beautiful dress. It ... (cost)
a lot of money.
2) There’s been a terrible accident. We ... (ring)
for an ambulance.
3) You ... (eat)
between meals. You’ll get fat.
4) You ... (let)
the children get their hands on those bottles. The contents are poisonous.
5) You ... (finish)
the job this evening. There is no hurry.
6) I ... (go)
to work by bus but since the fares went up I’ve been going on foot.
7) He had to go by train because he ... (not afford)
the air fare.
8) You’d better take an umbrella. It’s cloudy and it ... (rain)
9) I think we’ve probably missed the train but we ... (catch)
it if we run all the way to the station.
10) Anyone ... (make)
a mistake. No one is perfect.
11) She ... (not take)
the money. She wasn’t in the office that day.
12) They are all taking photographs of the person getting off the plane. It ... (be)
13) I’m sorry. I don’t seem to have brought the papers with me. I ... (leave)
them in my office.
14) I don’t think they know one another but they come from the same town, so they ... (meet)
when they were children.
6. Choose the sentence closest in meaning to the sentences given.
1) It’s possible that we’ll know the answers tomorrow.
We may know all the answers tomorrow.
We should know all the answers tomorrow.
2) I don’t think you should ring him now. It’s rather late.
You might not ring him now. It’s rather late.
You’d better not ring him now. It’s rather late.
3) You needn’t come if you don’t want to.
You won’t come if you don’t want to.
You don’t have to come if you don’t want to.
4) I think it’s wrong for you to work so hard.
You don’t have to work so hard.
You shouldn’t work so hard.
5) I hope one day we can meet again in more favourable circumstances.
It’s possible that we’ll meet again in more favourable circumstances.
I hope to meet you again in more favourable circumstances.
6) In the end we succeeded in communicating with sign language.
In the end we might communicate with sign language.
In the end we were able to communicate with sign language.
Rewrite each of the following sentences using the modal verb
and one of the words listed:
important, normal, odd, insisted, warned, incredible
1) The new trainer wants to hand in his notice already. I just don’t believe it.
2) Some students tend to feel a little homesick in their first week here. I can understand that.
3) Why has he complained now, right at the end of his course? I just can’t work it out.
4) Children must be taught the difference between right and wrong. I believe that strongly.
5) I wonder why she left without saying anything. I’d really like to know.
6) ‘Don’t let your feelings run away with you, will you?’ said the youth club leader.
7) ‘We simply must go to the police about this latest attack’, said a bystander.
8. Adam, Lisa, Don and Melanie are students. They were on their way to visit some friends last week in Adam's car when it broke down. Complete the conversation by putting in one of the following modal verbs:
can, can't, could, must
mustn't, needn't, ought to, should, might, 'II, will, won't, shall, would.
(Sometimes more than one answer is correct.)
Activity: Act out the conversation in groups of four
- What's the matter? Why have you stopped?
- There’s something wrong. It isn’t going properly.
- Let’s have a look.
We (1) ... be out of petrol, I suppose.
- We (2) ... be out of petrol. We only got some half an hour ago.
- Well, if there is something wrong, (3) ... you put it right, do you think?
- Give me a chance. I don’t know what the trouble is yet.
Look at this steam. The engine (4) ... be too hot.
Don’t take the cap off the radiator. You (5) ... do that. You (6) ... get boiling water all over you.
- If it’s too hot, we (7) ... have to wait until it cools down.
- And how long (8) ... that take?
- We (9) ... wait about half an hour before we go on.
– I suppose there (10) ... be something else wrong with it.
– We passed a garage about a mile back. I suppose they (11) ... come and have a look at it if we ask them.
The car (12) ... be all right. Our local garage has just serviced it. I paid £30 for a full service.
- You (13) ... worry. I’m sure it’s just got too hot. Let’s wait a bit.
- We (14) ... be late now, I expect.
There’s some coffee in the back of the car. (15) ... we have some while we’re waiting? There are some sandwiches, too.
I’m starving. I (16) ... have something to eat.
– (17) ... you like a sandwich, Lisa? Lisa No, thanks. I (18) ... eat bread. I’m on a diet.
- We (19) ... phone Matthew if we’re going to be late.
- We (20) ... be very late, I don’t think.
- You (21) ... buy a new car, Adam.
Well, it (22) ... be nice if I had the money. But I’m afraid we (23) ... have to put up with this old thing for a little longer.
9. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.
1) Вам следовало бы принять это предложение, вы сейчас в очень трудном положении.
2) Боюсь, что вам придется согласиться на наших условиях, у вас нет другого выхода.
3) Наверное, она перепутала адреса, поэтому она опоздала.
4) Если бы мы не вмешались, они, возможно, поссорились бы.
5) Ты, наверное, испугал ее своими угрозами.
6) Я сделаю тебя счастливой, ты будешь делать, что хочешь, тратить, сколько угодно.
7) Доктор велел ей лежать, но она и слышать об этом не хотела.
8) Право же, вы могли бы подумать и о других.
9) Прекрати шуметь! В комнате больной!
10) С какой стати я буду это делать! Я не одна в команде!
11) Вам следовало бы иметь хорошую память.
12) Он предложил, чтобы собрание перенесли на пять часов.
13) Ах, если бы я могла все предвидеть.
14) Приди он к нам еще раз, мы бы и видеть его не хотели.
15) Моя машина никак не заводится!
16) Неужели он отказался тебе помочь? Я о нем была другого мнения.
17) Должно быть, ты перепутала флакончики. Ты должна быть всегда внимательна.
18) Замок по-прежнему не работает, ты бы давно мог его починить.
19) Как мне быть? Как поступить?
20) Она будет меня слушать, теперь, когда у нее никого больше нет кроме меня.
1. Supply the modal verbs
could, to be able to,
1) A good 1500-metre runner … run the race in under four minutes.
2) Bill is so unfit he … run at all!
3) Our baby is only nine months and he … stand up.
4) When I was younger, I … speak Italian much better than I … now.
5) …she speak German well?- No, she … speak German at all.
6) He … draw or paint at all when he was a boy, bat now he is a famous artist.
7) After weeks of training, I … swim a length of the baths underwater.
8) It took a long time, but in the end Tony … save enough to buy his car.
9) Did you buy any fresh fish in the market?- No, I … get any.
10) For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the forth day they saw them and … reach them without too much trouble.
2. Rewrite these sentences using the modal verb
11) Do you see that man over there?
12) I smell something burning.
13) I understood what he said.
14) Did you understand what he said?
15) I don’t hear anything!
3. Rewrite these sentences so that each sentence contains the modal verb
and the meaning remains the same.
16) I knew how to skate before I was five.
17) I hope one day we will meet again in more favourable circumstances.
18) It is still very cold here in March.
19) Some supermarket beef tends to be rather tough.
20) In the end we managed to communicate with sign language.
21) If you don’t feel you’ll make a contribution, just say so.
4. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs
to be able to
22) They asked if they … go.
23) I … solve her problems for her.
24) I’d like to … write as well as that.
25) … you speak Spanish?
26) I might … help you.
5. Insert the modal verbs
into each gap.
27) The engines don’t seem to be working properly. There … be some ice in them.
28) Planes flying in cold countries in winter … have problems because of ice on the wings.
29) Both engines have failed. I’ll try to find a place to land. We haven’t much chance of surviving, but we … be lucky.
30) The engines were not working properly. The pilot said he thought there … be some ice on the wings.
31) He said there wasn’t much chance of surviving, but we … be lucky.
32) He told me that planes flying in cold countries in winter … have problems because of ice on the wings.
6. Make up remarks using the modal verb
in the right form which express a reproach
33) to a friend who forgot to have the prescription made up on the way home.
34) to a friend who didn’t warn you about a change in the time-table.
35) to a friend who didn’t come to see you when you were ill.
36) to a friend who promised to buy you some oranges at the market.
37) to a person who is not polite to the aged.
38) to a person who interferes in your affairs.
7. Change the following responses using the modal verb
to express supposition implying uncertainty.
39) Have you found the registration form?
40) Why didn’t Jane come? She did promise to turn up, didn’t she? ~ Possibly she went to a dentist to have her bad tooth filled.
41) You do look thin and pale why? ~ Perhaps, I have been keeping to a strict diet of salads and very little meat too long.
42) Why did that patient ask the dentist to pull out his bad tooth? ~ Maybe his pain has been bothering him too long.
8. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the modal verb
and the meaning remains the same.
43) I am sure he has got all he needed. Did you see how triumphant he was?
44) She hasn’t come. Probably, she is ill.
45) The boy was evidently reading something funny. He was smiling all the time.
46) Probably, the hotel rates are very high in summer.
47) Probably, Jim is taken ill with flue.
48) They have most likely not realised what opportunity they were losing.
9. Paraphrase the sentences to express supposition implying assurance with reference to the future.
49) He will certainly put up at a hotel. – He is certain to put up at a hotel.
50) I’m almost sure they will come and see me here.
51) Certainly you will see the ceremony with your own eyes.
52) I’m sure Penny will be x-rayed tomorrow.
53) ‘Of course, you’ll see Westminster Abbey and Westminster Palace with its largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben.’
54) He will certainly give you a piece of advice.
55) I’m not sure they will visit London next year.
10. Complete these sentences with the modal verbs
56) Park notice: All dogs … be kept on leads.
57) If you said that, he … be very offended.
58) Warning: No part of this book … be reproduced without the publisher’s permission.
59) … I see your passport, please?
60) Farmers … get up early.
61) … I play the guitar right now?
didn’t need to
where it is possible
62) It is sweet of you, but you really didn’t need to buy me flowers.
63) It’s a good job we didn’t need to be here earlier.
64) It was strange that we didn’t need to show our passports.
65) You didn’t need to come and pick me up; I could have got a taxi.
66) There was a sofa in the other room; you didn’t need to sleep on the floor.
67) I didn’t need to use cash; I had my credit card with me after all.
12. Explain the difference in meaning between the two pairs.
68) a) The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad.
b) The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad.
69) a) There was to be an interesting concert last night, but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home.
b) There was to have been an interesting concert last night, but the singer fell ill and the concert had to be postponed.
13. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs
must, have to, to be to
70) I … be late for work tomorrow, because I have a lot to do.
71) I … get up early tomorrow because it’s a holiday.
72) You … come to the station to meet me. I could have got a taxi.
73) I wondered what … to happen to us.
74) We agreed that the one who came first … to reserve seats.
75) You … take the medicine until your cough is cured.
76) It looks like raining. You … take your raincoat.
14. Complete the following sentences using the modal verb
77) ‘Why don’t you go for a holiday?’ ~ He suggested that …
78) ‘Stay in bed until I tell you to get up!’ ~ She ordered that …
79) ‘Don’t work too hard.’ ~ She advised that …
80) ‘I I don’t want to do it! It’s not my business.’ ~ Why …
81) ‘I have never heard from him!’ ~ How …
82) Tell her about that accident, please! ~ If you …
Unit 9, 10, 11
15. Insert the modal verbs
83) All the candidates … remain in their seats until the end of the examination.
84) I… let him do that again! (negative)
85) He … smoke when I’m trying to eat.(negative)
86) This car … start and run on leaded petrol! (negative)
87) She … always try to help you.
88) … you open the door for me?
89) He … do as I say!
90) What on earth … we do here?
91) ‘But that it … have been you who saw me drunk!’
92) Terry was anxious that I … stay to dinner.
93) Ethel … talk about what doesn’t concern her!
94) Was it possible that Dick … turn his thoughts from his work?
16. Translate from Russian into English.
95) Ему не следовало бы заставлять нас ждать так долго!
96) Этот вопрос уже давно следовало бы решить.
97) Вам следовало бы уделять больше времени этой работе. Она очень важна.
98) Он предложил, чтобы собрание назначили на 5 часов.
99) С какой стати я должен это делать?
100) Без несчастных случаев дело не обходится.
MOOD. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
1. Choose the correct word or phrase to fill the spaces.
1) Mother will be very tired if she ..… home by train. .
A) will go
B) shall go
2) If I ..… her address, I would give it to you.
D) shall know
3) If I were taller, I ..... a policeman.
C) would become
D) shall become
4) If I tell you a secret, ...... not to tell it to anyone else?
A) will promise
C) would promise
5) Unless you ..... more careful, you will have an accident.
A) will be
B) shall be
6) … he arrives, everyone must stand.
D) as long
7) If you … away, please write to me.
B) will go
D) have gone
8) If I … Jack, I'll tell him the news.
B) have seen
D) shall see
9) … you had a baby girl. What would you call her?
B) in case
10) Peter … his exams if he studies hard.
B) will pass
D) is passing
2. Choose the correct answer.
11) If I see/will see
Mike I tell/will tell
12) If you don't hurry/will hurry
, you will miss/miss
13) If I go/would go
to the seaside, I'll take/take
my son with me.
14) If Mike receives/has received
the telegram I'm sure he phones/will phone
15) As soon as/before
you hear the alarm, run for the exit.
16) His French won't improve provided/unless
he studies with me.
17) If you phone/will phone
me I will pick/pick
18) If she changed/would
change her job she earned/would earn
19) If I lived/would live
in Spain I did/would do
a lot of sunbathing.
20) If I stay/will stay
late I always get/will get
3. Choose between Conditional Type I and Type II to complete the dialogue.
Hey, Dad! What (21) … (you/say)
if I (22) … (tell)
you I was saving up for a motor-bike? A Triumph 750. I saw a new model in the Superbike Store.
I (23) … (say) you (24) … (be) mad! Motor-bikes are killer machines as far as I'm concerned. I (25) … (think) about it carefully if I (26) … (be) you.
Why? Why couldn't I have my bike if I (27) … (save) the money? You (28) … (not be) pleased to see me with a bike like that?
No, I (29) … (not be)
. If you (30) … (plan)
to die young, then you (31) … (have better)
go ahead and buy it. If I (32) … (have)
the choice, I (33) … (not go)
near a motorbike. I (34) … (buy)
myself a cheap little car instead. I (35) … (feel)
much safer on four wheels!
Well, I (36) … (not buy)
a car even if you (37) … (give)
me the money! Cars are so middle-aged and boring. I just (38) … (not enjoy)
driving around on four wheels if I (39) … (be able)
to afford to buy two. It's super fast.
Is that all you think about? Speed? Your mother (40) … (be)
really worried if she (41) … (know)
you were planning to get a motor-bike. I (42) … (not like)
to say how she (43) … (go)
to feel about the idea.
I (44) … (not say)
any more if I (45) … (be)
you because I've just bought it on Hire Purchase. If you (46) … (care)
to take a look outside, you (47) … (see)
it parked in the front drive. You (48) … (like)
to come for a ride on it?
4. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
49) Jessica was here not long ago. If you … (come round)
earlier, you … (see)
50) I'm so glad that you took me to your friend's party. If we … (not go)
there, I … (never meet)
51) They've been married for 25 years now but I don't think she … (marry)
him if she … (know)
what a selfish man he was.
52) Fortunately, the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. It … (be)
a disaster if it … (happen)
in the middle of the day.
53) We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. If it … (be)
a nice day, we … (go)
for a picnic.
54) If you … (come)
to the theatre yesterday, you … (enjoy)
55) She … (get)
a promotion last year, if she … (not argue)
with the boss.
56) If only I … (know)
you already had tickets, I … (not get)
any for you.
57) The accident was Ann's fault. She was driving too close to the car in front. If she … (be)
further away he … (be able)
to stop in time.
58) We were traveling with false passports. That was the trouble. If our passports … (be)
all right we … (not be)
5. Complete the following sentences.
59) We would have stayed in Moscow longer … .
60) I wouldn't have been so angry when we got there … .
61) If I had read more … .
62) If you had known about the party yesterday … .
63) They would have got tickets for you … .
6. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Yesterday the famous bank robber, Fingers Smith, robbed another bank in the center of town. As usual, he only stole 10 pounds. If he (64) … (leave)
any clues, he (65) … (be)
in prison now, but he is too much clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he (66) … (not/do)
that, the police (67) … (have)
him on film now. The strange thing is, Fingers doesn't seem to be interested in the money; if he (68) … (be),
he (69) … (can/steal)
thousands of pounds by now. The police are determined to catch him, and the Chief is confident that they will. He says that if he (70) … (think)
they weren't going to arrest Fingers eventually, he (71) … (leave)
the police force long ago.
7. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some sentences require a negative.
72) Peter is always late. If only … (turn up)
on time for a change.
73) If only … (lose)
all my money. Now I'm broke.
74) Bruce wishes he … (have)
more money so he could buy a new sweater.
75) I wish it … (snow)
now that it's Christmas.
76) I wish you … (keep)
your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows everything.
77) Of course Tom wishes he … (come)
with us to Paris, but he has to stay here and work.
78) I wish we … (go)
to the match on Saturday, but we're visiting my uncle instead.
79) I wish you … (do)
that. It annoys me.
80) I wish you … (stop)
watching TV while I am talking to you.
81) I wish … (come)
so we could go off to the seaside.
8. Translate into English.
82) Хорошо бы завтра не было дождя.
83) Если бы ты позвонил мне вчера, я бы взяла твои книги.
84) Я позволю своему сыну поехать туда, если он бросит эту идею.
85) Жаль, что ты этого не понимаешь.
86) На твоём месте, я не придавала бы этой проблеме такое огромное значение.
87) Жаль, что сегодня так холодно.
88) Если бы вы приняли лекарство, вы бы были сейчас здоровы.
89) Мы посидим в кафе, пока они будут ходить по магазинам.
90) Он бы не провалил вступительный экзамен, если бы усерднее готовился к нему.
91) Я пошлю ему телеграмму, если он завтра не приедет.
92) Хорошо бы он уже пришёл.
93) Я буду обращаться к нему по этому вопросу до тех пор, пока не добьюсь своего.
94) Он пожалел, что не знает адреса девушки.
95) Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы никогда не стал разговаривать с ней таким тоном.
96) Если бы она не любила его, она бы не поехала с ним.
97) Он выступал первым. Ах, если бы вы слышали, как он говорил.
98) Теперь они смеются надо мной. Ах, если бы я не показывал им эти стихи.
99) Если бы ты вовремя предупредил меня, я бы никогда не пошла туда.
100) Жаль, что они расстались. Они были прекрасной парой.
Total: 100/ ________
Unit 1 The Indicative, Imperative,
and Subjunctive Moods.
§ 1 Mood. General Information
is the form of the verb that shows in what relation to reality the speaker places the action expressed by the predicate verb.
There are the following three moods in English:
· the Indicative Mood
· the Imperative Mood
· the Subjunctive Mood
The Indicative Mood
presents actions as real
facts: We are
happy. No one has washed
the dishes yet. They invited
me to the party.
The Indicative Mood has the categories of tense, aspect, voice, number and person (see Part II): Jane hasn't been
here for a year. He is going
to college. He can't be relied
The Imperative Mood
expresses a command
. The verb in the Imperative Mood has practically only one form which coincides with the stem of the verb: Introduce
me to your friend. Don't speak
to me in such a tone!
The verb let
is used, as a rule, with imperative first and third person expressions, as Let
in the hall!
The Subjunctive Mood
of a verb indicates action or state as supposed
or as contrary
to the fact:
If only I had
(but I don’t have it) – Если бы
у меня были
(но у меня их нет)
If only I hadn’t failed
my English exam!
(but I failed) – Если бы
только я не провалил
свой экзамен по английскому языку!
(но я провалил).
§ 2 The Subjunctive Mood
The forms of the Subjunctive Mood.
The most common forms of the Subjunctive Mood may be referred to as the
Present Subjunctive, the Past Subjunctive
and the Perfect Subjunctive.
The Present Subjunctive Mood
has the same form as the Infinitive
Though all the world be
false, still will I be true.
In complex sentences after that-
clause it may also have the form of the auxiliaries should, would, may (might)
(now very seldom) and the Infinitive
of the notional verb:
I recommend that
the plans (should)
be carried through.
(The verb should
is often omitted).
The Past Subjunctive
has the same form as the Past Indefinite, except
the verb to be
that has the form were
for all the persons singular and plural:
I wish he worked
(but he doesn’t)
I wish he were
.(but he is not)
I wish you were
(but you are not)
The Perfect Subjunctive
has the same forms as the Past Perfect:
If only he had worked
(but he didn’t)
If I had visited
(but I didn’t)
He speaks about it as if he had seen
(but he didn’t)
The use of the Subjunctive Mood.
The Subjunctive Mood may be used nowadays in simple sentences
to express hope, wish or prayer (the
the Queen! God forgive
you! Manners be hanged
But mostly the Subjunctive Mood is used in complex sentences:
· in that-
expressing resolution, recommendation, command or necessity (the Present Subjunctive
The judge demands
the prisoner tell
· in if-
and after the verb to wish
(see Unit 7) to denote an unreal condition referring to the present or future or to the past if the verb in the if-clause expresses an action simultaneous with the action in the principal clause (the Past Subjunctive
He wished she would stop
· in conditional sentences
both in the
subordinate clause (if-
to express an unreal condition
, and in the principal (main)
to express an unreal consequence
(see Units 2-6):
1) If she
(The Past Subjunctive)
а здесь, она
clause the main clause
2) If we
a rope, we
could have saved
у нас (тогда)
clause the main clause
Unit 2 Three Types of Conditional Sentences
So, both the Indicative Mood
and the Subjunctive Mood
are used in conditional sentences to express different types of condition and consequence.
in the Indicative Mood
in one of
the present tenses
a real condition and
a real consequence:
If you have finished, you
The verb in the Subjunctive Mood
and Perfect Subjunctive
) expresses different unreal conditions
1) an unreal condition and consequence
in the present
is expressed by the verb in the
If only we had
(but we haven’t) we could
(Ср. рус.: Если бы
If only it rained
(but it may not), I could
stay at home!
2) an unreal condition
in the past
is expressed by the verb in the Perfect Subjunctive
If only we had had
(but we didn’t) we could
(Ср. рус.: Если бы
канат, мы бы его спасли
2. Thus, we may speak about three major types of complex conditional sentences, or conditionals (Units 3-5):
1) Conditional I
: with a real condition and a real consequence expressed by verbs in the Indicative Mood:
If he runs,
he will catch
2) Conditional II
: with an unreal condition and an unreal consequence in the present or future expressed by verbs in the Past Subjunctive:
If he ran,
he would catch
3) Conditional III
: with an unreal condition in the past and an unreal consequence expressed by verbs in the Perfect Subjunctive:
If he had run,
he would have caught
There is also a mixed type
of conditional sentences with an unreal condition (Unit 6) where:
the condition refers to the past but the consequence refers to the present or future:
If you had taken
your medicine yesterday, you would be
the condition refers to no particular time and the conesquence refers to the past:
If he were
not so absent-minded, he would
not have mistaken
you for your sister.
Unit 3 Type I Conditionals with Real Condition
Type I Conditionals talk about things which will possibly happen and consider their real consequences for the future.
her, I shall be
я увижу её, я буду
Type I Conditionals may have the following structures:
The verb in the if
-clause is in the Present Indefinite
tense; the verb in the main clause is in the Future Indefinite
Present Indefinite Future Indefinite (will + Infinitive)
hard he will pass
2. Other structures in the if-
clause and in the main clause are possible, depending on what you want to say:
if + Present Indefinite modal verb
yourself, you can
if + Present Indefinite to be going to (future)
you don't work
, you're going to
if + Present Indefinite Imperative
if + Present Continuous will + Infinitive
If we're leaving
soon, I'll get
on my coat.
if + Present Perfect will + Infinitive
If I've finished
, I'll be able
if + Present Perfect modal verb
, you can
Imperative and/or + will
Alternatives to ‘if’ in conditionals.
So/As long as
not to tell, you can
drive this car provided/providing (that)
wrong, what then?
come with us, even if
your best friend.
come in on condition that
you don't stay
his attitude, he's going to find
himself in trouble.
(Unless you go = If you don't go)
E X E R C I S E S
1. Put the verbs into the correct form.
1) If I tell you a secret, you (promise)
not to tell it to anyone else?
2) If I lend you $10, when you (repay)
3) If you will kindly sit down, I (make)
enquires for you.
4) The police (arrest)
him if they catch him.
5) Someone (steal)
your car if you leave it unlocked.
6) Unless he (sell)
more he won’t get much commission.
7) If the house (burn)
down we can claim compensation.
8) Unless you are more careful, you (have)
9) If a driver brakes suddenly on a wet road he (skid)
10) If you (not known)
the meaning of a word you may use a dictionary.
11) I’m not expecting any messages you say that I’ll be (ring)
while I am out could you say that I’ll be back by 6.00?
12) If Jack (refuse)
to help we’ll have to manage without him.
13) You can ask for a continental breakfast if you (not want)
a full breakfast.
14) If you (finish)
with your dictionary I’d like to borrow it.
. Put the verbs into the correct tenses.
1) I’ll look for your notebook and if I (find)
it I (give)
you a ring.
2) If you (like)
you a job in this company.
3) If you (smoke)
in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object)
4) I’ll wash the glasses in this nice hot water. – No, don’t. If you (put)
them into very hot water they (crack)
5) I expect it will freeze tonight. – If it (freeze)
tonight the roads (be)
6) He’s only 16 but he wants to leave school at the end of the term. – If he (leave)
now he (be)
7) If he (win)
$1,000, if he (come)
in second he (get)
8) If you (give)
me your phone number, sir, we (let)
you know when it (arrive)
9) How long ... it ... (take)
if you (order)
one for me?
10) If it (not fit)
, madam, (bring)
it back and we (change)
11) If you (wait)
a minute, sir, I (see)
if the manager (be)
12) I (get)
any discount if I (pay)
13) If you (leave)
it with me now, it (not take)
more than a couple of days to repair.
14) If you (not see)
what you (want)
, sir, just (ask)
one of the assistants.
3. Use the correct verb form instead of the Infinitive in brackets.
1) Mother (to be)
very tired, if she (to go)
home by train.
2) If the weather (to be) fine next weekend, we (to go) to the country.
3) I (to be)
always at home if you (to ring)
me up this summer.
4) I always (to help)
you this year if you (to need)
5) Granny sometimes (not to hear)
if little Eddie (to call)
6) If the days (to be)
sunny in spring, we (to work)
in the garden.
7) If Father (to leave)
for the south, Mother (to start)
8) If my parents (not to work)
on Saturday, we all (to go)
9) My father (to buy)
a new house, if the bank manager (to lend)
him the money.
4. Choose the correct expression in the following sentences.
You can drop in and see us whenever/on condition
he arrives, everyone must stand.
2) We’re not going to stop digging until/as soon as
we find the ancient ruins.
3) They’re going to check the building before/as long as
the President arrives.
4) Those flowers will be in bloom immediately/by the time
5) Please phone your dad the time/immediately
6) Supposing/In case
you had a baby girl –what would you call her?
Chelsea wins the cups depends on Dennis being on good form.
the Smiths arrive, ask them to wait outside my office.
9) As soon as/Before
you hear the alarm, run for the exit.
10) You’ll recover quickly once/provided
5. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Use will, going to, Present Simple and Present Perfect. There are may be two possibilities.
Model: As soon as I save/have
saved (save) enough money, I’m going to go on a long holiday.
1) I hope you’ll be awake when I ____(come)
2) Come when you ___ (be)
3) We’d like to stay up until the film ___ (finish).
4) All the tickets will have been sold by the time we ___ (get)
5) Don’t open your eyes till I ___ (tell)
6) Whether she ___ (play)
on Saturday depends on what the doctor says.
7) I ___ (tell)
you a secret on condition that you ___ (not tell)
8) I ___ (lend)
you the book as long as you ___ it ___ (bring back)
9) We ___ (take)
our swimming things in case we ___ (get)
a chance to go swimming.
10) We ___ (go)
to bed as soon as the programme ___ (finish)
. Rewrite each of the following to form a conditional sentence (Type I).
1) The chauffeur may drive fast. Then they’ll catch their train.
2) Perhaps both Steve and James will be successful. Then everyone will be happy.
3) His mother wants to make him study law. Then he’ll be unhappy.
4) Caroline wants to change her job. Then she’ll earn more money.
5) Perhaps Steve won’t go to university. Then he’ll start work in a bank.
6) He wants to go to university. Then he’ll study history or languages.
7) Perhaps she won’t say anything. Then he’ll decide himself.
8) James wants to become a tennis player. Then he’ll make a lot of money.
9) We may have a puncture. Then we’ll telephone the nearest garage.
7. Some workers are demonstrating outside their factory. Use their demands to decide what they actually say to the managers and make conditional sentences (Type 1).
8. The managers of the factory are considering the worker’s demands. Complete the sentences by choosing suitable linking word from the box below.
provided that, supposing, unless, in case, as long as, so long as
1) We’ll pay them more money ___ they work harder.
2) We won’t give them longer holidays ___ they promise to be more productive.
3) We won’t shorten their lunch-break ___ they agree to start earlier.
4) We’ll have to improve safety standards ___ someone has an accident.
5) We’ll consider providing better working conditions ___ we have enough money.
6) ___ we introduce a shorter working week, how will we make a profit?
7) We’ll include worker representatives in the Board of Directors ___ they’re trained to manage.
8) We’ll let some of full-time workers stay with us ___ they agree to be lower-paid.
9. Complete the following sentences
1) You’ll soon be in trouble if ... .
2) If you help me a bit, ... .
3) Dad, if you carry on like this, I ... .
4) If you drive so fast, we ... .
5) The house will soon be very dirty, if ... .
6) If they get a new manager, he ... .
7) The team won’t make more money unless ... .
8) You won’t be seasick if ... .
9) Why don’t you visit Mom if ... .
10) More people won’t visit their matches unless ... .
11) What will happen if ... ?
12) Look up the answer in the key only if ... .
13) ... only if you promise not to tell anyone else.
14) If the worst should come to the worst ... .
15) Give me time and ... .
16) We’ll just manage to catch the train if ... .
17) If I see him again I ... .
18) What will he say if ... ?
10. Think of a suitable way to complete the second half of the dialogue.
Model: – Do you think we’ll still catch the train?
– Well, we won’t unless we hurry.
1) – Do you think Patrick has much chance to pass the summer session?
– Well, we won’t unless .... .
2) – I hear you’re planning to go camping next weekend.
– We hope to, provide that ,... .
3) – You don’t need to take a map, do you?
– But supposing ... ?
4) – Do you think I should send it registered post?
– It might be a good idea, just in case .... .
5) – Can I borrow your car?
– Yes, so long as ... .
6) – So, you’re thinking of buying that second-hand car?
– Well, as long as ... .
7) – Are you going to ask Nick to help you?
– Well, unless ... .
8) – Could you lend me some money, Pete, to repair my motorbike?
– I will, so long as ... .
9) – Jane, tell Mr. Lewis I’ll see him right away.
– I do, in case ... .
10) – Oh, dear, tell me what’s happened to Sue?
– O.K. I’ll tell you the whole truth so long as ... .
11. Translate into English:
1) Я пошлю ему телеграмму, если он завтра не приедет.
2) Как только я получу водительское удостоверение, я сразу же куплю машину.
3) При условии, что ты будешь есть меньше, ты не будешь такой полной.
4) Мы посидим в баре, пока она ходит по магазинам.
5) Я вернусь не позднее 6 часов, если меня не задержат в университете.
6) Он не придёт, если его жене не станет лучше.
7) В случае, если пойдёт дождь, я останусь дома.
8) Когда бы вы не пришли ко мне, я всегда буду рад вас видеть.
9) Если Анна посмотрит эту передачу по телевидению, то она будет знать о чём идёт речь.
10) Как только они завершат работу над докладом, они вернутся к этой проблеме.
11) Я загляну позже, если будут какие-нибудь новости.
12) Если ты не будешь вести машину осторожно, ты попадёшь в аварию.
13) Собака залает, если ты постучишь в дверь.
14) Если я закончу все дела на этой неделе, я уеду в заграничное путешествие.
15) Мы поедем отдыхать при условии, что ты сдашь экзамен по английскому языку,
Unit 4 Type II ConditionalS
Type II Conditionals
usually talk about imaginary situations referring to the present or future in the if-
clause and speculate about their imaginary consequences in the main clause.
If + Subjunctive Past would + Infinitive
tomorrow he would stay
Though past tenses are used, the reference is not to the past time but to the present or future.
(see Unit 2 in this chapter) is used in if-
clause and the group ‘modal verb
(most often would
) + Infinitive’
forms a compound verbal predicate in the main clause:
her, I would be
я увидела её,
я была бы
not for your help, I should
able to do it.
не ваша помощь, я бы не смог
In spoken English would
is often shortened to ‘d:
smoking, you’d feel
Other modals can replace 'would'
in Type II Conditionals when we feel the imaginary consequences are less likely, or when we are referring to ability, possibility, etc.:
condition to be satisfied likely outcome
here, he could help
here he might
, he ought to/should try
Type II Conditionals are used:
1) When the supposition is contrary to the fact:
If I knew
her address, I would give
it to you
(but I don't know it).
If I were
taller, I would become
(but I am not).
2) When we don't expect the action in the if-
clause to take place:
If a burglar came
into my room, I should throw
something at him
(but I don't expect a burglar to come in).
If he ran
all the way, he would get
there in time
(but I don't suppose he will run all the way).
3) To give advice or to refer to somebody else:
If I were Jane/in Jane's position
walk out on him.
NOTE: If I were
should be used in place of 'was' after If I/she/he/it.
If I were
better qualified, I would apply for the job.
If I were
you, I would go there by bus.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Put the verb into the correct form.
If I found $100 in the street, I would keep (keep) it.
1) I’m sure Tom will lend you some money. I would be very surprised if he ___ (refuse)
2) Many people would be out of work if that factory ___ (close)
3) If she sold her car, she ___ (not/get)
much money for it.
4) They’re expecting us. They would be disappointed if we ___ (not/come)
5) Would George be angry if I ___ (take)
his bicycle without asking.
6) Ann gave me this ring. She___ (be)
terribly upset if I lost it.
7) If someone ___ (walk)
in here with a gun, I’d be very frightened.
8) What would happen if you ___ (not/go)
to work tomorrow.
9) I’d climb over the wall if there ___ (not be)
so much broken glass on top of it.
10) I ___ (keep)
a dog if I could afford it.
11) The whole machine would fall to pieces if you ___ (remove)
12) If you ___ (change)
your job would it affect your pension?
13) If they ___ (ban)
the sale of alcohol at football match there might be less violence.
14) If you slept under a mosquito net you ___ (not be)
bitten so often.
15) If we ___ (reduce)
taxes, people would have more money.
16) Would you mind if I ___ (not/give)
you the money I owe you today?
2. Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense form.
1) If you drove more carefully, you (not have)
so many accidents.
2) If he (get up)
earlier, he would get to work on time.
3) If we (have)
more time, I could tell you more about it.
4) His car would be a lot safer if he (buy)
some new tyres.
5) The children would be better swimmers if they (go)
swimming more frequently.
6) I wouldn’t mind having children if we (live)
in the country.
7) If I (be)
you, I wouldn’t worry about going to university.
8) If I (have)
any money, I’d give you some.
9) Your parents (be)
a lot happier if you phoned them more often.
10) Where would you like to live if you (not live)
11) What would you do if you suddenly (win)
half a million pounds?
12) Would you mind if I (not give)
you the money I owe you today?
13) If I had to go to hospital, I (not go)
to this one.
14) If you (sell)
more products, you would earn more money.
3. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.
1) If I had their address...
a) it would cost over $650.
2) If you saw her now ...
b) you might earn a bit more money.
3) If you took more exercise ...
c) we could go for a swim.
4) If you got a new job ...
d) I could probably stay with Mahomet.
5) If you asked Heather ...
e) she must have been out at work.
6) If I travelled first class ...
f) she would probably give you a lift.
7) If it were a little warmer ...
g) she would give you a certificate.
8) If she didn’t answer the phone ...
h) I might lose a bit of weight.
9) If I stopped off in Ankara....
i) I could write and ask them.
10) If you went to the doctor ...
j) you would hardly recognize her.
4. What would they do? Put the verbs in the correct tense and form:
If Nick got more pocket money, he would waste
it all on stupid things.
That isn’t true. If I had more money, I (1) ___ (spend)
it on a leather jacket.
If I (2) ___ (win)
a lottery, I would buy a CD-player.
I (3) ___ (not buy)
a CD-player, if I were you. They are too much expensive.
If I had more money, I (4) ___ (save)
it for a trip.
If I (5) ___ (have)
a lot of money, I (6) ___ (buy)
I (7) ___ (not buy)
a motorbike if I (8) ___ (be)
you. They are too dangerous.
If we (9) ___ (not/get)
so much homework, I (10) ___ (deliver)
newspapers every morning.
What has homework got to do with a morning paper-round?
Well, you see. Nick does his homework between getting up and eating breakfast.
5. Write Type II Conditionals to match these situations
Model: I don’t have a spare ticket. I can’t take you to the concert.
If I had a spare ticket, I could/would take you to the concert.
1) She drinks too much coffee. She doesn’t feel calm.
2) He can’t type. He isn’t able to operate a computer.
3) They don’t understand the problem. They won’t find a solution.
4) I’m in a hurry. I won’t stay to dinner.
5) She is not in your position. She isn’t able to advise you.
6) He’s not a millionaire. He won’t buy you a palace.
7) The weather isn’t sunny. We won’t stay indoors.
8) I am fit. I will go climbing.
9) He sits around too much. He isn’t fit.
6. Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs. Use could, ought to, might in the main clause.
1) If she (be)
here now, she (give)
us some advice.
2) If he (fail)
in his present job, he (think)
about another career.
3) If you (can play)
a musical instrument, you (help)
with the school orchestra.
4) If they (have)
the right qualifications, they (be able to)
apply for better jobs.
5) If she (can have)
some lessons, she (improve)
6) If we (run)
our own business, we (be)
7) If John (go)
to this town, he (visit)
8) If Susan (borrow)
your book, she (return)
9) If Frank (want)
advice, he (ask)
his bank manager.
7. The following things might happen. What would you do if they happened to you? Write your answers
Model: If I found a gold ring in the street, I would give it to my sister.
1) If I lived on a tropical island, ___ .
2) If I forgot my best friend’s birthday, ___ .
3) If I saw someone hurt in an accident, ___.
4) If I spilled orange juice on my English homework, ___.
5) If I had a million dollars, ___.
6) If I found a purse full of money in a bus, ___.
7) If all the lights suddenly went out, ___.
8) If I met a famous pop star, ___.
9) If I lost my house key, ___.
10) If the television broke down in the middle of my favourite programme, ___.
11) If I lived in the USA, ___.
12) If I were a President of, ___.
13) If I could travel anywhere in the world, ___.
14) If today were the last day of my life, ___.
15) If I were an English teacher, ___.
16) If I were an excellent partner, ___.
17) If I could have any job I wanted, ___.
8. Put the verb into the correct form.
LYING IN THE SUN
Two tramps, Eugine and Sergio, were lying in the sun.
What (1) ___ (we/doing)
if the sun (2) ___ (not shining)
Well, (3) ___ (we/not be)
lying here for a start. But that’s not the important question. The important question is: what (4) ___ (we do)
if (5) ___ (we/be)
If (6) ___ (we/be)
rich, we (7) ___ (can/travel)
True, but we travel everywhere already.
Yes, but not in style. If (8) ___ (we/have)
money, our chauffeur, James, (9) ___ (can/drive)
us round in our Rolls. Imagine, if (10) ___ (we/be)
in that position. (11) ___ (We/return)
to our fine mansion in the country.
Yes, the butter (12) ___ (put out)
fresh clothes for us, the cook (13) ___ (prepare)
a fine meal for us. We (14) ___ not just be eating carrots all the time.
Yes. If (15) ___ (we/own)
a house like that, (16) ___ (we/also/have)
a fine swimming-pool.
Yes! Yes! If (17) ___ (we/have)
a fine swimming-pool, we (18) ___ (can/swim)
as much as we liked.
If (19) ___ (we/be)
really rich, we (20) ___ (can/lie)
in the sun!
But we are
lying in the sun!
9. Your friend can’t decide where to go on holiday. Make some suggestions about where he/she could go and what he/she could do. (He/She could visit famous buildings; practise languages; eat national dishes; do/watch certain sports).
If you went to Spain, you could eat paella, lie in the sun, watch a bull-fight and speak Spanish.
1) London; 2) Scotland; 3) India; 4) Mexico; 5) Paris; 6) Italy; 7) Egypt;
8) New York.
10. Translate into English:
1) Я бы не интересовался этим вопросом, если бы не возрастало его значение.
2) На вашем месте, я бы разговаривал с дочерью по-английски.
3) Если бы я разбогатела, я бы купила новый автомобиль.
4) – Куда бы ты сходил, если бы у тебя было свободное время? – Я бы, конечно, сходил в кино. Очень интересный фильм идёт в нашем кинотеатре.
5) Если бы театр был ближе, мы смогли бы пойти пешком.
6) – Кого бы вы пригласили, если бы организовали вечер в институте? – Мы бы пригласили своих друзей.
7) – Что бы ты купила, если бы твоя подруга пригласила тебя на день рождения? – Я бы, конечно, купила цветы. Она очень любит цветы.
8) На вашем месте, я бы не принимал столь скоропалительное и необдуманное решение.
9) – Пойдём сыграем футбол! – Я бы с большим удовольствием присоединился к вам, если бы не завтрашний экзамен по математике.
10) Твоё платье сразу бы стало выглядеть лучше, если бы ты поменяла пуговицы.
11) Я бы дала тебе её адрес, если бы знала его.
12) На твоём месте я бы обратился к адвокату, а ты предпочитаешь помощь какого-то Спарка.
13) Она не взяла бы деньги, даже если бы он и предложил.
14) Если бы он интересовался английским, то использовал бы любую возможность поговорить на языке.
15) Мы бы увидели эту парочку, если бы подождали ещё минутку.
Unit 5 Type III ConditionalS
Type III Conditionals
assume something purely imaginary in the if
-clause and consider the imagined consequences in the main clause.
+ Past Perfect would
+ Perfect Infinitive
he had tried
harder, he would have succeeded.
Other modals can replace would
in Type III Conditionals when we feel that the imagined consequences were less likely, or when we are referring to ability, possibility, etc.:
imagined condition imagined outcome
he had been
here yesterday, he could have told
he had been
here yesterday, he might have told
he had received
a present, he should have thanked
Type III Conditionals refer to consequences which did not and could not ever happen because they refer to something that didn't happen in the past
I had seen
her, I would have been
я увидела её, я была бы
. (но я не увидела её и не могла быть рада)
I had worked
harder at school, I'd have got
a better job
(referring to something possible: often expressing regret).
I had lived
in the Stone Age, I would have been
(referring to a completely impossible situation).
If I had been you/in your position
These expressions are often used to describe actions we would have followed in someone else's positions.
If I had been you
I would have married to him
Inversion with had
in Type III Conditionals
The form Had (he)
is a formal variation of if (he) had
the management acted
sooner, the strike wouldn't have happened
E X E R C I S E S
1. Put the verb into the correct form.
Model: If I had known
(know) that you were ill last week, I’d have gone to see you.
1) Tom got to the station in time. If he ___ (miss)
the train, he would have been late for his interview.
2) It’s good that Ann reminded me about Tom’s birthday. I ___ (forget)
if she hadn’t reminded me.
3) We might not have stayed at this hotel if George ___ (not/recommend)
it to us.
4) I’d have sent you a postcard while I was on holiday if I ___ (have)
5) Rome ___ (be captured)
by her enemies if the geese hadn’t cackled.
6) If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he ___ (not burn)
a hole in his coat.
7) You ___ (not get)
into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions.
8) I ___ (take)
a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way.
9) He would have been arrested if he ___ (try)
to leave the country.
10) They would have forced their way into the house if I ___ (not call)
11) If you hadn’t been in such a hurry you ___ (not put)
sugar into the sauce instead of salt.
12) If I ___ (try)
again I think that I would have succeeded.
13) You ___ (save)
me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going.
14) She had a headache; otherwise she ___ (come)
15) If you ___ (look)
at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was missing.
2. Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs. Use
could have (done)
might have (done)
in the main class.
Model: If I had managed
(manage) to repair my car earlier, I could have driven
(drive) you to London.
1) If I ___ (know)
last week that she was ill, I ___ (visit)
2) If you ___ (not want)
to drive straight home, we ___ (miss)
all this traffic.
3) If you ___ (ask)
politely, I ___ (help)
4) If the weather forecast ___ (be)
different, we ___ (stay)
5) We ___ (be)
at the airport for hours, if we ___ (not know)
that the flight was delayed.
6) I ___ (make)
a bad mistake, if I ___ (not read)
7) We ___ (have)
an accident, if our car ___ (not be)
8) If he ___ (fasten)
his seatbelt, he ___ (not be)
9) She ___ (not hear)
the news, if she ___ (not turn on)
the radio this morning.
10) If they ___ (could see)
us, they ___ (laugh).
11) They ___ (play)
better, if they ___ (have)
3. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets.
WILL YOU LEND ME YOUR BIKE?
Will you lend me your bike? I have to get to basketball training in 5 minutes.
The last time I lent it to you, you got flat tire and didn’t repair it.
Well, I (1) ___ (not get)
a flat tyre if you (2) ___ (put)
enough air in it.
That’s not true. You rode straight over some broken glass.
Well, I (3) ___ (not ride)
over the glass if someone (4) ___ (left)
it all over the road. Besides, I (5) ___ (go)
round the glass, if a car (6) ___ (not come)
from the other direction.
Well, you could have stopped.
I (7) ___ (stop)
if the brakes (8) ___ (not fail)
Well, you should have checked the brakes before you started. I (9) ___ (not lend)
you my bike if I (10) ___ (know)
that the brakes weren’t working.
4. The Principal of the Express School of English is thinking about his life, and the conditions that led him to do things. What does he say to himself? Write sentences with an if-clause.
1) (I started the school after the bank lent me $50.000.).
If the bank hadn’t lent me $50.000
I wouldn’t have started
2) (I continued because the school was a success).
I ___ if the school ___ a success.
3) (We won the Pacifica University contract, so we didn’t have money problems).
If we ___ the Pacifica University contract, we ___ money problems.
4) (I didn’t retire, so we didn’t go to live in Italy).
If I ___ we ___ to live in Italy.
5) (We didn’t build another language lab because there weren’t enough students).
We ___ another language lab if ___ ___ enough students.
6) (We didn’t move to a better building because the rent for this building was so low).
We ___ to a better building if the rent for this building ___ so low.
7) (Anyway, our teachers with us because there was a friendly atmosphere).
Anyway, our teachers ___ with us if ___ a friendly atmosphere.
5. Open the brackets.
BOTH RIGHT AND BOTH WRONG
The black car screamed round the corner on the wrong side of the road and passed a white car doing exactly the same thing in the other direction. Both drivers stopped and got out of their cars. ‘If I (1) (be)
on my side of the road, you (2) ___ (kill)
me’, driver A shouted. ‘But you weren’t on your side of the road,’ driver B shouted back. ‘If you (3) ___ (... driving)
more carefully, you (4) ___ (not be)
on the wrong side of the road.’ ‘If I (5) ___ (know)
what was round the corner, I (6) ___ (keep)
to my side of the road,’ driver A said. ‘If you (7) ___ (know)
what was round the corner, you (8) ___ (... not driving)
so carelessly.’ Suddenly, both men stopped shouting and driver A said, very quietly, ‘If we both (9) ___ (not be)
on the wrong side of the road. we (10) ___ (be)
dead now.’ Without speaking a further word, both men shook hands and drove away.
6. Comment on the following situations with
Model: John ate too much cake, so he was sick
If John hadn’t eaten too/so much cake, he wouldn’t have been sick.
1) We came home from our holiday early because we ran out of money.
2) The house didn’t burn down because the fire brigade came immediately.
3) The men were wearing protective clothing, so they were all quite safe.
4) I had an accident because I wasn’t watching the road.
5) I was sweating because it was so hot.
6) My father didn’t earn much money, so life wasn’t easy for us.
7) I didn’t enjoy school, so I didn’t do very well.
7. Read a situation and write a sentence with
Model: She didn’t eat anything because she wasn’t hungry
If she had been hungry, she would have eaten something.
1) The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
If the driver in front ___.
2) I didn’t wake Nora because I didn’t know she wanted to get up early.
If I ___.
3) She wasn’t injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt.
4) I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money.
5) You’re hungry now because you didn’t have breakfast.
6) She didn’t buy the coat because she didn’t have enough money on her.
8. Rewrite these sentences as conditionals.
Model: Unfortunately I didn’t see him, so I couldn’t give him your message.
If I had seen him, I could have given him your message.
1) Unfortunately he didn’t pass his exams or he might have gone to university.
2) He didn’t realize what was happening or he would have run away.
3) Fortunately I didn’t hear what she said or I would have been very angry.
4) They got in because you didn’t lock the door properly.
5) It only happened because you didn’t follow the instructions.
6) Luckily she didn’t find out or she would have been furious.
7) It’s lucky we looked a room or we would have had nowhere to stay.
8) It’s a good job we weren’t going any faster or someone could have been killed.
9) He was so tired that he went home at lunchtime.
9. Complete the sentences
1) If I’d had my eye damaged, ... .
2) We would have flown to California ... .
3) The flight wouldn’t have been delayed if ... .
4) I would never have known if ... .
5) If I had read more ... .
6) They would have signed the contract if ... .
7) We would have stayed in Paris longer ... .
8) We wouldn’t have spent all our money if ... .
9) If the adverts had said something about the noise from traffic, ... .
10) If I’d seen an accident, ... .
11) She wouldn’t have called you liar if ... .
12) Mr Spark wouldn’t have gone to the pub if ... .
13) There might be an accident if ... .
14) If I had felt seasick, ... .
1) Я бы не уволился, если бы они повысили тогда зарплату.
2) Я бы не провалил экзамен, если бы подготовился к нему как положено.
3) Моя сестра купила бы этот костюм ещё в прошлом месяце, если бы получила зарплату вовремя.
4) Я бы пошёл на вчерашнюю вечеринку, если бы Смиты меня пригласили.
5) Если бы прошлым летом у меня был автомобиль, я бы ездил на пляж каждое утро.
6) Наше предприятие не закрыли бы, если бы мы отдали все долги до марта.
7) Если бы она не прислала вчера это письмо, мой брат был бы сейчас дома.
8) Вы бы не разбили вазу, если бы были осторожнее.
9) Если бы Кити приняла вчера лекарство, она бы чувствовала себя хорошо сегодня.
10) Если бы не дождь, мы бы могли сейчас поехать за город.
11) Вы бы не разбили вазу, если бы были осторожнее.
12) Если бы ни Вы, я бы никогда не выполнил эту работу вовремя.
13) Торт сгорел бы, если бы я не пошла на кухню.
14) Мы бы не пошли в ресторан, если бы знали цены.
15) Костёр не погас бы, если бы мы подбрасывали в него дрова (to put logs).
Unit 6 Mixed Conditionals
(see Unit 2, 3)
E x e r c i s e s
1. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences.
1) If you had told me about this problem earlier
2) If you were a more sensitive person
3) If they don’t contact you soon
4) If he hadn’t died so young
5) If he didn’t work so hard all the time
6) If the train hadn’t been delayed
7) If he was feeling ill this morning
8) If you’re coming with us
9) If I really wanted to have children
10) If you had worked harder last month
a) he probably won’t be at the meeting
b) you could always ring them up
c) his wife would never have left him
d) you wouldn’t have said that to her
e) I would have had them by now
f) everything would be all right now
g) would you hurry up and get ready?
h) you wouldn’t be so busy this month
i) we would be there by now
j) I’m sure he’d be a famous musician
2. Use mixed conditionals in these sentences.
1) If I ___ (be)
you, I ___ (check)
my facts before I wrote the letter.
2) If you ___ (be)
so hungry, you ___ (not miss)
3) If he ___ (not catch)
the 5.30 train, he ___ (not arrive)
for another two hours.
4) He ___ (feel)
very tired today if he ___ (play)
5) If the snake bite ___ (be)
poisonous, you ___ (feel)
very ill now.
6) If I ___ (be)
in your position, I ___ (answer)
his letter by now.
3. Two scouts, Alan and Bob, are sheltering from a storm. They are discussing what has happened, and what to do now. Complete the conversation with a suitable form of the verb in brackets.
I (1) ‘ll carry on
with our walk when the weather (2) ____ (clear up)
Yes. But if (3) ___ (know)
the weather was going to be this bad, I (4) ___ (never set out)
Well, it’s a bit brighter now. If it (5) ___ (stop) raining, we (6) ___ (easily be) back at the camp by sunset.
I suppose things could be worse. Do you remember the hill-walk last year? We (7) ___ (have to) turn back almost as soon as we (8) ___ (start), when Charlie Dickson (9) ___ (break) his ankle.
That’s right. And that was after we (10) ___(spend) ages preparing for the walk.
Still we were lucky that the accident happened so soon after we (11) ___ (set out). If it (12) ___ (happen) later, we (13) ___ (have to) carry Charlie for miles.
Well just at this moment, I couldn’t carry anybody. If a helicopter (14) ___ (come) over the top of that hill, I (15) ___(wave) to the pilot for a lift.
There isn’t much chance of that. Anyway, my problem is my feet. They’re killing me! I (16) ___ (put) some ointment on them if I (17) ___ (have) any. But I forgot to pack it.
Me too. But the rain’s stopped, so let’s go. Just think! When we (18) ___ (get) a good, hot meat at the camp tonight, we (19) ___ (be) glad that we came.
4. Put in the right conditionals.
THE SECRET OF A LONG LIFE
Grygori Pilikan recently celebrated his 114th
birthday and reporters visited him in his mountain village in Georgia to find out the secret of a long life. ‘The secret of a long life,’ Grygori said, ‘is happiness. If you (1) (be)
happy, you will live a long time.’ ‘Are you married?’ a reporter asked. ‘Yes,’ Grygori replied. ‘I married my third wife when I was 102. If you happily married, you (2) ___ (live)
for ever. But for my third wife, I (3) ___(die)
years ago.’ ‘What about smoking and drinking?’ a reporter asked. ‘Yes, they are important,’ Grygori said. ‘Don’t smoke at all and you (4) ___ (feel)
well. Drink two glasses of wine a day and you (5) ___ (be)
healthy and happy.’ ‘If you (6) ___ (can/live)
your life again, what (7) ___ (you/do)
?’ a reporter asked.’ ‘I would do what I have done. If I had more sense, I (8) ___ (eat)
more yoghourt!’ he chuckled. ‘Supposing you (9) __ (can/change)
one thing in your life what (10) ___ (you/change)
?’ another reporter asked. ‘Not much,’ Grygori replied. ‘So you don’t have any regrets?’ ‘Yes, I have one regret,’ Grygori replied. ‘If I (11) ___ (know)
I was going to live so long, I (12) ___ (look after)
5. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets
Yesterday the famous bank robber, Fingers Smith, robbed another bank in the centre of town. As usual, he only stole $10. If he (1) had left
any clues, he (2) ___ (be)
in prison now, but he’s much too clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he (3) ___ (not/do)
that, the police (4) ___ (have)
him on film now. The strange thing is, Fingers doesn’t seem to be interested in the money; if he (5) ___ (be)
, he (6) ___ (can/steal)
thousands of pounds by now. The police are determined to catch him, and the Chief is confident that they will. He says that if he (7) ___ (think)
they weren’t going to arrest Fingers eventually, he (8) ___ (leave)
the police force long ago.
1) Если бы он не был таким рассеянным, он не принял бы вас за мою сестру.
2) Алиса не купила бы эти книги, если бы не сдавала экзамен по истории.
3) Если бы вы приняли лекарство, вы были бы сейчас здоровы.
4) Если бы Чарльз знал адрес, он бы уже пришёл к этому времени.
5) Вероника не поехала бы с ним на Север после окончания института, если бы не любила его.
6) Если бы мы не были знакомы, он бы не пригласил нас на вечер.
7) Если бы я был на твоём месте, я бы проверил факты до того как написал письмо.
8) Он бы не опоздал на завтрак, если бы не разговаривал по телефону так долго.
9) Если бы ты была более тактичным человеком, ты бы не сказала ей это.
10) Если бы Сью работала усерднее в прошлом месяце, она не была бы так занята сейчас.
UNIT 7 "IF ONLY"
can be placed after if
and indicates hope, wish
according to the tense used with it:
a) if only
+ Present Indefinite / Future Indefinite
– to express hope
(= we hope he will come).
he will listen to
(= we hope he will be willing to listen).
b) if only
+ Past/Past Perfect
– to express regret
he didn’t drive
(= we are sorry he drives so fast)
you hadn't said
(= we are sorry you said that)
it for sure.–
Ах, если бы я была в этом уверена
. – Ах, если бы я сказала ей правду
c) if only
can express regret about a present action as an alternative to if only
+ past tense
(it has the same meaning as wish + would
y he would drive
.(= we are sorry that he isn’t willing to drive more slowly).
expresses present, future, and past situations.
Here is a summary of patterns using wish
Verb form after wish
Example (+ meaning)
. (= I don’t know).
better at sports.
(= I’m not)
(= I’m not)
give you an answer.
(= I can’t)
(= Your taking irritates me)
I had known
. (= but I didn’t)
I could have
(= I wasn’t able to)
. – Хорошо бы он пришёл.
. – Жаль, что вы его не знаете.
. – Жаль, что вы не пришли.
E X E R C I S E S
1. Match the comments with the answers
1) I feel so old
2) The plants in the garden are dying
3) We never hear from Angela
4) I didn’t know you were ill
5) I can’t afford to go out
6) It takes hours to get to work
7) She looked absolutely lovely
8) We don’t see you very often nowadays
9) Now everyone knows the secret
a) I wish it would rain.
b) I wish you had told me.
c) I wish we lived nearer the office.
d) I wish you could come more often.
e) I wish I hadn’t told anyone.
f) I wish I were younger.
g) I wish she would write more often.
h) I wish I had more money.
i) I wish I could have taken a photograph.
2. Write sentences with ‘I wish’.
It’s raining very hard. ® I wish it weren’t raining so hard.
1) We haven’t time to stop.
2) John didn’t pass the exam.
3) It’s very cold in here.
4) There’s no time to spare.
5) George won’t help.
6) Mary didn’t come.
7) I didn’t see the match last week.
8) I can’t give up smoking.
9) Tina can’t come to the party.
10) She doesn’t know anything about cars.
11) I’m not lying on a sunny beach.
12) I hate having to do homework every night.
13) I decided to work in London.
14) We sold the house we had in Manchester.
15) We didn’t realize that a supermarket was opening nearby.
16) We put our money into a grocery shop.
17) We borrowed $3.000 to start the business.
18) It was a mistake to leave Manchester.
3. Imagine that you are in these situations. For each situation write a sentence with ‘I wish’.
Model: You’ve eaten too much and now you feel sick.
You say I wish I hadn’t eaten so much
1) There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your decision was wrong.
You say: I wish I ____ .
2) When you were younger, you didn’t learn to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this.
You say: ____ .
3) You’ve painted the gate red. Now you think that it doesn’t look very nice.
You say: ____ .
4) You have some unexpected guests. They didn’t tell you they were coming. You are very busy and you are not prepared for them.
You say (to yourself): ____ .
5) You are walking in the country. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your camera.
You say: ____ .
4. Express wishes and regrets about these situations. Refer to yourself where possible.
You’re not very fit. I wish/If only/I was/were fit/fitter!
1) It’s very hot today.
2) It’s raining.
3) You were too impatient.
4) You wasted a lot of time watching TV.
5) John didn’t take your advice.
6) We didn’t lock the back door!
7) Jane has read your letter.
8) He is abroad.
9) They don’t have a lot of friends.
5. Complain about the present situation and express your wish about some future actions. Begin your sentences with ‘if only’ or ‘I wish’.
You don’t expect your headache to go away.
my headache would go away. (If only
my headache went
1) You don’t expect the weather to clear up.
2) You don’t expect the Rescue Services to arrive soon.
3) Some economists don’t expect tight monetary and fiscal policies to keep inflation under control.
4) You don’t expect this company despite of its small financial backing to be the first to crack.
5) You don’t expect your wife to be promoted soon.
6) You don’t expect your boss to think of this possibility for you.
7) You don’t expect Steve to be more careful.
6. Read a situation and then write a sentence with
‘I wish ... would’ ....
It’s raining. You want to go out, but not in the rain. So you want it to stop raining. What did you say? I wish it would stop raining.
1) You’re waiting for Tom. He’s late and you’re getting impatient. You want him to come. What do you say?
I wish ___
2) A baby is crying and you’re trying to sleep. You want the baby to stop crying. What do you say?
I wish ___
3) You’re looking for a job – so far without success. You want somebody to give you a job. What do you say?
I wish somebody ___
4) Brian has been wearing the same old clothes for years. You think he needs some new clothes and you want him to buy some. What do you say to him?
I wish ___
5) Tom drives very fast. You don’t like this. What do you say to him?
I wish ___
6) A lot of people drop litter in the street. You don’t like this. What do you say?
I wish ___
7) Jack always leaves the door open. You don’t like this. What do you say to him?
I wish ____
7. Here are some problems in brackets. How could they have been avoided? Use the words and phrases to help you write two sentences about each problem using
play fewer computer games, keep calm, eat less, walk more, lose temper, use bins, match less TV, use car less often, save water, let someone else drive, waste water, take more exercise, protect forest, drive carefully, recycle more paper, take rubbish home
1) (I’ve gained a lot of weight)
I wish ___
If only ___
2) (The rivers and reservoirs have dried up)
I wish ___
If only ___
3) (He crashed his car)
I wish ___
If only ___
4) (He had a row with his best friend)
I wish ___
If only ___
5) (People drop litter in the street)
I wish ___
If only ___
6) (We are cutting down too many trees)
I wish ___
If only ___
7) (People use their cars when they don’t need to)
I wish ___
If only ___
8) (Children don’t read enough nowadays)
I wish ___
If only ___
8. Translate into English:
1) Если бы я был моложе!
2) Жаль, что и вчера у меня было мало времени!
3) Ах, если бы вы сказали ей об этом в прошлое воскресенье!
4) Жаль, что уже поздно туда идти.
5) Как жаль, что мы не застали Сью дома.
6) Мы сожалеем, что у Вас мало опыта в этой области.
7) Даже если бы он сдал экзамен, он бы не поехал в Москву.
8) Она сожалела, что не рассказала Вам эту историю раньше.
9) Мы бы хотели, чтобы Вы упомянули эти факты.
10) Хорошо бы у нас сейчас были каникулы!
11) Даже если бы сейчас шёл дождь, я бы поехал навестить больного друга.
12) Жаль, что уже заняты все вакантные места.
13) Хорошо бы Вы написали ей об этом сами.
14) Жаль, что Вы не обратили внимание на его предупреждение.
15) Жаль, что ты не воспользовался этой возможностью.
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
1) I ___ (tell)
you if I hear from him.
2) If I ___ (understand)
the question, I might be able to answer it.
3) If she’d passed her exams, she ___ (go)
4) We ___ (miss)
the lecture unless we hurry.
5) He ___ (buy)
a car provided that he passes his driving test.
6) The teacher ___ (not/shout)
at her if she did her homework.
7) I ___ (run)
home if I’d known the football match was on TV.
8) The animals at the zoo ___ (die)
unless they’re fed.
9) He’ll be furious if he ever ___ (find out)
2. Match the parts of the sentence.
1) You can see the boss
2) I would have bought it
3) We’ll go to the beach tomorrow
4) He would go by plane
5) If she hadn’t slept late
a) unless it rains.
b) provided that he is not too busy.
c) if I’d had enough money with me.
d) she wouldn’t have missed the train.
e) if it was cheaper.
3. Fill in:
if, unless, provided
1) You will not be allowed into the building ___ you have a security pass.
2) ___ that you book your flight early, you will get a seat.
3) ___ as you follow the instructions exactly, you won’t have any difficulty.
4) ___ you meet Darren, give him my regards.
5) You can hire a car in France ___ as you have a driving licence and you’re over 23.
6) You can’t enter the country ___ you have a passport.
7) The kidnappers won’t release the child ___ the ransom is paid.
4. Complete the sentences using these words and phrases.
was, leaving, can’t, might, starts, am, would be, become, take, should
1) If I ___ not busy, I’ll visit you.
2) If he ___ careful, he wouldn’t break things.
3) If he were slimmer, he ___ much more attractive.
4) If she ___ Prime Minister, she’ll raise taxes.
5) Unless you stop wasting time, I’m ___ right now.
6) If you don’t give me more information, I ___ help you.
7) If a fire ___, the alarm goes off.
8) You ___ make your food if you don’t like my cooking.
9) ___ more exercises and you’ll soon feel better.
10) If the weather improved, I ___ go for a stroll.
5. Complete these sentences to make appropriate Third Conditional or Mixed Conditional sentences, using the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1) If I ___ (visit)
Athens last year, I ___ (phone)
2) If only I ___ (know)
you already had tickets, I ___ (not get)
any for you.
3) If you ___ (start)
coming to the course earlier, you ___ (could pass)
4) If I ___ (not be)
so shy at the party last Sunday, I ___ (might make)
5) If you ___ (not spend)
so much money, I ___ (not be)
6) I ___ (could become)
an accountant if I ___ (be)
good at maths.
7) She ___ (get)
promotion last year if she ___ (not argue)
with the boss.
8) He ___ (not get)
the job, if he ___ (not wear)
9) If I ___ (meet)
you before, my life ___ (be)
10) If he ___ (not see)
the other car, there ___ (be)
a serious accident.
6. Complete these conditional sentences in any way appropriate.
1) Had I know you were angry with me, ___.
2) He’ll receive it tomorrow ___.
3) She will feel much better ___.
4) ___ provided it’s cheap enough.
5) If the ship had arrived punctually, ___.
6) Unless we loose our way, ___.
7) I would never have done such a thing ___.
8) If it weren’t the wrong advice they gave me, ___.
9) Should the flight be cancelled, ___.
10) My sister would go out every evening ___.
7. Join the clauses in column A with those in column B to make eight logical sentences.
1) As long as it’s not raining
2) Unless you have more practice
3) If you hadn’t telephoned
4) If I were a stranger
5) Even if she apologised
6) If the weather had been wet
7) If I hadn’t been so tired
8) Provided that you rest
a) you should be all right in a few days.
b) we wouldn’t have got the message.
c) the match would have been cancelled.
d) I wouldn’t have gone to bed early.
e) you won’t pass the driving test.
f) I would never invite her again.
g) we’ll go out for a walk.
h) I would carry it myself.
8. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate conditional
1) If I found a gun in the street, ___.
2) You wouldn’t have been punished ___.
3) If you drink all that juice, ___.
4) If you drive too fast, ___.
5) Unless the weather improves, ___.
6) If you should see Mark this evening, ___.
7) My father would have bought me a bicycle, ___.
8) If you had taken my advice, ___.
9) He would have been angry ___.
10) If you aren’t enjoying the film, ___.
9. Write sentences as in the model.
1) You went to bed late and didn’t wake up in time for work.
2) You want to go to safari park with Michael, but you’re afraid of lions.
3) You would like to write a letter to Fred but you don’t have his address.
4) You went skiing and broke your leg.
5) You didn’t go to the concert because you didn’t know about it.
6) You have to stay in bed because you’ve got the flu.
7) You are lost in London because you don’t have a map.
10. Complete the dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
Where’s your key?
What do you mean? You’ve got a key, haven’t you?
(1) If I ___ (get)
mine, I ___ (not need)
yours, would I?
No, I haven’t got mine.
: But I told you to bring it.
No, you didn’t.
Yes, I did. (2) If you ___ (listen)
, you ___ (hear)
Well, I don’t remember you telling me. Anyway, I couldn’t find it.
: You mean, you’ve lost it again?
Not really. It’s at home somewhere. (3) I ___ (have)
time to look for if we ___ (not leave)
in such a hurry.
That’s not the point. (4) If you ___ (be)
more organized, you ___ (not keep on)
losing it in the first place!
That’s not fair. I don’t keep on losing it. Anyway, what are you going to do now? We haven’t got a key.
I don’t know. I suppose we’ll have to break a window.
You can’t do that! (5) If the neighbours ___ (hear)
you, they ___ (think)
All right then! There’s a small window open in the bathroom. (6) If you ___ (stand)
on my shoulders, you ___ (be)
able to reach and then you can climb in.
I’m not going to stand on your shoulders. I might fall off!
Don’t be silly! (7) If I ___ (hold)
your legs, you ___ (be)
: I still don’t like it!
Look! (8) I ___ (climb)
in myself, if I ___ (can)
get through the window, but I can’t. I’m too big. You’ll have to do it.
: (9) But if someone ___ (see)
me, they ___ (call)
For goodness sake! (10) It ___ (make)
things a lot easier if you ___ (not worry)
about other people! Now, are you ready?
(11) If you ___ (move)
a bit closer, I ___ (be)
able to reach. Oh! Not so fast! Roger! Oh!!
Now look what you’ve done! You’ve put your foot through the window!
: Roger! There’s something I’ve got to tell you!
Honestly, can’t you do anything right? (12) If you ___ (not be)
so careless, you ___ (not break)
Roger, listen! I hate to tell you, but this isn’t our house!
11. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
Norma isn’t happy with her life. If she (1) ___ (listen)
to her mother’s advice, she (2) ___ (stay)
at school and gone on to University. She (3) ____ (can/find)
a good job if she had got a degree. Norma hates the job she is doing now. She thinks she (4) ___ (go)
crazy if she (5) ___ (stay)
there much longer. If she (6) ___ (be)
offered another job, she would take immediately. In fact, she (7) ___ (leave)
if she (8) ___ (can)
afford to, but she can’t. Life (9) ___ (be)
easier if she (10) ___ (not/have)
two children to support.
12. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form.
Having a Wonderful Time! Wish You Were Here!
While trying to sail round the world in a small boat, Harry Sandy and Joe were shipwrecked one night. “I wish there (1) (be)
an island nearby”, Harry said. By morning, they were washed up on to a desert island. For six months they lived on fish, nuts and fruit. One day they saw a bottle on the shore. “If only it (2) ___ (contain)
a note or something!” Sandy said. They opened it and a genie appeared. “It’s high time someone (3) ___ (open)
that bottle!” the genie gasped. “I’m so grateful, I’ll give you one wish each. You first”, the genie said, pointing to Harry. “That’s easy”, Harry said. “I wish I (4) ___ (be)
with my family?. And (whoosh!)he disappeared. “He too”, Sandy said. “If only I (5) ___ (can be)
in dear old Glasgow”. And (whoosh!) off he went. “And you, sir?” the genie asked Joe. “I wish I (6) ___ (have)
my friends back!” Joe said.
13. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form.
Harry and Sheila, a husband and wife, are talking.
H. Shall I make the children something to eat?
S. I wouldn’t bother. You know how much they eat when they visit their grandparents.
H. That’s true. If they (1) ___ (eat)
all afternoon, they (2) ___ (not want)
anything when they get home.
S. Are we going to pick them up soon?
H. No, my parents are bringing them over. We agreed that if I (3) ___ (take)
them there, they (4) ___ (bring)
S. Oh good. Well, if we (5) ___ (not collect)
them, I (6) ___ (go back)
upstairs and do a bit more work. I’ve nearly finished that report now. If I (7) ___ (do)
another half hour’s work, I (8) ___ (finish)
it by the time the children get home.
H. Why do you always have to bring work home with you? If you (9) ___ (not agree)
to take on that new job, you (10) ___ (have)
much more free time now.
S. Yes, and if I (11) ___ (not take on)
that job, we (12) ___ (not have)
much money now.
H. That’s true, but I don’t like you working so much.
S. Well, never mind. We’ve got a week’s holiday soon. Just think! In two week’s time we (13) ___ (lie)
on a warm sunny beach that’s if I (14) ___ (can get)
the time off work of course.
H. What do you mean ‘if’?
S. Well, everything’s very busy at the moment. And if we (15) ___ (get)
any more orders, I just (16) ___ (not see)
how I can leave the office.
H. What? But that’s ridiculous!
14. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some sentences require a negative.
1) Peter is always late. If only he ___ (turn up)
on time for a change.
2) If only ___ (lose)
all my money. Now I’m broke.
3) Bruce wishes he ___ (have)
more money so he could buy a new sweater.
4) I wish it ___ (snow)
now that it’s Christmas.
5) I wish you ___ (keep)
your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows everything.
6) Of course Tom wishes he ___ (come)
with us Paris, but he has to stay here and work.
7) I wish we ___ (go)
to the match on Saturday, but we’re visiting my uncle instead.
8) I wish you ___ (do)
that. It annoys me.
9) I wish you ___ (stop)
watching TV while I am talking to you.
10) I wish ___ (come)
so we could go off to the seaside.
15. Write a sentence about each problem using
and the word in brackets.
1) People leave the tap running all the time. (turn off)
2) Your brother is very angry. (calm down)
3) The people next door have their TV on very loud. (turn down)
4) Too much rubbish is thrown away. (recycle)
5) People hurt animals for sport. (stop)
6) Your friend keeps complaining about everything all the time. (stop)
7) It doesn’t rain enough. (more)
8) The postman hasn’t arrived and I’m waiting for an important letter. (arrive)
9) Your favorite football team has lost every match so far. (win)
Read the following letter, then rewrite it using wishes and conditionals.
I am on an island somewhere in the Pacific Ocean. I’ve been here for a week. I lost my watch in the sea so I don’t know what time it is. Going on that cruise was the worst thing I’ve ever done. I’m not a good swimmer so I couldn’t reach the lifeboat when the ship sank. I’ve thought about making a raft to sail away from the island, but I don’t know which way to go. There is no one to talk to here. I feel so lonely! I haven’t got a walkman so I can’t listen to music. The only thing to eat is fish and I don’t like fish! I didn’t bring a knife with me so I can’t build a shelter. I hope someone will find me soon!
The students in two teams read the text and in turn make Conditionals. Each correct sentence gets 1 point.
One night Paul was bored so he decided to go to the cinema. But the cinema was full because the film was very popular. Paul’s friend lives near the cinema so he went to visit him. When he arrived, he heard his friend shouting for help. The door was open so Paul was able to get into the house. His friend has been painting and had fallen off the step-ladder. His leg was broken so he couldn’t move. It was lucky that the cinema was full and Paul called round on him.
If Paul hadn’t been bored, he wouldn’t have decided to go to the cinema.
Team A S1:
If the film hadn’t been popular, the cinema wouldn’t have been full. etc.
1. Choose the correct answer.
1) If she … not so slowly she would enjoy the party.
2) If you … my library book I will have to buy a new one.
A) will lose
3) If she … you were in hospital she would have visited you.
A) had known
C) would have known
4) I wish I … rich.
A) would be
C) had been
5) I wish I … his opinion before.
A) would know
B) had known
6) I wish I … to the Tower when I was in London.
A) had gone
C) would go
7) I wish I … much yesterday.
A) didn't eat
B) hadn't eaten
C) were not eating
8) If she … not so slowly she would enjoy the party.
2. Match the two parts of the sentences.
9) He wouldn't have become so strong…
a) …I wouldn't be worried now.
10) They would have come…
b) … I would have gone to the library.
11) If they had been ready the day before…
c) … we wouldn't have come so early.
12) If I hadn't needed the book…
d) … unless he had done sports.
13) If they had had a city map…
e) … they wouldn't have been lost.
14) If you had warned us…
f) … if Jane had invited them.
15) He wouldn't know much…
g) … unless you had agreed with us.
16) We wouldn't have wasted so much time…
h) … unless he had read much.
17) If you had sent me a telegram…
i) …they would have taken their exam.
18) We had never done this …
j) if you have bought everything beforehand
3. Correct the errors, if necessary.
19) If I knew her well I will visit her.
20) If I were you I would have visited Jane yesterday.
21) If I have a computer I would learn Computer Studies.
22) If the weather would be nice tomorrow we'll go on excursion.
23) You did not miss the plane if you had taken a taxi.
24) I wish you have a car.
25) I wish things were different in the past.
26) I wish the weather were warmer.
27) I wish I did not decide to work in New York.
28) I wish I did not go to bed early yesterday.
4. Complete the following radio programme by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
Welcome once again to our weekly programme in which we ask the questions "If you (29) ___ (be)
alone on a tropical island for a month, what two items (30) ___ you ___ (choose)
to take with you and why?" My two guests are racing driver Charles Brown and journalist Helen Howk, Charles?
Well, I think (31) ___ (get)
very bored on this island if I (32) ___ (not have)
anything to do. So, I (33) ___ (take)
a knife and a ball of string. Then I (34) ___ (be able)
to make useful things to catch food, and, maybe, build some kind of house to live in.
(35) ___ you ___ (try)
to escape from the island?
If I (36) ___ (manage)
to make a boat, I think I (37) ___ (try).
Helen, what about you?
Well, I definitely (38) ___ (not try)
to escape. I'm totally impractical. So, if I (39) ___ (try)
to make anything, I'm sure it (40) …(fall)
to pieces very quickly. No, if I (41) ___ (have)
to spend a month on the island, I (42) ___ (want)
to have a good book and a pair of sunglasses.
But how (43) ___ you ___ (catch)
things to eat if you (44) ___ (not have)
Oh, I expect there (45) ___ (be)
plenty of fruit on the island. And I'm sure it (46) ___ (not hurt)
me if I (47) ___ (not eat)
meat or fish for a month.
(48) ___ either of you ___ (be)
Definitely. I (49) ___ (find)
it very difficult if I (50) ___ (not speak)
to anyone for a month.
I think (51) ___ (enjoy)
the peace and quiet at first, but after a couple of weeks, yes, I (52) ___ (begin)
to feel lonely.
Charles and Helen, thank you very much.
5. Make up sentences.
53) She / it / so / have / had / fallen / slippery / been / wouldn't / if / not
54) had / I / you / chosen / would / I / have / If / been / green / been / the / one
55) lot / if / would / trained / the / they / have / had / Our / won / a / team / game
56) would / to / ill / place / have / your / if / been / had / He / come / not / he
57) lay / would / gone /country / had / if / not / a / have / it / I / the / been / nasty / to
58) it / were / wish / now / summer / I
59) I / had / I / been / wish / so / not / modest
60) redundant / been / made / If / I / only / hadn't
6. Translate into English.
61) Если бы ты не был так занят, мы бы пошли куда-нибудь пообедать.
62) Я бы никогда не подумал, что это возможно, если бы не увидел это своими глазами.
63) О, если бы он был здесь.
64) Такая странная мысль никогда не пришла бы мне в голову, если бы не подозрительное поведение этого человека.
65) Если бы не Вы, я бы никогда не написал бы эту статью.
66) Я бы теперь чувствовал себя так неловко, если бы последовал советам этого человека.
67) Если бы не ты, я бы никогда не справился с этой работой.
68) Даже если бы я хранила письма, я бы никогда не показывала их тебе.
69) Если бы он знал, что ты находишься сейчас в больнице, он бы навестил тебя.
70) Я обязательно передам ему все новости, как только увижу его.
71) При условии, что ты будешь больше заниматься языком, ты добьёшься больших успехов.
72) На вашем месте, я бы всегда разговаривал по-английски.
73) Будь я там, я бы позвонил Анне.
74) Если я увижу Кон, я попрошу её позвонить тебе.
75) Если бы вы знали, что пойдёт дождь, вам следовало бы взять с собой зонтик.
76) Чарльз написал бы вам, если бы ему был известен ваш адрес.
77) Если бы вы не позвонили Кэрол, всё было бы в порядке.
78) Жаль, что мы пришли так поздно.
79) Даже если бы она сдала экзамен на плохую отметку, она бы всё равно поехала с нами.
80) Сью выглядела бы более привлекательной, если бы изменила причёску.
81) На вашем месте, я бы не ездил туда.
82) Жаль, что ты не воспользовался этой возможностью.
83) Вы бы не опоздали на поезд, если бы взяли такси.
84) – Что ты собираешься делать завтра? – Если завтра будет хорошая погода, то мы поедем на пляж.
85) Он не придёт, если его сестре не станет лучше.
86) Если бы он не был таким рассеянным, он бы не потерял свои книги.
87) Даже если бы он сдал экзамен, он бы не пошёл с нами в театр.
88) Мы бы не пошли в этот магазин, если бы знали цены.
89) Элис не делала бы мне такие подарки, если бы не любила меня.
90) Что бы ты купил, если бы тебе дали тысячу долларов?
91) Жаль, что все билеты в театр уже проданы.
92) Если бы я был на твоём месте, я бы проверил факты до того как написал письмо.
93) Ты увидишь его вместе с Паулой, если задержишься на некоторое время.
94) Ты бы никогда не поступил на исторический факультет, если бы не любил историю.
95) Я смогу купить эти книги при условии, что ты отдолжишь мне деньги.
96) Жаль, что она не сможет поехать с нами в Лондон.
97) Вам следовало бы сказать им правду. У вас не было бы таких неприятностей.
98) Если бы ты слушала своего отца, ты бы не попала в беду.
99) Жаль, что мои родители не увидят этого.
100) При условии, что мой сын будет учиться хорошо, я куплю ему новый велосипед.
Sequence of Tenses and
1. Open the brackets using the correct tense form.
1) We were not sure that Linda would find Mary. We were afraid she (not, know) her address.
2) I didn’t introduce Paul to Katherine. I was sure they (know) each other.
3) Galileo proved that the Earth (move) round the Sun.
4) The Campbells were away. We learnt that they (travel) about Wales.
5) My friend called on me yesterday. He boasted he (get) two tickets for the match.
6) They’ve just announced that the exam in Economics (be put off) till the end of the next term.
7) The advertisement read that the performance (be) free, but when we got there, we found we had to pay.
8) I hoped that she (mature) as the years went by.
9) We decided that we (travel) to Venice by sea rather than go by air.
10) Mrs White was sure that she (be still working up) for that company the whole next year.
2. Turn the following statements into Reported Speech.
11) “There is too much violence on TV,” said Tessa.
12) “If the taxi-driver arrives late you will miss your flight,” he said to her.
13) “I would travel abroad if I had enough money,” said Sam.
14) “I’ve been shopping. I bought you a nice pair of shoes,” Mrs Brown said to her husband.
15) “I have eaten nothing for two days, I’m dying of hunger,” he said to her.
16) “The Earth is a planet,” she said.
17) “I’ve been training hard recently,” he told the reporters.
18) “While the workers were repairing the roof, they broke the bathroom window,” she complained.
19) “I think I failed the Intelligence Test,” Jim said.
20) “You never listen to me, Sarah,” he complained.
21) “Those are the boys who chased me,” Olivia said.
22) “She has been waiting for a long time,” she said.
23) “We came by car,” they said.
24) “I’ve finished the letters you asked me to write,” Margaret said.
25) “My money had run out,” she said to her husband.
26) “I have been waiting for you in the hall,” he said to her.
27) “I’m going to Lancaster in May,” he said to me today.
28) “I went to a bullfight during my stay in Spain,” she said to him.
29) “I try to avoid working overtime,” he said.
30) “The baby will probably be walking and talking by the next time you come,” she said to him.
31) “I’m going to tell the whole story to the police,” she said to him.
32) “I’ve bought a present for you,” he said.
33) “My friend collects unusual ashtrays,” he said.
34) “We will get on well together,” she said to me.
35) “That was a wonderful party,” said Martin.
3. Report the following questions.
36) “Have you ever been to Europe?” he inquired.
37) “How long are you planning to stay in Britain?” he asked her.
38) “How much money have you brought for your stay?” he asked.
39) “Who paid the bill?” she asked me.
40) “Have you heard the news on the radio?” she inquired.
41) “Which countries will John be visiting?” she asked him.
42) “Where does John’s sister work?” she asked him.
43) “Will you be coming to the concert or not?” she wanted to know.
44) “Why are those old men singing?” he asked her.
45) “What made her smile?” he requested.
46) “What was she holding in her left hand?” he asked.
47) “What’s your husband interested in?” she asked her.
48) “Do you like the boy that is talking to Julia ?” he asked.
49) “Has Bill shown the kitchen plans to you yet?” she asked him.
50) “What are you doing these days?” he asked me.
51) “How long have you both been living here?” he asked.
52) “Who left the bag here?” he asked him.
53) “What will you be doing this time tomorrow?” he asked her.
54) “When will we know the exam results,” she asked the teacher.
55) “Where do you get your daily paper?” he asked.
56) “What makes a noise like that?” he wondered.
57) “Did you have a long argument on this point?” he asked.
58) “Which newspaper carried the article?” she asks.
59) “Did the boys look smart in their school uniforms?” she asked him.
60) “You don’t like Chinese food, do you?” he asked.
4. Report the following commands, requests, and suggestions. Change an introductory verb, if necessary.
61) “We’ll pay for the damage,” they told us.
62) “Don’t forget to do the washing-up,” Mum said to me.
63) “We should send some money to David,” he proposed.
64) “I’ll definitely finish the work by the end of the week,” he said.
65) “Could I speak to the manager, please?” he said.
66) “Don’t throw old wine away, you can always use it for cooking,” she said.
67) “To make tea taste better, warm the tea-leaves before you use them,” she advised.
68) “I think you had better phone the police,” she told him.
69) “Come and see me after the lecture,” the professor said to the student.
70) “I really must have a rest,” Laura said.
71) “All right. I won’t talk about tennis,” Paul said to his friends.
72) “Do have a drink,” Clara told us.
73) “Shall I talk to him?” he asked.
74) “Why don’t you come to the mountains with me next weekend?” he said to her.
75) “Please, don’t tell mother,” she begged him.
76) “You lied to me,” Frank said to Ann.
77) “Don’t ever offer a cigar to Al,” he said to Jim.
78) “I wonder if you could pass the spinach to me?” she said to him.
79) “I’ll punish you if you behave badly,” Dad told the boy.
80) “I’m sorry I forgot to call you,” Steve said.
81) “I’m the best volleyball player in the school,” Martin told me.
82) “Drive carefully,” she told him.
83) “Yes, I took the documents,” she told him.
84) “Shall I help you with the cooking?” she said.
85) “Stand to attention!” he commanded the soldiers.
5. Turn the following sentences with the modals into Reported Speech.
86) “You should do as you are told,” she said.
87) “How should I have answered?” he said.
88) “We can meet next week,” she told him.
89) “I may call you,” she said to them.
90) “How shall I start the investigation?” he asked them.
91) “Shall I carry the bag for you?” he said.
92) “You must be back at ten sharp,” she told him.
93) “He must be a liar,” she said.
94) “You needn’t feed the dog. I’ve already done it,” he said.
95) “You had better phone him,” she said.
96) “I could run very fast when I was a boy,” he said.
97) “You may leave early,” he told her.
98) “One day I’ll be able to afford a car,” she said.
99) “You ought to send them a letter of apology,” he said.
100) “Did you have to walk all the way home?” he asked her.
Unit 1 SEQUENCE OF TENSES
By the term sequence of tenses
is meant the relationship of tense forms of verbs in a sentence.
The verb of a subordinate clause is made to agree with a principal verb according to the following rules
1. Principal verbs in the present
or the future tenses
take subordinate verbs in any tense
to go/ will go
/ had to go
He will understand
that he has been
in the wrong/was
in the wrong.
2. Principal verbs in the past-time tenses
should be followed by subordinate verbs that denote past time
(Past Indefinite, Past Perfect, Past Continuous or Future-in-the-Past):
to go/ would go
that he had won
He had tried
hard in order that he might
3. If the subordinate clause expresses a general truth
– a fact that is true for all time – a past tense
in a principal clause may be followed by a present tense
in a subordinate clause:
that Minsk is
the capital of Belarus.
The rules of Sequence of Tenses are not characteristic of Russian, and these differences in the language systems cause some problems in translation.
(that) Mary translate
d Он сказал
, что Мэри переводит
articles without a dictionary.
статьи без словаря.
(that) Mary was translating
, что Мэри переводит
the article in her room.
статью в своей комнате.
(that) Mary would give
me Он сказал,
что Мэри даст ему
the article when she translated
, что пишет
(that) he was writing
письмо. to her.
что он написал
her about it.
The rules of Sequence of Tenses are especially active in Reported Speech
when speakers need to introduce grammatical changes to show the differences between their current situation and the situation they are reporting.
Besides the change of the tense forms there are some other special strategies in indirect speech: changing time and place references, personal pronouns and reporting verbs. The basic rules for forming indirect, or Reported Speech are presented below.
E x e r c i s e s
1.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
1) I knew they (to wait) for me at the metro station and I decided to hurry.
2) I didn’t know that you already (to wind) up the clock.
3) I was afraid that the little girl (not be able) to unlock the front door and (to go) upstairs to help her.
4) Mark understood why Tom (not to come) the previous evening.
5) He stopped and listened: the clock (to strike) six.
6) They realized that they (to lose) their way in the dark.
7) When the bus (to stop) I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) my brother there. I (to send) him a telegram and I (to think) that he (to meet) me.
8) I found out that he (not to know) German at all.
9) I learnt that my cousin (to receive) a very interesting offer from his firm.
10) My niece wrote in her letter that she (to come) to stay with us.
11) I think the weather (to be) fine next week. I hope it (not to change) for the worse.
12) She hoped that her boyfriend (to come) to see her.
13) I suppose they (to send) a dog after the burglar immediately.
14) When I came to the station I saw my cousin. I understood that he (to miss) the 6 o’clock train.
15) We didn’t know where our friends (to go) every evening.
16) Shakespeare wrote that all the world (to be) a stage.
2.Translate from Russian into English.
1) Простите, мы не думали, что вы ждете нас.
2) Я думаю, что вы опоздаете в кино.
3) Мы решили на прошлой неделе, что будущим летом мы все поедем на Канарские острова.
4) Я был уверен, что вы не подведете меня.
5) Я не знал, что ты уже вернулся в Манчестер.
6) Он боялся, что ему будет трудно сделать доклад.
7) Секретарь не заметил, что директор с кем-то разговаривает.
8) Когда я увидел Марту, я понял, что она чем-то расстроена. Она сказала, что заболела ее мать.
9) Я была удивлена, когда узнала, что Марк не сдал экзамен. Он говорил, что долго к нему готовился.
10) В больнице я узнал, что у меня вторая группа крови.
UNIT 2 Reported Speech. MEANING AND USE
1. Direct Speech
is the exact words someone said: “I’ll go to London,” she said. Quotation marks (“…”) are used in Direct speech.
is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words: She said she would go to London. Quotation marks are not used in Reported Speech.
2. The verbs most commonly used to introduce the Reported Speech are to tell
and to say
The verb tell
is used to mention the hearer (the person spoke to): Sarah’s boss told her
she could leave early. Daniel tells me
he is ready.
The verb tell
is used without an indirect object (e.g. her, me) only in the expressions tell a story, tell the truth, tell a lie, tell the time, tell you so
The verb say
is used when one doesn’t mention the hearer: Sarah’s boss said
she could leave earlier. Daniel says
he is ready.
is used after say
, especially when the words are not reported: The boss wanted to say
Sarah. What did Matthew say to
3. In order to interpret what we hear or read the following verbs can be used:
Introductory verbs Direct Speech Reported Speech
Verb + to-inf.
“Yes, I’ll help you.”
He agreed to help
“Shall I open the door?”
He offered to open
“Of course I’ll pay you.”
He promised to pay
“No, I won’t go with you.”
He refused to go
“I’ll punish you.”
He threatened to punish
Verb + sb. + to-inf
“You should see a lawyer.”
me to see
“Could you help me?”
me to help
“Please, don’t hurt her.”
me not to hurt
He commanded to stand
“Will you go out with me?”
me to go out
“Leave the cat!”
me to leave
“Don’t forget to ring Ann.”
me to ring
“Don’t go near her.”
me not to go
Verb + gerund
“Yes, I did it.”
He admitted doing/having done
Accuse sb. of
“You took the money.”
He accused me of taking/ having taken
“I’m sorry I came so late.”
He apologised for coming/having come
“I’m the fastest of all.”
He boasted of/about being
the fastest of all.
Complain to sb. of
“I have a toothache.”
He complained to me of having
“I didn’t take the book.”
He denied taking/having taken
“You must come with us.”
He insisted on me/my going
(Say one) prefers
“I’d rather do it myself.”
He said he preferred doing/to do
“Let’s have a party.”
He suggested having
Verb + that clause
“Yes, it’s a big house.”
He agreed that
it was a big house.
“You’re always lying to me.”
He complained that
I was always lying to him.
“I didn’t take that book.”
He denied that
he had taken the book.
“That’s why I didn’t take it.”
to me why/that
he hadn’t taken it.
“What a sunny day it is.”
He exclaimed/remarked that
it was a sunny day.
“Of course I’ll help you.”
He promised that
he would help me.
“You’d better see a doctor.
He suggested that
I (should) see a doctor.
admit, advise, boast, insist, threaten, warn, remind
can also be followed by a that-clause in Reported Speech.
4. Reported Speech commonly occurs in continuous paragraphs of reported language, not in unrelated sentences. To hold it together such phrases and words as she went on to say, he continued, he added that, and, as, because, but, since, while, then,
etc. are used:
“I’m really tired,” she said to him. “Can you make me a cup of coffee?”
She exclaimed that she was tired and asked him to make her a cup of coffee.
We can report:
– commands, requests, suggestions, etc.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Report the following utterances. Use the reporting verbs best suited to the sense of the utterance.
1) Mike: I’m sure Ann will be an excellent guide. Helen: Yes, she will.
2) Jim to his boss: I’ll finish this report by the end of the day.
3) Henry: I won’t stay at this hotel. The room service is awful here.
4) Victor to Diana: You must go to the bank tomorrow. Don’t you remember?
5) Jack to Jane: If you don’t take a taxi you won’t catch the next train.
6) Roger: How about coming to a party with me tonight? Ann: I’ll be delighted.
7) Nina: I have a terrible headache. Steve: Would you like me to buy some medicine for you?
8) Jim to Harry: I’m late because I missed my bus.
9) Martha: It was me. I ate all the cake yesterday.
10) Adrian: I’m sorry I was rude.
11) Peter: I really must leave.
12) Helen to Nick: I’ll let you know about my arrival. I’ll send you a telegram.
13) Sue: Mum, please let me go to the carnival. I’ll be all right!
14) Tom to Kate: You betrayed me!
1) All the experts … the Earth is getting warmer.
2) Did you … Mark and Roger how to find our house?
3) The sales manager is going to … everyone about the meeting.
4) Nora, why don’t you just … what the matter is.
5) They … they’re going to build a new Disney World here.
6) What did he … about his holiday plans?
7) Could you … me the way to the train station, please?
8) The company should … its employees what’s going on.
9) You shouldn’t … lies, you know, James.
10) Did you … anything to Bob about the barbecue?
UNIT 3 REPORTED STATEMENTS
To report statements a reporting verb (say, tell, explain, etc.
followed by a that-clause
is used. In spoken English that
can be omitted: He said, “I feel sick. He said (that)
he felt sick.
Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the context.
He said, “I
’ll lend you my car”.
He said he
would lend me his
Verb Tenses and time expressions change in Reported Speech:
when the introductory verb is in a past tense
: She said
that she was leaving
the following week
in out-of-date reporting:
When I saw Alec he said
he was going
to England the next month.
when there is a difference between what was said and what is really true:
you liked (not ‘you like’)
chocolate, but you aren’t eating
When the reporting verb is in the past
, the verb tenses change according to the rules of Sequence of Tenses as follows:
walking,” she said.
She said he liked/likes
“He is watching
TV,” he said.
He said he was watching
“He has just left,
” she said.
She said he had just left.
Past Indefinite/Past Perfect
home early,” she said.
She said she went/had
gone home early.
back in an hour,” she said.
She said he would be
back in an hour.
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
“I’ve been typing
since night,” she said.
She said she had been typing
a) If the statement is still up to date
when reported, then there is a choice. You can either leave the tense the same, or you can change it:
John said he is/was going
to Rome in April.(a future event is expressed)
Sarah told me that her father owns/owned
a racehorse. (it is possible to say that her father owns a racehorse because it is still true)
Peter told me today
that he lost
his watch some days ago
. (recent report)
Mary said her mother is
seriously ill. (the situation hasn’t changed, it’s relevancy at the present moment is emphasized)
b) If the statement is no longer up to date,
then the tense is changed.
John said he was going
to Rome in April. (now it is May)
Sarah once told me that her father owned
a racehorse. (he may no longer own one)
Peter told me last month
that he had lost
his watch some days before
(remote past report)
Last month I met Mary. She said her mother was
seriously ill. (the event is past, the situation might have changed)
If the verb is Past Perfect
or Past Perfect Continuous
, it stays the same: “My money had run
out.” Daniel said his money had run
5. Certain words can change as follows depending on the time reference.
tonight, today, this week/month/year
that night, that day, that week/month/year
then, at that time, at once, immediately
yesterday, last night/week/month
the day before, the previous night/week/month/year
tomorrow, next week/
the following day /the day after, the following/next week/month/year
two days/months etc. ago
two days/months etc. before
E.g. ‘Tom is leaving
tomorrow,” she said
She said that
Tom was leaving
the next day.
6. There are no changes in the verb tenses in Reported Speech when the direct sentence expresses a general truth
. (See Unit 3)
“The Earth is
a planet,” he said. He said the Earth is
E x e r c i s e s
1. Turn the following statements into Reported Speech. Mind the changes of place and time.
Model: Rachel: I’m taking my driving test tomorrow.
You: When I saw Rachel, she said she was taking her driving test the next day.
1) Emma: I’ve only had this new computer since yesterday.
You: Emma said…
2) Matthew: I’m meeting a friend at the station later today.
You: Matthew said…
3) Mark: I’ll see you in the office tomorrow.
You: Mark said to me today…
4) Sarah: The conference was last week.
You: Sarah told me…
5) Tom: I’m having a party in my office tomorrow.
You: Tom told me…
6) Vicky: I’m leaving for Manchester in three days.
You: Vicky said…
7) Nick: I gave up smoking a week ago.
You: I saw Nick last week. He said…
8) Alice: I’ll be very busy this month.
You: Alice told me…
9) Rita: I passed the first exam a week ago!
You: Rita told me today …
10) Helen: Tom invited me to come for a drive tomorrow.
You: Helen said…
2. Put in
was. Sometimes both are possible.
1) I heard today that the house … for sale. I wonder who will buy it.
2) I saw David yesterday. He said he … on his way to visit his sister.
3) This wallet is made of plastic not leather. Why did you tell me it … leather?
4) We had to hurry yesterday morning. Just as we arrived at the station, we heard an announcement that the train … about to leave.
5) I saw Susan just now. She said her tooth … still aching.
6) I’m surprised Mario lost. I thought he … much better in tennis than John.
7) When we spoke to reporters yesterday, Mr Campbell said that the company … now in a much better financial position.
3. Change the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1) Jack told his father, “I have lost my notebook”.
2) Henry said to me, “I didn’t throw stones at your dog”.
3) Bob said to Tom, “Henry doesn’t sit next to me in class”.
4) Nick said to her, “Jack always tells lies”.
5) Ann said seriously, “ There isn’t much sense in what you suggest”.
6) I told the policeman, “ I saw the thief in the garden”.
7) He said, “I have eaten nothing for two days”.
8) Jack’s father said to him, “You haven’t cleaned your shoes”.
9) Mary said, “ I don’t want to wear my old dress”.
10) My mother said to me, “ I feel very tired and I have a headache”.
11) My friend told me, “We have plenty of time to do our work”.
12) I said to my sister with joy, “George has written me a long letter”.
13) He said to me today, “This trip costs a lot of money”.
14) He said to me, “ I was arrested and tried for murder some years ago”.
15) She said thoughtfully, “Health is better than wealth”.
16) “I’ve never seen anything like this before”, the professor said.
17) “I’m telephoning from the US”, Peter said.
18) “I can’t live on my basic salary,” he said.
19) “The ice will soon be hard enough to skate on it,” she exclaimed.
20) “The puppy can sleep on our doormat,” said my aunt.
4. Change the following sentences into Direct Speech.
1) The farmer said that he hadn’t grown any wheat since 1975.
2) The teacher told his students that he was going to give them a test.
3) I told him that I hadn’t seen his brother for a long time.
4) The professor told the students that he hoped they understood the rules.
5) She told the grocer that she didn’t want any sugar.
6) I told the taxi-driver that he was driving too fast.
7) My sister said that she hadn’t got a watch.
8) He explained that he had never smoked.
9) Jim was sure that he had seen her somewhere before.
10) She said that there was no evidence that watching TV strained the eyes.
11) She noticed with regret that she had never been to Italy.
12) He said that he hardly knew the people he was going to meet.
13) She said that she couldn’t excuse me unless I told her what the problem was.
14) The judge added that everyone had to answer for his actions.
15) Jim said that he had been unemployed since he had left college.
16) He said that he couldn’t make up his mind what to do next.
17) Marry said that she was really interested in studying economics.
18) Jane said that her mother was worried because she hadn’t heard from her sister for a month.
19) After a minute he added that Edna was a very interesting person to talk with.
20) He saved his skin by telling the police he had spent the evening with her.
5. Choose the most suitable word in cursive.
1) Laura accepted/expected that she had made a mistake and apologized.
2) Frank and Susan reported/announced that they were going to get married.
3) Mario answered/replied them with a detailed description of the district.
4) Jane explained/warned me not to leave the air-conditioner on all night.
5) The manager mentioned/reminded us that we were short of time.
6) The professor advised/suggested me to spend more time in the library.
7) Peter insisted/persuaded me to sell my car.
8) The government spokesperson denied/refused that there was an economic crisis.
9) The travel agent confirmed/reassured that our room had been reserved.
10) Jane said/told me she would never speak to him again.
11) Tim refused/denied to take part in the conference.
6. Report what these people are saying with the reporting verbs provided.
1) “She is going to England for six months”. They say …… .
2) “They went to Rhodes last month.” Peter told me …… .
3) “I’ll look at your work in a minute.” She said …… .
4) “I’ve already typed those letters.” She noticed …… .
5) “We’ll analyze this case once again.” The inspector said …… .
6) “The last meeting did no one any good.” The writer of the article said …… .
7) “I’m good at singing.” She always told people …… .
8) “I’ve lost my bank card. I don’t know where it is.” She said …….
9) “I don’t have any information.” He admitted …….
10) “This train doesn’t stop at our station.” She told them …….
11) “I haven’t seen the new Disney film.” She complained to me …… .
12) “We will bake the bread soon.” She said to him …… .
13) “A policeman has been murdered by terrorists.” The press said …….
14) “The dog has bitten several people.” He told me …….
15) “Using the computer is very simple.” He said …….
7. Turn each direct-speech statement into Reported Speech with tense changes.
1) “I have something to tell you,” he said to her.
2) “I’m going away this week, mother,” he said.
3) “It’s a pity you didn’t bring your camera with you,” she said.
4) “I’ll try to remember everyone’s name,” she said.
5) “We have brought some food with us,” they said.
6) “I can’t remember the accident very clearly,” he told the policeman.
7) “Natasha is a good violinist,” he admitted.
8) “I’ve got hardly any money left,” he told us.
9) “I’m getting quite hungry,” he complained to us.
10) “ I think Egypt is a fascinating country,” she said.
11) “Trevor gave up playing football years ago,” she said.
12) “The United Nations was established to settle conflicts peacefully,” he said.
13) “I’m trying to calculate how much money I’ve spent,” he said to me.
14) “Our lawyers will draw up a new contract,” he told me.
15) “What I really need is a long holiday,” she said.
8. Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Martha. Here are some of the things Martha said to you:
1) I’m living in London now.
2) My father isn’t very well.
3) Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.
4) Margaret has had a baby.
5) I don’t know what Fred is doing.
6) I saw Helen at the party in June and she seemed fine.
7) I haven’t seen Diana recently.
8) I’m not enjoying my job very much.
9) You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
10) My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
11) I want to go on holidays but I can’t afford it.
12) I’ll tell Ann I saw you.
Later that day
you tell another friend what Martha said. Use Reported Speech.
1) Martha said that she was living in London now.
2) She said that …… .
3) She …… .
4) …… .
9. Somebody says something to you which is opposite of what they said before. Write a suitable answer beginning with
I thought you said… .
1) A: That restaurant is expensive.
B: Is it? I thought you said it was cheap.
2) A: Ann is coming to the party tonight.
B: Is she? I thought you said she …… .
3) A: Ann likes Paul.
B: Does she? I thought …… .
4) A: I know lots of people.
B: Do you? I thought you said …… .
5) A: I’ll be here next week.
B: Will you? …… .
6) A: I’m going out this evening.
B: Are you? …… .
7) A: I can speak a little French.
B: Can you? …… .
8) A: I haven’t been to the cinema for ages.
B: Haven’t you? …… .
9) A: John has given up his job.
B: Has he? …… .
10) A: I want to go to New York next year.
B: Do you? …… .
11) A: Peter and Judy are planning to get married.
B: Are they? …… .
12) A: My salary is very low.
B: Is it? …… .
13) A: I go to work by tube.
B: Do you? …… .
14) A: He prefers Mary.
B: Does he? …… .
10. Convert into Reported Speech.
1) The general said: “I want to consult you, Lionel. It’s about my boy, Hubert.”
2) The old man said, “I had to go in the cave, son.”
3) “My father is a preacher,” Isaak said, “so I have read my Bible.”
4) “Hans,” said Miller, “I will give you my wheel-barrow.”
5) “Well,” cried Pinch, “you are the strangest young man, Martin, I ever knew in my life.”
6) “Very well, then,” said my friend’s wife, rising, “all I have to say is, that I shall take the children and go to a hotel, until these cheeses are eaten. I decline to live any longer in the same house with them.”
7) “Maurice,” she said, “I’ve just telephoned to the doctor.”
8) “I will ring when I need you,” she said to the maid.
9) “Boy,” the lieutenant said, “if you aren’t careful you’ll be ordered off this mountain.”
10) “A clever accountant like me, and a man who is honest and industrious, can always get work,” Jean said.
11. Look at the extract from the interview 1 and the following report of it. Then write your own report of the next interviews.
“…It’s not what people think it is. I mean, you would, all you do is, you do all the dirty jobs, you have to clean people’s boots, you have to pick up their kit, wash out the bathrooms, scrub the floors, it’s – things like that. Paint walls. We were doing that sort of thing…”
He said that life for a young professional football player wasn’t what people thought it was. All they did was the dirty jobs: they had to clean people’s boots, pick up their kit, wash out the bathrooms, scrub the floors, paint walls and things like that…
“… Some of the travelling isn’t too-too good. I mean, going up on a Friday night and staying in a hotel. It’s all right, but it’s not – you know, I mean, it takes you away from your family and your kids a little bit. Sometimes travelling can be very monotonous. I mean, that’s a thing you have to put up with, but I think certain things you have to do in travelling are very boring…”
Report…. She said that…
“…Actually imprisonment doesn’t do any good, it doesn’t deter crime, it doesn’t stop crime, doesn’t deter people from committing a crime, and it costs society a lot of money to keep them there, between three and four hundred pounds a week… What deters people from committing crimes is the thought that they are actually going to get caught. Only about 15% of crimes are cleared in Britain. That means 85% of the crimes that are committed are not cleared up. So people think they are not going to get caught…”
He said that…
“…I think that although some lip-service is paid to prison being rehabilitative, that actually it is a straight punishment. By and large in prison you sit and mark time, you have lost your job, you may well lose your family, you may well lose your accommodation while you are there, and you quite frequently come out knowing a lot more about how to break the law, and with a lot less reason not to do it again, because you’ve lost all the other things in the community that keep you from doing it in the first place, so I actually have a fairly negative view overall of what prison does…”
He said that…
12. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Она сказала, что вам эти сведения были направлены в прошлом месяце.
2) Он сказал, что уже слышал эти печальные новости.
3) Джейн сказала, что они простояли в очереди за билетами полчаса.
4) Он пообещал, что с ней ничего не случится.
5) Она предупредила нас о том, что скоро будет дождь.
6) Он сказал, что не может решиться сделать ей предложение.
7) Спустя некоторое время он все-таки согласился нам помочь.
8) Он обвинил меня в том, что я взяла его деньги.
9) Она отрицала, что когда-либо встречалась с этим человеком.
10) С восторгом она сказала, что едет на отдых в солнечную Италию.
11) Он сказал, что Виктория самая добрая, самая милая, самая замечательная женщина в мире.
12) Директор сообщил нам, что решение было принято и ничего нельзя было сделать, чтобы помочь ему.
13) Полли сказала, что она поедет в Лондон, чтобы навестить одного из своих друзей.
14) Он заявил, что ждет их уже полтора часа и не будут ждать ни минуты больше.
15) Моя сестра сказала, что купит новую стиральную машину. Она будет лучше, но гораздо дороже.
16) Она заявила, что не хочет идти с нами.
17) Она нас уверяла, что никогда не разговаривала с Михаилом.
18) Она отрицала, что говорила с Ниной.
19) Она признала, что ошиблась.
20) Он нам сообщил, что достал билеты.
In Reported questions affirmative word order is used and the question mark is omitted.
To report a question one can use:
a) ask + wh-word (
etc.) when the direct question begins with such a word,
b) ask + if / whether
when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do, has, can
Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements.
He said, “Where did he stay?”
He asked where
he had stayed.
He said, “Did you have a nice time?”
He asked if/whether
I had had a nice time.
Tense changes: Present becomes Past and Past becomes Past Perfect”:
you ready?”– He asked (me) if/whether I was
But if you are reporting a question that has just been asked, you can say:
you ready?”-“What did
you?”– He asked
(me) if/whether I’m
E x e r c i s e s
1. Rewrite each of these questions in Reported Speech. Start with the words given, and make any additions you need.
1) “Is this workbook yours?”
She inquired ..... .
2) “Who are the victims of this crime?”
She wanted to know ..... .
3) “Will you go to the meeting if he does?”
He inquired ..... .
4) “Did the company get any profit this year?”
He asked ..... .
5) “For how many years was he sent to prison?”
She questioned ..... .
6) “Why did he never make the smallest effort to reach my father?”
Mary asked her friend ..... .
7) “Can I come and see you sometimes?”
She wanted to know ..... .
8) “Do you ever hear from your sister?”
Jack asked Megan .....
9) “How do they get rid of rats and mice?”
She questioned .....
10) “What’s wrong with Davis?”
He rang for Tracy and asked .....
11) “Do you agree with him about this?”
Tim asked seriously .....
12) “Have you been to New York?”
The boy inquired .....
13) “Can I have some more pocket money?”
The boy asked ..... .
14) “Where were you born?”
She asked him ..... .
15) “How far is the stadium?”
He wanted to know ..... .
16) “Are you still living in London?”
She asked ..... .
17) “Do you work in the central branch or in the provinces?”
She asked him ..... .
18) “Are you going to give me the money or not?”
She wanted to know ..... .
19) “Did he bring the book back?”
He wondered ..... .
20) “Where did you get such a lovely pullover?”
She asked her sister ..... .
2. Turn the questions into Reported Speech.
1) “Are you going to let me tell this?” she questioned.
2) “Do you really mean that, sweet?” she said looking at him curiously.
3) “What happened to you?” he asked when we got home.
4) “Have you got any paper handkerchiefs?” she asked.
5) “Can you open this tin for me?” she asked.
6) “Can you lend me five pounds till Monday?” Gerry asked Marta.
7) “How much does a tube of toothpaste cost?” a customer asked the salesman.
8) “What kind of pictures does she sell?” he questioned.
9) “When did you start working on this project?” she asked.
10) “Would you like anything more to eat or drink?” he asked.
11) “Could I borrow your car this afternoon?” he asked very cautiously.
12) “Have you got anything to eat? I’m getting hungry,” she said.
13) “Italians drink more wine than English people, don’t they?” he questioned.
14) He saw a cloud of smoke and asked, “What is burning?”
15) The policeman asked me, “Where did you lose your wallet?”
16) “Who has been using my typewriter?” said my father.
17) “How much do you think it will cost?” he asked.
18) “Have you been here long?” the other students asked him.
19) “What are you going to do with your old car?” I asked him.
20) “Did any of you actually see the accident happen?” said the policeman.
3. This is a part of a conversation between a policeman and a young woman. Turn their dialogue into Reported Speech. You can start like this:
A policeman asked a young lady what time she …….
What time did you stop work yesterday?
I don’t know. Probably, at half past five.
And where did you go after that?
I went straight home.
I see. How did you travel home? By bus?
What bus did you take?
I don’t remember.
All right. What time did you arrive home?
Oh, around six, I suppose.
Did you see anybody you knew on the way?
I don’t think so. I don’t remember.
What did you do when you got home?
Made a cup of tea and put the TV on.
Oh, yes. What program did you watch?
‘Front page’ wasn’t on last night.
I’ve got it recorded on video.
I see. Did you make any phone calls?
Did you telephone anybody?
I might have done. I don’t remember.
4. Put the following into Reported Speech.
1) “What happened to their friendship?” said one of the men.
2) “Which of his children inherited the property?” asked Ann.
3) “Who is going to negotiate?” asked the manager.
4) “Where is the nearest pub here?” asked a stranger.
5) “What shall I do with my heavy luggage?” she said to him.
6) “How much does a day return to Plymouth cost?” Mrs Smith asked.
7) “Would you like me to go there with you?” she asked.
8) “Have you done this sort of work before?” asked the personnel manager.
9) “Did they understand what you were trying to tell them?” he asked me.
10) “Will you go on strike when the others do?” the shopkeeper asked him.
11) “Who left the banana skin at the doorway?” said my mother.
12) “What else did you see?” the policeman asked the witness.
13) “Are you sorry for your betrayal?” Alex asked me.
14) “Have you spent all the money on betting?” he asked me.
15) “Are you in San Francisco for business or pleasure?” he asked her.
16) “What’s the matter with your hand?” he inquired.
17) “Did you ask to see his membership card?” the manager asked.
18) “ Do you want me to hold the keys just in case?” he asked.
19) “How much cash do you have?” asked the banker.
20) “Why do you think it may be dangerous?” he asked her.
5. Read the following text carefully. Some of the lines are correct but in the others there is a word which should not be there. If the sentence is correct, tick (\/) it. If there is an incorrect word in the sentence, write it at the end in the space provided. The first two are given as examples.
A job interview
I think the interview went well. He wanted to know whether
number of things about me and what I had been doing ...\/ ………
1) in the last few years. First he asked me if I have had had ………….
2) a nice trip down from Manchester and how long it ………….
3) had been taken me to get there. He also wanted to know ………….
4) whether or it had been snowing in Manchester. The chitchat ………….
5) over, he asked from me how old I was and where I was born ………….
6) although I had sent him my CV by post. He then asked ………….
7) how long I had lived in Manchester and I told him. His ………….
8) next question was the whether I was married and whether I had ………
9) a family or not. I explained him that I was separated and that ………….
10) I had one daughter. He me asked how long did I had worked as an .…..
11) editor and how much I was had been paid in my
present job. He asked ………….
12) what was I liked most about my job and who had told me ………….
13) about their company. The main questions he asked me
were about the ....……….
14) qualities of a good manager. Finally, he asked how much have………….
15) I expected to be paid. I think the interview went very well. ………….
6. You were looking for a job and went for an interview to some company last Friday. In conversation with a friend you talk about the interview and report the various questions that you were asked. The questions were the following:
1) What is your full name?
2) How old are you?
3) Where were you born?
4) What kind of education do you have?
5) Did you have any professional experience?
6) What is the reason for your applying for this post?
7) Why have you quitted your previous job?
8) Are you married or single?
9) Do you have any children?
10) Do you have any hobbies or leisure interests?
11) What kind of person are you?
12) Where do you live?
13) Do you have any references?
14) What languages do you speak, read or write?
15) Have you ever been abroad?
16) Have you ever been in charge of people?
17) What are your good points?
18) What do you not like doing and why?
19) Why do you like this job?
20) Have you attended any training courses?
7. Put the following into Direct Speech.
1) He inquired who I could turn to in time of crisis.
2) Bob asked if it was lunch-time yet.
3) She asked if he had been sent to jail for his political views.
4) Mrs White asked Olaf how his neighbour was getting on.
5) Frieda inquired how much Lucille’s new skirt had cost.
6) Andrew wanted to know if Loran was going out shopping.
7) She wanted to know if divorce was on the increase in Great Britain.
8) The customer asked the butcher what the price of the beef was.
9) An old man asked the station-master if he could catch the train from Victoria to get to Brighton.
10) Michael requested if I liked the colour.
11) He asked where we had stayed in London.
12) He asked me were she had gone.
13) The boy asked the tour guide where the main tourist office was.
14) I wanted to know what he was doing there.
15) She inquired what his address was.
16) The director asked the managers whether or not they agreed with the business plan.
17) She wanted to know if the boy was telling the truth.
18) I asked the old woman if she was feeling tired.
19) She asked me who I was writing a letter to.
20) She wanted to know if we were more influenced by environment or heredity.
8. Convert into Reported Speech.
1) “Davis, Davis,” she called, “what’s the time? My watch has stopped.”
2) “Jebb,” he said, “have you been in many caves?”
3) “When will Mr Dodson be back, sir?” inquired Mr Pickwick.
4) “And have you anything else you want to explain to me, Denry?” said Mr Maybold.
5) The first question on Marianne’s side was, “How long has this been known to you, Elinor? Has he written to you?”
6) “Who’s that fellow?” said Lord Saxended.
7) “What are you doing humped that way on the ground? Do you think that is ladylike?” Mrs Bingham said to her daughter.
8) “Is there anything else on your mind, Erik?” Haviland asked.
9) “Tom,” she said timidly when they were out of doors, “how much money did you give for your rabbits?”
10) Arrived at Shropshire house Sir Lawrence said: “can we see the Marquess Pommett?”
9. Rita is moving to a new flat. Bill has come to see the flat and help her move in. Convert their dialogue into Reported Speech.
Bill: What number is that building?
B: I didn’t realize there were only three floors. Which floor is your flat on?
R: The first floor.
B: It's a very nice flat. Which room will be your living-room?
R: This one here, I thought.
B: What colour are you going to paint it?
R: Oh, I don’t know yet.
B: What time is your furniture arriving?
R: Three o’clock, they said.
B: I’ll need some petrol. Where is the nearest petrol station?
R: Turn left at the end of the street.
10. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Он поинтересовался, работала ли я когда-нибудь с компьютером.
2) Нел спрашивает, понимаешь ли ты ее сейчас.
3) Они спросили меня, когда начинается мой рабочий день.
4) Она хотела узнать, когда я был на выставке последний раз.
5) Мы его спросили, где он купил словарь.
6) Он поинтересовался, читала ли я Теккерея в оригинале или в переводе.
7) Она меня спросила, где я живу.
8) Я спросила сестру, почему она не хочет идти со мной в театр.
9) Он спросил меня, видел ли я когда-нибудь его брата.
10) Она хотела узнать, где я работаю.
11) Он спросил, почему я отклонила это предложение.
12) Она спросила, когда приходила Кэт.
13) Он спросил, люблю ли я драму.
14) Он хотел узнать, как часто я навещаю родителей.
15) Он хотел узнать, как долго я занимаюсь волейболом.
UNIT 5 REPORTED COMMANDS, REQUESTS,
To report commands, requests, suggestions a reporting verb (advise, ask, suggest, beg, offer, order, tell,
etc) followed by a to-Infinitive
or a Gerund
is used (see Unit 2).
Direct Speech Reported Speech
to me, “Come with me.” He told
me to go
, “Let’s go out.” He suggested going
The negative is tell/ask someone not to do something
“Don’t wear those boots in the house!” I asked you not to wear those
boots in the house.
To report exclamations which begin with “What a/an…”
the verbs exclaim/say
that are used.
unusual design!” he said. He exclaimed/said that
was an unusual design.
But with exclamations such as “Splendid!”, “Great!”, “Good!”, “Excellent!”, “Oh!”, “Oh dear!”
etc. the expression give an exclamation of delight/disgust/relief/surprise, etc. is used:
” he said as he saw her. He gave an exclamation of
as he saw her.
Study the following examples:
They said, “Thank you
.” They thanked
” we said We wished
him a happy
to him. birthday.
” they said They congratulated
!” she said. She called
him a fool.
Yes/No short answers
are expressed in Reported Speech with subject + appropriate auxiliary verb/introductory verb
“Will you help me?” she asked him
. “Yes,” he said
She asked him
to help her and he said he would agree/he agreed
are omitted in Reported Speech. An appropriate introductory verb is used to convey the same meaning:
“You won’t tell anyone, will you
?” she asked him.
him not to tell anyone.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Mrs Smith is giving her cleaner instructions about what to do for the day. Report them.
1) “Clean the bathroom.”
2) “Make the beds.”
3) “Don’t forget to tidy the bedroom.”
4) “Feed the dogs.”
5) “Sweep the kitchen floor.”
6) “Don’t leave the rubbish in the kitchen.”
7) “Remember to water the plants.”
8) “Do the washing up.”
9) “Hoover the sitting room.”
10) “Don’t let anyone into the house.”
2. Report the following using an appropriate introductory verb from the box below.
advise, suggest, order, tell, beg, remind, offer, insist, ask,
1) “You should take more exercise,” the doctor said.
2) “Now go to sleep and stop worrying,” mother said softly.
3) “Shall I carry your shopping for you?” he said to her.
4) “Put on your clothes!” she said gruffly.
5) “Don’t rush into marriage,” Jack said.
6) “You should get a job and settle down,” she said to him.
7) “Don’t get dirty in the garden,” she said to Jane.
8) “You really must get your hair cut,” she said to him.
9) “Let’s go to Jamaica for our holiday,” he said to her.
10) “I think you should go on a diet,” she said to him.
11) “You are probably run down. You need a holiday,” Clarissa said.
12) “Please, stop making that noise! I can’t concentrate,” she told her children.
13) “Don’t take my ring. It was a present,” she said to him.
14) “You should relax more,” the doctor said to him.
15) “Leave now or I’ll phone the police,” she said to the salesman.
16) “Why don’t we have chicken for dinner?” he said.
17) “You should consult a lawyer,” he said.
18) “Please, please let me go out to play, Mum,” she said.
19) “Will you have dinner with me?” he asked.
20) “Don’t forget to phone me back later,” she told him.
21) “Don’t be shy of telling them what you think,” she said.
3. First read, then report what the teacher told the students before the exam.
1) Please, leave your bags at the front of the door.
2) Don’t talk during the exam.
3) Raise your hand if you need anything.
4) Write all your answers in pen.
5) Answer all the questions.
6) Don’t forget to write your name at the top of the page.
7) Check your answers again before you hand the paper in.
8) Tie the sheets together.
9) Don’t take any paper out of the room.
10) Please, leave quietly when you finish.
4. Change the following direct commands into reported commands using the verbs:
tell, order, ask, beg, advise, remind, warn, etc.
1) “Switch off the radio,” he said to her.
2) “Come closer to me,” she said.
3) “ Fill in the application form, please,” the secretary said.
4) “Obey my orders,” the commander said.
5) “Do it as I say, Mary,” he said.
6) “Don’t be late for dinner,” she said.
7) “It’s time to buy a new house,” he said.
8) “Don’t drive too fast. It’s dangerous,” she said.
9) “Come to the theatre with me,” he asked her.
10) “Don’t argue with me,” the teacher said to the boy.
11) “Don’t lend him money,” he advised her.
12) “Pay at the cash desk,” the salesman told the customer.
13) “Remember to phone me as soon as you get there,” she said.
14) “Think well before you do it,” the doctor warned her.
15) “Do whatever you like,” she said to us.
16) “Don’t leave me now,” she asked him.
17) “Don’t believe everything he says,” he warned me.
18) “Get out of my way,” he said furiously.
19) “Don’t look at me like that,” she said.
20) “Do it right now,” he said to me.
5. Put the following into Reported Speech using
ask, advise, invite, offer, remind, tell, warn
1) “Would you like to join our club?” he said to me.
2) “Would you like a cappuccino?” said a friend of mine.
3) “Would you mind not smoking at my presence?” said their hostess.
4) “Take these letters to the post, will you?” said the manager.
5) “Will you help me, please?” she said. “I can’t find the documents.”
6) “This is a horrible house. Why don’t you find something better?” he said.
7) “If I were you I’d try this dress on,” she said.
8) “I’ll wait for you if you like,” he said.
9) “Remember to switch off the light when you leave,” he said.
10) “You’d better apologize for being so rude,” said my mother.
11) “Why don’t you travel on foot? It’s much more exciting,” I said.
12) “You must see this movie! It’s worth it,” said all my friends.
13) “Don’t leave your room till I let you do it,” he said.
14) “I’d be very grateful if you’d forward my letters while I’m away,” she said.
15) “Would you mind moving your car?” he said. “It’s blocking my door.”
16) “Would you like to wait outside?” said the receptionist.
17) “Don’t say anything to make him angry,” she said.
18) “Write to me as often as you can,” said his girlfriend.
19) “Don’t go near the water,” mother said to her children.
20) “Don’t forget to feed the dog in time,” he said.
6. Report the following using the simple past of the verbs in brackets.
1) “Don’t wait for him. He won’t come,” I said to her. (tell)
2) “Go on holiday when the weather gets a little bit warmer,” she told him. (advise)
3) “Keep out of this house at all times,” she said to them. (warn)
4) “Remember to water the flowers once a week,” she said to me. (remind)
5) “Don’t enter my study while I’m working,” he said to them. (ask)
6) “Please, please don’t tell him about it,” she said. (beg)
7) “Let’s have a walk in the park,” he said to her. (invite)
8) “Leave the child alone,” she said to him. (order)
9) “You should go to bed and have some rest,” she said. (advise)
10) “You’d better slow down. There’s a speed limit here,” she said. (suggest)
11) “Follow that bus,” the policeman said to the taxi-driver. (ask)
12) “You must come with us. You won’t regret it,” he said. (insist)
13) “Do make the coffee a bit stronger,” he asked her. (beg)
14) “Don’t forget your sandwiches,” she said to him. (remind)
15) “Put down that gun. It’s loaded,” he said. (warn)
7. Report the dialogue.
Oh, hello, Bill, how are you?
B: Fine, Jim. Listen, could you lend me your food processor for a couple of hours? Mine has stopped working.
Sure. Do you know how to work this one? Is yours the same make?
Let’s see. No, it isn’t. Could you give me a demonstration?
J: Sure, just sit down. I’ll make some breadcrumbs, I need them for tonight. Or why don’t you make them?
OK, what do I do first?
Put the bowl on and turn it until it clicks. Yeah, then put the blade in and push it down.
Does it matter which way I put it in?
No, just put it in any way. But don’t forget to push it down until it clicks.
Cut the bread into squares – about six squares per slice, and put them in. OK, now put the top on with the tube to the left of the front, and then turn it to the right to start it.
Well, it’s easy enough. Mine is much more complicated.
Yeah, well, I don’t think you’ll have any problems. Do you think you could bring it back when you’ve finished with it?
Sure, don’t worry. I’ll have it back by eight, if that’s OK.
Fine, see you then. Bye, Bill.
Bye, Jim, and thanks a lot.
8. Convert into Reported Speech.
1) “Get up, Jo-Lea,” Mr Bingham said.
2) “Daddy – oh, Daddy,” the girl said, “oh, let me stay.”
3) “Martha!” he called in a loud, commanding voice that echoed up and down the corridor. “Martha, come back here!”
4) “Gretta, please say something,” he begged. “I’ve got to know if you are all right.”
5) “Both of you come with me,” Conder said, “and have a drink at the Fidzroy.”
6) “Now you go and get me my hammer, Will,” he would shout. “And don’t you go, Maria.”
7) She went to the window and looked out. “Do come and look, Arthur,” she said.
8) “And now, mamma,” said Sylviane, “let us have this wonderful news.”
9) “Lilly, Lilly,” he said, “don’t go away!”
10) He turned to her with a rough gesture. “Don’t worry, Savina!”
11) “Do me a last favour, Betteredge,” said Mr Franklin, “get me away to the train as soon as you can!”
9. Report the dialogue.
Where shall we have our picnic then?
This looks all right. Shall we sit here?
Oh, I’ve forgotten the sausages. They are in the car.
Shall I get them?
Oh, thanks, Matthew.
We could sit by those trees. It looks nicer over there.
No, it’s fine here.
Yes, it’s better here, I think.
Would you like a sandwich, Vicky?
Oh, thank you.
Will you have one, Rachel?
And here are the sausages. Would anyone like one?
10. Mr Andrews is the boss at Techniques. He tells everyone what to do. Report his orders and requests.
1) Would you mind making some tea, Alan?
2) You must inform me of any developments, Susan.
3) Could I have the latest sales figures, please?
4) Would you like to arrange a meeting some time next week, Fiona?
5) I want everyone to read the report.
6) Can I see the file, please, Mark?
7) Would you mind putting it in writing, Alan?
8) I wonder if you could translate this letter, Linda.
9) Could you meet our customer at the Airport, Frank?
10) Can you keep me informed, Mark?
11) Can everyone be quiet for a minute, please?
12) Would you mind sending me a copy of the catalogue, Linda?
11. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1) “Will you meet me at the station?” she asked. “Yes, of course,” he said.
2) “Wow!” they said as the fireworks exploded in the sky.
3) “You’ll try to come to the meeting after work, won’t you?” he said to us.
4) “How delicious!” she said as she tasted the pie.
5) “What a surprise!” he said when he unwrapped the present.
6) “Splendid!” she said when she saw the play.
7) “Well, good luck, then,” she said to him.
8) “Can you repair the bike?” she asked. “No,” he said.
12. Give the original words represented by the following reported sentences.
1) He politely declined my invitation to dinner.
2) He offered me to look after my kids.
3) We were given a warm welcome by our relatives.
4) The teacher reprimanded the student for failing to do the task.
5) My cousin suggested we all go and have a drink.
6) We were warned not to go near the edge of the cliff.
7) The hotel porter offered to carry my cases.
8) The doctor inquired after his daughter’s health.
9) He expressed great satisfaction with the way things had turned out.
10) He complimented his girlfriend on the way she looked that night.
11) He expressed his gratitude for what we had done.
13. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Он попросил меня никому об этом не рассказывать.
2) Она посоветовала мне не есть так много сладостей.
3) Марта напомнила мне, чтобы я купил продукты по дороге домой.
4) Он ей сказал, чтобы она не запирала дверь.
5) Хозяйка квартиры предупредила нас, что мы должны платить за квартиру вовремя.
6) Мы его предупредили, чтобы он нас не ждал.
7) Доктор попросил их не будить больного.
8) Секретарь настоял на том, чтобы они не отправляли письма.
9) Мой приятель предложил, чтобы мы сходили на вечеринку.
10) Она предложила нам провести день за городом.
11) Доктор посоветовал мне поехать на юг.
12) Она предложила перевести для нас статью.
13) Мы ему сказали, чтобы он пришел к пяти часам.
14) Полицейский приказал водителю следовать за белой машиной.
15) Жена попросила меня уделять ей больше времени.
UNIT 6 MODALS IN REPORTED SPEECH
1. There are changes in the verb tenses of some modal verbs in Reported Speech:
(present) / would be able to
(future), may might,
(asking for advice) or would
(asking for information), must must / had to
remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction).
Would, could, used to, mustn’t, should, ought to
and had better
remain the same.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1) “How shall I tell Tom the bad news?” she said.
2) “You must try my home-made pie,” she said.
3) “Can I go home now?” he asked her.
4) “May I call you by your first name?” he asked.
5) “You can come in, but you mustn’t make any noise,” she said to him.
6) “What time shall we arrive in London?” he asked.
7) “She must try harder if she wants to succeed,” he said.
8) “My father will be angry with me if he finds out,” she said.
9) “You ought not to drive so fast,” he said to him.
10) “They don’t have to come if they don’t feel like it,” he said.
11) “You had better speak to the manager,” she said to him.
12) “I may not be able to meet you at the airport,” he said to her.
13) “You must be very tired, you look so pale,” she said to him.
14) “How many instruments can you play, Natasha?” he asked.
15) “Shall I show you the way?” he asked.
16) “You’d better sit down,” she said.
17) “You must report to me every day,” the boss told her.
18) “I won’t be able to come to the meeting,” he said to them.
19) “You don’t have to do all the work yourself,” she said.
20) “Susan may know the address,” he said.
2. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate verb form.
1) She asked if she (can)
have some more tea.
2) He said that he (must)
go to Plymouth the following day.
3) He said that after the lecture he (have to)
4) Father said that Tom (must)
work harder next term.
5) My employer said that I (not need)
to come to work the next day.
6) She said that she (have to)
drive his pigs out of her garden.
7) He said that he (can)
speak six languages fluently.
8) He said he (can not)
come to the meeting on Friday.
9) He asked if they (may)
go swimming that day.
10) He told me that I (not have to)
do all the work myself.
11) He inquired if he (shall)
consult the lawyer in that situation.
12) They said that they (will not)
be there next September.
13) He wanted to know if he (may)
give me a ring the following day.
14) My parents said that we (must)
be in bed by nine.
15) The boss told Laura that she (has to)
get to work on time.
3. Turn the conversation into Reported Speech.
What time do we have to be at the coffee morning?
The invitation says ten o’clock.
Well, it’s ten now. We’d better hurry. We shouldn’t be late.
Oh, it won’t matter if we are a bit late.
I think it would be rude, wouldn’t it? I don’t think people ought to arrive late when they’ve been invited to something.
You worry too much. You shouldn’t take everything so seriously, Vicky. It’s a coffee morning, not a job interview. We don’t have to get there exactly on time. We may be a little bit late.
4. Report the dialogue.
I can’t come out tonight, Margo. I ought to do some more work. I’m behind with everything. I’ve got so much to do.
You shouldn’t worry so much, Tom. Don’t panic. You ought to relax sometimes. You could take a break.
I know I shouldn’t panic, but I do. I can’t help it.
Anyway, you’re doing OK, aren’t you? Your results have been good.
You should be pleased. You oughtn’t to invent problems for yourself.
5. Convert the conversations into Reported Speech.
David’s broken his leg. He had to go to hospital.
Oh, no! How long will he have to stay there?
I don’t know.
I parked my car outside the hairdresser’s, and while I was in there, the police took the car away. I’ve got it back now. But I had to pay a lot of money.
How much did you have to pay?
Two hundred pounds!
My sister and I are going a different way.
Oh, you mustn’t go off on your own. It isn’t safe. We must keep together in a group.
I’ll put these cups in the dishwasher.
No, you shouldn’t put them in there. It might damage them. In fact, we needn’t wash them at all. We didn’t use them.
I can’t sleep sometimes. My neighbours play music all night.
That’s a nuisance. They shouldn’t play music all night.
I’m sure the computer didn’t make a mistake. That’s impossible.
No, of course, the computer couldn’t have made a mistake.
6. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Он сказал, что может перевести эту статью за два часа.
2) Она сказала, что может переехать в новую квартиру уже на следующей неделе.
3) Он сказал, что мне следовало бы навещать его в больнице почаще.
4) Администратор сказала, что мы должны освободить номер к семи часам.
5) Она сказала, что нам лучше поторопиться.
6) Мальчик спросил отца, сколько времени он может проводить за компьютером.
7) Она сказала, что мы должны будем отчитаться в конце этого года.
8) Он сказал, что мне следовало посоветоваться с ним, прежде чем принимать какое-либо решение.
9) Он сообщил нам, что собрание должно закончиться с минуты на минуту.
10) Она сказала, что я могу приходить к ним, когда захочу.
11) Полицейский сказал, что здесь нельзя парковать машину.
12) Она сказала, что сможет прийти только завтра.
1. Find a statement consistent with the adverbs given.
1) … he said patiently.
a) Don’t ask me such silly questions.
2) … he commented derisively.
b) You should treat your elders with more respect.
3) … he observed sarcastically.
c) I will love you forever.
4) … he said agreeably.
d) Mind your own business.
5) … he said pompously.
e) No one cares how you feel.
6) … he whispered shyly.
f) I thought you said you were ill yesterday.
7) … he answered sharply.
g) That’s your problem. I don’t care.
8) … he said sympathetically.
h) You can go to the devil!
9) … he said fiercely.
i) You could try doing it the write way.
10) … he said brutally.
j) What should I tell her.
11) … he said angrily.
k) You think you are brilliant, don’t you.
12) … he said accusingly.
l) I understand how you feel.
13) … he said callously.
m) Let’s try again. It’s rather difficult.
14) … he said passionately.
n) I think it’s been a very good day.
15) … he said defiantly.
o) I’ve made very good progress.
16) … he said complacently.
p) No one is going to stop me!
2. Rewrite the following sentences in Reported Speech.
1) “What time does the next bus leave?” he said. “I need to get to the station on time.”
2) “Don’t go swimming in the lake,” she said. “The water is filthy.”
3) “Let’s go shopping tomorrow,” she said. “The sales have started.”
4) “Stand up,” the teacher said to the pupils. “The headmaster is coming.”
5) “Please, don’t take my ring,” she said to him. “It is a present.”
6) “It’s very late, Martin,” his mother said. “Where have you been?”
7) “Shall I cook the dinner?” he said to her. “You look very tired.”
8) “Please stop making that noise!” she said to him. “I can’t concentrate.”
9) “Yes, I dropped your vase,” she said. “I was cleaning the shelf.”
10) “Can I use the car, please?” she said. “I need to run some errands.”
11) “I’m sorry I’m late,” he said. “The car wouldn’t start.”
12) “Why are you teasing your sister?” she asked him. “You know it makes her unhappy.”
13) “Why won’t you come to the party?” he said to her. “Everyone would love to see you.
14) “It was Rob who broke the window,” he said to her. “He was kicking the football.”
15) “Please, give me the latest reports, Jane,” said the boss. “I need them badly.”
16) “Go on apply for a job, Anthony,” Karen said. “It’s really good.”
17) “I’ve lost my passport,” he said. “What should I do?”
18) “Don’t forget to buy some milk,” mother said. “We’ve run out of it.”
19) “You mustn’t stay out late ,”she said to me.
20) “No one ever comes to see me,” the old man said. “That makes me feel lonely.”
3. Use an appropriate introductory verb to report the following.
1) “It wasn’t me who stole the car,” said Frank.
2) “May I have a piece of pie, please?” she said.
3) “Yes, OK. I’ll tell him about the accident,” he said.
4) “I must have the report by tomorrow,” the boss said.
5) “Please, please let me go to the party,” Jim asked his mother.
6) “I’ll never be naughty again,” Ted told his father.
7) “Stand up straight!” said the sergeant to the soldier.
8) “Yes, it was me who robbed the bank,” he said.
9) “I didn’t come to work because I was ill,” she said to her boss.
10) “Let’s play chess,” he said.
11) “I’m sorry I forgot to phone you,” he said to her.
12) “Don’t forget to go to the bank,” she said to him.
13) “You should relax more,” she said to her.
14) “Mark is always shouting at me,” she said.
15) “Yes, it is a nice dress,” he said.
16) “Shall I carry your bag, Tracy?” he said.
17) “No, I certainly won’t do your homework, Graham,” said Bill.
18) “You scratched my record,” she said to her friend.
19) “Leave now or I’ll phone the police,” she said to the salesman.
20) “Oh, alright, I’ll lend you my car, Tom,” she said.
21) “It’s true, I killed my wife,” he said.
22) “I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive,” she said to me.
23) “You’re right, she is beautiful,” she said.
24) “No, I won’t marry you, John,” she said.
25) “If you try to escape, I’ll shoot you,” he said to the prisoner.
26) “Why don’t we have chicken for dinner,” he said.
27) “You must sign the contract, Mr Harrison,” she said.
28) “I’ll punish you if you do it again,” he said to the boy.
29) “Would you like me to show you how to use this computer?” she said to me.
30) “Yes, it’s a good idea,” he said.
4. Supply the correct forms of the verbs.
One morning a farmer met a boy and asked him if the latter wanted a job. The boy (1) (answer) that he (2) (do). The farmer (3) (want) (4) (know) if the boy (5) (can) (6) (give) him a good character. The boy said that he (7) (can) and (8) (add) that it (9) (be) from Mr Tolan, the shopkeeper, his previous master.
The farmer agreed. The farmer told the boy (10) (go) and (11) (ask) Mr Tolan (12) (come) there and (13) (speak) to him. He said that he (14) (wait) there for some time. Twenty minutes passed and then forty minutes passed, but Mr Tolan didn’t come.
Later in the afternoon the farmer saw the boy again and he said that Mr Tolan (15) (not come) with the boy’s character. The boy (16) (not be) surprised to hear it. He said he (17) (not ask) Mr Tolan to come there.
The farmer asked why the boy (18) (not do) it. The boy (19) (answer) that he (20) (tell) his old master who (21) (want) the character. The farmer didn’t understand. Then the boy (22) (explain) that his old master (23) (tell) him the character of the farmer.
5. Cross out the unnecessary word.
1) Our friends told us that we had better to put the job off till the next day.
2) Dave asked Tony where he was being going for his holidays.
3) They asked me if I would like to sell my old car and I said I would so.
4) John suggested that they should to drive to the coast.
5) Julie told to her husband that the doctor had arrived.
6) The man wanted to know if where the nearest fast food restaurant was.
7) Polly promised that to participate in the concert at the end of term.
8) The teacher told us do not to make any noise.
9) Simon asked me that if I knew the woman whose house had been burgled the week before.
10) He insisted on that we should tell the truth about the incident.
6. Read the news report and write the missing words. Use one word only in each space. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer.
Police have warned people to watch out for two men who have tricked there way into an old woman’s home and stolen money. The men called on Mrs Iris Raine and said (1) were from the water company and wanted to check (2) her water was OK. They asked if (3) would mind letting them into her house. The woman didn’t ask (4) see their identity cards. She said she (5) know about any problem with the water. The men explained that they (6) just discovered the problem but that it was very simple and (7) take long to check. The woman asked (8) the service was free, and they said yes. They (9) to know where the water tank was. While one man ran water in the kitchen, the other went upstairs and took several hundred pounds from a drawer in a bedroom. The men then left saying that they would return the (10) day to have another look.
(Oxford Practice Grammar, p.329)
7. Here is the report of what the judge said to an accused. Convert his words into Direct Speech.
He asked him why he had done it. Then he told him he was obviously guilty. He told him to look at him when he was speaking to him. He asked him if he was sorry for what he had done. He told him that the bank manager was still in hospital. He said he would go to prison for a long time for that crime. He asked him if he had anything to say in his defence. Then he told the policeman to take him away.
8. Put in the missing words.
It’s a sad fact that people steal from hotels. Recently I interviewed Mr David Wills, the manager of a large hotel, and he (1) me that all kinds of things, large and small, (2) constantly stolen. Mr Wills told (3) that a check (4) made on a person’s room as soon as they (5) (leave
) it, but unless someone had walked off with a wardrobe, he (6) (advise
) the staff (7) (not/make
) a fuss. “What is even more surprising,” Mr Wills (8) “is the things people leave behind – anything from wooden legs to false teeth!” He then (9) on to tell me a story about a snobbish lady who (10) (recently check out
). She (11) (object
) that her bill (12) (be
) too high, but paid it nevertheless. Just as she (13) (leave
), the phone rang and the cashier answered it. He then (14) the lady that a hotel bathrobe was missing from her room. The lady expressed great surprise and (15) that the hotel maid must have packed it in by mistake. “But the maid has just reported the bathrobe missing,” the cashier (16). Hanging over the bathrobe, the lady left in disgust. “Who wants a second-hand bathrobe, anyway?” she said, as she made her way to a taxi complaining that hotel service (17) (be
) not what it used to be.
(Longman English Grammar Practice, p.225)
9. Put in the correct forms.
It had been a particularly bad winter in Chicago. Nearly forty inches of snow had fallen in a fortnight. Railway workers at Chicago station didn’t know (1) (what/do
) with it. The foreman (2) (advise them/shovel
) it into huge mountains to keep the platforms clear. He (3) (tell/not leave
) any snow on the platforms because it was dangerous for passengers. But it was an impossible task! Suddenly, one of the workers had a bright idea. “I know (4) (how/get rid
) of it,” he said. “Let’s load it onto this freight train. We can send it south to Mississippi and New Orleans. It’ll just melt away.” The next day five tons of snow arrived in Memphis, Tennessee. “It’s a welcome gift,” a railway worker said. “We know (5) (what/do
) with it here. We’ll send what we can to the children’s playground. Some of us have never seen snow before!”
(Longman English Grammar Practice, p.223)
10. Match the first part (1-10) with an appropriate reporting verb (a-j).
1) “If you do it again, I’ll leave,” a) she whispered.
2) “I’m now going to read out the results,” b) he answered.
3) “Could you bring me the wine list?” c) she shouted.
4) “Of course, I’ll bring it right away,” d) she threatened.
5) “Our team will easily beat yours,” e) she announced.
6) “Please give me another chance,” f) she claimed.
7) “Shhh! The baby is sleeping,” g) he asked.
8) “I’m innocent of all the charges,” h) she begged.
9) “First of all, you press the button,” i) he boasted.
10) “Careful! The water’s deep!” j) he explained.
11. Finish these sentences using the information above. Use Reported Speech.
1) She threatened …… .
2) She announced that she …… .
3) He asked the waiter …… .
4) The waiter answered …… .
5) He boasted that …… .
6) She begged them …… .
7) She whispered that …… .
8) She claimed …… .
9) He explained that …… .
10) She shouted to us …… .
12. Complete the following letter using the correct form of a verb from the list. The first (0)
is given as an example.
go, buy, make, snow, give, miss, send, plan, love, think, enjoy, have, cost
Thanks for your letter. I’ve got lot’s of news for you this time. We went to see “Titanic”
. Everyone had said it was
(0) great and that nobody should … (1) it. There has been a lot of publicity on TV about it recently which told us how much it …(2) to make and all that, and Liz and Tony saw it and said they …(3) it. Frankly speaking, I was a bit disappointed. Anyway, I suggest you … (4) and see it and … (5) up your own mind.
Ah, yes, I got a call from your uncle in Canada who said he … (6) you a parcel – have you got it yet? He said it … (7) there, and everything was white but he added they always … (8) a heavy winter. He also told me they … (9) a new jeep and they … (10) to travel round the States in it in the summer. He said he … (11) us a ride in it if we popped over for a holiday. I replied that we … (12) to go over if he agreed to pay all our expenses! He laughed and said he … (13) about it and let us know!
13. Complete each sentence in Reported Speech.
Let me help you.
My friend offered to help me.
1) “Why don’t we go for a walk?”
She suggested …… .
2) “I wasn’t anywhere near the scene of the crime.”
The accused claimed …… .
3) “We lived in Chicago two years ago. My father worked there.”
My friend said …… .
4) “The swallows return every spring and fly past my window.”
She explained …… .
5) “Can you answer the phone? I’m having a shower!”
He asked his son …… .
6) “I gave you my homework last week.”
The boy insisted …… .
7) “Could you come and pick me up from school today, dad?”
Billy asked …… .
8) “If I were you I wouldn’t drink so much.”
He advised his friend …… .
9) “I won’t help you because you didn’t help me.”
a) Joan said …… .
b) Joan refused …… .
10) “I’ll bring it back tomorrow.”
a) He said …… .
b) He promised ……
14. Choose the correct answer to fill the spaces in the sentences given.
1) The judge asked the witness ……….. give her more information.
A) him that
B) if he could
C) that he could
D) him whether to
2) They asked if ……………always wanted to be a doctor.
A) did she
B) has she
D) she had
3) Did he say whether ……………. lend you the money or not?
A) could he
B) can he
C) he could
4) She couldn’t tell us what ……….. the money on.
A) she did spend
B) did she spend
C) she had spent
D) had she spent
5) I showed them how ……….. the computer.
A) to use
B) is used
C) they use
D) must they use
6) She said she …………….. to phone you all night the day before.
A) was trying
B) had been trying
D) will try
7) They warned the children…………… near the river.
A) do not go
B) not to go
C) didn’t go
8) I was persuaded ……………. on the trip at the last minute.
A) that I go
C) me to go
D) to go
9) She convinced the court……………… innocent.
A) to be
B) that she was
C) she was being
D) that was
10) The suspect …………….. that he had been to the bank that day.
11) A man asked if anyone…………..an ambulance.
had been called
12) He told me ………….. to him.
do not lie
not to lie
13) She said that the Earth ………. round.
14) He said that he……………the car the following day.
15) He suggested……………….. a party.
16) Someone……………. the tickets are free.
said me that
told to me
17) Last week Justin said ‘I’ll do it tomorrow’. He said he would do it …… .
the previous day
18) I don’t know why Nancy didn’t go to the meeting. She said she …… definitely going.
19) The librarian asked us……………….. so much noise.
not to make
15 Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.
1) “I have a headache,” he said to her.
He complained of having
2) “I promise I’ll send you a letter,” Mike said to Julie.
Mike …… Julie a letter.
3) “I won’t talk to you if you don’t apologise,” she said to him.
She …… to him if he didn’t apologise.
4) “Would you like to dine with us on Sunday?” they said to us.
They …… to dine on Sunday.
5) “What an unusual design!” said Kate.
Kate …… an unusual design.
6) “I’m sorry I ‘m late,” he said to her.
He …… late.
7) “You must stay for lunch,” she said to me.
She …… for lunch.
8) “No, I won’t give you another chance,” Denis said to Sue.
Denis …… another chance.
9) “Let’s look round the museum,” Mum said.
Mum …… round the museum.
10) “I didn’t take your purse,” she said.
She …… my purse.
11) “Don’t forget to switch on the machine,” Dad said to me.
Dad …… on the machine.
12) “I read your diary,” she said.
She…… his diary.
13) “You drank the last can of lemonade,” Jane said to Phil.
Jane …… the last can of lemonade.
14) “Why don’t we buy a bouquet of flowers for Ann?” Alan said.
Alan …… buy a bouquet of flowers for Ann.
15) “O.K. I’ll stay in the office for a couple of hours,” he said.
He …… in the office for a couple of hours.
16) “Drop your gun!” the policeman told the man.
The policeman …… his gun.
17) “Why are you making such a fuss?” Mum asked me.
Mum wanted to know …… such a fuss.
18) “I’ll give you a lift to the college,” John said to me.
John …… a lift to the college.
19) “I saw who broke into the house,” the woman said.
The woman ……who broke into the flat.
20) “I don’t suppose you can lend me some money, can you?” Caroline said to me.
Caroline wanted to know …… her some money.
16. Write the sentences in Reported Speech replacing the word
said by one of the following words
suggested, agreed, muttered, exclaimed, insisted, whispered, boasted,
advised, claimed, warned, threatened
. Use each word once only.
1) “I can speak four languages fluently,” he said.
2) “Let’s go to the exhibition of modern art today,” he said.
3) “I don’t think you should take up wind-surfing at your age,” she said to him.
4) “That computer you are using is my property,” the man said.
5) “Yes, I broke the windows with the ball,” the boy said.
6) “If I catch you cheating again, I shall make you stay in after school,” the man said to the boy.
7) “I shall always love you,” said a young man.
8) “The police have already thrown a cordon round the bank and all the means of escape had been cut off,” he said to the thieves.
9) “The professor doesn’t know what he is talking about,” said the student.
10) “Well, it’s a great surprise to meet you here today!” she said.
11) “Well, yes, if everything goes on like this, we can’t go,” he said.
12) “If you can’t stay with us any longer today, you simply must come tomorrow,” she said.
17. Complete the sentences with
(in the correct form). Use only one word each time.
1) Ann …… goodbye to me and left.
2) …… us about your holiday. Did you have a nice time?
3) Don’t just stand there! …… something!
4) I wonder where Sue is. She …… she would be here at 8 o’clock.
5) Jack …… me that he was fed up with his job.
6) The doctor …… that I should rest for at least a week.
7) She always ...… me her troubles.
8) Did she …… you what happened? – No, she didn’t …… anything to me.
9) George couldn’t help me. He …… me to ask Kate.
10) I did it. I cannot ..… a lie.
18. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Он сказал, что будет очень скучать по ней.
2) Она сказала, что скоро собирается в Париж.
3) Мне сказали, что Анна уже купила билеты.
4) Она сказала мне, что никогда не была в Америке.
5) Она спросила меня, не хочу ли я поесть в кафе.
6) Они поинтересовались, почему она опоздала.
7) Она хотела узнать, как долго я буду в отпуске.
8) Она попросила Тома оказать ей услугу.
9) Жена напомнила мне, чтобы я отправил письмо на следующей неделе.
10) Бетти убедила Джейн купить красное платье.
11) Джереми спросил отца, сколько тот зарабатывает.
12) Секретарь сказала мистеру Брауну, чтобы он перезвонил позднее.
13) Работник парка сказал детям, чтобы они не ходили по траве.
14) Билл признался, что украл деньги, но отрицал, что ударил старушку.
15) Профессор похвастался, что может в совершенстве говорить на 11 языках.
16) Джейн отказалась помогать мне по дому.
17) Кет предложила довезти Меган до вокзала.
18) Они спросили меня, когда начинается мой рабочий день.
19) Он поинтересовался, какие вопросы я люблю обсуждать с друзьями.
20) Он признался, что рассказал ему наш секрет.
21) Она пожаловалась, что он все время лжет.
22) Он пообещал, что поможет нам.
23) Он напомнил мне, чтобы я перезвонил домой.
24) Ребята с радостью согласились помочь нам с проектом.
25) Она обвинила меня в том, что я украл деньги.
26) Она умоляла нас не прекращать поиски преступника.
27) Она меня спросила, хожу ли я на прогулку каждый вечер.
28) Анна сказала, что она живет в Неаполе.
29) Она напомнила мне, что вечером будет конференция.
30) Он сказал, что его книгу можно купить в любом магазине.
31) Мэри сказала, что вчера вечером к ней приходил Том.
32) Джек меня спросил, не хочу ли я выпить чашечку кофе.
33) Она спросила меня, почему я такая грустная.
34) Она сказала, что они очень редко ходят в театр.
35) Я спросила брата, как долго он собирается пробыть за границей.
36) Он сказал, что потерял часы.
37) Он предложил нам пойти в какой-нибудь другой клуб.
38) Она настояла на том, чтобы мы остались у нее еще на несколько дней.
39) Он отрицал то, что Майкл был с ними в тот вечер.
40) Она предложила отложить встречу до завтра.
41) Она извинилась за то, что опоздала.
42) Он пригласил меня на романтический ужин на пляже.
1) С гордостью он отметил, что их торговая марка известна каждому потребителю в стране.
2) Директор сообщил нам, что завод оснащен новейшей техникой.
3) Он нас уверил, что доставка товара будет произведена вовремя.
4) Владелец магазина сказал, что они прекратили продавать товар в кредит несколько месяцев назад.
5) Она сказала, что на распродаже можно купить одежду высокого качества по низкой цене.
6) Он сказал мне, что уволился с работы два месяца назад.
7) Она напомнила мне, что перед собеседованием необходимо заполнить анкету.
8) Он отметил, что на юге Италии наблюдается высокий уровень безработицы.
9) Министр сказал, что уровень инфляции в стране все еще остается высоким.
10) Он сказал, что новая европейская валюта была одобрена всеми странами, входящими в Европейский союз.
11) Она сказала, что если бы не финансовая помощь, они бы не смогли присоединиться к этому проекту.
12) Директор магазина с сожалением отметил, что многие покупатели не довольны качеством обслуживания.
13) Он сообщил своим друзьям, что прекрасно прошел собеседование и будет теперь работать в большой компании.
14) Банковский служащий сказал ей, где она сможет поменять деньги.
15) Служащий напомнил нам, что компания оплатила все счета.
16) Она хотела узнать, как правильно заполнить бланк заявления
17) Он спросил меня, когда заканчивается срок аренды.
18) Он поинтересовался, может ли покупатель вернуть бракованный товар и получить денежную компенсацию от производителя.
19) Она спросила, трудно ли ему было организовать свой бизнес.
20) Он спросил меня, где находится наш новый офис.
21) Он спросил, какие виды кредита предоставляет банк.
22) Менеджер по кадрам спросил меня, согласен ли я работать в ночную смену.
23) Он спросил, каков оборот этих товаров.
24) Она спросила, какой вид рекламы является наиболее эффективным.
25) Он поинтересовался, какие вопросы обсуждались на совете директоров.
26) Он спросил, сколько сотрудников работает на нашем предприятии.
27) Он спросил меня, получаю ли я пособие по безработице.
28) Она сказала, что будет лучше, если я уволюсь с этой работы.
29) Он предложил мне положить деньги на счет в банк.
30) Он попросил меня прийти на собеседование в следующую пятницу.
31) Она порекомендовала мне покупать одежду во время сезонной распродажи.
32) Он посоветовал мне дать рекламу по телевидению.
33) Он предложил мне взять краткосрочный кредит.
34) Он посоветовал мне застраховать имущество.
35) Он порекомендовал мне исследовать рынок, прежде чем инвестировать капитал.
36) Он сказал, что для успешного бизнеса очень важно нанять компетентных работников.
37) Он умолял меня дать ему взаймы немного денег.
38) Директор предложил проводить собрания каждую неделю.
39) Он посоветовал продавать товар оптом по более низкой цене.
40) Она сказала, что нам не следует заключать договор с этой компанией.
41) Он сказал, что если бы мы застраховали предприятие от данного риска, то мы бы не понесли такие потери.
1) Он сказал, что президент Соединенных Штатов избирается в ходе всеобщих выборов на четыре года и может быть переизбран на второй срок.
2) Преступник сознался в преднамеренном убийстве.
3) Он сказал, что этого человека арестовали, потому что он несколько раз пытался ограбить банк.
4) Судья объявила, что подсудимый приговаривается к высшей мере уголовного наказания.
5) Он сказал, что преступник был пойман на месте преступления.
6) Он сказал, что это понятно каждому политику.
7) Он сказал, что особенно страдают от сегодняшней безработицы молодые люди.
8) Он сказал, что проведение переговоров по этому кругу вопросов не только желательно, но и необходимо.
9) Он сказал, что преступник совершил преступление в состоянии аффекта.
10) Он сказал, что сам будет вести данное судебное дело.
11) Следователь спросил, где я была вчера вечером.
12) Он хотел узнать, были ли обнаружены отпечатки пальцев на месте преступления.
13) Она спросила, какой размер штрафа он должен выплатить.
14) Судья спросила, хочет ли обвиняемый сказать что-либо в свою защиту.
15) Он спросил свидетелей, запомнили ли они номер машины.
16) Он поинтересовался, сколько преступлений было раскрыто за прошедший год.
17) Он спросил меня, за кого я собираюсь голосовать на выборах.
18) Она хотела узнать, как я отношусь к смертной казни.
19) Он спросил, не могу ли я порекомендовать ему хорошего адвоката.
20) Я спросил, кто ведет данное дело.
21) Она спросила, кому принадлежит законодательная власть в Великобритании.
22) Обвиняемый спросил, какой срок он может получить за данное преступление.
23) Судья попросила свидетеля говорить только правду.
24) Он умолял ее не звонить в полицию.
25) Он посоветовал мне нанять хорошего адвоката.
26) Полицейский приказал всем оставаться на своих местах.
27) Он порекомендовал мне нанять частного детектива.
28) Он посоветовал мне обратиться в суд.
29) Он попросил меня выступить в качестве свидетеля по данному делу.
30) Следователь попросил ничего не трогать на месте преступления.
31) Заключенный умолял надсмотрщика перевести его в другую камеру.
32) Адвокат порекомендовал подзащитному придерживаться данной версии.
33) Избиратели попросили депутата принять меры по улучшению их жилищных условий.
34) Он рекомендовал мне голосовать именно за этого кандидата.
1. Convert the following into Reported Speech. Use an appropriate introductory verb.
1) David said to Eric, “Get out of my house!”
2) The man next to me smiled and said, “I wonder if you’d mind watching my dog for a minute?”
3) Jane’s daughter said, “Could I borrow your blue sweater?”
4) “You should ask for more information,” I told Joanne.
5) “Just breath in and out through your mouth now,” the doctor told Ann.
6) “I really think you’d better see a specialist,” the doctor said to Anne.
7) My mother rang up and said, “Could you possibly come a little bit earlier?”
8) “Can you lend me five pounds till Monday?” Gerry asked Claire.
9) “Don’t tell anyone else,” the big man said to his friend.
10) “You should ask for a second opinion,” the lawyer told Tom.
11) “Do have a drink,” Fiona told us.
12) “My boss wants me to go to London tomorrow,” said Sam.
13) The man asked him, “ What will happen if the police find out?”
14) Peter told me two days ago, “I’m going to Austria in May.”
15) “Do you know that no woman has ever been elected President of the United States?” he asked curiously.
16) “Most of the businesses in our town are owned by local people now,” he says.
17) A boy asked his father in a zoo, “Does the giraffe get a sore throat if it gets wet feet?”
18) “I have finished my work,” she said.
19) “Why are you looking at me like that?” she asked him angrily.
20) “Don’t ever play with the matches,” his mother says.
21) “I’ve forgotten to bring my lunch with me,” he said with regret.
22) “Will you be home soon?” she asked her husband.
23) “Go to bed immediately! ” father said to the children.
24) “I’ll clean the car tomorrow,” Tim said to his father.
25) “Where have you been?” Gary asked his wife.
26) “I’ve been working for the same company since 1960,” he said to me.
27) “Do you know Garfield?” she asked me.
28) “Could you tell me the exchange rate for dollars and pounds?” she asked.
29) “O.K., I’ll talk to her,” she said.
30) “Jack never seems low or depressed,” said Jane.
31) “No, I didn’t use your computer,” he said.
32) “I don’t want to do it,” he said.
33) “Let’s stroll along the sea-front for an hour or two,” he said.
34) “Please, give me some money,” she asked.
35) “Thank you for cleaning my car,” he said to the boy.
36) “I’ll carry your bag,” he said to her.
37) “Do not ignore traffic lights while crossing the street,” mother told us.
38) “Make sure you are back before eleven,” she said to her son.
39) “I’ve just been in a race, and I’m very thirsty,” he said.
40) “I want an ice-cream, but I have no money,” he said to his friend.
41) “I’m very hungry, I haven’t eaten all day,” she said.
42) “Aren’t you going to measure my feet,” he asked me.
43) “You can try those shoes on while I serve someone else, can’t you?” she said.
44) “Wow!” he said as he unwrapped his present.
45) “So, what are you going to do next?” he inquired.
46) “If I hadn’t parked my car on a double yellow line, I wouldn’t have got a ticket,” she said.
47) “Do you expect that the missing people have survived?” he asked me.
48) “Andrew had better not drive in his condition,” he said.
49) “You can wear anything you want as long as it’s clean and comfortable,” Joan said to her children.
50) “You are always lying to me,” she said to him.
51) “Of course, I’ll meet you at the station,” he said.
52) “I’m the cleverest in our group,” he boasted.
53) “Don’t forget to call at your parents,” he said.
54) “I spent 20 minutes looking for a parking place,” she said.
55) “When can I hand in my resignation?” she said.
56) “I’ll telephone you this evening,” she said.
57) “What will you do if you can’t find your keys?” she asked.
58) “I’ll tell you as soon as I know,” he said.
59) “I want to change my job,” he said.
60) “When I’m with you I can’t stop laughing,” she said to him.
61) “Should I come to work early tomorrow?” she asked the boss.
62) “I’m not very interested in discussing your problems,” she said.
63) “Don’t take more than two pills at once,” the doctor told me.
64) “You look exhausted. You must take a holiday,” she said.
65) “I’d like to live alone,” she said to her parents.
66) “What about me? Perhaps I took it,” Jim said.
67) “No, I certainly didn’t do it, I can assure you,” she said.
68) “Ask the bus-driver to tell you where to get off,” he said.
69) “We are going to get married,” Frank and Susan announced.
70) “Yes, that was me who told her the secret,” she said.
71) “I can’t give you an answer, until I hear from my bank,” he said to them.
72) “Don’t forget to put the lights out when you go to bed,” she said.
73) “Don’t try to get off the train when it is moving,” he said.
74) “You haven’t eaten for hours. You must be hungry,” she said.
75) “I’ve passed my exam!” he said.
76) “I’ll help you with that if you want,” he said.
77) “Jack had a terrible car accident last week,” she said.
78) “You have a very sweet tooth,” Beatrice said to her daughter.
79) “How long have you lived at your present address?” she asked.
80) “I’d rather stay at home,” he said.
81) “You behaved in a cowardly manner,” she said.
82) “I don’t remember I’ve promised to lend you any money,” she said.
83) “I shall gladly go to the cinema with you because I haven’t seen the film and I want to see it very much,” Helen said.
84) “Wait for me here!” the officer said to the soldiers.
85) “How do you travel to work?” he asked me.
86) “They mustn’t give up,” she remarked.
87) “I ought to have helped her,” he said.
88) “I’ll punish you if you behave badly,” Dad told the boy.
89) “It was very late when I came home last night,” he said to her.
90) “Have you ever seen an iceberg?” she asked him.
91) “Don’t run until two hours after eating,” she said.
92) “Don’t get out of a car before it stops,” he said.
93) “They are always talking about politics,” she said to me.
94) “Go and put the kettle on,” she said.
95) “I’m going to hitchhike to Scotland,” he said.
96) “Did you have to walk all the way home?” he asked her.
97) “Did you skate last winter?” she wondered.
98) “Our house was burgled last night,” she told them.
99) “Katy has just bought herself a red leather jacket,” she said.
100) “Let me tell you how to get to our place,” she said.
Chapter 8 VERBALS
(NONFINITE FORMS OF THE VERB)
1. Complete the sentences with the correct Nonfinite form of the verbs in brackets. Put in the particle
or the appropriate preposition where required.
1) The Council offered …… the residents with new flats in this area. (provide
2) The burglars made Julian …… of the car and searched him. (get out
3) It’s funny they let him …… his camera. (keep
4) Would you rather …… tea or coffee? (have
5) Why not …… with the company that has been loyal to you for years? (deal
6) He was made …… into the car and later it was reported that he had been kidnapped. (get
7) I felt somebody …… me by the shoulder. (touch
8) The story was so funny. He couldn’t but …… (laugh
9) I’m not the person …… of what doesn’t concern me. (talk
10) I suppose he is a dangerous man. He is a man …… . (watch
11) They are one of the three teams …… more than ten goals a season. (score
12) You must be proud …… the benefits of a classical education. (receive
13) The book is difficult …… . (translate
14) Hearing the bell …… he went to see who was at the door. (ring
15) They seemed …… a good time at the seaside last summer. (have)
16) He left a book here …… me …… .(read
17) It is almost unheard …… a play …… in this way. (perform
18) She is bored …… the same job. (do
19) He was angry …… me …… the news. (bring
20) The child did not want to leave without …… .(congratulate
21) She denies …… to him. (speak
22) Excuse me …… without knocking. (come
23) He kept on …… though nobody was listening. (talk
24) You can avoid many mistakes …… these rules. (observe
25) There is no fear…… my …… about your birthday. (forget
26) The author has succeeded …… his study on sound principles. (base)
27) There was no point …… away. (run
28) It was a lesson he had learned from …… so many accidents. (see)
29) We regret …… you that we can’t offer you the job. (inform
30) I now regret …… what I said. (say
31) They spoke about her …… in the list. (include)
32) We were warned …… the car. (buy
33) He made a few mistakes …… the text. (copy
34) The police never found the jewelry …… in the robbery. (steal
35) All the workers …… part in the strike are sure to be at the meeting. (take
36) I was reminded of a painting …… in the gallery. (see
37) The window…… now, was broken by some naughty boy last night. (repair
38) The enterprise …… 1000 workers has been closed. (employ
39) Her mood, though …… was enough to answer the questions. (spoil)
40) If ……, the diamond could make him the richest man in the town. (possess
41) While …… by her maid, she tried to sort out what she would say to the people downstairs. (dress
42) …… to put out the fire the boys were overcome by smoke. (try
43) The choice ……, she didn’t want to discuss it again. (make
44) They wanted the Committee …… on Thursday. (convene
45) She was sitting and listening to his brilliant speech. She heard her heart …… . (beat
46) The conclusions …… now are based on recent scientific discoveries. (draw
47) The shops were empty, all residents …… in the streets. (be
48) The sun ……, the climbers decided to have a rest. (set)
49) They were walking …… each other. ( negative- touch
50) The shares of the company …… down, it suffered severe losses. (fall)
2. Translate the sentences into English using the Verbals.
51) Думаю, что мне лучше спросить, как пройти на площадь, а то можно и заблудиться.
52) Повстанцы разрешили репортеру ходить по их лагерю и фотографировать.
53) Предполагается, что рекламное объявление появится завтра. Так что мы будем знать все подробности.
54) Дороги мокрые. Должно быть, ночью шел дождь.
55) Я предпочла бы остаться дома, а не идти в ресторан. У меня болит голова.
56) Что заставляет его подписывать этот контракт ?
57) Почему нам не говорить на английском языке? Здесь все его понимают.
58) Ей ничего другого не оставалось, как только признаться.
59) Когда директору принесли финансовый отчет и он просмотрел его, он не мог не рассердиться.
60) Единственным интересом крупных компаний является получение больших прибылей.
61) В мире существует много вещей, которые могут сделать вас несчастным.
62) Она сделала шаг назад, чтобы я мог пройти.
63) Я бы хотела, чтобы ты объяснила мне это правило.
64) Никто не ожидал, что они уйдут так рано.
65) Они чувствовали, как дрожал ее голос.
66) Простите, что доставил вам неприятности.
67) Говорят, что моя сестра похожа на меня.
68) Пожар обязательно вызовет панику на корабле.
69) Полагали, что члены совета придут к соглашению.
70) Кажется, эта книга очень популярна среди читателей.
71) Кажется вероятным, что стеклянные детали мебели были разбиты при перевозке.
72) Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения на эту тему.
73) Оказалось, что здание получило повреждения во время взрыва соседнего дома.
74) Я понял, что с моими соседями трудно иметь дело.
75) Я вызову такси, чтобы вы не опоздали.
76) Важно, чтобы документы прибыли вовремя.
77) Откровенно говоря, я не прочь здесь остаться.
78) Единственным средством от скуки были прогулки с Анной по саду.
79) Она не сможет дальше жить, не видя тебя.
80) (В машине) Ты не против, если мы остановимся около кафе, чтобы перекусить?
81) Она очень любила организовывать праздники.
82) На улице продолжал идти сильный дождь.
83) Он родился с даром чувствовать прекрасное.
84) Как только она проснулась, она сразу же пошла в сад.
85) Ему удалось произвести на нее хорошее впечатление.
86) За этот пост стоило побороться.
87) Не имеет смысла плакать из-за пролитого молока.
88) При обследовании места преступления были найдены важные вещественные улики.
89) Обои нужно было заменить.
90) Она отрицала, что встречалась с Ричардом в парке.
91) Его обвинили в совершении преступления.
92) Она сыта по горло поисками работы.
93) Статьи, опубликованные в этом журнале, не относятся к теме твоей научной работы.
94) Существующие методы медицинских исследований значительно отличаются от тех, которые использовались десять лет тому назад.
95) Если ваши волосы покрасить, они будут выглядеть намного лучше.
96) Хотя почта и прибыла, она не содержала той информации, которую ждали.
97) Она говорила так, как будто была большим специалистом.
98) Она услышала, как свидетель произнес ее имя.
99) Минск – большой город, его население составляет около двух миллионов.
100) Минск меньше по сравнению с Москвой или Лондоном.
Unit 1 General Information
As you have seen in the previous chapters of this book, Finite forms of the verb are the ones that have a particular number, tense, person or mood and their function in sentences is to be a predicate. In other words, Finite forms of the verb make sentences:
The money provides basic finance. It was borrowed in the bank.
Mr Smith was promoted. The idea belonged to the manager.
There are also Nonfinite forms of the verb that do not function as predicates because they do not limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person or mood. In other words, they cannot make sentences, they form only word-combinations: the money
in the bank, the idea of
etc. These forms are also called Verbals because they are made from the verb.
The function of Nonfinite forms of the verb is to complicate sentences adding another verbal structure to the finite one:
in the bank
The idea of
to the manager.
The above sentences are formally simple as they have only one finite verb (Predicate), but logically there are two ideas that are joined in one sentence, e.g.
in the bank
in the bank. The money
There are four Verbals in the English language: the Infinitive, the Gerund, Participle I and Participle II, two of which – the Gerund and Participle I – coincide in the form:
The Verbals also have voice and aspect distinctions and they fulfil different functions, consistent with different parts of speech such as the noun, the adjective, and the adverb which we shall be dealing with later and separately for each Verbal.
Unit 2 THE INFINITIVE
§ 1 G
is the base form of the verb and thus it has some features of the verb: aspect and voice distinctions (to play, to be playing, to have played, to have been playing, to be played
). (see § 3)
At the same time the Infinitive has nominal character which is revealed in its functions (a Subject, Predicative, Object, etc.) as you will see later in § 4.
§ 2 The Use of Particle TO
with the Infinitive
is usually used with the particle to
They decided to get
She failed to attract
I promised not to be
The structure Verb + to-Infinitive
is consistent with the verbs in the box:
offer, ask, hope, decide, learn, manage, tell, promise, invite, attempt, plan, forget, fail, order, threaten, agree, aim, arrange, deserve, remind, refuse, want, urge, like, instruct, would like, expect, intend, force
Yet the Infinitive can be used without the particle to
and is called the bare Infinitive:
Ann must be
Why not solve
So the Infinitive is divided into two types: to-Infinitive
and bare Infinitive.
The bare Infinitive
1) after modal verbs (
except 'ought to
She can’t go
We might go
to the cinema.
2) after the verbs let, have/make
(in the meaning of 'compel'):
The teacher didn’t let
the boys leave
in after school.
3) after the verbs of sense perception: see, hear, feel, know
(in the meaning of 'see', 'observe'):
I never saw
my heart jump.
a change of medicine
after the verbs hear, see, make, know
in the Passive Voice the to-Infinitive
He was made to work
twenty hours a day.
They were seen to leave
the house early.
4) after the expressions: had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but, why not:
I would rather not speak
on the subject.
I cannot but think
You had better go
to bed now.
Why not explain
everything to her?
does nothing but make
E X E R C I S E S
1. Fill in the suitable form of the verbs from the box in the following text. Some verbs can be used more than once. Reproduce the text.
manage, hope, offer, want, expect, plan, promise, threaten, intend, decide
Mrs Hamilton, an 83-year old widow, was the only person out of the residents who (1)... refused
… to leave her house. Her house was the only one that hasn’t been demolished. The County Council officials (2) ..... to speak to Mrs Hamilton. They (3) ..... to build new blocks of flats in the area and to provide the residents with new flats nearby. The officials (4) ..... her to come out peacefully. They didn’t (5) ..... to prosecute her. But she was a very stubborn woman. Nobody else (6) ..... to move. People (7) ..... to move next year and all was delayed because of one person. They even (8) ..... to give her a modern flat immediately. Later Mrs Hamilton (9) ..... to give an interview to a correspondent. The correspondent (10) ..... to arrange the interview. Mrs Hamilton as she said (11) ..... to stay in her house. She (12) ..... to have a new house, not a flat to keep her dogs. Though the Council (13) ..... to cut off the water and electricity she (14) ..... to stay in her house until they provided her with a house.
2. Change the sentences as in the model.
Don’t forget to fasten your seat-belts.
The stewardess (remind)
The stewardess reminded
the passengers to fasten
1) Please, do not leave your seats while the warning light is on.
The stewardess (warn)
2) Read the emergency procedures, please.
3) I’m busy now but I’ll bring you a drink in a minute.
4) Would you like to see the Flight deck?
5) I don’t want to keep my belt fastened.
The passenger (refuse)
6) Would you like to come to a party on Saturday?
7) Don’t forget to go to the bank today.
The manager (remind)
8) Switch off the engine, and get out of the car.
The policeman (order)
9) Certainly not, I won’t sell it at that price.
The seller (refuse) ..... .
10) Don’t worry. I’ll definitely meet you at six o’clock.
3. Fill in the particle
to before the Infinitive where required.
1) Do you think I’d like ..... spend the rest of my life in that situation? I’d rather ..... die!
2) She couldn’t help but ..... feel a little choked for breath.
3) Why not ..... come down to my place?
4) He gave a quick grin that made his lean face ..... look more lean than ever.
5) Ever since I came into this silly house I have been made ..... look like a fool.
6) I won’t have anyone ..... come interfering in my kitchen.
7) Andy let the hammer ..... drop out of his hand and ..... fall on the step.
8) You’d better ..... take him back to his place.
9) They ought ..... ask me for advice.
10) The poor boy was absolutely broken up. It made my heart ..... bleed. I couldn’t ..... let him ..... go without a word of comfort.
11) I’ve got nothing to do but ..... talk.
12) I would die sooner than ..... ask him for another penny.
13) They do nothing but ..... play bridge.
14) Why not ..... try ..... save yourself?
15) You’d better ..... get some sleep.
16) When she reached the front steps, she heard the taxi ..... drive away.
17) Arthur couldn’t but ..... glance at her.
4. Complete the sentences using the correct type of the Infinitive. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) Burt was furious and broke the furniture. But why did you let him ..... ?
But why did you let him break it?
2) My sister Ann has given up her job. What made her ..... ?
3) I think the meeting has already begun. We’d better ..… .
4) Did the old lady leave her home as the Council insisted? She was made ..… .
5) Did the assistant manager sign the contract? Yes, the manager let him ..… .
6) Bill is afraid the fire might destroy his new cottage. He’d better ..... .
7) We need more money to expand the business. Make the financial manager ..… .
8) Ted knows he’s done the wrong thing and he wants to confess and apologise to his parents. Let his parents ..... .
9) People don’t seem to be ready to invest money in our bank. Increase the interest rate and it will make ….. .
5. Fill in the particle
to where required and retell the dialogues.
– As soon as I saw you (1) ..... come round the bend I said to myself, ‘ 45 at least’.
– How dare you! It’s this hat that makes me (2) ..... look so old.
‘What has happened, George?’ she asked her husband who had got out of the car (1) ..... investigate. ‘Puncture’, he said briefly. ‘You ought (2) ..... have been on the look out for this’, was the helpful remark. ‘Do you remember the guy warned you there was a fork in the road?’
6. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive with or without the particle
1) Я чувствовал, что его рассказ правдив.
2) Я почувствовал, что кто-то коснулся моего плеча.
3) Вы выглядите усталым. Вам бы лучше пойти домой. – Нет, я бы предпочел закончить работу.
4) Почему бы не поговорить с деканом?
5) Ему оставалось только признать свою вину.
6) Я не могу не согласиться с вами.
7) Я предпочел бы не говорить им об этом.
8) Его заставили это сделать.
9) Видели, как он вышел из дома.
10) Я видел, как она вышла из комнаты.
11) Он слышал, как она поет.
12) Я разрешил ему пойти туда.
13) Он умеет говорить по-немецки.
14) Он сказал, что он предпочел бы остаться дома.
15) Он заставил меня прочесть эту книгу.
16) У меня ужасно болит голова. – Почему ты не примешь лекарство?
17) Барбара очень сильно поправилась. Ей бы надо сесть на диету.
18) Давай не будем никому рассказывать о том, что произошло.
19) Что заставляет тебя так себя вести?
20) Когда она услышала это, она не могла не рассмеяться.
21) Она надеялась заработать немного денег.
22) Они предлагают получить всю необходимую информацию о компании до начала переговоров.
23) Ему посоветовали взять кредит в банке.
24) Они решили выпустить дополнительное количество акций.
§ 3 Forms of the Infinitive
There are several forms of the Infinitive in English: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect
and Perfect Continuous
which are used to show both the simultaneousness or the priority of the action of the Infinitive to the main verb and the form's aspect. Some of them have Passive forms:
to be spoken
to be speaking
to have spoken
to have been spoken
to have been speaking
The Indefinite Infinitive
expresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future:
I'm glad to meet
I was glad to see
I'll be glad to come
It's glorious to love
and to be loved
There is no time to
. = There is no time to be lost
The Continuous Infinitive
expresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb, but this is an action in progress:
They happened to be standing
near a small restaurant.
The Perfect Infinitive
expresses an action
1) prior to that of the finite verb:
I'm glad to have seen
2) a prior action that was not carried out:
I meant to have gone
(But I didn't go there).
The Perfect Continuous Infinitive
expresses the action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb
She seemed to have been eating
nothing for ten days.
§ 4 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE
The Infinitive can be used as:
1) a Subject:
the question is useless.
To be recognized
gave her a great joy.
2) a Predicative:
His intention is
The manager's task is to keep
track of the finance.
3) an Attribute:
She had a little boy to look after
There was someone to meet
him at the airport.
As an Attribute the Infinitive often has a modal
or a future
The goods to be produced
(that will be produced) by this company will be a real sensation.
The task to be understood
(that must be understood) as urgent is to be given
4) an Object:
The girl learned to dance
I was angry to read
the letter from Mrs Williams.
With the expressions: to be sorry, to be glad, to be pleased
etc. the Perfect Infinitive is used only when the subject of the finite verb and the subject of the Infinitive coincide:
I'm glad to have got
the ticket for the concert.
I'm sorry to have done
In other cases the subordinate clause is used:
I'm glad that Mary got a ticket for the concert.
I'm sorry that you have done him wrong.
5) Adverbial modifiers:
a) of purpose:
Sometimes you retreat to/in order to/ advance.
I did my best to stop
b) of result:
He was tall enough to get
the book from the shelf.
They are too tired to talk
6) Parantheses. T
hey are used in fixed phrases:
to be honest, to begin with, to cut the long story short, to get to the point, not to make too much of it, to put it another way, to tell you the truth,
you the truth
, I've never heard of this story.
, he has never been to Minsk.
E X E R C I S E S
1. Make one sentence out of two using the Infinitive as a Subject. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) People elect
and are elected
. It is the right of every citizen.
To elect and to be elected is the right of every citizen.
2) A postman delivers letters and newspapers. They are his duties.
3) He liked to walk in the garden. It was pleasant.
4) He was to answer the teacher's questions. It was difficult.
5) We must prove it. It's our task.
6) They were to include all the information available. It was their aim.
7) She was to drive to London during the night. It was her plan.
8) The scientists were to prove that hypothesis. It was their intention.
2. Paraphrase these proverbs by using the Infinitive as a Subject
1) It's never too late to learn.
2) It's easy to be wise after the event.
3) It's better to give than to take.
4) It takes two to make a quarrel.
5) It's easy to bear the misfortunes of others.
6) It is easier to pull down than to build.
7) It's a lady's privilege to change her mind.
8) It's too late to lock the stable when the horse has been stolen.
Complete the sentences with the suitable Infinitives from the box as a Subject or a Predicative.
maintain, make, keep, increase, be, read, collect, brand
1) ..... a brilliant speaker is a big problem.
2) The role of advertising is ..... the customer's loyalty.
3) ..... efficiently requires the reader's attention.
4) One of the easiest ways of increasing sales is ..... credit.
5) In writing, the primary rule is ..... everything short and simple.
6) One function of a manager is ..... the clues about persons' experiences.
7) ..... the product is the most effective way to protect the businessman's position.
8) The recommended anti-sleep precaution during the lecture is ..... notes.
Translate into English using the Infinitive as a Subject or a Predicative.
1) Принимать его серьезно было бы абсурдом.
2) Его главной целью сегодня утром было добраться до станции.
3) Самое малое, что мы можем сделать – это постараться понять его.
4) Работа репортера состоит в том, чтобы освещать и записывать.
5) Все, что мы можем сделать – это придерживаться нашей позиции.
6) Если он останется жив, его первое действие будет – уйти от них навсегда.
7) Единственной заинтересованностью больших компаний в фермерах было выжать из них максимальные выгоды.
8) Очень трудно заставить его рисковать.
9) Менеджеру очень важно понимать экономические законы.
10) Одна из экономических функций центрального банка – выпускать деньги.
11) Обязанность руководителя заключается в том, чтобы оценить, насколько хорошо достигаются цели компании.
12) Первый шаг, который нужно сделать – это заключить торговые отношения с другими странами.
. Make one sentence out of two using the Infinitive as an Attribute. The first one has been done for you.
1) He wanted to express his ideas. His effort was great.
His effort to express his ideas was great.
2) He wanted to try everything he possessed. This was the chance.
3) He wanted to run down the stairs. He had an impulse to do it.
4) The man's desire was to help him. He was touched by this desire.
5) I want to eat. Do you have anything?
6) I must stay anywhere. But I can't find where.
7) We stopped such tests. We were the first who did it.
8) Andrew went in for interview. He was the third.
9) The film star Ann Burn plays this part on the London stage. She is the 34th
actress who has played it.
10) He wasn't an easy man. It was difficult to make friends with him.
Read and then retell the dialogue in pairs.
Norman is a sales representative. He is going to Spain on business.
His Mum helps him pack his suitcase.
- Norman, haven't you finished packing yet?
- No, Mum. But there isn't much to do.
- Well, I'll help you. Is there anywhere to put your toilet bag?
- Yes, it'll go in here. Now, I've got three more shirts to pack.And there is another pair of shoes to get in
- I'll put them down the side. And where is the air-line label to put on the suitcase? Ah, here it is. Have you got the key to lock the case?
- It's in the lock. Don't fuss, Mum.There is nothing to worry about.
- And have you got a safe pocket to keep your passport in?
- Yes. It's in my inside jacket pocket.
- Have you got a book to read on the plane?
- Yes, it's in my briefcase.
7. Use the correct form of the Infinitive as an Attribute
1) Miss Williams watched him as he bent over the small task, admiring his ability ...... (concentrate)
2) Knowledge is not something ..... about. (boast)
3) He was a man ..... (watch)
4) I'm so proud to be the first ..... you here. (welcome)
5) There is nothing ..... by pretending. (gain)
6) We are different kinds of people, and there is nothing more ..... . (say)
7) I'm not the one ..... of what doesn't concern me. (talk)
8) We've never had a chance ..... together and ..... our plans. (get, outline)
9) For a moment I had a fierce longing ..... wine. (drink)
10) He was an Englishman ..... the unfortunate experience. (have)
11) They are one of the four teams ..... more than 2,000 points in First Division Soccer. (score)
8. Paraphrase the sentences using the Infinitive as an Attribute. The first one has been done for you.
1) There is no slow, gentle way that will effect the necessary change in the economy.
There is no slow, gentle way to effect the necessary change in the economy
2) Sensitivity analysis involves a subjective assessment of the lowest return that can be expected from a certain asset or investment.
3) This is a good value assessment that must be used.
4) It is another piece of data that must be added to our file.
5) The enquiry had uncovered no other matters that would give cause for concern.
6) This technique becomes a realistic and practical instrument which must be used.
7) It is the first company that has entered the field.
8) The market leader is the company that can lead other firms in the introduction of new products, in price changes and so on.
9. Translate into English using the Infinitive as an Attribute.
1) У меня не было времени осмотреть комнату.
2) Она была не из тех женщин, которые страдают молча.
3) У меня нет никого, кто сказал бы мне доброе слово.
4) Он первый протянул нам руку.
5) Когда его машина поломалась, ее починили последней.
6) У него есть жена и ребенок, о которых он должен заботиться.
7) В этом мире должно быть много такого, что может сделать вас несчастным.
8) Джейн не была таким незначительным существом, с которым можно было поиграть и бросить.
9) Вот книга, которую можно почитать перед сном.
10) У него не хватало мужества взглянуть в лицо опасности.
1) У вас есть право продавать активы по определенной цене.
2) Директор принимает решения, которые должны выполняться его подчиненными.
3) В ближайшем будущем у фирмы не будет стоящей перспективы, которая способствовала бы ее развитию.
4) Это соотношение показывает способность фирмы выполнять взятые на себя финансовые обязательства.
5) Способность оплатить кредиты зависит от ликвидности фирмы.
6) Это практичный метод, который следует использовать.
7) Обычно успех гарантирован той компании, которая первой заняла нишу на рынке.
8) Роль, которую должна сыграть эта компания в объединении и слиянии предприятий отрасли, является глобальной.
10. Put questions to the Infinitives as an Object.
The man pretended not to recognize us.
What did the man pretend to do?
1) Doris learnt to drive a car when she was eighteen.
2) He remembered to put out all the lights before he left.
3) She decided to make a speech.
4) Max means to get at the truth, however long it takes.
5) She was offered to move to another area.
6) They regret to tell him that his application hasn't been successful.
7) He claims to be an expert in stock market.
8) They promised to give a full account of their business trip.
9) They were distressed to learn that the last chance had gone.
10) I'm glad to have met such a promising financial analyst.
11. Say that somebody is
glad, happy, surprised, sorry, delighted to do or
to have done something.
Carol declined Bill's proposal to become his wife.
Carol is sorry to have declined Bill's proposal to become his wife.
1) Bob relaxed after submitting his essay.
2) He has been elected to be the captain of the team.
3) He won a tender for small reconstruction contracts.
4) They have rejected the offer of their rivals.
5) The manager informed us about the delay.
12. Complete the following letter using the appropriate Infinitive as an Object from the box.
be, employ, give, have, learn, let, read, say, work
I was not at all surprised (1) ..... in the paper that there are now more unemployed young people than ever before. If I were a boss, I'd be very reluctant (2) ..... anyone under twenty-five. What can school-leavers offer an employer? They are too young (3) ..... any experience, and, I'm sorry (4) ...… most of them are too lazy (5) ...... hard. They are quite happy (6) ..... the State look after them, because the State is foolish enough (7) ..... them money for doing nothing!
13. Make one sentence with the Infinitive as an Object out of two. The first one has been done for you.
1) I read the letter from A.J.Williams. I was extremely angry.
I was extremely angry to read the letter from A.J.Williams.
2) He says that young people are lazy. This is stupid.
3) They don't have any experience. They aren't old enough.
4) Employers don't offer them jobs. Employers are unwilling.
5) Young people learn. They are quick.
6) They work hard. They are keen.
7) You see young people out of work. This is sad
8) The situation must change. It would be wise.
14. Complete with the correct form of the Infinitives in brackets as an Object.
1) It's unusual ..... a shy girl nowadays. (meet)
2) It was pleasant ..... a car again. (drive)
3) It was charming ..... with so much eagerness. (welcome)
4) It was funny ..... Mrs Henneker. (startle)
5) It was odd ..... by men in sun-glasses at dawn. (surround)
6) I had known him as a doctor, but was not old enough ..... him as a friend. (know)
7) He was glad ..... to like to an Olympian god. (talk)
15. Make one sentence with the Infinitive as a Result out of two. The first one has been done for you.
1) They are very tired. They can't talk.
They are too tired to talk.
2) He is very old. He can't work.
3) We were very surprised. We couldn't say anything.
4) She is very ill. She shouldn't go out.
5) The exam is rather difficult for him. He will not pass it.
6) The way is rather long. He can't walk.
7) It's rather cold. You should wear a coat.
8) You can obtain such pictures. It's not difficult.
9) He is sensible. He can cut his losses.
10) He was old enough. He couldn't be his father.
Paraphrase as in the model.
It's hard to please him.> He is hard to please.
1) It's difficult to deal with him.
2) It's pleasant to look at her.
3) It would be nice to spend the rest of one's days in this village.
4) It's profitable to expand economic contracts with foreign partners.
5) It's easy to please him.
6) It's easy to discuss this problem.
7) It's plain and simple to operate this machine.
8) It's difficult to translate this sentence.
17. Change the compound or complex sentences into the one with the Infinitive as in the model.
I was glad that I have seen him > I was glad to see him.
1) The letter set her free, she started to hate him more.
2) I shall consider that I'll be obliged to accept your offer.
3) He didn't want to betray his own fear again, he was determined.
4) She stood up because she wanted to sustain her anger.
5) It was rare that he went out for dinner.
6) It's very good for them to have an older man with plenty of experience who could come to for advice.
7) Could they be so cold-blooded that they could prepare a murder like that?
8) He came. It was very kind.
18. Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets
1) Dinner was ready ..... . (serve)
2) He was easy ..... (understand)
3) I'm sorry ..... you harm. (do)
4) I was angry because he was hard ..... (persuade)
5) He was never likely ..... to their place. (invite)
6) They started to part. 'I'm glad ..... you', - he said. (meet)
7) It's disadvantageous ..... back by middle-class morality. (hold)
8) It must be terrible ..... the benefits of a classical education. (receive)
9) 'It would be dreadful ..... ', he exclaimed. (marry)
10) He was happy ..... to Alice. (talk)
19. Translate into English using the Infinitive where possible in the functions of an Object, Attribute or Result.
1) Стихи трудно переводить.
2) Ничего не поделаешь, придется идти пешком.
3) Я уезжаю завтра, а многое еще надо сделать.
4) Доклад начнется ровно в пять, непременно приходите вовремя.
5) Уже поздно посылать письмо. Единственное, что нам остается делать, – это послать телеграмму.
6) Не уходите. Мне надо вам что-то сказать.
7) Я не виноват в том, что случилось.
8) Перестань спорить. Этим ничего не добьешься.
9) Некоторым людям трудно угодить.
10) Он очень умный человек, но с ним трудно иметь дело.
11) На нее приятно смотреть.
12) Я рад, что послушался вашего совета.
13) Я рад, что вы прислушались к моему совету.
14) Мне жаль, что я не видела эту пьесу.
15) Мне жаль, что вы не видели эту пьесу.
16) Он доволен, что поступил в университет.
17) Я доволен, что моя сестра поступила в университет.
18) Мне жаль, что я не застала ее дома.
19) Мне жаль, что вы не застали ее дома.
20) Ребенок настолько устал, что не смог добраться до кроватки.
21) Она вчера была очень занята, чтобы принять твое приглашение.
22) Все знают, что твой брат достаточно опытен, чтобы решить эту проблему самостоятельно.
23) Твои друзья достаточно богаты, чтобы купить собственный дом.
24) Мария была слишком умна, чтобы не понять преимуществ своей новой должности.
. Express the same idea in one sentence as in the model with the Infinitive as a Purpose.
I came in. I wanted to see if I could help Alison pack.
I came in to see if I could help Alison pack.
1) I dressed and went up to Albion Gate. I wanted to buy the morning paper.
2) I did my best. I wanted to stop her.
3) He put his head out of the window. He wanted to get some fresh air.
4) I wanted to finish the work. I required two weeks.
5) Every morning she was up early. She used to get the fire lit in the kitchen.
6) There was much talk of sending sick boys home. They wanted to escape an epidemic.
7) They slid into the water and had a swim. They wanted to freshen up and cool off.
8) You’d better wait outside. I want you to be at hand.
9) We had gone into the middle of Hyde Park. We didn’t want to be overheard.
10) She hurried. She didn’t want to give him time for reflection.
11) She had to pass a street of houses. She wanted to reach the park.
12) Mrs Small offered her a cup of tea. She wanted to smooth over the little awkwardness.
13) I came here. But I don’t want to be insulted.
14) He sent his shoes to the repairs’. He wanted them to be mended.
21. Fill in the correct form of the Infinitive as a Purpose in brackets.
1) Laws were not made (break),
laws were made (stay)
her, I held the window ajar a few seconds.
3) Sometimes you retreat in order (advance)
4) Soames put on his coat in order (be cold/neg)
the needs of the new civilization a vast increase of vocabulary became necessary.
my feelings I wrote a letter to Robert.
7) She turned (face)
him, laughing unhappily.
8) Diana, (pass)
the time, had left her kitchen (see)
whether Mr Faber was all right.
22. Use your own ideas to complete the sentences with the Infinitive as a Purpose.
1) The President has a team of bodyguards ..... him.
2) I didn’t have enough time ..... the newspaper today.
3) I came home by taxi. I didn’t have the energy ..... .
4) We need a bag ..... these things in.
5) I wish we had enough money ..... a new car.
6) They’ve just passed their exams. They are having a party .... .
7) I can’t do all this work alone. I need somebody ..... me.
8) They gave us some money ..... some food.
9) We shouted ..... everybody of the danger.
10) A friend of mine phoned ..... me to the party.
11) I need a few days ..... about your proposal.
23. Read the text about the first world’s largest airship, the Hindenburg, that crashed in 1937. Complete five sentences after reading and reproduce the text.
The Hindenburg was designed to carry passengers and cargo over long distances. It could carry 50 passengers accomodated in 25 luxury cabins like in a first class hotel.
The Hindenburg was built to compete with the great luxury transatlantic liners. It was able to cross the Atlantic in less than half the time of a liner.
It was filled with hydrogen, which is a highly flammable gas, and every safety precaution had been taken to prevent accidents. It had a smoking room which was pressurized in order to prevent gas from ever entering it. Special materials had been chosen to minimize the possibility of accidental sparks which might cause an explosion.
The cause of disaster is believed to be ignition by static electricity. The most surprising thing is that most passengers managed to survive.
1) The airship was designed to ..... .
2) It was built in order to ..... .
3) Every safety precaution had been taken to ..... .
4) The smoking room was pressurized to ..... .
5) Special materials had been chosen to ..... .
24. Translate into English using the Infinitive as a Purpose.
1) Я звонил тебе вчера, чтобы пригласить в театр.
2) Все знали, что он солгал, чтобы спасти себе жизнь.
3) Они вышли из комнаты, чтобы дать ей возможность переодеться.
4) В новом районе открыли универсам, чтобы удовлетворить потребности покупателей.
5) Боб связался с банком, чтобы узнать, сколько у него осталось денег на текущем счете.
6) Чтобы увеличить дивиденды, компании нужно много работать.
7) Компания использует эту методику для принятия решений.
8) Финансовые организации выбирают долговые обязятельства, чтобы использовать их в качестве ценных бумаг.
9) Эти меры предпринимаются для того, чтобы увидеть настоящее положение дел и далее прогнозировать трудности.
25. Translate the sentences with the Infinitive as Parantheses into Russian.
1) To tell the truth, I'm beginning to find her a bore.
2) He is acting, to say the least, rather impertinently.
3) To be quite frank, the speech for me was rather funny.
4) To put it mildly, she is just a bit inquisitive.
5) To begin with, there was not much to listen to.
6) Strange to say, he has never been in the British Museum.
7) When they found out I was not one of them, so to speak, they would politely turn from me and ignore me.
8) To make matters worse, the mist has settled down.
9) To put it at its simplest, he believed that most people in power have misjudged the meaning of nuclear weapons.
26. Translate into English using the Infinitive as Parantheses.
1) Короче говоря, они решили, что дешевле будет жить на вилле.
2) Он был груб, чтобы не сказать больше.
3) Мягко выражаясь, он был не на высоте.
4) По правде говоря, я был несколько встревожен, но теперь это прошло.
5) Он привез с собой коллекцию картин, не говоря уже о значительном состоянии.
6) Говоря откровенно, я против длинных помолвок.
7) Короче говоря, их вина осталась недоказанной.
§ 5 The Infinitive Constructions
5.1. Complex Object
with the Infinitive
with the Infinitive
is the construction in which the object is complex consisting of a noun or a personal pronoun in objective case plus the Infinitive: I'd like
the students/them to come
a) after the verbs of sense perception
hear, see watch, feel, observe, notice,
· in the Active Voice without the particle
I haven’t heard anyone call
I felt the blood rush
into my cheeks.
· and in the Passive Voice with the particle to:
She was heard to scream
When the verb see
has the meaning of 'understand’
and the verb hear
has the meaning of ‘learn, be told’
Complex Object is not used:
I saw that he didn’t realize
I hear that he left
for the South.
b) after the verbs denoting:
know, think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, find, feel, trust
declare, pronounce, report
wish and intention:
want, wish, desire, mean, intend, choose
feeling and emotion:
like, dislike, love, hate, cannot bear
order and permission:
order, allow, suffer, have
make, cause, get, have
e.g.: Everyone knows him to be admirable
The judge pronounced
the suspect to be guilty.
I want you to come
I dislike him to talk
The teacher ordered the room to be aired
The noise made her wake up.
The crash caused her to wake up
E x e r c i s e s
1. Translate the sentences with Complex Object into Russian.
1) I didn’t expect these remarks to be popular.
2) We knew some of the rumours to be nonsense.
3) He didn’t mean this to be a very long meeting.
4) Would you like me to read the manuscript aloud to you?
5) I wanted him to know that some of us were thinking about him.
6) He wished me to be present at the reconciliation.
7) No one could expect her to be happy.
8) I knew that to be true.
9) I could feel my nose bleed.
10) I felt Maggie’s hand tighten in mine.
11) I had not heard him speak before.
12) I had never known Mr Rose behave like this.
13) What makes you think you have any talent?
14) I watched her move away from us.
15) Do you really want us to go to the theatre tomorrow?
2. Use the particle
to with the Infinitive where required.
1) Tell me what you would like me ..... do.
2) Hearing the bell ..... ring he went to see who was at the door.
3) Did you feel the bridge ..... shake?
4) I don’t like you ..... say such things.
5) Put on a thicker coat, I don’t want you ..... catch cold.
6) We expect this book ..... appear on sale very soon.
7) I saw him ..... get off the bus.
8) The whole problem is so important that I would like you ..... go over the facts once more.
9) At the Central Station, the men watched the train ..... come in.
10) We know Australia ..... be the only continent situated in the southern hemisphere.
11) We sincerely wish good relations ..... be established between our two countries.
12) Presently we saw him ..... emerge from the station, ..... cross the street and ..... disappear into the building.
3. Change these sentences using Complex Object as shown in the model.
: I believe that he is a great artist.
I believe him to be a great artist.
1) I consider that business is very profitable.
2) The firm can’t expect that unskilled men will become experienced overnight.
3) I admit that my accusation was right.
4) I believe that the sault mine will make a bigger profit.
5) We didn’t expect that the government was running late clearing the cheques.
6) I don’t expect that he will give the reason.
7) The banker discovered that their customers were always trying to tell them a good tale.
8) He found that the assignment of his client was difficult to fulfil.
9) We expect that at the talks they will clear up several points of the contract.
4. Act out the dialogue containing Complex Object.
The interview takes place at the Marriage Guidance Council.
Barbara complains about her husband to the counsellor, Mrs Murray.
– Come in, Barbara. Is your husband here?
– Yes, I persuaded him to come. He is waiting outside.
– Do you still have rows?
– Yes, we do. I wanted to go to work again. But my husband doesn’t want me to have a job. He never does anything in the house. He expects me to run around and get his meals. You don’t think that’s right, do you?
– I’m not here to pass judgement. I’m here to listen.
– And I’m not his servant. Last Friday he invited his friends to come round for a drink. He didn’t tell me to expect them. And I always have to remind him to pick up his clothes. He is so untidy and inconsiderate.
– Barbara, Malcolm said he would like you to go back to work. He complains you never allow him to suggest anything about the house or the kids, that you forbid the kids to ride their bikes to school.
– But the kids are too young to ride in the traffic. When I once saw them ride I nearly fainted. I can’t hear him even speak of such things!
5. Use Complex Object instead of the subordinate clause.
1) Have you ever seen how Paul plays golf?
2) Have you seen how she got on Glasgow bus this morning?
3) Did you see how somebody picked up Tony?
4) Did you notice how the man parked the car near our house?
5) Did you watch on TV how Phil Dilan knocked down another player?
6) Did you notice how Sally entertained the guests at the party?
7) Did you see how he fell off the wall?
8) I didn’t hear how you came in.
9) She didn’t notice how everyone got out.
10) He did’t see how the accident happened.
6. Paraphraze the sentences using Complex Object.
1) The Fund expects that Eastern governments will institute massive programmes of public information and education.
2) Some people expect that individual currencies will disappear and will be replaced by international ones.
3) Until 1980s, most developing countries opposed free trade. Governments wished their countries were industrialized in order to counteract.
4) Few analysts expect that the Prime Minister will adopt the aggressive financial restructuring measures.
5) The Chairman said that he wished the company’s shares would resume trading at the end of August.
6) It’s unrealistic to expect that advertising will do the major job of communicating large number of prices.
7) The existence of large corporations showed that the classical economic theory of perfect competition is inadequate.
7. Translate the sentences into English using Complex Obiect where possible.
1) Я хотел бы, чтобы вы объяснили мне это правило еще раз.
2) Что вы хотите, чтобы я сделал для вас?
3) Вы слышали когда-нибудь, как он поет?
4) Я слышал, что он приехал в Москву.
5) Они не видели, как я вошел в комнату.
6) Никто не ожидал, что они уедут так скоро.
7) Я знаю, что он порядочный человек.
8) Он увидел, как машина повернула за угол и исчезла.
9) Я считаю, что он ответственен за это.
10) Она увидела, что письмо не было подписано.
11) Они хотели, чтобы его пригласили на вечер.
12) Она чувствовала, как дрожит ее голос.
13) Они не ожидали, что их пошлют в Англию учиться.
14) Мы стояли у ворот, ожидая, когда прибудет машина.
15) Я слышал, как директор упомянул его имя.
16) Я бы хотел, чтобы встреча с мистером Грином была перенесена на более позднее время.
17) Начальник отдела надеялся, что его помощник сможет найти ошибку в декларации о доходах.
18) Я слышал, что условия поставок зерна уже обсуждены.
19) Вы не заставите нас поверить, что этот банк обанкротился. Он считается очень надежным.
5.2. Complex Subject (The Subjective Infinitive Construction)
contains the Subject complicated by the Infinitive: Ann
is said to resemble
The underlined words are the Subject of the sentence.
Complex Subject is used:
with the following verbs in the Passive Voice:
see, hear, think, consider, know, expect, believe, suppose, make, say, report, allege,
in the distance.
to have stolen
to have been written
in the 15th
b) with the word-groups: to be likely, to be sure, to be certain
to be married
is sure (certain)
with the verbs in the Active Voice: seem, appear, happen, prove, turn out:
all turned out
to be good friends.
to have forgotten
Only yesterday we
E x e r c i s e s
1. Paraphraze using Complex Subject.
It is known that he is a great book-lover.
He is known to be a great book-lover.
1) It was expected that the members of the Committee would come to an agreement.
2) It was reported that many buildings had been damaged by the fire.
3) It seems that this book is very popular with children.
4) It appears that the house was built in the 18th
5) It happened so that he was at home at that time.
6) It proved that he was a very experienced worker.
7) It is likely that the ship will arrive tonight.
8) It is not likely that they will return soon.
9) It is unlikely that the meeting will be postponed.
10) It is sure that they will come to London.
11) It is certain that they will be here on Monday.
12) It was likely that the price of copper would fall.
2. Put in the correct form of the Infinitive as a Complex Subject.
1) My sister is said ..... me. (resemble
2) The book is said ..... very interesting. (be)
3) Coal in India is said ..... as far back as 1775. (work)
4) The Island of Britain is known ..... to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year 55 B.C.. (reveal)
5) Latin was supposed ..... the only language worth of study, and it was studied for practical purpose. (be)
6) His father was considered by many ..... a great man. (be)
7) Priam Farll is supposed ..... in Westminster Abbey. (bury)
8) Historians appear ..... but little of his life. (know)
9) They seemed ..... quite ..... this fact already. (forget)
10) Only yesterday we happened ..... Michael. (see)
11) The experiment proved .....a success. (be)
12) They all turned out ..... good fighters. (become)
13) He is sure ..... her. (marry)
14) This fire is certain ..... a panic in the morning. (produce)
15) They are likely ..... us soon. (forget)
16) No modern writer would be likely ..... anything of the sort. (write)
17) When a book is greatly admired and often read, the language in which it is written is likely ..... to some extent by those who read it. (imitate)
3. Use your own ideas to complete the sentences with the Infinitive in the correct form.
1) Lake Baikal is said ..... the deepest lake in the world.
2) The negotiations are likely ..... until Sunday.
3) The steamer is believed ..... in Istambul.
4) The cargo does not seem ..... by the storm.
5) The parties are reported ..... the problem.
6) The parties are understood ..... an agreement.
7) They are very likely ..... part in this work.
8) The results of the test seemed ..... them.
9) This plant seems ..... such equipment since 1965.
10) I happened ..... my office early that day.
11) She seemed ..... for along time.
12) They seem ..... a good time at the seaside.
13) The price of this metal in England is stated ..... by 11.6% in September last year.
14) The devaluation of the pound sterling is known ..... to a rise in the prices of all the goods imported into England.
15) He is sure ...… manager of the production department at the next meeting of the Board.
Put in suitable words to make Complex Subject.
1) He ..... to be inviting Roger to take a risk.
2) Human fatigue ..... to have played a part in the tragedy.
3) In that same week I ..... to have been enquiring whether certain invitations have been sent out.
4) They ..... to be getting on a bit better.
5) He ..... to have gained all he wanted.
6) The victim ..... to have been poisoned.
7) He ..... to report on his findings to the Committee.
8) Mummy ..... to be a saint.
9) He ..... to be preparing a report on the incident.
10) The building ..... to have been damaged in the air raid.
11) What's that ..... to signify?
12) In those days a woman ..... to be as thin as a rail and as flat as a pancake.
13) He ..... always ..... to be a doctor.
14) The remark ..... to reach our teacher.
15) He ..... to make a speech there and he wanted me to hear it.
5. Fill in with the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets.
1) Competition in future is likely (be)
between a small number of large carriers.
2) Telecom Italia is expected (bid)
aggressively for the company.
3) The market had got very pessimistic about interest rates but that view seems (shift)
a little in the past couple of days.
4) The appointment was intended (enhance)
the credibility of the new administration.
5) Seeboard company due to introduce competition for consumers this September, is thought (run)
at least four weeks.
6) The planned merger is likely (prove)
a headache for federal and state regulators.
7) The Minister is said (involve)
Translate the sentences into English using Complex Subject.
1) Он обязательно придет.
2) Опыт оказался неудачным.
3) Этот пожар, несомненно, вызовет панику.
4) Ожидают, что он приедет завтра.
5) Говорят, что он уехал в Париж.
6) Говорят, что президент едет в Стамбул на саммит.
7) Оказалось, что он прав.
8) Было доказано, что он прав.
9) Известно, что Ломоносов был самым крупным ученым своего времени.
10) Он, кажется, очень упрямый человек.
11) Я оказался случайно осведомлен об этом деле.
12) Я случайно оказался в конторе, когда он пришел.
13) Он, кажется, не понимает значения этого изобретения.
14) В моем сочинении будут, вероятно, ошибки.
15) Очень вероятно, что они заключили соглашение.
16) Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения по этому вопросу.
17) Считается, что этот дом был построен около двухсот лет назад.
18) Кажется, клиент уже очень долго ждет в приемной.
5.3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction
The For-To-Infinitive construction
is a complex structure consisiting of the preposition for + Object + the Infinitive: That was for him to explain
It is used in all functions characteristic of the Infinitive:
For me to speak
That was for him to find out.
He waited for her to speak
The best thing for you to do
is to leave at once.
He stepped aside for me to pass.
It was too great a temptation for him to resist.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Make one sentence out of two as in the model
: He never swore. If he did, it was such a rarity.
For him to swear was such a rarity.
1) He left a book for me here. I was to look it over.
2) Murdock, standing at the station exit, was moving his arms. He wanted us to stop.
3) A policeman came and pinned a notice on the gate. He wanted the people to read it.
4) He meant to ask her where she would like to go. They planned to talk in peace.
5) In the evening she came round. They intended to drink a bottle of wine to her success.
6) She stepped back. She didn’t want Andy to see her.
7) The boy stood aside. He let the man go by.
8) She held out the papers. She wanted me to see them.
9) The boss cordially gave Erik his hand. He expected Erik to shake it.
2. Exchange the subordinate clause for the For-to-Infinitive constructions.
1) There is not a thing that I can eat in my cottage.
2) It was good tactics so that Roger could have a wife.
3) It was a bitter experience when Philip learned that his friend let him down.
4) He was prepared that anyone would accuse him of being cowardly.
5) It’s very good if they have an older man with plenty of experience to come to for advice.
6) It’s unusual that he lets his impatience show through.
7) I felt advisable that he should ascertain the facts first.
8) The main problem is that this material has to be published as soon as possible.
9) The only conclusion that he could draw was the following.
10) It must be almost unheard of if a play is performed each day under completely different titles.
3. Translate the following sentences into English using the For-To-Infinitive constructions.
1) Мы остановились, чтобы Майкл выкурил сигарету.
2) Машина ждала у двери, чтобы отвезти их на вокзал.
3) Чтобы студенты поняли задачу, он начертил на доске диаграмму.
4) Они взяли такси, чтобы не опоздать на поезд.
5) Пожилой человек шел медленно, чтобы не упасть.
6) Я сейчас же запишу номер вашего телефона, чтобы не забыть.
7) Он закрыл окно, чтобы мы не простудились.
8) Сестра отошла назад, чтобы я мог увидеть, что происходило.
9) Она предложила встретиться в спокойном месте, чтобы мы все могли обсудить без спешки.
4. Use your ideas to begin the sentences with the For-To-Infinitive construction.
1) …… for him to be without a coat.
2) …… for him to do.
3) …… for her to carry.
4) …… for the documents to be sent on time.
5) …… for him to translate without a dictionary.
6) …… for the steamer to call at Odessa.
7) …… for her to return immediately.
8) …… for you to go there.
9) …… for us to come soon.
10) …… for your sister to read.
11) …… for young men to be interested in politics.
12) …… for us to take into account.
5. Translate into English using the For-To-Infinitive construction.
1) Выяснить это должен был он.
2) Он попросил принести документы.
3) Здесь нет никого, с кем ребенок мог бы поиграть.
4) Он отошел в сторону, чтобы я смогла пройти.
5) Удовольствие сопровождать ее было так велико, что Сэм не мог ему противиться.
6) Недостаточно времени для того, чтобы материалы были опубликованы в этом году.
7) Вполне возможно, что этот материал будет скоро опубликован.
8) Он просил, чтобы ему переслали документы по почте.
9) Об этом должен судить читатель.
10) Им очень трудно написать такую статью.
11) Сейчас слишком поздно для того, чтобы дети шли гулять.
12) Чем больше времени требовалось официальному мнению, чтобы оно могло определиться, тем лучше было для преступников.
13) Очень важно для компании суметь выполнить свои обязательства.
14) Иностранным рабочим гораздо труднее занять достойное место в компании.
15) Было бы более эффективно, если бы Центральный банк осуществлял валютную политику.
Unit 3 THE G E R U N D
§ 1 GENERAL INFORMATION
is an ing-form
made from the verb and thus it has the features of the verb
, i.e. voice distinctions
(active/passive), Indefinite and Perfect forms
, takes direct object
(without the preposition 'of') as transitive verbs do:
She does this work
She enjoys doing this work
At the same time the Gerund has some nominal features
(features of the noun)
as it has functions associated with the functions of the noun (Subject, Object and part of a compound Predicate):
a car is costly.
She objected to his smoking
Part of a Compound Predicate:
I like swimming
Like nouns the Gerund can also be preceded by the possesive case of nouns or pronouns: Ann's/her
being honest was surprising.
§ 2 The Forms of the Gerund
having been watched
The Indefinite forms
of the Gerund denote simultaneous action and Perfect forms
prior action to that of the main verb:
He likes watching
She dislikes being criticized
He admitted having told
He denied having been informed
about the time of the meeting.
After the verbs excuse, forgive, remember, thank
etc. and after the prepositions on (upon), after, without
the Gerund Indefinite
may be used to denote a prior action:
Excuse my interrupting
to her he was very much relieved.
§ 3 The Functions of the Gerund
is used as:
1) a Subject
is very helpful.
2) Part of a Compound Predicate:
All he wanted was leaving
the place at once.
The baby started crying
3) an Object
: Would you mind my opening
4) an Attribute
: He has no plans of expanding
5) Adverbial modifiers
: He began the lecture by explaining
the general look at the problem.
: After merging
with another company they became the monopolists.
These devices are used for cleaning
§ 4 The Use of the Gerund
There are verbs
after which the Gerund is used (not the Infinitive). They are: enjoy, mind, suggest, fancy, imagine, admit, deny, miss, risk, involve, avoid, keep,
I don’t fancy going
out this evening.
I enjoy dancing.
Ian suggested going
to the cinema.
The Gerund is used after phrasal verbs:
apologise for, thank for, forgive for
think of, dream of, approve of, accuse of, suspect of
insist on, congratulate on
decide against, warn against
prevent from, stop from
look forward to
E.g. The man was suspected
to me for not telling
The Gerund is used after following expressions: It’s no use/It’s no good; There is no point in; It’s (not) worth; Have difficulty; Go
(go fishing, go swimming); Be/get used to; How about
I had difficulty
a place to live.
There was no point
She is English. She is used to
on the left.
The Gerund is used after adjectives/participles with prepositions: be interested in, be good at, be bored with, be fed up with, be tired of,
E.g. She is not very good at
She must be fed up with
The Gerund is used after nouns with prepositions
: cause, excuse, genius, gift, motive, passion, reason, reputation, talent;
: advantage, belief, difficulty, experience, harm, hesitation, meaning, object, participation, pleasure, point, purpose, sense, skill, use;
: amazement, astonishment, attempt, delight, irritation, pleasure, practice, satisfaction, shyness, surprise;
: fantasy, obsession;
: objection, preparation.
E.g. I can't make out the reason for
Is there any advantage in
E X E R C I S E S
1. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the Gerund from the verbs in brackets.
1) Nobody can go on ..... without some belief. (live)
2) ..... is not the best way of behaviour in this situation. (argue)
3) He greeted me noisily, but I cut him short by ..... him the fax. (give)
4) She cannot sleep without ..... you and ..... to you once more. (see, speak)
5) She doesn’t like the thought of ..... you. (leave)
6) Do you mind ..... me your name and telephone number, please? (give)
7) I appreciated ..... to your home. (invite)
8) For many years, the banks denied ..... deposits from criminal sources. (receive)
9) I’m tired of ..... like a silly fat lamb. (treat)
10) Jack laughed, as their ..... amused him. (bother)
11) These unhappy events occurred without his ...... . (inform)
12) Furious with his employees for ..... up late each morning, the manager decided to have a serious talk with them. (turn)
2. Make sentences with the same meaning by using the Gerund as a Subject.
It’s important to have good friends. >
Having good friends is important.
1) It’s fun to travel by boat.
2) It’s not easy to master a foreign language.
3) His favourite pastime is to ride a bicycle.
4) It’s interesting to learn about other cultures.
5) It’s easy to talk about having high moral standards.
6) It’s very difficult to stand by your principles.
7) Our aim is to master some rules in the shortest time possible.
8) It’s hard work to ask him for help.
9) It’s obligatory to confirm the company’s profits at the end of the fiscal year.
10) It’s dangerous to be a witness in a mafia case.
3. Join the two sentences to make one sentence with the Gerund as a Subject following the model.
Mr Truman delivers lectures. It takes a lot of time.>
Delivering lectures takes a lot of time.
1) Linda takes care for a bed-ridden woman. It’s very tiring.
2) Barbara is a nurse. It requires a lot of patience.
3) Rent smaller premises. It’s a way of saving money.
4) Don’t make personal calls from the office phone. It’s forbidden.
5) Ann is often late. It makes the teacher very cross.
6) She tries to get a job at a successful company. But it is difficult.
7) The police try to find evidence at the crime scene. If they do, it’ll be very convenient.
8) Don't pump a dry well. It's no use.
9) If your organisation requires frequent report, standardize the framework for these. It's worth it.
4. Read the sentences about Michael who is going to college soon. And then remember if you had the same or different feelings and problems.
1) Michael is scared and excited because going to college means leaving home.
2) He is going to have an interview with the Dean of Admissions at Michigan University. Having an interview is scaring.
3) He hasn’t made up his mind yet which University to apply to. Michael thinks that making his own decisions is a part of growing up.
4) He doesn’t know yet what he is going to become. He writes articles for the school paper. Becoming a writer or a journalist is his dream.
5) His father is a doctor. He wants Michael to follow in his footsteps. But following in his father’s footsteps is not Michael’s intention.
6) Michael’s friends have applied to Columbia University. Joining them would be great. Sharing a room at the hostel with one of them would be fun.
7) His father advises that he should think everything over carefully. Understanding his father is very important for Michael.
8) Michael’s parents have given up a lot to save money for his going to college. Showing respect for his parents would be very wise of him.
5. Translate the sentences into English using the Gerund as a Subject.
1) Жизнь в плохих условиях влияет на здоровье человека.
2) Создание новых рабочих мест может значительно снизить безработицу.
3) Не стоит плакать о пролитом молоке.
4) Бесполезно качать воду из пустого колодца.
5) Не стоит даже пытаться обмануть его.
6) Учеба отнимает значительную часть его времени.
7) Открытие компании предполагает ее презентацию. Однако не стоит тратить много денег на то, что не является продуктивным и не дает прибыли.
8) Покупка или аренда помещения компании также требует опыта.
9) Покупка большего по размеру помещения, чем это требуется, очень дорого, а меньшего – создает значительные неудобства в работе.
10) Увеличение объема продаж товаров на внутреннем рынке дает фирме больше прибыли, чем их экспорт.
6. Complete using the appropriate form of the Gerund as a Part of a Compound Predicate from the verbs in brackets.
1) Mrs Finch enjoyed ..... (give)
2) Mr Finch liked ..... (invite)
to the parties.
3) His friends suddenly burst out ..... (laugh).
4) All children hate ..... (take)
to the dentist's.
5) John intends ..... (buy)
a new house.
6) Do you think the grass needs ..... (cut)
7) Ann's husband can't stand ..... (shop)
8) He hates ..... (interrupt).
9) They couldn't help ..... (break)
10) Ann likes ..... (wear)
11) You'd better stop ..... (talk)
on the phone for hours.
12) The manager hates urgent work ..... (put off)
7. Translate into English using the Gerund as a Part of a Compound Predicate.
1) Терпеть не могу стоять в переполненном автобусе.
2) Прекрати шуметь. Ты разбудишь соседей.
3) Дети любят, когда им рассказывают сказки.
4) Анекдот был такой смешной, что никто не мог удержаться от смеха.
5) Тому не нравится жить в деревне потому, что там совершенно нечего делать по вечерам.
6) Продолжайте смотреть телевизор. Я вас больше не побеспокою.
7) Мой друг предлагает путешествовать автостопом. Я не против того, чтобы присоединиться к нему.
8) Она терпеть не может, когда с ней не соглашаются.
9) Ей нравится, когда подруги делятся с ней своими секретами.
10) Ты уже закончил составлять контракт?
8. Put in the right preposition before the Gerund as an Object.
1) They talked ..... going to college.
2) She apologised ..... being late.
3) Have you succeeded ..... finding a job yet?
4) They insisted ..... sharing the compartment.
5) He is thinking ..... buying a car.
6) I wouldn't dream ..... going to Spain this summer.
7) My mom doesn't approve ..... playing card games.
8) We have decided ..... moving to another area.
9) We are looking forward ..... hearing from her.
10) I congratulated my sister ..... obtaining the visa.
11) They accused the young man ..... concealing some important facts.
12) They prevented the man ..... committing the suicide.
13) The police stopped everyone ..... leaving the building.
14) We thanked them ..... receiving us so cordially.
15) She never forgave her sister ..... stealing her husband.
16) They warned us ..... paying cash.
9. Translate into English using the Gerund as an Object.
1) Мы с нетерпением ждем встречи с вашей семьей в Риме.
2) Есть много трудностей, связанных с ведением такого образа жизни.
3) Правительство не смогло не пообещать снизить налоги в ближайшее время.
4) Дождь помешал нам закончить работу в саду.
5) Банк отрицал, что участвовал в отмывании грязных денег этой фирмы.
6) Я извинился перед мистером Джоунзом, что заставил его ждать.
7) Они настаивали на том, чтобы им рассказали всю историю в подробностях.
8) Прошлым летом ему удалось заработать достаточно денег, чтобы сделать ремонт в квартире.
9) Он возражал против того, чтобы ехать в Лондон вместе.
10) Они предупредили нас, чтобы мы не ехали отдыхать на юг, так как там началось наводнение.
10. Read the dialogue and complete the sentences after reading.
– Jeff, have you seen the ad in the ESL Newsletter?
– Yes, I saw it, but I’m not interested in finding a new job. I’ve been here since I finished school. I like working here
– Really? I’ve only been here for two years, and I’m already tired of doing the same thing every day. I’m afraid of getting really bored.
– Oh, come on. It’s not that bad. You’ll do the same thing there every day.
– But the salaries are good.
– I’m not interested in making more money. I have enough now.
– I can never have enough. I’m going to apply for the job.
– Good luck.
1) Ann is interested in …… .
2) Jeff is not interested in …… .
3) Ann is tired of …… .
4) Ann is afraid of …… .
5) Jeff is not tired of …… .
6) Jeff is not afraid of …… .
7) Ann is interested in …… more …… .
8) Jeff is not interested in …… .
11. Complete and then retell the story told by Tracy about herself and her family using Gerund from the box.
bringing, working, having, queuing, seeing, looking, meeting, living, being
My dad started (1) ..... in a steel mill when he was 15. Things are different now, but he thinks I should start (2) ..... home some money. I get my unemployment benefit, but that isn’t much and I’m fed up with (3) ..... for it every Thursday. I hate (4) ..... to ask my mum and dad for money. My mum gives me a couple of pounds for tights now and then, but she can’t stand (5) ..... me at home all day. I’ve almost given up (6) ..... for a job. I buy the local paper every day but I’m really tired of (7) ..... through the ‘Situations Vacant’ column. There are 50 applicants for every job. I was interested in (8) ..... a dentist’s receptionist because I like (9) ..... people, but now I’d take any job at all. I don’t want to leave my family and move to London. I’m scared of (10) ..... on my own in a big city.
Translate the sentences into English using the Gerund.
1) Майкл привык жить пососедству с Элис.
2) Она не привыкла слушать советы других людей.
3) Анна устала от того, что приходится делать одну и ту же работу каждый день.
4) Роб боится даже думать, что ему придется покинуть свой дом, в котором он родился и вырос.
5) По всей вероятности, ему никогда не наскучит сидеть у компьютера целый день.
6) Дэн сыт по горло тем, что друзья постоянно советуют ему, что делать.
7) Вы не возражаете, если моя жена будет присутствовать при нашем разговоре?
8) Они не могли простить мне, что зря потратили столько времени.
9) Секретарь справился с порученной работой вовремя и заслуживал похвалы.
10) Ховард Хьюз не боялся летать на самолетах. Он несколько раз устанавливал рекорды в скорости полетов.
11) Ему удалось сделать несколько интересных изобретений.
12) Он интересовался кинематографией, особенно интересно для него было выпустить свой собственный фильм.
13) Он не боялся делать ошибки. Однако это привело его к тому, что он стал банкротом.
14) Мистера Ханта обвинили в подделке финансовых документов.
15) Его давно подозревали в использовании служебного положения в корыстных целях.
13. Complete the sentences with one of the nouns from the box.
idea, hours, procedure, criteria, rates, reason, purpose, possibility, chance, ability, necessity, means
1) There is a ..... of entering university this year.
2) Do you know the ..... for his being late?
3) Dick has the ..... of giving up his addictions.
4) What is the ..... of his coming late at night?
5) There is a ..... of going on business to Manchester as soon as possible.
6) More precise ..... of managing and controlling stocks in companies is generally essential.
7) Working ..... in different companies are varied.
8) The gap between saving and borrowing ..... is about 1.2%.
9) There are three or four fundamental ..... for judging advertisements.
10) The suspect attempted to use the ..... of exonerating himself.
11) The ..... of hearing the case in the court started.
12) The ..... of taking the fifth amendment had never occurred to the witness until his lawyer mentioned it.
14. Join two sentences to make one with the Gerund as an Attribute. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) Sally missed her chance. She refused to meet Ken.
Sally missed her chance of meeting Ken.
2) He rejected a very promising offer. Do you know the reason?
3) Mr Fink gave false evidence in the court. Will he be put the blame on?
4) Richard and Marylin were a young married couple, they wanted to buy their own house or an apartment. But there was no possibility at that stage of their life.
5) They kept saving to put more money down. They had that plan.
6) Meanwhile they were looking at houses in different areas to find the house they cared for. They had the purpose.
7) Soon they had some experience. They visited the Real estate agency, talked to agents, learned a lot.
8) They went to the bank to find out about the mortgage to buy a house. They needed that knowledge.
9) They wanted to get a loan. The loan officer let them know the ways to do it.
10) They had to make payments every month. There was a requirement at the bank.
Put in the Gerund as an Attribute to complete the sentences about experience, skills and abilities a manager must possess. Comment on them.
1) Managers set objectives and decide on the ways of ..... them. (achieve)
2) The latter involves the task of .....strategies, plans and precise tactics. (develop)
3) Managers thus require abilities of ..... decisions. (make)
4) They need abilities of ..... people. (organize)
5) Managers are to have the experience of ..... and ..... the activities of the organisation. (analise, classify)
6) No less important is the skill of ..... people to manage units and perform the jobs. (select)
7) Managers practise the social skills of ..... people. (motivate)
8) They must have the experience of ..... meetings of the staff and of ..... speeches in order to communicate objectives to people. (hold, make)
9) Managers should practise the skill of ..... the work of their subordinates. (supervise)
10) There is a very important ability of ..... the performance of the organisation’s staff. (measure)
11) And last, but not least comes the skill of ..... people. (develop)
16. Complete the sentences with the Gerund in the function of an Attribute and a suitable noun. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) A place where you can fill your petrol tank is ..… .
A place where you can fill your petrol tank is a filling station.
2) A special room where you can wait is a .... ..
3) A pill which helps you to sleep is a ..… .
4) A licence which allows you to drive is a ..... .
5) A glove which boxers wear is a ..... .
6) Oil you can cook with is ..... .
7) A pool where you can swim is a ..... .
8) A boat with sails is a ..... .
9) The hours you spend at work are called ..... .
17. Translate into English using the Gerund as an Attribute.
1) У нее нет никакой перспективы получить эту работу.
2) У меня есть основания предполагать, что ее не примут.
3) Не могу понять причину, по которой ей не дали визу.
4) Он правильно использовал свое преимущество владения иностранным языком.
5) Я не имел никакого представления о публикации его книги.
6) Должен ли управляющий иметь цель достичь вершины иерархии?
7) Как ты думаешь, как наилучшим образом провести свободное время в этом месте?
8) Возможность потерять работу тревожит многих людей, привыкших к гарантии трудоустройства.
9) Капитал является основой обеспечения богатства общества.
10) Эти меры дадут дополнительные преимущества оценки банковских ссуд, выдаваемых промышленным предприятиям.
11) У адвоката было опасение столкнуться в этом деле с мафией.
12) Надежда найти нужные улики на месте преступления исчезла, как только они увидели толпу людей.
18. Complete the sentences by using the Gerund as an Adverbial Modifier of Manner. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) Philip began his report ..... (explain the situation in the North)
Philip began his report by explaining the situation in the North.
2) We will conclude the topic ..... (give some examples of how national characteristics can affect business behaviour).
3) A dissatisfied employee may be disloyal to the company he works for ..... (divulge its secret processes or inventions to rival companies)
4) We got the project finished ..... (work sixteen hours a day)
5) Emily stayed awake the whole hight ..... (drink black coffee)
6) We show other people that we are happy ..... (smile)
7) She tried, ..... (stare into the glass)
, to see what the expression was on the man’s face.
8) Peter got out of doing the work ..... (pretend to be ill)
19. Use the prompts from the box to complete the sentences with the Gerund as an Adverbial Modifier of Manner.
sort out business correspondence, clear up the piles of parers, inform about the forthcoming meeting, sort out telephone calls and visitors, get in touch with the executive, make coffee and sandwiches, suggest to take a seat, pretend to be tired, work overtime.
1) Susan is a secretary. She starts her working day by ..... .
2) She always keeps her desk tidy by ..... .
3) Her boss often forgets things. And she helps him by ..... .
4) There are no crowds of people in the office. Susan does it by ..... .
5) If the boss is out she solves the problem by ..... .
6) If there’s too much work to do and there’s no time for lunch she can do even without ..... .
7) She tries her best to be polite with the customer by ..... .
8) She has worked for ten years without ..... .
9) She wouldn’t have deserved her boss’s praise without ..... .
20. Complete the sentences using the prepositions
1) Sarah sat through her first lesson ..... saying a word.
2) You can't have a war ..... someone getting hurt.
3) I wouldn't do a thing like that ..... telling you.
4) Two men escaped from jail ..... climbing a wall.
5) The customer initiates an order ..... sending an order form to the sales area.
6) ..... securing the immediate future we shall have no prospects.
7) The company can be made to perform properly ..... having competent staff.
8) Business is developed ..... acquiring additional assets, subsidiaries or ordinary long-term outside investments.
9) The production and marketing departments cannot take financial decisions ..... consulting the finance department.
10) You can expand the information in your letter ..... including more details about the item.
11) Good management can greatly improve the resources ..... selling and distributing the finished goods as quickly as possible.
12) The policeman rarely completed a Christmas duty ..... having to report a suicide, usually caused by loneliness.
21. Translate into English using the Gerund as an Adverbial Modifier of Manner.
1) Если не привести сравнительные данные за прошедший год, отчет не даст читателю основу для сравнения результатов в динамике.
2) Путем анализа мнений и предложений акционеров правление пришло к выводу, что продажа активов не принесет компании достаточного капитала.
3) Рентабельность оценивают путем соотнесения доходов фирмы с объемом продаж, стоимостью активов и капиталом.
4) Без создания соответствующих условий для рентабельности фирмы в ближайшем будущем, о длительной перспективе вообще не стоит и говорить.
5) Задолженность фирмы можно измерить путем отношения размера долга к полным активам.
6) Полиция ищет водителя автомобиля, который уехал с места преступления, не остановившись после того, как сбил женщину.
22. Put in the suitable prepositions:
before, after, on, in with the Gerund as an Adverbial Modifier of Time.
1) ..... laying the table she brought in the tea.
2) ..... hearing the news Liz seemed excited.
3) ..... exploring the problem thoroughly the experts can make a conclusion.
4) ..... entering the building of the Academy a visitor should show his pass.
5) An applicant fills in the form ..... reading the instructions.
6) ..... sending any message the sender needs to think to confirm that there is a need to communicate.
7) ..... lending money bankers have to find a balance between yield and risk.
8) The problem-solving meeting enables the manager to weigh one opinion against the other ..... making a decision.
9) Layout and the effect of the immediate visual appearance is of great importance ..... preparing sales letters.
10) ..... determining its credit policy each company examines carefully its implications.
23. Change the sentences as shown in the model using the Gerund as an Adverbial Modifier of Purpose.
You can buy goods with money.
Money is used for buying goods.
1) You can measure value with money.
2) You can store wealth with money.
3) You can sell things for money.
4) People used a system of barter to exchange goods.
5) People used cattle, grain and tobacco to exchange goods.
6) People needed a more practical system to exchange things.
7) People still use paper currency to pay for goods.
8) They say people will no longer use paper currency to pay for goods.
9) You will use only cheques, bankers’ cards, credit cards etc. to pay for goods and services.
24. Complete the sentences using the Gerund in different functions. Put in the suitable preposition where required.
1) ..... a school in Britain today costs only half as much as in the 1940s, said the Minister of Education yesterday. (build)
2) ..... too economical with glue and screws can give a plenty of trouble later. (be)
3) Miss Smith’s ..... her to the office had been in the nature of a preparation and warning. (call)
4) ..... big prices for famous pictures is now a wealthy man’s way ..... taxation. (pay, escape)
5) I have been blamed often ..... too easily to directors and ..... their opinions. (yield, accept)
6) As luck would have it, he was saved ..... to make the decision. (have)
7) One of them was fined in the county court ..... his cows. (starve)
8) He promised them that no harm would come to them ..... the papers. (sign)
9) As we sat and watched them, Roger, ..... to me, said in a flat and even tone: ‘There may possibly be trouble’. (turn/neg)
25. Complete using the appropriate form of the Gerund.
1) Stark sat down without ..... . (speak)
2) He didn’t go without ..... by Amy. (congratulate)
3) After ..... more closely than usual and ..... his hair, he took the bus downtown. (shave, brush)
4) Even a criminal must be told the nature of his crime before ..... . (convict)
5) I know everyone who is worth ..... . (know)
6) Let me tell you whose house you’ve come into without ..... or ..... . (ask, want)
7) No one could pass in or out without ..... .(see)
8) She denies ..... to him. (speak)
9) He was ashamed of ..... even the slightest irritation. (show)
10) On ..... the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. (leave)
11) He didn’t remember ..... in that room. (be)
12) He liked neither ..... aloud nor ..... aloud to. (read, read)
13) The child deserves ..... . (praise)
14) I had to sound as if I didn’t mind ..... . (insult)
15) They could hardly have been successful lawyers if they had not possessed a shrewdness that prevented them from ..... by appearances. (deceive)
26. Complete the story with the correct Infinitive or Gerund form of the verbs in brackets and reproduce it.
A new find was about (1) ..... (star)
in a picture. One scene was where the girl was (2) ..... (jump)
from a high cliff into the water. Upon (3) ..... (examine)
the (4) ..... (jump)
point and the (5) ..... (land)
place, the girl ran to the director and said, – "I won’t make that jump. I absolutely refuse (6) ..... (do)
it. There’s only a foot of water at the bottom of that cliff." "All right," answered the director. "Do you think we want you (7) .....? (drown)
27. Translate into English using the Gerund.
1) Несмотря на то, что он устал, нам пришлось его побеспокоить.
2) Автору удалось построить свое исследование на здравых принципах.
3) Коллекционирование редких книг было его любимым занятием.
4) Он любит читать вслух своим детям.
5) Ребенку нравится, когда ему показывают картинки в книжке.
6) Я знаю, что он скоро возвращается из командировки.
7) Я знаю, что он уже возвратился из Москвы.
8) Она перестала отвечать на мои письма.
9) После окончания унивеситета он поехал в экспедицию.
10) Рассматривая рукопись, ученый обнаружил очень любопытный факт.
11) Он очень не любит, когда его об этом спрашивают.
12) Я не могу найти свою книгу. Помню, что положил ее на стол.
13) Я настаиваю на том, чтобы сообщение было отослано немедленно.
14) Мы говорили о том, что ее включили в список.
15) Эти слова стоит запомнить.
16) Едва ли есть люди, которые любят, когда их критикуют.
17) Они закончили проект, работая над ним по пятнадцать часов в сутки.
18) Я чувствовал себя странно, когда меня оставили одного.
19) Ей очень понравилось, что я приготовила ей виноградный сок.
20) Я предложил уехать немедленно.
Unit 4 THE P A R T I C I P L E S
(Participle I and Participle II)
§ 1 General Information
The Participles (Participle I and Participle II) are Nonfinite forms of the verb
and thus have the verbal character. At the same time the Participles possess adjectival and adverbial characteristics as they are used in the functions consistent with Attributes and Adverbial Modifiers as you'll see later.
can also be called an Active Participle
as it forms an active structure which can be seen if you transform it into a clause:
The girl sitting
next to me.
® The girl who is sitting
next to me.
can be called a Passive Participle
as it forms a passive structure which can be seen if you transform it into a clause:
The events shown
in the film.
The events that are/were shown
in the film.
§ 2 The Forms of the Participles
a) The forms of Participle I
are shown in the table below:
having been completed
The Indefinite forms
of Participle I
express the action simultaneous with that of the main verb:
the project we were very busy
while the Perfect forms
express the action prior to that of the main verb of the sentence:
The project having been completed
, we all went on holiday.
b) Participle II
has only one form – the 3d form of the verb: completed,
thought, expressed, placed etc.:
The idea expressed
in this film is not new.
§ 3 The Functions of the Participles
There are several common functions
of the Participles:
Participle I: I know the reporter covering
Participle II: The news covered
in the report deal with the
situation in the Middle East.
Your offer sounds embarrassing
Participle II: He sounds embarrassed.
3) Complex Object:
Participle I: I heard him playing
Participle II: I heard the tune
4) Adverbial Modifiers of:
Participle I: (While/when)/ Asking
about the accident the
girl started crying.
Participle II: When asked
about the accident the girl
Participle I: She looked as if waiting
for an answer.
Participle II: He stopped as if struck
by the news.
Participle I: Frankly speaking
, I don't know the answer.
Participle II: As mentioned above, there are three main types of
There are some functions of the Participles that do not coincide.
Only Participle I
performs the functions of:
She stopped looking
at the ad.
ill at ease, he couldn't utter a word.
Only Participle II
performs the functions of:
, her heart wouldn't stand it.
, she didn't show it.
6) Participle I and Participle II can be used in Absolute Participial Constructions
where the subject of the main clause and the subject of the participle don't coincide (they are different):
They went to bed, the work left for the next morning
The work being over,
they went to bed.
E x e r c i s e s
1. Complete the sentences using either Participle I or Participle II as an Attribute from the verbs in brackets.
1) Do you know the woman ..... to Tom? (talk)
2) The boy ..... in the accident was taken to hospital. (injure)
3) The police ..... the crime are looking for three men. (investigate)
4) Some of the people ..... to the party can't come. (invite)
5) Who were those people ..... outside? (wait)
6) Most of the goods ..... in this factory are exported. (make)
7) The road ..... the two villages is very narrow. (join)
8) The police never found the money ..... in the robbery. (steal)
9) I live in a pleasant room ..... the garden. (overlook)
10) There was a big red car ..... outside the house. (park)
11) There were some children ..... in the river. (swim)
12) We've spent nearly all the money. We've only got a little ..... . (leave)
2. Make one sentence out of two using either Participle I or Participle II as an Attribute. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) I didn't talk much to the man. The man was sitting next to me on the plane.>
I didn't talk much to the man sitting next to me on the plane
2) The taxi broke down. The taxi was taking us to the airport.
3) The window was broken in the storm last night. It has been repaired now.
4) A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.
5) At the end of the street there is a path. The path leads to the river.
6) Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven't been found yet.
7) A new factory has been just opened in the town. The factory employs 500 people.
8) A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?
9) The company sent me a brochure. It contained all the information I needed.
3. Complete the sentences using the suitable Participle as an Attribute of the verbs from the box.
blow, call, invite, live, offer, read, sit, study, work
1) A lot of people ..... to the presentation refused to come.
2) Life must be very unpleasant for people ..... near busy airports.
3) A few days after the interview, I received a letter ..... me the job.
4) Somebody ..... Jack phoned while you were out.
5) There was a tree ..... down in the storm last night.
6) When I entered the waiting room it was empty except for a young man ..... by the window ..... a magazine.
7) Ian has got a brother ..... in a bank in London and a sister ..... economics at university in Manchester.
4. Use the words in brackets to make sentences with the Participles. The first two have been done for you.
1) That house is empty. (nobody/live/in it)
There is nobody living in that house.
2) The accident wasn't serious. (nobody/injure)>
There was nobody injured in the accident.
3) I can hear footsteps. (somebody/come)
4) The train was full. (a lot of people/travel)
5) We were the only guests at the hotel. (nobody else/stay there)
6) The piece of paper was blank. (nothing/write/on it)
7) There are regular English courses at the college. (a course/begin/next Monday)
5. Complete the texts using appropriate Participles from the box and retell the texts.
showing, contained, bearing, based
A coin is a piece of metal, usually disc-shaped, (1) ..... letters, designs or numbers (2) ..... its value. Until the 18th
centuries coins were given monetary worth (3) ..... on the exact amount of metal (4) ..... in them. But most modern coins are based on face value, the value that governments give them, irrespective of the actual metal content.
left, threatening, called, written, armed, drunken
Published recently was a paperback (1) ..... by a south London copper (2) ..... 'Policeman's Progress'. Here are some random quotes.
'It is one of the few occupations (3) ..... in present day society where a person can arrive for work and have no idea what the day will bring. It could be an accident, a murder, an (4) ..... robbery, arson or a request for directions. I was called upon to chastise (5) ..... husbands (occasional success) and errant wives (hundred percent failure). I received anonymous (6) ..... letters , phone calls and an anonymous cake for my birthday (it was stale).'
6. Translate the sentences into English using the Participles as an Attribute.
1) Я еще не просмотрел всех журналов, присланных нам из Лондона.
2) Машины, заказанные на заводе, прибудут через несколько дней.
3) Все студенты, принимающие участие в этой работе, должны собраться в Академии в десять часов.
4) Он положил спящего ребенка на диван.
5) Он показал нам список товаров, экспортируемых фирмой.
6) Железная дорога, соединяющая два этих района, была построена недавно.
7) Книги, издаваемые для детей, обычно хорошо иллюстрированы.
8) Я надеюсь, что вы не повторите ошибок, сделанных в прошлом диктанте.
9) Человек, сидевший у открытого окна, смотрел на детей, игравших в саду.
10) Его неожиданный ответ удивил всех нас.
7. Put in the correct form of the Participles as an Attribute using the verbs in brackets
1) The results ..... are consistent and may be summed up in one single rule. (obtain)
2) Of the three instances ....., only the last possesses a verbal suffix which is regularly found in other words. (cite)
3) A proper noun is a name ..... to one particular person or thing. (give)
4) The information ..... throws a flood of light upon the mode of action of the human vocal apparatus. (gain)
5) The following figures, partly ..... the territory ....., illustrate the extent of losses ..... by the fire. (cover, investigate, cause)
6) The two men ..... to were highly-placed officials. (refer)
7) At last we saw the picture so much ..... about. (hear)
8) The ruling elite in old Japan, ..... with its families to about one sixteenth of the population, was a hereditary class of fighters, ..... to pursue any other vocation. (amount, forbid)
9) The language processes apply not only to English, but to all languages. In all of them you will find words ..... out, and words ....., words ..... and old words ..... together to form new words, words ..... from other languages and words ..... their use and meaning. (die, be born, create, put, take, change)
8. Complete the sentences using either the Participle or a clause bearing in mind that
in the function of an Attribute Participle I is usually not used to express a past or a prior action.
1) The study was dimly lit by a candle (burn)
in the ajoining room.
2) Latin was the ancestor of all the languages (mention)
3) The review is divided into three parts (follow)
by a brief comment.
4) The conclusion appears reasonable that Italian (speak and write)
by the multitude of correct speakers and writers, is a compromise language (continue)
the traditions of various dialects.
5) They dined outside upon the terrace (face)
6) The girl (bear)
all the ups and downs of her life with great indifference, broke down on this and burst into tears.
7) Mr.Orson told his sons to follow him into the little guest-chamber out of which two pretty maids (arrange)
the room ran out.
8) The gentleman lit his pipe and went up to the driver (unharness)
9. Translate the sentences into English using either the Participle or a clause.
1) Мне вспомнился портрет, который я видела в картинной галерее.
2) Он человек, которого все любят и которым все восхищаются.
3) Забор, окружающий сад, недавно покрашен.
4) Мы любовались звездами, мерцавшими на небе.
5) Он обратил внимание посетителей на висевшую над его головой картину, написанную маслом.
6) Его мать, знавшая все его привычки, убирала эту книгу подальше.
7) Его очень интересовала линия метро, которую прокладывали в нескольких кварталах от его дома.
8) Законы, существовавшие в Америке в то время, позволяли покупать и продавать негров.
9) Женщина отправилась в сторону канадской границы, в город, расположенный на берегу реки.
10) Она постучала в дверь небольшой таверны. Женщина, открывшая ей дверь, была хозяйкой.
11) Она успокоила своего ребенка, плачущего от усталости.
12) Она положила ребенка на кровать и подошла к окну, выходившему на реку.
13) Она стояля у окна и глядела на реку, находящуюся между ней и свободой.
14) Вдруг она увидела работорговца, купившего ее ребенка.
15) В комнате была дверь, выходившая к реке.
16) Она бросилась к реке, держа ребенка на руках, и прыгнула на большую льдину, плывшую недалеко от берега.
17) Она смотрела на человека, стоявшего на другом берегу и молила его о помощи.
10. Translate into English using Participle II as an Attribute.
1) На листе бумаги было несколько строк, написанных карандашом.
2) В вазе было несколько увядших роз.
3) Он не любил смотреть на посаженных в клетку животных.
4) Вот новые учебники, присланные для вашей школы.
5) Представьте себе замужнюю женщину, обреченную жить изо дня в день без единой ссоры со своим мужем!
6) Он направился к машине, стоявшей на стоянке.
7) У них обоих была хорошая натренированная память.
11. Write out in two separate columns the word-combinations with the Gerund and those with Participle I. Comment on them doing the transformations as shown:
Advertising campaign – A campaign of/for advertising goods. (the Gerund)
Advertising company – A company that advertises goods.(Participle I)
a) Advertising role, advertising firm, advertising objectives, advertising people, advertising plan;
b) Marketing strategy, marketing agent, marketing activity, marketing people, marketing policy;
c) Working people, working premises, working facilities, working machines, working hours.
12. Complete the sentences with the Participles as a Predicative from the box
astonishing, boring, convincing, demanding, disappointing, worrying, thrilling, tempting, terrifying, touching, encouraging
1) The film ‘Titanic’ is so ....., I advise you to see it.
2) I don’t believe you to have done it deliberately. But anyway, it was extremely ..... .
3) Your suggestion to miss the classes at university today sounds very ..... .
4) When the chairman speaks of devotion to high ideals in business he seems quite ..... and even ..... .
5) The performance was so ..... that I could hardly stay till the end of it.
6) Even to listen to the story of your dangerous adventures is really ..... .
7) The effect of the manager’s words was ..... .
8) Mr.Jackson didn’t understand your mission. His voice sounded so ..... .
9) The situation became so ..... that we all were at a loss.
10) The fact that she can’t remember the origin of her information seems very unusual and ..... .
13. Translate the sentences into English using the Participle as a Predicative.
1) Удивительно, что он не выполнил свое обещание.
2) Кажется, твоя работа очень утомительная.
3) Его слова показались ей оскорбительными.
4) Встреча с родными и друзьями после долгого отсутствия всегда волнующая.
5) Звуки были настолько раздражающими, что у меня заболела голова.
6) Жизнь без путешествий стала для него скучной.
7) Условия соглашения были унизительными.
8) Было заманчивым принять такое предложение.
9) Его поведение кажется ужасным.
10) Их доводы кажутся убедительными.
14. Make one sentence out of two using Participle I as an Adverbial Modifier of Time. The first sentence has been done for you.
1) She finished her work. Then she went home. >
Having finished her work, she went home.
2) We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.
3) They continued their journey. They did it after they had had dinner.
4) Lucy did all her shopping. Then she went for a cup of tea.
5) She found a hotel. Then she looked for somewhere to have dinner.
6) Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm.
7) I was watching television. I fell asleep.
8) The man slipped. He was getting off a bus.
9) I was walking home in the rain. I got wet.
10) Margaret was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident.
11) Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire.
15. Put in the correct form of Participle I as an Adverbial Modifier of Time or Cause.
1) ( take)
..... a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
..... tired I went to bed.
..... unemployed, he hasn't got much money.
..... a car, she finds it difficult to get around.
..... already the film twice, I didn't want to go to the cinema.
..... they might be hungry, I offered them something to eat.
..... a foreigner, she needs a visa to stay in the country.
..... his address, I wasn't able to contact him.
..... a lot, Sarah knows a great deal about other countries.
10) (be able)
..... to understand English, he didn't know what I wanted.
..... nearly all our money, we couldn't afford to stay in a hotel.
16. Exchange the compound or complex sentences by those with the Participles in different Adverbial functions.
1) He walked out of the room and slammed the door behind him.
2) If you want to order a vehicle, you have to pay a deposit.
3) She lay awake all night and recalled the events of the day.
4) When I tried to open the can, I cut my hand.
5) As I was anxious to please him, I bought him a nice present.
6) If you are travelling north, you must change at Leeds.
7) Unless you pay by credit card, please pay in cash.
8) Though he admitted that he had received the stolen jewellery, he denied having taken part in the robbery.
9) When it was viewed from a distance, the island looked like a cloud.
10) Although it was built before the war, the engine is still in perfect order.
11) Unless it is changed, this law will make life difficult.
12) If you are accepted for this post, you will be informed.
13) He is so ill that he can't go to work yet.
14) He's had been ill for a very long time, so he needs/needed more time to recover before he can/could go back to work.
15) I have been made redundant, so I'm going abroad.
17. Put in the appropriate preposition/conjunction with the Participles as an Adverbial Modifier.
1) ..... annoyed, he used to go to his room and lock himself in.
2) She is a terror ..... roused.
3) Here the tram lines ended, so that men returning home could doze in their seats ..... roused by their journey's end.
4) He didn't usually utter a word ..... spoken to.
5) 'Minister?' said David Rubin, ..... surprised.
6) He had to think it over, for even ..... posted now, the letter could not reach John till Monday.
7) Sitting there, he could not help perceiving a certain vagueness about such an inspiration, even ..... confined to England.
8) ..... urged, he never mentioned his wound or his decoration.
9) ..... sitting there I looked at various posters.
10) She stopped speaking ..... waiting for him to speak.
11) Much of the afternoon I looked out of the window ..... thinking, but not really thinking.
12) ..... dancing she floated, so light she was, like an eager little spirit.
18. Use the suitable Participle from the verbs in brackets.
Malta Street, Soho, Soames thought with wonder of those years in Brighton.
2) When (question)
, Annie answered that she was anxious about her brother-in-law.
a little in that line myself, I understood everything.
4) It was a dreadful thing that he now proposed, a breach of the law which, if (discover)
would bring him into the police court.
5) She began to walk carefully, (set)
heel to toe, heel to toe, and (count)
6) This was said as if (think)
7) As if (tear)
with inner conflict and indecision, he cried.
8) Her spirit, though (crush)
, was not broken.
19. Complete the stories with the correct forms of the Verbals and reproduce the stories.
Once in a train a (1) well-(dress)
...... man discovered that his cigarette case was missing and told the man next to him that he would take him to the police at the nearest station. (2) (Look)
..... down however the (3) well-(dress)
..... man found his cigarette case (4) (lie)
..... under the seat. He apologised to the other passenger (5) (say)
..... he was sorry (6) (think)
..... badly of him. 'Never mind', said the passenger. 'You thought I was a thief and I thought you were a gentleman. And we were both mistaken'.
An American lady (1) (travel)
..... in England got into a compartment in a (2) (smoke)
..... carriage where an Englishman was smoking a pipe. For a while she sat quietly (3) (expect)
..... that the Englishman would give up (4) (smoke)
..... . But when the train had been on the way for half an hour or so she started (5) (cough)
..... (6) (show)
..... him that she objected to his (7) (smoke)
..... . At last (8) (see)
..... that all her efforts (9) (attract)
..... his attention were in vain she addressed him impatiently.
'If you were a gentleman, you would stop (10) (smoke)
..... when a lady got into the carriage'.
'If you were a lady', replied the Englishman, 'you wouldn't get into a (11) (smoke)
'If you were my husband', said the lady, 'I would give you poison'.
'If I were your husband,' replied the Englishman, 'I would take it'.
20. Complete the news report with appropriate Verbals from the verbs in brackets and reproduce it.
Julian Snow, the 'Daily News' war correspondent (1) (cover)
the civil war in Mandanga, has been reported (2) (miss).
He was last seen yesterday morning (3) (drive)
his Land Rover near the front line. The vehicle was found yesterday evening , but there was no sign of him. Snow has been a war correspondent for many years and has covered a number of conflicts, (4) (include)
the Middle East.
21. Translate the sentences into English using the Verbals.
1) Люди обычно отбирают из информации то, что им знакомо, стараясь игнорировать или пропускать то, что является новым.
2) Отвергая понятие «социальной ответственности», М.Фридман утверждает, что любой бизнес должен подчиняться основным законам общества.
3) Когда выбор сделан, его уже невозможно изменить.
4) При рекламировании товаров компания возмещает затраты на другие виды расходов.
5) Частные компании могли бы быть более эффективными, если бы они были освобождены от давления со стороны центрального аппарата управления.
6) Так как рынок состоит из нескольких компаний, он является очень большим для этого вида товара.
7) Будучи очень дорогой в настоящее время, реклама все же приносит солидный доход.
8) Если данные представить в таблице, они дадут ясную картину дел.
§ 4 Participial Constructions
4.1. Complex Object
can be used with both Participle I and Participle II:
Suddenly I heard the bell ringing
I heard my name pronounced
Compared to Complex Object with the Infinitive, Complex Object with Participle I expresses the duration of the action.
I saw him enter
I saw him entering
E x e r c i s e s
1. Complete the sentences using Complex Object either with Participle I
or Participle II as shown in the model.
In the midday she heard a small bird ..... . (sing)
In the midday she heard a small bird singing.
His face clouded when he heard his name ..... . (speak)
His face clouded when he heard his name spoken.
1) The taxi could be seen ..... outside. (wait)
2) She had the drawing-room ..... . (redecorate)
3) She heard her heart ..... with a vague fear. (beat)
4) The darkness foud him ..... with these thoughts. (occupy)
5) For their New Year party she had all the furniture ..... out of the sitting room. (move)
6) They wanted the Committee ..... over the weekend. (convene)
7) Mary could feel Elisabeth ..... their hopes and dreams, their relationships as sisters. (review)
8) She averted her eyes each time she found herself ..... at. (stare)
9) She heard the musicians ..... up in the back room. (tune)
2. Translate the sentences into English using Complex Object with the Participle.
1) Была тихая летняя ночь. Мы сидели в саду и наблюдали, как луна медленно поднимается из-за деревьев.
2) Мы слышали, что кто-то поет в саду.
3) В детстве я часто слышал, как моя мать пела эту песню.
4) Мы увидели, что по дорожке сада идет сын нашего соседа.
5) Мы не видели его уже много лет, но часто слышали, как его имя упоминалось в доме его родителей. Мы не раз слышали, как его мать говорила о нем и его работе.
6) Когда вы настроите свое пианино?
7) Я не починил часы, так как мастерская вчера была закрыта.
8) Где вы фотографировались?
9) Ему принесли бутылку вина.
10) Она считала себя помолвленной с Майклом.
4.2. Absolute Participial Construction
Absolute Participial Construction
is called 'absolute' because it has its own subject which does not coinicide with the subject of the sentence.
a) Both Participle I and Participle II can be used in Absolute consturctions at the end of the sentence
and are translated as separate clauses:
. – Он улыбнулся, и (при этом) свежесть опять появилась на его лице.
– Он сел, улыбаясь, (при этом) у него опять появилось чувство юмора.
b) When Absolute construction is placed at the beginning of the sentence
it has a causative meaning:
The purpose being achieved
, the meeting was over. – Так как цель собрания была достигнута, оно закончилось.
The choice made,
she ran up to Tom. – Так как она сделала свой выбор, она подбежала к Тому.
E X E R C I S E S
1. Translate the sentences with the Participle in Absolute Constructions
into Russian and comment on their form.
1) In the library, Diana revived, her face less drawn, went through the minuet of grumbles.
2) They set off, George swinging along with downcast eyes, his hands thrust deep in his pockets.
3) Lord Easterfield sat down, wiping his forehead and smiling, his good humour quite restored.
4) We sat silent, her eyes still levelled with mine, but gradually becoming unfocussed, as though looking past me, looking a great distance away.
5) She got up, the clothes folded over her arm.
6) Arrangements made, the apologies and thanks started over again.
7) I lay idly in a big chair, talking now and then, listening sometimes with my eyes closed.
8) The choice made, she ran up to him.
9) The drinks ordered and the men settled on the verandah of the clubhouse, Haydock repeated his question.
10) He gave an intimate smile, some of the freshness returning to his face.
11) Brown sat back in the leather-covered chair, his great chest protruding like a singer’s.
12) They parted at the cabin, Scotty taking Roy on the direct rout to the Lake, Indian Bob going back to his hunting, and Simon heading west for the little river.
13) That being understood, the conference was over.
14) This book has been written in England with the authors in close cooperation throughout, approximately equal parts being written in English and in German and subsequently translated.
15) Martha had two children living, two having died in infancy.
16) They wrestled and struggled for a minute, with everybody looking at.
17) We strolled back to the camp, it being then about twenty minutes to six.
18) There being no other matters to discuss, the old man said that he was going to bed.
19) She kept on running, her steps quickening in pace with her heartbeats.
2. Translate the sentences into English using Absolute Participial Constructions.
1) Так как дверь и окно пустой комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули внутрь.
2) Когда работа была закончена, он получил трехмесячный отпуск.
3) Так как было довольно поздно, мы взяли свечи и пошли наверх.
4) Послышался стук в дверь, и, так как больше некому было открыть, Стив пошел к дверию
5) Мы гуляли одни в течение часа, так как Джордж остался в отеле, чтобы написать письмо своей тете.
6) Однажды утром он стоял перед витриной, почти прижавшись носом к стеклу.
7) Если погода позволит, мы поедем завтра на пикник.
8) Они снова шли вперед; Хью спокойно покуривал свою трубку.
9) Дочь сидела молча и неподвижно, опустив глаза в землю.
10) Если не удается достигнуть примирения, приходится применять силу; но если и сила не помогает, на примирение не остается никакой надежды.
§ 5 Parenthesis
The Participles can be used as Parenthesis: as intended, as mentioned above, as opposed to, bearing in mind, generally speaking
E X E R C I S E S
1. Match the appropriate parenthesis to the sentences on the left.
1) ....., for every manager who writes a letter or report, there is a presupposed reader.
2) ....., publicity is any mention of a company's product that is not paid for, in any medium
As mentioned above
3) ....., formal communications will pass up and down the pyramid of managemant.
As opposed to advertising
4) ....., continental Europe is expected to provide a growing share of the business.
Bearing in mind
5) ....., that marketing should have contributed to the specification of the product it fills the time and space between the ready product and its purchase.
Looking further ahead
2. Translate the sentences into English using the Participles as Parentheses.
1) Она сказала: «Вообще говоря, я не люблю детей».
2) Судя по внешности, мужчина выглядел очень усталым и замученным.
3) Грубо говоря, можно было бы сказать, что в женщинах его привлекали юность и надежда.
4) Говоря о преступности, могу предложить тебе интересную книгу.
5) Строго говоря, извиняться было необязательно.
6) Подводя итог, следует сказать, что компаниям нужна государственная поддержка.
7) Как было показано выше, надеются, что эта фирма получит деньги за счет частных инвестиций.
8) Как и ожидалось, этот союз не оказался приемлемым с коммерческой точки зрения.
9) По сравнению с другими предприятиями, наши успехи не так и плохи.
1. Put in the particle
to where required
1) You’d better ..... hurry. You don’t have lots of time ..... decide.
2) I’m the manager. I’m supposed ..... be worried about your being late.
3) It’s up to you ..... decide your own future.
4) They were talking so loudly. He couldn’t but ..... overhear them.
5) I’d prefer ..... choose my own career.
6) Mary would sooner ..... remember that day than forget it.
7) George is very upset. You’d better ..... leave him alone.
8) He had nothing left ..... do but ..... listen to their talking business.
9) I can’t find my keys. I must ..... have left them in the car.
10) Why not ..... come and ..... see Ann in the hospital?
11) The detective couldn’t but ..... appreciate the fact that Paul had rescued him.
2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the Infinitive from the
verbs in brackets.
1) There was nothing ..... for. (wait)
2) Ann put the fur coat on and turned round ..... . (appreciate)
3) He appeared ..... plenty of money, which was said ..... in South African diamond digging. (have, gain)
4) Every feature seemed ..... since he saw her last. (sharpen)
5) Lady Verindah was the first person ..... his attention or ..... by him. (attract, attract)
6) I suppose Mr Jelleby had been more talkative and lively once; but he seemed ..... long before I knew him. (exhaust)
7) Dave seemed ..... Stephanie, waiting for her ..... the first move. (watch, make)
8) He is said ..... a small fortune. (put away)
9) The next thing ..... is to move away from this town. (do)
10) Her age was difficult ...... .(guess)
11) My mother and I are always happy ..... you. (see)
12) I found Mrs Smith hard ..... . (accept)
13) For a few moments, she seemed ..... on the edge of choice. (stand)
14) He is not a man ..... . (ignore)
15) Everything you’ve planned ..... is sensible. (do)
3. Translate into English using the Infinitive.
1) Было приятно гулять по тенистому саду в жаркий июльский день.
2) По правде говоря, я читал эту книгу в переводе.
3) Он достаточно хорошо знает английский язык, чтобы перевести такую статью.
4) Первое, что надо сделать, – это выписать новые слова из текста.
5) Бесполезно спорить с вами; вы очень упрямы, чтобы не сказать больше.
6) Никогда не поздно признать свою ошибку.
7) Охота оказалась хуже, чем они ожидали.
8) Мы хотим, чтобы каждый человек имел гражданские права.
9) Казалось, он любил своих детей, но он был слишком легкомысленным, чтобы подумать об их будущем.
10) Случилось так, что Джордж и его сестра были куплены одним и тем же человеком.
4. Complete the sentences using the appropriate Gerund or Infinitive form.
1) After ..... more carefully than usual he went to the bank. (dress)
2) There's vivid happiness in merely ..... alive. (be)
3) Your tie needs ..... . (tighten)
4) I wouldn't say such a thing without ..... sure. (be)
5) There was nothing ..... . (fear)
6) He is said ..... John. (rescue)
7) His idea was easy ..... . (understand)
8) He appeared ..... a lot of money. (earn)
9) It's a chance ..... . (miss/neg.)
10) She is hardly ..... manager. (appoint)
5. Put in the prepositions/particles where required.
1) I promised them that no harm would come to them ..... concluding the contract.
2) It was clearly seen that the director was speaking ..... thinking.
3) The story is boring ..... be admired.
4) Who is ..... blame ..... this terrible mistake?
5) She denied ..... having stolen the money.
6) I had little hope ..... ever learning the truth.
7) Jane suggested ..... going to the cinema ..... ..... staying at home.
8) I now regret ..... having said what I said.
9) Did he have any special reason ..... going?
10) He has the reputation ..... being conservative.
11) I saw no harm ..... calling at 9 o'clock in the evening.
12) ..... receiving the Royal assent the Bill becomes an Act of Parliament.
13) Government departments are responsible ..... implementing government policy.
14) There is no difficulty..... understanding that the law is necessary.
15) A criminal case is brought against a person accused ..... having committed a crime.
16) The plaintiff starts the lawsuit ..... filling a paper called a complaint.
17) If you need a barrister, you never see him ..... your solicitor being with him.
18) Shall I tell them or you would rather they ..... know?
19) We’d like ..... have gone on holiday but we didn’t have enough money.
20) The attorney was made ..... play the tape.
6. Translate the sentences into English using either the Gerund or the Infinitive.
1) Было неразумно с моей стороны говорить об этом за обедом.
2) Найти хорошую прислугу в такой ситуации было непросто.
3) Все, что вы запланировали сделать, целесообразно.
4) Они собирались сказать Тревору то, что он больше всего боялся услышать.
5) Он устроил все так, что мы встретились с ним в тот вечер.
6) Какое-то время казалось, что компания стоит на грани банкротства.
7) Они обвиняли Ричарда в том, что он стал главой отдела, не имея опыта работы в сфере перевозки грузов.
8) Майкл что-то сказал о том, что она была хорошим адвокатом и была способна справиться с этим делом.
9) Член Совета директоров извинился за опоздание.
10) Джека обвинили в получении денег по фальшивому паспорту.
11) Он забыл, отправил ли он сообщение.
12) Стив отрицал, что убил своего друга.
7. Put in the appropriate Verbals into the story and the interview about lorry hijackings using the verbs in brackets. Reproduce them.
The Road Transport Industry is becoming increasingly (1) ..... (concern)
about lorry (2) ..... (hijack)
. The hijackers seem (3) ..... (be)
well-(4) ..... (inform)
. The gangs concentrate on trucks (5) ..... (carry)
high-value marketable loads. Drivers have now been forbidden (6) ..... (pick up)
hitch-hikers, and have been warned against (7) ..... (be)
careless when (8) ..... (park)
in motorway service areas. Yesterday’s (9) ..... (hijack)
on the M6 was the fourth in the area this month.
Inspector Waterman is interviewing Stan Fletcher, the driver of the (1)..... (hijack)
– Now, Mr Fletcher. How did you manage (2) ..... (lose)
– OK. I was driving down the M6 from Scotland (3) ..... (carry)
whisky in cases. I decided (4) ..... (stop)
at the station. I stopped (5) ..... (get)
some diesel. Then I went (6) ..... (make) a telephone call. I was talking to my wife on the phone when I saw the lorry (7) ..... (go)
– Had you remembered (8) ..... (lock)
the cab door?
– Yes, I always remember (9) ..... (lock)
it. And I remember (10) ..... (lock)
it on this occasion. But I can’t remember (11) ..... (check)
8. Complete the text using appropriate Nonfinite forms of the verbs in brackets and retell the text.
A conventional or cellular office is a series of rooms (1) ..... (separate)
from each other by solid walls. (2) ..... (compare)
to it, an open plan office contains a (3) ..... (wait)
area with a portable screen partly (4) ..... (separate)
it from the Computer area on the right. The left-hand side is occupied by the Sales staff – the Manager (5) ..... (sit)
in the far corner and several (6) ..... (remain)
persons (7) ..... (space out)
, with a couple of screens (8) ..... (break)
up the area nearest the central pathway. On the right at the far end is the General Office once again only partly (9) ..... (separate)
off by a movable screen and some (10) ..... (file)
cabinets. Strategic plants’ (11) ..... (position)
heightens the illusion of separation. The overall effect of (12) ..... (have)
everyone in one room is that more people can be accommodated, (13) ..... (compare)
with a cellular arrangement, and change or expansion is relatively easy (14) ..... (do)
9. Complete the sentences using the correct Participle form.
1) I hated the sound of rain ..... on the roof. (patter)
2) She looked at the name ..... on the title-page. (write)
3) ..... his car, he remembered that he hadn’t lunched. (garage)
4) When ..... to herself she spent her time at her writing desk. (leave)
5) Deeply ....., he rose and left the room. (affect)
6) ..... to read, think or work, she asked Liddy to stay and have breakfast with her. (be able/neg)
7) She didn’t speak, ..... with the sense of silent confidence. (fill)
8) They were indeed old friends, ..... at school together. (be)
9) ..... long ago, the manuscript was ellegible. (write)
10) About two-thirds of all taxes ..... go to the federal government. (collect)
10. Complete the sentences to form Participial constructions.
1) It ..... now pretty late, we left. (be)
2) She has found me ....., but I have found her ..... . (alter/neg, change)
3) She could feel her hands ..... exceedingly. (tremble)
4) The dog heard his name ..... through the open door. (pronounce)
5) You can get your clothes ..... from Europe. (send)
6) Weather ....., we shall go to the beach tomorrow. (permit)
7) They were walking on again, with Brian ..... calmly. (talk)
8) Mary sat without moving, with her eyes ..... on the portrait. (fix)
9) The Constitution sets the basic form of government: three separate branches, each one ..... powers over the others. (have)
11. Translate the sentences into English using Participles where possible.
1) Человек, ожидающий вас, приехал с Ближнего Востока.
2) Человек, ждавший вас, просил ваш номер телефона.
3) Книги, которые заказывают здесь, обычно пересылаются по почте.
4) Человек, заказавший книги, придет завтра.
5) Он был так серьезно болен, что не мог вернуться на работу в течение месяца.
6) Хотя он очень устал, он лег спать поздно.
7) Так как было очень тепло, дети спали на открытом воздухе.
8) Корабль медленно плыл вдоль берега Белого моря; сотни птиц летали над ним.
9) Было очень темно, и на небе не было ни одной звезды.
10) Когда солнце село, туристы развели костер.
11) Журналисты и репортеры известны во всем мире как люди, не выказывающие должного уважения к правительству.
12) Существуют государственные агенства, сформированные для того, чтобы управлять общественными службами.
12. Put in the appropriate preposition/conjunction /particle where required.
1) By 1988 the cost ..... keeping someone in prison was over 250 dollars a week.
2) ..... accepting office the Prime Minister is to form a government.
3) ..... qualify as a barrister you must take the exam of the Bar Council.
4) It the jurors hear the discussion about the law, it can interfere with their ability ..... decide the facts in an impartial way.
5) Because there are many cases ..... be heard, judges encourage people to come to an agreement in their case before trial.
6) A brand has a place in people's mind as a brand, whereas a mere product is simply a way ..... fulfilling a physical need.
7) In a competitive economy, there is a clear theoretical advantage ..... being a brand.
8) Market challengers attempt to increase their market share ..... attacking either the leader or some market followers.
9) Public relations are concerned ..... maintaining the image of a company product.
10) In such circumstances, producers will not be interested ..... making new investments.
11) It is worth ..... recalling now that British manufacturing has been damaged by sterling's weakness.
12) The company should take the blame ..... not managing expectations better.
13) The production and marketing departments cannot take financial decisions ..... consulting the finance department.
14) ..... having a single production department is generally inefficient.
15) Production control methods are involved ..... ensure good material flow.
16) ..... determining its credit policy each company examines its intentions carefully.
17) ..... determined, the credit policy should be carefully stated.
18) ..... advertising the company saves some other costs.
19) ..... put at risk by investing, the company is naturally eager to recover those funds as soon as possible.
20) ..... making a presentation to a small group of people, it is useful to have some sort of drawing to illustrate what you mean.
21) ..... evaluating the figures the financial manager presents, the directors must weigh the pros and cons.
22) The campaign is called a failure ..... achieving no results.
23) Teams are often not nery good ..... making decisions.
24) Many figures can be meaningful ..... compared.
25) People expect individual currencies ..... disappear and be replaced by international ones.
26) It is necessary ..... the government to create regulatory bodies.
27) In North America, M&A activity reached a great pace, ..... 1,600 deals completed.
13. Put in the appropriate Nonfinite form of the verbs in brackets.
1) He was made ..... . (comply)
2) He couldn't but ..... Jane's assistance. (appreciate)
3) There was no time for the goods ..... . (examine)
4) What made him ..... that the policeman had managed his fingerprints? (think)
5) ..... a law about equal rights doesn't necessarily mean that women get them. (pass)
6) ..... doesn't count so much in politics as outsiders might think. (like)
7) To read his novel was like ..... in a lake so clear that you could see the bottom. (swim)
8) ..... in that communion was like being born an Englishman. (breed)
9) I'm supposed ..... to a meeting now .(go)
10) Ann heard her sister ..... the room. (enter)
11) They were seen ..... out of the hotel early in the morning. (check)
12) I'd rather ..... than travel by train. (drive)
13) You'd better ..... the tree, or they'll see you. (climb)
14) The attorneys insisted on Mark's ..... their questions. (answer)
15) The lawyer was expected ..... by Mark. (contact)
16) A mafia hitman had instructions ..... Mark. (kill)
17) ..... by mafia was very terrifying. (chase)
18) ..... of what might happen to him and his family Mark refused to testify. (be afraid)
19) ..... the perfect crime, he became careless and began to make mistakes. (commit)
20) The most often ..... remark about statistics is probably: 'There are lies, damned lies and statistics'. (quote)
21) The sale of expensive goods is likely ...... . (restrict)
22) The existence of large corporations showed the classical economic theory of perfect competition ..... inadequate. (be)
23) The Conservative party believes in free enterprise and the importance of a capitalist economy, with private ownership ..... to state control. (prefer)
14. Translate the sentences into English using the appropriate Infinite forms of the verb.
1) Любая организация, имеющая дело с бизнесом, делает две вещи: она предоставляет товары или услуги, необходимые потребителю.
2) Условия, созданные на предприятии, сделают работу более эффективной.
3) У нас не будет далеких перспектив, если не обеспечить ближайшее будущее.
4) Иногда стоит включать в доклад вопросы.
5) Не стоит плакать из-за пролитого молока.
6) Эти мероприятия проводятся для того, чтобы дать менеджерам возможность быстро увидеть настоящее положение дел.
7) Компания использует эту методику для принятия наилучших решений.
8) Совет директоров пришел к компромиссу, оставляя у себя часть годового дохода, а остальную часть выплачивая в качестве дивидендов.
9) Найдется очень небольшое число покупателей, которые просматривают каждое рекламное объявление прежде, чем решить, где делать покупки.
10) Если данные представить в таблице, они дадут генеральному директору ясную картину.
11) Читая газету, я услышал, как в дверь позвонили.
12) Книги, заказанные в прошлом месяце, еще не пришли.
13) Выводимые заключения основываются на последних находках.
14) Известно, что язык, на котором говорили эти племена, был германским.
15) Мальчик взял пятую поправку, обеспечивающую защиту свидетелей.
16) По всей вероятности, адвокату, имеющему информацию, опасную для мафии, будут угрожать.
17) Так как не было доказательств того, что мальчик разговаривал с убитым на тему, относящуюся к данному делу, судебное слушание было прекращено.
18) Они не хотели, чтобы их прерывали.
19) Когда вы ожидаете прибытие товаров?
20) Говорят, что бумажные пакеты обеспечивают надежную защиту товаров от мороза.
21) План оказался очень удачным.
22) Он, кажется, знает причину задолженности этой фирмы.
23) Они, вероятно, заключили договор.
24) Кажется, груз не был поврежден во время шторма.
25) Я слышал, как грузовик подъехал к дому.
26) Никто не ожидал, что это случится.
27) Так как семья Марка была в опасности, дело требовало особой осторожности.
28) Закрыв дверь гостиной, Анна подождала немного, погруженная в свои мысли.
29) Анна, услышав его шаги, побежала вниз по лестнице встретить его.
30) Так как мистер Скимп был стройным, он выглядел молодо.
31) Так как я работал в этой фирме некоторое время, я знал о ее проблемах.
32) Она молчала, разглядывая свои руки.
33) Это было сказано так, как будто он думал вслух.
34) Вообще говоря, я не считаю себя оптимистом.
35) Когда Энни стали расспрашивать, она дала понять, что не вымолвит ни слова.
36) Ее дух, хотя и был подавлен, не был сломлен.
37) Прочитав конспект лекций, Ник считал, что готов сдавать экзамен.
38) Вернувшись после учебы в университете, он разработал принципы подбора кадров.
39) Занимая должность начальника отдела в течение семи лет, он не изменил своей привычке вежливо разговаривать с персоналом.
40) Она терпеть не может, когда ее заставляют ждать.
41) Ей надоело делать одну и ту же работу каждый день.
42) Письмо было неразборчиво, как будто было написано в спешке.
43) Судья потребовал, чтобы присутствующие в суде говорили только тогда, когда к ним обращались.
44) Хотя мы и удивились появлению босса на работе в столь ранний час, мы не показали этого.
45) Мы бы хотели, чтобы потери вашей компании были официально подтверждены.
46) Честно говоря, дела у нас идут неважно.
47) Эта телефонная компания занимает стратегически важную позицию, только «Америтек» угрожает ее западным границам.
48) Как было показано выше, ожидается, что компания получит деньги за счет частных финансовых инвестиций.
49) Другими словами, ограниченная ответственность дает членам компании большую безопасность в случае банкротства.
50) Экономика погрузится в очередную фазу спада, при этом будет производиться меньше товаров.
1. Put in the correct form of the Infinitive choosing from A, B or C.
1) There was nothing now ..... for.
A) to wait
B) to be waiting
C) to be waited
2) She put on her wedding dress and turned round ..... .
A) to be admired
B) to be abmiring
C) to admire
3) He appeared to have plenty of money, which was said ..... for a couple of years at that company.
A) to be saved
B) to save
C) to have been saved
4) Stan seemed ..... silence intently, waiting for Susan to dismiss the subject.
A) to keep
B) to be keeping
C) to have been keeping
5) For the last few days she happened ..... to nobody but strange men.
A) to talk
B) to be talking
C) to have been talking
6) He is said ..... away a small fortune. So, he is safe.
A) to put
B) to have put
C) to be put
7) She couldn't help but ..... thankful for what her uncle had done for her sake.
A) to feel
C) be feeling
8) You'd better ..... me back to my parents at once, or they' ll be really angry with you.
B) to take
C) be taken
9) I'd rather ..... than ask him for another penny.
B) to die
C) to be dying
10) Jackie felt her blood ..... in her veins when she saw what was left of the house.
A) to freeze
C) have frozen
2. Complete the sentences choosing the verbs from A, B or C.
11) We ..... to leave the building as soon as possible.
12) Fred ..... in solving the problem.
C) looked forward
13) I ..... to going away next week.
B) am thinking
C) am looking forward
14) Mary ..... to buy me a drink.
15) The police ..... the criminal lie on the ground.
3. Complete choosing the right preposition from A,B or C.
16) The President began his speech ..... explaining his point of view on the situation in the area.
17) Rachel seemed upset ..... hearing the news.
18) Melany left the company after her unsuccessful interview ..... being confused.
19) In many countries of the Middle East husbands prevent their wives ..... taking a job outside their homes.
20) Furious with his employees ..... turning up late each morning, the director decided to have a serious talk with them.
21) Nothing is gained ..... delaying.
22) The Foreign Minister was accused ..... interfering in the political affairs of another state.
23) Mary wouldn't dream ..... going to Spain.
24) We were warned ..... signing any contract with the company without a lawyer.
25) ..... discussing the future contract a lot of factors are to be taken into consideration.
4. Complete with the correct form of the Verbals choosing them from A,
B or C.
26) When Paul went out he remembered ..... the letter. He put it into the mail box.
B) having posted
C) to post
27) Jane regrets ..... the firm after twenty years.
A) to leave
C) having been left
28) After approving the agenda we went on ..... finance.
A) to discuss
29) Angela enjoys ..... tricks at people.
A) to play
B) to have played
30) Julia has been ill but now she is beginning ..... better.
A) to get
C) be getting
31) You are looking great. You seem ..... weight.
A) to lose
C) to have lost
5. Complete the sentences using the correct form of Participles from the verbs in brackets.
32) ..... seven hundred miles, he was now near the border of the United States. (travel)
33) There was a silly smile ..... about the corners of his mouth. (play)
34) He had a beautiful house, and ..... a man of taste he had furnished it admirably. (be)
35) ..... him by his figure and his movements, he was still young. (judge)
36) ..... by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel. (stir)
37) For a moment the trio stood as if ..... to stone. (turn)
38) Cecilia had heard very little..... in her own thoughts. (absorb)
39) ..... he went out. (dine)
40) If ..... to myself, I shouldn't lose my chance. (leave)
41) Thus absorbed, he would sit for hours ..... no interruption. (want)
42) She considered herself ..... to Mr Bennet. (engage)
43) It ..... now too dangerous to stay in the car any longer, Mark was waiting for a chance to escape. (be)
44) He sat with his feet ..... on the chair. (put)
45) If ....., she slammed the door. (annoy)
46) Wnen ....., she never objected. (tell)
47) Douglas ..... to prove that he was right, reminded him of the promise. (determine)
48) She looked at Mike as if ..... of his manners. (disapprove)
49) While ..... the message she thought what she should tell the manager. (read)
50) Let them have the details ..... . (settle)
6. Translate the sentences into English using Nonfinite forms of the verb where possible.
51) Я не могу не согласиться с вами.
52) По правде говоря, я не читал эту книгу.
53) Он первым прервал молчание.
54) Я не ожидал, что вы уедете так скоро.
55) Я всегда считал их своими друзьями.
56) Ник видел, как она вошла в читальный зал.
57) Известно, что римляне построили на Британских островах хорошие дороги и крепости.
58) Едва ли его назначат главным бухгалтером.
59) Кажется, он работает над статьей уже две недели.
60) Говорят, что это здание было построено в ХVII веке.
61) Первое, что мы должны сделать – это заказать билеты.
62) Им трудно угодить.
63) Он остался без денег, и о нем некому было позаботиться.
64) Я бы не хотела, чтобы ты рассказывал кому-нибудь, что я сказала.
65) Мне хотелось вчера пойти на концерт, но это было невозможно.
66) Ты не возражаешь, если я немного посижу в твоей комнате?
67) Когда приговор был объявлен, обвиняемый не мог не заплакать.
68) Я не помню, что одолжила тебе деньги.
69) Сэм не ожидал, что Ричард прыгнет в водопад.
70) Анна сделала вид, что не видит меня, когда она встретила меня на улице несколько дней тому назад.
71) Именно полиция отвечает за контроль таких дел, как превышение скорости и неосторожное вождение.
72) Королева имеет власть помешать любому политику установить диктатуру.
73) У вас есть жалоба, которую вы можете выставить?
74) Джордж изобрел новую машину, которая, как было известно, приносила его хозяину большую прибыль.
75) Мягко выражаясь, он не сказал вам всей правды.
76) Короче говоря, их вина осталась недоказанной.
77) Трэйси терпеть не могла стоять в очереди за пособием по безработице.
78) Ситуация была настолько комичная, что никто не мог удержаться от смеха.
79) Мои друзья любили путешествовать автостопом.
80) Директор извинился за то, что не выполнил свое обещание.
81) Наконец мне удалось сдать экзамен по экономике.
82) Я подумываю над тем, чтобы купить новый цветной телевизор.
83) Я боялась опоздать на поезд.
84) Ему сейчас бесполезно звонить. Его нет дома.
85) Игра в футбол занимает у Стива все его свободное время.
86) Создание новых рабочих мест в данном регионе снизит уровень безработицы.
87) Следователи настаивали на том, чтобы Марк дал показания.
88) Джек связался с банком, чтобы узнать, какая сумма денег осталась на его текущем счете.
89) Все знают, что он достаточно опытный корреспондент, чтобы не делать грубых ошибок при подготовке материала.
90) Десять месяцев прошло после подписания контракта.
91) В чем заключается причина вашего недовольства?
92) При объявлении результатов голосования среди членов Совета директоров возникло недовольство.
93) Возможность потерять работу тревожит многих людей, привыкших к гарантии трудоустройства.
94) Эти меры дадут дополнительные преимущества для оценки банковских ссуд, выдаваемых промышленным предприятиям.
95) Капитал, также как и навыки, которыми владеют люди, являются основой обеспечения богатства общества.
96) Греция предпринимает меры, обеспечивающие ее присоединение к общеевропейской валюте.
97) Западноевропейское законодательство имеет то преимущество, что оно было проверено и оказалось дееспособным.
98) У вас есть право продать активы компании.
99) Обычно успех гарантирован той компании, которая первой заняла нишу на рынке.
100) Деятельность всякой организации – это деятельность людей, направленная на достижение их целей.
Chapter 9 NUMERALS
. Spell out the numbers
1) 700, 000
Render the ways of reading the dates in speech
4) 3000 B.C.
Give ordinals to the following cardinals
. Spell out the reading of the following numbers.
4) 101 passengers
5) 600 men
6) Dial 7050 and ask for extension 90.
7) Borg leads in tennis by 30-0.
10) 1 4
of the population
16) 1600 B.C.
. Proofread the following sentences for errors in expressions of numbers.
1) 3,042 voters selected Ross.
2) She was 45 years old.
3) I agree 99 %.
4) 135 men and 118 women joined the club last year.
5) A 3rd baby cried.
6) At the spring graduation ceremonies, the university awarded over 2,000 bachelors’s degrees.
7) Please, refer to page 184 in chapter six of your history book.
8) At 8 the gong sounded for supper.
9) The show was visited by 1.525 people.
10) Three thousands of pounds.
11) Eleven thousand a hundred visitors.
12) Paper measuring 14 by 17 inches can be used.
13) A sample schedule appears on page five.
14) Private property worth $2.500.000.
Translate into English (in writing). Spell out the numbers when necessary
1) Ежегодно миллионы людей умирают от голода.
2) Я ему говорил это сотни раз.
3) Он заплатил несколько миллионов долларов.
4) Это пятый трамвай?
5) Прочитайте снова пятый урок.
6) Вы мне должны 281 доллар.
7) 7 – счастливое число.
8) Он живет в восьмой квартире.
9) 400 людей принимают участие в Конгрессе.
10) 42 доллара и двадцать пять центов покрыли все его расходы.
11) 13 человек были из Калифорнии.
12) Тебе понадобится дюжина (12) яиц, чтобы сделать этот торт.
13) Он был сто первым клиентом.
14) Я обычно еду на работу десятым автобусом.
15) На этой улице больше 250 домов.
16) В 358 г. до н.э. они завоевали остров.
17) 18 лет – это прекрасный возраст.
18) Книга была опубликована в семидесятых годах.
19) Они остались на четверть часа.
20) Десятая часть населения неграмотна.
Numerals. Meaning and Use
is a part of speech indicating number absolutely (five
) or relatively to other persons and things in a series (the fifth
). Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinal
numerals (or cardinals
etc.) indicate the exact number and are used in counting as in five
, or in reading indications as in page
), flat 51 (fifty-one
(Cf., however, Russian where both cardinals and ordinals are possible: страница шесть
и страница шестая
; глава одиннадцать
и глава одиннадцатая
; номер двадцать четыре
и номер двадцать четвертый
, квартира пятьдесят один
и квартира пятьдесят первая
Cardinals may be simple
words (numerals from one
and the words hundred
with the suffix -teen
) and –ty
indicating tens as in twenty
etc., and composits
spelt with a hyphen as twenty-one, thirty-two
or written separately as two hundred and
the use of the conjunction and
in a composite after the word hundred
before the last word, in this case it is forty-five
the use of the words hundred
, and million
: when used of a definite number (or the word several
) – they are never made plural: six
also the lack of the preposition of
in this case).
If these words are used to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural (note the use of the preposition of
): hundreds of
; I’ve told him so
. Millions of
die every year from starvation.
The expressions dozen
follow the same rules: a dozen
The plural forties
denotes an age or a period between 40 and 50; similarly with fifties, sixties,
etc.: She was a good-looking woman in her forties
. The book was published in the seventies/in the ’70s/in the 1970s
etc.) show the order of persons and things. Ordinals (with exception of the first three – first, second, third
) are formed by means of the suffix –th
. Generally, they are used with the definite article: the
but sometimes with the indefinite article when they do not show a definite order but have the meaning ‘one more’: a
third baby cried
Examples of cardinals and ordinals are presented in the following list.
, etc. 21st twenty-first,
100 one/a hundred
100th (one) hundredth
101 one/a hundred and one
101st (one) hundred and first
400 four hundred
400th four hundredth
1,000 one thousand
1,000th (one) thousandth
100,000 one/a hundred thousand
100,000th (one) hundred thousandth
1,000,000 one/a million
1,000,000 (one) millionth
the irregular spelling of ordinal numerals fifth
the suffixation of ordinal numbers expressed in figures – the last two letters of the written word must be added: 1st, 2nd
or 3d, 4th
How to say numbers
In British English, and
is used before the last word which may be simple
(read: a hundred and
(read: one hundred and
or a composite
(read: seven hundred and
(read: six thousand two hundred and
The words hundred
can be used in the singular with a
, but not alone. A
is more common in an informal style, one
is used when people are speaking more precisely. Compare:
I want to live for a
The journey took exactly one
I’ve saved a
Pay the inspector of taxes one
(on a cheque).
At the beginning of a number only a
is used. Compare:
hundred and forty-six
(read: three thousand, one
hundred and forty-six
They say ‘a
’ for the ‘round number 1,000’, and before and
, but they say ‘one
before a number of hundreds
thousand, one hundred
thousand, four hundred
Hundreds and thousands
With round numbers between 1,100
they often say ‘eleven hundred, twelve hundred’
, etc. instead of ‘one thousand and hundred’
The reading of 0 (nought, zero, nil, o, love)
The figure 0
is normally read nought
[no:t] in Br.E., and zero
[zi-erou] in Am.E. It is replaced, in general use, by the negative determiner no
or the pronoun none
There were no
survivors from the air disaster.
of the passengers or crew survived.
In measurements (e.g., of temperature), 0
is called zero
It’s five degrees below zero
It’s 0° F
read: zero degrees Fahrenheit
read: eight degrees below zero Centigrade
When numbers are said figure by figure (e.g., in telephone numbers), 0
is often called [ou
] (like the letter o
My account number is 41326069
(read: four one three two six o six nine
[nil] or nothing
is used in football or other team-games:
Brazil won 4 – 0
(read: four nil
/ (to) nothing
Manchester three, Liverpool nil
is used in tennis and similar games. (This expression is derived from the French l’oeuf
, meaning ‘the egg’, presumably because zero is egg-shaped (0):
5 – 0
, your service
; (read: five – love
The reading of dates
When reading or speaking the word hundred
may be used but thousand
is usually not:
He was born in 1957
, or nineteen hundred and fifty-seven
are followed by the letters B.C. (= b
hrist). Years after
may be followed by the letters A.D. (= A
omini [Lat.: in the year of our Lord]):
1500 B.C. = fifteen hundred B.C.
(in this case it is also possible to say one thousand five hundred B.C
The days and months
Though the days and months may be written
in different ways:
He was born on 5 May
5th of May
when reading or speaking
they use ordinal numerals, so they say:
He was born on May the fifth
or the fifth of May
Telling the time
Times of the clock are read out in full as follows:
At 5 at five (o’clock)
At 5.15 at five fifteen, at a quarter past five, at a quarter after five
At 5.30 at five thirty, at half past five
At 5.45 at five forty-five, at a quarter to six, at a quarter of six
At 5.50 at five fifty, at ten (minutes) to six
At 6.10 at ten (minutes) past six, at ten minutes after six
can be used when one is referring e.g. to a timetable.
Fractions are read out in full as follows:
Simple fractions are expressed by using ordinal numbers
(third/s, fourth/s, fifth/s,
They stayed (for) a half hour / half an hour
They stayed (for) a quater of an hour
a tenth of the population
of an hour
of the population
one and a half
one and a half hours
or an hour and a half
three and a/one fifth
three and a fifth inches
the expression one and a half
takes a plural noun (e.g. one and a half kilometers
expressions like ¾ hour
are said ‘three quarters of
, seven tenths of
More complex fractions are often expressed by using the word over
– three hundred and seventeen over
five hundred and nine
are read out in full, with each figure separate.
they use a full stop (called ‘point
’), not a comma, before the fraction:
– two point five
– three point one four
(three point fourteen
(point seven eight
) or nought point seventy-eight
(US: zero point seventy-eight
How to write numbers
In writing numerals may be spelled out or be represented by figures: Boing
In writing, commas (but not full stops) are used to separate thousands: 100,
Numerals in figures or in letters?
Although there is no definite rule, there are some guidelines that should be followed.
Usually most writers spell out numbers under 100 (as one, two, the third,
) and use figures for 100 and over (286
But large numbers are spelled out: The house was sold for $1 million
A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if it is over 100: Three thousand forty-four
voters selected Teresa.
Whenever mentioning parts of a book (page numbers, sections, chapters, exercises), figures are used: The teacher assigned
In special or technical texts cardinals and ordinals should always be indicated by figures.
In small additions, they usually say and
, and is
the eight and
In larger additions (and in more formal style) they use plus
Seven hundred and twelve plus
a hundred and forty-five is
) eight hundred and fifty-seven
In conversational style, dealing with small numbers, people say:
Seven take away
In a more formal style, or dealing with larger numbers, minus
Six hundred and nineteen minus
four hundred and twenty-eight equals
a hundred and ninety-one.
In small calculations, the most common approach is to say three fours, six sevens,
etc, and to use are
for = :
Six sevens are
In larger calculations, there are several possibilities. One way is to say times
for × ,
Seventeen times three hundred and eighty-one is/makes
six thousand, four hundred and seventy-seven.
In a more formal style, they say multiplied by
17 multiplied by
The simplest way is to use divided by
Two hundred and sixty-one divided by
But in smaller calculations, people might say, for example:
Example of a spoken calculation
Here is a multiplication 146 × 281
(a hundred and forty-six times two hundred and eighty-one
), together with all its steps, in the words that an English speaker might say as he was doing it.
1. Put down two noughts.
2. Two sixes are twelve; put down 2 and carry 1; two fours are eight and one are nine; two ones are two.
3. (Next line). Put down one nought.
4. Eight sixes are forty-eight; put down 8 and carry 4; eight fours are thirty-two and four is thirty-six; put down 6 and carry 3; eight ones are eight and three is eleven.
5. (next line) One times 146 is 146.
6. (The addition) Six and nought and nought is six; eight and four
and nought is twelve; put down 2 and carry 1; six and two are
eight and one is nine and is ten; put down 0 and carry 1; nine
and one are ten and one is eleven; put down 1 and carry 1; two and one are three and one are four.
7. (Total) forty-one thousand and twenty-six.
(the example is taken from
Michael Swan. Practical English Usage.–
E x e r c i s e s
Practise reading the following dates.
28 February, 1 May, 25 October, 29 March, 17 August, 25 December
56 B.C., 97 A.D., 878, 1001, 1604, 1917, 1989, 2000, 2005, 1900.
. Practise reading the following numbers.
105; 189; 200; 247; 967; 1,300; 5,698; 7, 987, 009; 476,309,254.
Practise reading the telephone numbers
76 907 3457; 0854 75499; 2234 06534; 245 3890; 2006 19857; 203 5678; 3389 9877; 4556 5678. Dial 7050 and ask for extension 90.
Answer the questions
1) What’s the date today?
2) When’s your birthday?
3) What’s your date of birth?
4) When’s Christmas Eve?
5) When’s New Year’s Day?
6) What’s the population of your country?
7) What’s your address?
8) What’s the rate of unemployment in your country?
9) What’s the exchange rate between Euro and your currency?
10) What’s your telephone number?
5. Proofread the following sentences for errors in expressions of numbers
1) We expected 329 members to attend the 3rd annual convention
2) During the past 10 years, I have moved 22 times.
3) Paula won $2,000,000 as 1st prize in the lottery.
4) The revolutions of the 1840s were a turning point in 19th century European history.
5) 1,139 students attended the rally.
6) We found 4 case studies in section eight of the first-year law book.
7) When she was a schoolgirl, she had a 3.2 average.
8) 225 people died in a plain crash.
9) They bought 12 chairs.
10) It is reported that 3 more soldiers were killed today in Iraq.
11) 135 men and 118 women joined the club last year.
12) A few minutes later a 3rd
man entered the room.
13) At the spring graduation ceremonies, the university awarded over 2,000 bachelors’s degrees.
Practise reading numerals. Say what numerals are recommended to be written out and why
Hello, and good evening.
It is feared that 182 people may have died in a plane crash this morning. The accident happened at 7.20. It was flight 409, going from Singapore to New York. The plane had covered ¾ of the 12,000 mile trip, and had stopped to refuel. Eye witnesses said that the plane had reached its take-off speed of 150 mph when a fire broke out in the rear engine. 106 people managed to escape the blaze.
672 car workers walked out on strike today in Coventry. They had asked for a pay rise of 8.7%, but the management said they could only offer 5 1/2 %. This would mean an extra ₤7.50 per week. A union spokesman said ‘It’s not enough’.
A man armed with a shotgun held up cashiers at the National Bank today and stole ₤ 5,500. Police have appealed for witnesses. The number to ring is 0106 744391.
Unemployment figures were released today. Last month there were 3,649,712 registered unemployed. That’s 14.5% of the work force. Over the past year this number has increased by over 260,000.
And that’s the end of tonight’s news. Good night.
7. Practise reading numerals
If A is the amount of sales for store T in 1999, then 0.08 A is the amount of decrease and A – 0.008 A = 0.92 A is the amount of sales for 2000. Therefore the desired result can be obtained by dividing A by 0.92 A, which equals 1/0.92 or approximately 109 %.
The home valued at $54,000 has 1 1/5 the value of the $45,000 home. Since the one valued at $45,000 is taxed at $1,200, the tax on the $54,000 home should be 1 1/5 × $1,200, or $1,200 + 1/5 ($1,200), which is $1,200 + $240 = $1,440.
8. Translate into English
1) Пятьдесят одна книга.
2) Сто человек.
3) Триста семьдесят одно заявление.
4) Шестьсот человек.
5) Миллион алых роз.
6) Сотни людей приезжают сюда ежегодно.
7) 427 520
8) 2 000 покупателей.
9) Двадцать один день.
10) 23 000.
11) 1 250.
12) Тысяча первый турист.
13) Англия выиграла футбольный матч 4 : 0.
14) Пятьдесят килограммов.
15) Триста автомобилей.
16) Шестьдесят один грамм.
17) Два миллиона двести тысяч сто одна тонна.
18) Сотни ящиков.
19) Три тысячи один рубль.
20) Трое моих друзей.
Spell out the numbers
1) 503; 2) 6,015; 3) 7,140; 4) 1,910; 5) 2,106.
Render the ways of reading the dates in speech
1) 1900; 2) 1984; 3) 1601; 4) 2000; 5)2003
Give ordinals to the following cardinals
1) one 2) three 3) five 4) nine 5) twelve 6) nineteen 7) forty 8) one hundred 9) one hundred and one 10) four hundred
Translate into English. Spell out the numbers when necessary
1) В библиотеке два миллиона книг.
2) Миллионы людей будут наблюдать за Олимпийскими играми в Греции.
3) «Миллион алых роз» – ее любимая песня.
4) Я поеду десятым автобусом.
5) Откройте книгу на странице 57.
6) 1001 ночь.
7) У Джона третья часть, а у меня две трети акций.
8) Седьмая глава самая интересная.
9) 5245 голосов было для него достаточно, чтобы победить в выборах.
10) Работа завершена на 9
11) 210 гостей прибыли из разных частей страны.
12) Дюжины яблок лежали под деревом.
13) 11 000 человек составляют население этого города.
14) Ему было только 54, но он выглядел очень старым.
15) Я уже прочитал более 450 страниц.
16) Это случилось в 309 году до нашей эры.
17) Он зарабатывает более миллиона в год.
18) Ей где-то от 40 до 50 лет.
19) Они остались на полчаса.
20) Две трети населения проголосовали за него.
K E Y S
1) I could read when I was four years old, but I couldn’t write very well.
2) His writing was so bad that I could not read his letter at first, but with an effort I was able to make out what he said.
3) We couldn’t afford to pay for our journey across Africa, but we were able to make it in the end because the bicycle firm could lend us the money.
4) When he arrived in Africa, no one could tell Stanley if Livingstone was alive or dead, but after a long journey, we were able to find him.
5) He can’t have been puzzled by such a simple question.
6) She can’t have been making notes of what he said.
7) He can’t possibly feel more dead than alive.
8) She can’t be keeping to a milk diet.
9) He can’t have been cured of pneumonia so quickly.
10) Where can Silvia be hiding? – I’m looking for her everywhere!
11) May go to Italy
12) May buy a Sedan
13) She may be at her musical classes
14) He may be having his shower
15) He may be out
16) She may be meeting with her friends
17) She might have been crying.
18) She might be interviewed.
19) He might have got a cold.
20) She might be giving injections to the patients.
21) may 22) may, 23) may, 24) could, 25) could, 26) can’t, 27) have been able to, 28) was able to, 29) can.
30) She must have been quite unconscious.
31) The telegram, probably, didn’t come in time.
32) She must have been very careless.
33) They must have misinformed us about the road.
34) The students can’t have passed the tests. They must have misunderstood the rules.
35) The dog, probably, didn’t recognise his master.
36) He wasn’t, probably, very experienced in sailing navigation.
37) The doctor must be examining the patient.
38) She must be preparing her report now.
39) I will not bother you any longer; you must be tired of my talking.
40) Nancy must have been giving her impressions of England for an hour already.
41) They must have been treating him for pneumonia for a month.
42) You must have failed to recognize me, and that is why, you didn’t come up to me.
43) You must have never tried to do it, otherwise you wouldn’t say it was easy.
44) She must have got ill, otherwise she would have been at her office.
45) It must be more difficult than you believed.
46) The light is not on in the house. There must be no one in again.
47) I must be off.
48) You have got many mistakes. You must pay more attention to your grammar.
49) This problem must be dealt with immediately.
50) We had to stop at the frontier but we didn’t need to open our cases.
51) We didn’t need to walk. He took us in his car.
52) My employer said, ‘I won’t need your work tomorrow’.
53) Most people think that civil servants do not need to work very hard.
54) Need we vote?
55) They were to have started on Saturday but they changed their minds and started on Sunday.
56) She was to have worn that nice dress at the party but she has burnt it while ironing.
57) He was to have joined us in our trip but something urgent came up in his office.
58) They were to have treated me to a ballet but I caught a cold and didn’t go.
59) He was to have taken his child fishing but they went to a picnic.
60) She was to have kept her birthday party but that day she was away.
61) Needn’t, 62) Mustn’t, 63) Must hurry; mustn’t, 64) Had to, 65) Have to, 66) Needn’t.
67) Tom shouldn’t have driven on the wrong side of the road.
68) He should have been careful while crossing the road.
69) She should have hired a taxi.
70) She shouldn’t have left her umbrella at home.
71) Why shouldn’t you go to the dean’s office to tell him all about your problems in your group? /Why should I go to the dean’s office?
72) Why shouldn’t you go to the station to meet your friend?
73) Why shouldn’t you want to help your friend?
74) How should I know the reasons?
75) To think that it should have happened!
Unit 10, 11
76) Would, 77) Shall, would, 78) Shall, 79) Won’t, 80) Shall not, 81) Shall, 82) Would.
83) She must have lost her address.
84) You ought to follow my advice.
85) To think that she should have accepted that offer.
86) Why should I do this?
87) To think that it should have come to this!
88) It is queer that such troubles should have happened to her.
89) If you should see Ann, tell her all about it.
90) You shall listen to my orders!
91) Can't she have failed to get my letter?
92) You might have asked your sister's advice (consulted your sister).
93) He might be afraid of being given an injection.
94) I needn't have waited for the end of this programme.
95) We settled (agreed) that you were not to say anything!
96) You shall not move! You shall stay were you are!
97) He might have been taken into hospital.
98) This will be the house, I hope (I think).
99) She doesn't have to be present during our conversation.
100) Why should I speak to her?!
1) Will have to; 2) haven’t been able to make; 3) had to get; 4) wasn’t allowed to; 5) haven’t been allowed to work; 6) have had to report.
1) should 2) couldn’t 3) can’t 4) can 5) could 6) shouldn’t 7) may 8) should 9) shall 10) may 11) couldn’t 12) should 13) should
1) should 2) will have to 3) Must 4) Must 5) Should have 6) Must 7) will have to 8) should 9) should 10) had to
1) may, 2) must, 3) mustn’t 4) mustn’t, 5) may, 6) could, 7) couldn’t, 8) may, 9) may, 10) can, 11) can’t have taken, 12) must, 13) may have left, 14) must have met
1-a 2-b 3-b 4-b 5-a 6-b.
1) It is odd that the new trainee should hand in his notice already.
2) It is normal that some students should feel a little homesick in their first week here.
3) It is incredible that he should complain now, right at the end of his course? .
4) It is important that children should be taught the difference between right and wrong.
5) It is strange that she should have left without saying anything.
6) It is not insisted that you should let your feelings run away with you.
7) A bystander warned that we should go to the police.
Could /might; can’t; can; must; mustn’t/shouldn’t/oughtn’t to; might/could; will have to; will; ought to; should; might / could; might; should ; needn’t; will/shall; shall; must; would; mustn’t/can’t; must/should/ought to; won’t; should/ought to; would; will
1) Can 2) Is not able 3) Can 4) Could. Can 5) Can, can’t 6) Couldn’t 7) Was able to 8) Managed to 9) Couldn’t 10) Managed to
11) Can you see that man over there?
12) I can smell something burning.
13) I could understand.
14) Could you understand?
15) I can’t see anything.
16) I could skate before I was five.
17) I hope one day we can meet again in more favourable circumstances.
18) It can be very cold here in March.
19) Some supermarket beef can be rather tough.
20) In the end we could communicate with a sign language.
21) If you don’t feel you can make a contribution, just say so.
22) Could 23) was able to 24) to be able to 25) can 26) be able to
27) may 28) can 29) may 30) might 31) might 32) could.
33) You might have had the prescription made up on the way home:
34) You might have warned me about a change in the time-table.
35) You might have come to see me when I was ill.
36) You might have bought some oranges at the market.
37) You might have been more polite to the aged.
38) You might have stopped interfering in my affairs.
39) Irene may have taken it with her.
40) She may have gone to a dentist.
41) I may have been keeping to a strict diet of salads and very little meat too long.
42) His pain may have been bothering him too long.
43) He must have got all he needed.
44) She must be ill.
45) The boy must be reading something funny. He was smiling all the time.
46) The hotel rates must be very high in summer.
47) Jim must be taken ill with flue.
48) They must have never realized what opportunity they were losing.
49) He is certain to put up at a hotel.
50) They will probably come and see me here.
51) You will probably see the ceremony with your own eyes.
52) Penny is certain to be x-rayed tomorrow.
53) ‘You’ll probably see Westminster Abbey and Westminster Palace with its largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben. ’
54) He is certain to give you a piece of advice
55) Evidently, they won’t visit London next year.
62) You needn’t have bought…….
65) You needn’t have come and picked me up; I could have got a taxi.
66) You needn’t have slept on the ………
67) I needn’t have used cash; I had my credit card with me after all.
68) a)It wasn’t arranged; b)it was an unfulfilled action.
69) a)It was an arranged plan; b)it was an unfulfilled action in the past.
70) Mustn’t 71) Will have to 72) Needn’t have come 73) Was 74) Was 75) Must 76) will have to
77) ~ He suggested that I should go to Italy.
78) ~ She ordered that I should stay in bed
79) ~ She advised that I shouldn’t work so hard.
80) ~ Why should I do it?
81) ~ How should I know him?
82) ~ If you should see her, tell her all about it.
Unit 9, 10, 11
83) should 84) shall not/will not 85) shouldn’t 86) won’t 87) will 88) will 89) shall 90) shall 91) should 92) should 93) will 94) will
95) He shouldn’t have kept us waiting
96) This issue should have been solved long ago.
97) You ought to pay more attention to this work. It is very important
98) He suggested that the meeting should be held at 5 o’clock.
99) We insisted that they three should leave the city.
100) Accidents will happen.
MOOD. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
1. 1) с 2) a 3) c 4) a 5) c 6) b 7) a 8) c 9) a 10) b
2. 11) see, will tell 12) don’t hurry, will miss 13) go, shall take 14) receives, will phone 15) as soon as 16) unless 17) phone, will pick 18) changed would earn 19) lived, would do 20) stay, will get
3. 21) would say 22) told 23) would say 24) were 25) would think 26) were 27) saved 28) wouldn’t be 29) planned 30) planned 31) would have better 32) had 33) wouldn’t go 34) would buy 35) would feel 36) wouldn’t buy 37) gave 38) wouldn’t enjoy 39) were able 40) would be 41) knew 42) wouldn’t like 43) will go 44) wouldn’t say 45) were 46) care 47) will see 48) would like
4. 49) had come, would have seen 50) would meet, didn’t go 51) hadn’t known, would have married 52) would have been, had happened 53) had been, would have gone 54) had come, would have enjoyed 55) would have got 56) had known, wouldn’t get 57) had been, wouldn’t be able 58) had been, wouldn’t have been
6. 64) had left 65) would have been 66) hadn’t done 67) would have had 68) were 69) would steal 70) thought 71) would leave
72) he turned up (would turn up) 73) if only all my money hadn’t been lost 74) he had 75) it were snowing (it weren’t snowing) 76) you had kept 77) would come 78) would go 79) hadn’t done 80) stopped 81) you would come
82) I wish it wouldn’t rain tomorrow.
83) If you had phoned me yesterday, I would have taken your books.
84) I shall let my son go there, if he gives up this idea.
85) I wish you could understand it.
86) If I were you, I wouldn’t pay so much attention to this problem.
87) I wish it weren’t so cold today.
88) If you had taken this medicine, you would be well today.
89) We’ll be staying in the café while they are going shopping.
90) He wouldn’t have failed his exam if he had worked harder.
91) I’ll send him a telegram if he doesn’t come tomorrow.
92) I wish she had already arrived.
93) I’ll address him until I have found the solution of this problem.
94) He wished he knew the girl’s address.
95) If I were you, I would have never spoken to her in such a tone.
96) If she didn’t love him, she wouldn’t have followed him.
97) He was the first to speak I wish you had heard him speaking.
98) Now they are laughing at me. I wish I hadn’t shown them these poems.
99) If you had warned me beforehand I would have never gone there.
100) I wish they hadn’t parted. They had always been a nice couple.
1) so long 2) unless 3) provided (that)/as long as/so long as 4) in case 5) provided (that)/as long as/so long as 6) supposing 7) provided (that) 8) provided (that)
1) had got, wouldn’t need 2) had listened/had been listening, would have heard 3) would have had, hadn’t left 4) were, wouldn’t keep on 5) hear, think 6) stand, will be 7) hold, will be 8) would climb, could get 9) sees/saw, will/would call 10) would make, didn’t worry 11) move, will be 12) hadn’t been/weren’t, wouldn’t have broken
1) d 2) f 3) I 4) b 5) e 6) c 7) h 8) j
. 9) a 10) g 11) a 12) c 13) a 14) b 15) b 16) a 17) b 18) a
19) would visit 20) correct 21) had 22) is 23) wouldn’t have missed 24) had 25) had been 26) correct 27) hadn’t decided 28) hadn’t gone
29) were 30) would you choose 31) would get 32) didn’t have 33) would have 34) would be able 35) would you try 36) managed 37) would try 38) would try 39) tried 40) would fall 41) had 42) would want 43) would you catch 44) didn’t have 45) would be 46) wouldn’t hurt 47) didn’t eat 48) would either of you be 49) would find 50) didn’t speak 51) would enjoy 52) would begin
53) She wouldn’t have fallen, if it had not been so slippery.
54) If I were you, I would have been chosen the green one.
55) Our team would have won the game, if they had trained a lot.
56) He would have come to your place, if he hadn’t been ill.
58) I wish it were summer now.
59) I wish I had been not so modest.
60) If only I hadn’t been made redundant.
61) If you were not so busy we would go out.
62) I would have never thought it had been possible if I hadn’t seen this with my own eyes.
63) If only he were here.
64) Such a strange thought would have never come to my mind but for the suspicious behavior of this man.
65) But for you I would have never written this article.
66) I would feel so awkward now if I had followed the advice of this man.
67) But for you I would have never managed this work.
68) Even if I kept the letters I would never show them to you.
69) If he knew you were in hospital now, he would surely visit you.
70) I will tell him all the news as soon as I see him.
71) In case (on condition) you pay more attention to the language, you’ll achieve much success.
72) If I were you, I would always speak English.
73) If I were there, I would ring Ann.
74) If I see Con, I’ll ask her to phone you.
75) If I had known it would rain, you should have taken an umbrella with you.
76) Charles would write you if he knew your address.
77) If you hadn’t phoned Carol, everything would be all right.
78) I wish we hadn’t come so late.
79) Even if she had got a bad mark for her exam, she would have gone with us.
80) Sue would look more attractive if she changed the haircut.
81) If I were you, I wouldn’t go there.
82) I wish you had taken this possibility.
83) You wouldn’t have missed this train if you had taken a taxi.
84) What are you going to do tomorrow? If the weather is nice, we’ll go to the beach.
85) He won’t come if his sister isn’t better.
86) If he were not so absent-minded he wouldn’t have lost his books.
87) Even if he had passed the exam he wouldn’t have gone to the theatre with us.
88) We wouldn’t have gone to this shop if we had known the prices.
89) Alice wouldn’t give me such presents if she didn’t love me.
90) What would you buy if you were given a thousand dollars?
91) I wish all the tickets hadn’t been sold yet.
92) If I were you, I would have checked the facts before writing the letter.
93) You’ll see him together with Paula if you stay for some time.
94) You would have never entered the Historical Faculty if you didn’t like History.
95) I will be able to buy the books on condition you lend me some money.
96) I wish she could go to London with us.
97) You should have told him the truth. You wouldn’t have had such an unpleasantness.
98) If you listened to your father’s opinion, you wouldn’t have got into trouble.
99) I wish my parents saw this.
100) On condition my son studies well, I’ll buy him a new bicycle.
SEQUENCE OF TENSES AND REPORTED SPEECH
1) didn’t know 2) knew 3) moves 4) were travelling 5) had got 6) will be put off 7) was 8) would mature 9) would travel 10) would be still working up
11) Tessa said (that) there is/was too much violence on TV.
12) He said to her (that) if the taxi-driver arrived late she would miss her flight.
13) Sam said (that) he would travel abroad if he had enough money.
14) Mrs Brown said to her husband (that) she had been shopping and added that she had bought him a pair of nice shoes.
15) He said to her (that) he had eaten nothing for two days and was dying of hunger.
16) She said (that) the Earth is a planet.
17) He told the reporters (that) he had been training hard recently.
18) She complained that while the workers had been repairing the roof, they had broken the bathroom window.
19) Jim said (that) he thought he had failed the Intelligence Test.
20) He complained that Sarah never listened to him.
21) Olivia said (that) they were the boys who had chased her.
22) She said (that) she had been waiting for a long time.
23) They said (that) they had come by car.
24) Margaret said (that) she had finished the letters you had asked her to write.
25) She said to her husband (that) her money had run out.
26) He said to her (that) he had been waiting for her in the hall.
27) He said to me today (that) he is/was going to Lancaster in May.
28) She said to him (that) she had gone to a bullfight during her stay in Spain.
29) He said (that) he tried to avoid working overtime.
30) She said to him (that) the baby would probably be walking and talking by the next time he came.
31) She said to him (that) she was going to tell the whole story to the police.
32) He said (that) he had bought a present for her.
33) He said (that) his friend collects/collected unusual ashtrays.
34) She said to me (that) we would get on well together.
35) Martin said (that) it had been a wonderful party.
36) He inquired if/whether I had ever been to Europe.
37) He asked her how long she was planning to stay in Britain.
38) He asked how much money I had brought for my stay.
39) She asked me who had paid the bill.
40) She inquired if/whether I had heard the news on the radio.
41) She asked him which countries John would be visiting.
42) She asked him where John’s sister worked.
43) She wanted to know if/whether we would be coming to the concert or not.
44) He asked her why those old men were singing.
45) He requested what had made her smile.
46) He asked what she had been holding in her left hand.
47) She asked her what her husband was interested in.
48) He asked if/whether I liked the boy that was talking to Julia.
49) She asked him if/whether Bill had shown the kitchen plans to him yet.
50) He asked me what I was doing those days.
51) He asked how long we had both been living (t)here.
52) He asked him who had left the bag (t)here.
53) He asked her what she would be doing that time the next day.
54) She asked the teacher when they would know the exam results.
55) He asked where I got my daily paper.
56) He wondered what made a noise like that.
57) He asked if/whether we had had a long argument on that point.
58) She asks which newspaper carried the article.
59) She asked him if/whether the boys had looked smart in their school uniforms.
60) He asked if/whether I liked Chinese food.
61) They offered to pay for the damage.
62) Mum reminded me to do the washing-up.
63) He proposed to send some money to David.
64) He promised to finish/that he would finish the work by the end of the week.
65) He asked if/whether he could speak to the manager.
66) She advised her not to throw old wine away as/because she could always use it for cooking.
67) She advised to warm the tea-leaves before they used them to make tea taste better.
68) She advised him to phone the police.
69) The professor asked the student to go and see him after the lecture.
70) Laura insisted on having a rest.
71) Paul agreed not to talk about tennis.
72) Clara invited us to have a drink.
73) He wanted to know if/whether to talk/he should talk to him.
74) He suggested going/ (that) they (should) go to the mountains the following weekend.
75) She begged him not to tell mother.
76) Frank accused Ann of lying/having lied to him.
77) He forbade Jim to offer a cigar to Al.
78) She asked him to pass the spinach.
79) Dad threatened to punish/that he would punish the boy if he behaved badly.
80) Steve apologised for forgetting to call me.
81) Martin boasted about/of being the best volleyball player in the school.
82) She warned him to drive carefully.
83) She admitted (to) taking/having taken/that she had taken the documents.
84) She offered to help me with the cooking.
85) He commanded the soldiers to stand to attention.
86) She said (that) we should do as we were told.
87) He wanted to know how he should have answered.
88) She told him (that) they could/would be able to meet the following week.
89) She said to them (that) she might call them.
90) He asked them how he should start the investigation.
91) He offered to carry the bag.
92) She told him (that) he had to be back at ten sharp.
93) She said (that) he must be a liar.
94) He said (that) I needn’t/didn’t need to/didn’t have to feed the dog as he had already done that.
95) She said (that) I had better phone him.
96) He said (that) he could run very fast when he was a boy.
97) He told her (that) she might leave early.
98) She said (that) one day she would be able to afford a car.
99) He said (that) I ought to send them a letter of apology.
100) He asked her if/whether she had to walk all the way home.
a-11, b-5, c-14, d-7, e-10, f-12, g-13, h-15, i-2, j-6, k-3, l-8, m-1, n-4, o-16, p-9.
1) He wanted to know when the next bus left and added (that) he needed to get to the station on time.
2) She told him not to go swimming in the lake explaining that the water was filthy.
3) She suggested going/(that) they should go shopping the following day because the sales had started.
4) The teacher ordered the pupils to stand up since the headmaster was coming.
5) She begged him not to take her ring as it was a present.
6) Mother wanted to know where Martin had been as it was very late.
7) He offered to cook the dinner for her as she looked very tired.
8) She asked him to stop making noise explaining that she couldn’t concentrate.
9) She admitted (to) breaking/having broken/that she had broken his vase while she had been cleaning the shelf.
10) He asked if/whether he could use the car explaining that he needed to run some errands.
11) He apologised for being late. He said that his car wouldn’t start.
12) She told him not to tease his sister because it made her unhappy.
13) He invited her to come to the party and added that everyone would love to see her.
14) He claimed that Rob had broken the window while he had been kicking the football.
15) The boss asked Jane to give him the latest reports that he needed badly.
16) Karen advised Anthony to apply for a job adding that it was really good.
17) He complained that he had lost his passport and asked what he should do.
18) Mum reminded me to buy some milk since we had run out of it.
19) She forbade me to stay out late.
20) The old man complained that no one ever came to see him adding that it made him feel lonely.
1) Frank claimed that he hadn’t stolen the car.
2) She asked if/whether she might have a piece of pie.
3) He agreed to tell him about the accident.
4) The boss insisted on having/that he should have the report by the next day.
5) Jim begged his mother to let him go to the party.
6) Ted promised his father not to be/that he wouldn’t be naughty again.
7) The sergeant commanded the soldier to stand up straight.
8) He admitted (to) robbing/having robbed/that he had robbed the bank.
9) She explained that she hadn’t come to work because she had been ill.
10) He suggested playing/that they (should) play chess.
11) He apologised for forgetting to phone her.
12) She reminded him to go to the bank.
13) She advised her to relax more.
14) She complained that Mark was always shouting at her.
15) He admitted that it was a nice dress.
16) He offered Tracy to carry her bag.
17) Bill refused to do Graham’s homework.
18) She accused her friend of scratching/having scratched her record.
19) The salesman threatened to phone/that he would phone the police if he didn’t leave immediately.
20) She agreed to lend Tom her car.
21) He admitted (to) killing/having killed/that he had killed his wife.
22) She promised to phone/that she would phone me as soon as she arrived.
23) She admitted that she was beautiful.
24) She refused to marry John.
25) He threatened to shoot/that he would shoot the prisoner if he tried to escape.
26) He suggested having/ that they (should) have chicken for dinner.
27) She insisted that Mr Harrison should sign the contract.
28) He threatened to punish/that he would punish the boy if he did it again.
29) She offered to show me how to use that computer.
30) He admitted that it was a good idea.
1) answered 2) did 3) wanted to know 4) to know 5) could 6) give 7) could 8) added 9) would be/was 10) to go 11) ask/to ask 12) to come 13) speak/to speak 14) would wait 15) didn’t come 16) wasn’t 17) hadn’t asked 18) hadn’t done 19) answered 20) had told 21) wanted 22) explained 23) had told
1) to 2) being 3) so 4) to 5) to 6) if 7) that 8) do 9) that 10) on
1) they 2) that/if/whether 3) she 4) to 5) didn’t 6) had 7) wouldn’t/didn’t 8) if/whether 9) wanted/needed/had 10) next/following/same
“Why did you do it?” “You are obviously guilty.” “Look at me when I’m speaking to you.” “Are you sorry for what you have done?” “The bank manager is still in hospital.” “You will go to prison for a long time for this crime.” “Do you have anything to say in your defense?” “Take him away.”
1) told 2) are/were 3) me 4) is/was 5) leave/left 6) advised 7) not to make 8) said 9) went 10) (had) recently checked out 11) (had) objected 12) was 13) was leaving 14) told 15) said/protested, etc. 16) said/pointed out, etc. 17) was/is
1) what to do/what they should do 2) advised them to shovel 3) told them not to leave 4) how to get rid/how we should get rid 5) what to do/what we should do
1-d, 2-e, 3-g, 4-b, 5-i, 6-h, 7-a, 8-f, 9-j, 10-c.
1) She threatened to leave/that she would leave if he did it again.
2) She announced that she was going to read out the results.
3) He asked the waiter to bring the wine list.
4) The waiter answered that he would bring it right away.
5) He boasted that their team would beat ours.
6) She begged them to give her another chance.
7) She whispered that the baby was sleeping.
8) She claimed that she was innocent of all the charges.
9) He explained that first of all I should press the button.
10) She shouted to us that the water was deep.
1) miss 2) had cost 3) had enjoyed 4) go 5) make 6) had sent 7) was snowing 8) had 9) had bought 10) were planning 11) would give 12) would love 13) would think
1) She suggested going/that we (should) go for a walk.
2) The accused claimed that he hadn’t been anywhere near the scene of the crime.
3) My friend said (that) they had lived in Chicago two years before and explained that his father had worked there.
4) She explained that the swallows returned every spring and flew past her window.
5) He asked his son to answer the phone because he was having a shower.
6) The boy insisted that he had given him his homework the week before.
7) Billy asked if/whether his dad could go and pick him up from school that day.
8) He advised his friend not to drink so much.
9) Joan said (that) she wouldn’t help him as he hadn’t helped her. Joan refused to help him explaining that he hadn’t helped her.
10) He said (that) he would bring it back the following day. He promised to bring it back the following day.
1-b, 2-d, 3-c, 4-c, 5-a, 6-b, 7-b, 8-d, 9-b, 10-d, 11-a, 12-c, 13-a, 14-b, 15-b, 16-c, 17-a, 18-c, 19-d.
2) promised to send
3) threatened not to talk
4) invited us
5) exclaimed that it was
6) apologised for being
7) insisted on my staying
8) refused to give Sue
9) suggested looking
10) denied taking
11) reminded me to switch
12) admitted (to) reading/having read/that she had read
13) accused Phil of drinking/having drunk
14) suggested (that) we should
15) agreed to stay
16) ordered the man to drop
17) why I was making
18) offered to give me
19) claimed to have seen/that she had seen
20) whether I could lend
1) He boasted that he could speak four languages fluently.
2) He suggested going/that we (should) go to the exhibition of modern art that day.
3) She advised him not to take up wind-surfing at his age.
4) The man claimed that the computer I was using was his property.
5) The boy admitted (to) breaking/having broken/that he had broken the windows with the ball.
6) The man threatened to make/that he would make the boy stay in after school if he caught him cheating again.
7) A young man whispered that he would always love her.
8) He warned the thieves that the police had already thrown a cordon round the bank and that all the means of escape had been cut off.
9) The student muttered that the professor didn’t know what he was talking about.
10) She exclaimed that it was a great surprise to meet him (t)here that day.
11) He agreed that if everything went on like that they couldn’t go.
12) She insisted on my/me coming/that I should come the next day if I couldn’t stay with them any longer that day.
1) said 2) tell 3) say 4) said 5) told 6) said 7) tells 8) tell,say 9) told 10) tell
1) David ordered Eric to get out of his house.
2) The man next to me smiled and asked to watch his dog for a minute.
3) Jane’s daughter wanted to know if/whether she could borrow her blue sweater.
4) I advised Joanne to ask for more information.
5) The doctor told Ann to breath in and out through her mouth.
6) The doctor advised Anne to see a specialist.
7) My mother rang up and asked if/whether I could come a little bit earlier.
8) Gerry asked Claire if/whether she could lend him five pounds till Monday.
9) The big man asked his friend not to tell anyone else.
10) The lawyer advised Tom to ask for a second opinion.
11) Fiona invited us to have a drink.
12) Sam said that his boss wanted him to go to London the following day.
13) The man asked him what would happen if the police found out.
14) Peter told me two days ago that he is/was going to Austria in May.
15) He wondered if/whether I knew that no woman had ever been elected President of the United States.
16) He says that most of the businesses in their town are owned by local people now.
17) A boy asked his father in a zoo if/whether the giraffe got a sore throat if it got wet feet.
18) She said that she had finished her work.
19) She asked him angrily why he was looking at her like that.
20) His mother forbids him to play with the matches.
21) He complained that he had forgotten to bring his lunch with him.
22) She asked her husband if/whether he would be home soon.
23) Father told the children to go to bed immediately.
24) Tim promised his father to clean/that he would clean the car the next day.
25) Gary asked his wife where she had been.
26) He informed me that he had been working for the same company since 1960.
27) She wanted to know if/whether I knew Garfield.
28) She asked me to tell her the exchange rate for dollars and pounds.
29) He agreed to talk to her.
30) Jane said that Jack never seemed low or depressed.
31) He denied using/having used my computer.
32) He refused to do it.
33) He suggested strolling along the sea-front for an hour or two.
34) She begged to give her some money.
35) He thanked the boy for cleaning his car.
36) He offered to carry her bag.
37) My mother warned us not to ignore traffic lights while crossing the street.
38) She asked her son to be back before eleven.
39) He said that he had just been in a race and was very thirsty.
40) He complained to his friend that he wanted an ice-cream, but he had no money.
41) She said that she was very hungry as she hadn’t eaten all day.
42) He wondered if/whether I was going to measure his feet.
43) She asked him to try those shoes on while she served someone else.
44) He gave an exclamation of surprise when he unwrapped the present.
45) He inquired what we were going to do next.
46) She said that she wouldn’t have got a ticket if she hadn’t parked her car on a double yellow line.
47) He asked me if I expected that the missing people had survived.
48) He said that Andrew had better not drive in his condition.
49) Joan allowed her children to wear anything they wanted as long as it was clean and comfortable.
50) She accused him of always lying to her.
51) He agreed to meet her at the station.
52) He boasted about/of being /that he was the cleverest in their group.
53) He reminded her to call at her parents.
54) She complained of spending/having spent/that she had spent 20 minutes looking for a parking place.
55) Ann inquired when she could hand in her resignation.
56) She promised to telephone/that she would telephone me that evening.
57) She wanted to know what I would do if I couldn’t find my keys.
58) He promised to tell/that he would tell me as soon as he knew.
59) He said that he wanted to change his job.
60) She said to him that when she was with him she couldn’t stop laughing.
61) She asked the boss if/whether she should come to work early the next day.
62) She said that she was not very interested in discussing his problems.
63) The doctor forbade me to take more than two pills at once.
64) She insisted on my/me taking a holiday/that I should take a holiday as I looked exhausted.
65) She said to her parents that she would like to live alone.
66) Jim admitted that he might have taken the paper.
67) She denied doing/having done/that she had done it.
68) He advised to ask the bus-driver to tell me where to get off.
69) Frank and Susan announced that they were going to get married.
70) She admitted (to) telling/having told/that he had told her the secret.
71) He informed them that he couldn’t give an answer, until he heard from his bank.
72) She reminded me to put the lights out when I went to bed.
73) He warned me not to try to get off the train when it was moving.
74) She said that he must be hungry as he hadn’t eaten for hours.
75) He exclaimed that he had passed his exam.
76) He offered to help her with that.
77) She said that Jack had had a terrible car accident the week before.
78) Beatrice said to her daughter that she had a very sweet tooth.
79) She asked how long we had lived at our present address.
80) He said he preferred staying/to stay at home.
81) She accused him of behaving/having behaved in a cowardly manner.
82) She denied that she had promised to lend him any money.
83) Helen agreed to go to the cinema with me because she hadn’t seen the film and wanted to see it very much.
84) The officer ordered the soldiers to wait for him there.
85) He wanted to know how I traveled to work.
86) She remarked that they mustn’t give up.
87) He admitted that he ought to have helped her.
88) She said that she had seen my mother the day before adding that she was looking fine.
89) Dad threatened to punish the boy if he behaved badly.
90) She asked him if/whether he had ever seen an iceberg.
91) She advised him not to run until two hours after eating.
92) He warned us not to get out of a car before it stopped.
93) She complained that they were always talking about politics.
94) She asked him to put the kettle on.
95) He informed us that he was going to hitchhike to Scotland.
96) He asked her if/whether she had to walk all the way home.
97) She wondered if/whether I had skated the winter before.
98) She told us that their house had been burgled the previous night.
99) She said that Katy had just bought herself a red leather jacket.
100) She offered to tell them how to get to their place.
VERBALS ( NONFINITE FORMS OF THE VERB )
1) to provide 2) get out 3) keep 4) have 5) try 6) deal 7) to get 8) laugh 9) to be talking 10) to be watched 11) to have scored 12) to have had 13) to translate 14) ring 15)to have had) 16) for me to read 17) of a play to be performed
18) with doing 19) with me for bringing 20) being congratulated 21)speaking/having spoken 22 coming / having come 23) talking 24) by observing 25) of my forgetting 26) in basing 27) in running 28) having seen 29) to inform 30) saying/having said 31) being included 32) against buying 33) in copying
34) stolen 35) taking 36) seen 37) being repaired 38) employing 39) spoilt 40) possessed 41) being dressed 42) (when/while) trying 43) made 44) to be convened 45) beating 46) being drawn 47) being 48) set 49) not touching 50) having fallen
51) I think I had better ask how to get to the square not to get lost.
52) The rebels let the reporter walk around the camp and take photographs.
53) The advert is supposed to appear tomorrow. So we’ll know all the details.
54) The roads are wet. It must have been raining in the night.
55) I’d prefer to stay at home rather than go to a restaurant. I have a headache.
56) What makes him sign this contract?
57) Why not speak English? Everyone here understands it.
58) There was nothing for her to do but confess.
58) When the financial statement was brought and the director looked it through he couldn’t but get angry.
60) The only interest of big companies is to get more profit.
61) There are a lot of things in the world to make you unhappy.
62) She stepped back for me to pass.
63) I’d like you to explain me this rule.
64) Nobody expected them to leave so early.
65) They felt her voice tremble.
66) I’m sorry to have caused trouble.
67) My sister is said to look like me.
68) The fire is sure to cause panic on the ship.
69) The members of the Board are supposed to come to an agreement.
70) The book seems to be very popular among readers.
71) The glass parts of the furniture seem likely to have been broken during transportation.
72) He is known to have a different opinion on the subject.
73) The building appeared to have been damaged during the explosion of the neighbouring house.
74) I realised that my neighbours were difficult to deal with.
75) I’ll call a taxi for you not to be late.
76) It’s important for the documents to arrive on time.
77) Frankly speaking, I don’t mind staying here.
78) The only remedy for not being bored was walking with Ann in the garden.
79) She won’t be able to live without seeing you.
80) Do you mind stopping at a cafe to have a bite?
81) She was fond of arranging parties.
82) It kept raining heavily outside.
83) He was born with the gift of feeling beauty.
84) On waking up she went straight into the garden.
85) He succeeded in making a good impression on her.
86) That position was worth fighting for.
87) It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
88) In examining the crime scene important physical evidence was found.
89) The wallpaper needs changing.
90) She denied meeting/having met Richard in the park.
91) He was accused of committing crime.
92) She is fed up with looking for a job.
93) The articles published in this journal do not refer to the topic of your research work.
94) Existing methods of medical research differ greatly from those used ten years ago.
95) If you have your hair dyed, it will look much better.
96) Though arrived, the mail didn’t contain the information awaited.
97) She spoke as if being a great expert.
98) She heard the witness pronouncing her name.
99) Minsk is a big city, its population making about two million people.
100) Minsk is smaller compared to Moscow or London.
1) –, to 2) to 3) to 4) – 5) to 6) – 7) - 8) to, - 9) – 10) -,- 11) - .
1) to be waiting 2) to be admired 3) to have, to have been gained 4) to have sharpened 5) to attract, to be attracted 6) to have been exhausted 7) to be watching, to make 8) to have put away 9) to be done 10) to guess 11) to see 12) to accept 13) to be standing 14) to be ignored 15) to do
1) It was pleasant to be walking in a shady garden on a hot July day.
2) To tell the truth, I’ve read this book in translation.
3) He knows English well enough to translate this article.
4) The first thing to be done is to write out the new words.
5) It’s no use arguing with you. You are very stubborn, not to say more.
6) It’s never late to admit your mistake.
7) The hunting appeared to be worse than they expected.
8) We want everyone to possess civil rights.
9) He seemed to love his children, but he was too light-minded to think of their future.
10) George and his sister happened to have been bought by one and the same man.
1) dressing 2) being 3) tightening 4) being 5) to fear 6) to have rescued 7) to understand 8) to have earned 9) not to be missed 10) to be appointed
1) from 2) without 3) to 4) to, for 5) - 6) for 7) - , instead of 8) - 9) for 10) for 11) in 12) on 13) for 14) - 15) of 16) by 17) without 18) - 19) to 20) to
1) It wasn’t sensible of me to be talking about it at dinner.
2) To find a good servant in this situation wasn’t easy.
3) Everything you planned to do is reasonable.
4) They were on the point of telling Trevor the thing he had feared to hear most of all.
5) He arranged for us to meet that evening.
6) For a while the company seemed to be standing on the edge of bankruptcy.
7) They accused Richard of having become head of the department without having any experience in cargo transportation.
8) Michael said something about her being a good lawyer and being able to cope with the case.
9) The member of the Board apologised for being late.
10) Jack was accused of receiving /having received the money using a forged passport.
11) He couldn’t remember sending the message.
12) Steve denied killing/having killed his friend.
1) concerned 2) hijacking 3) to be 4) well-informed 5) carrying 6) to pick up 7) being 8) parking 9) hijacking
1) hijacked 2) to lose 3) carrying 4) to stop 5) to get 6) to make 7) going 8) locking 9) to lock 10) locking 11) checking
1) separated 2) compared 3) waiting 4) separating 5) sitting 6) remaining 7) spaced-out 8) breaking 9) separated 10) filing 11) positioning 12) having 13)compared 14) to do
1) pattering 2) written 3) having garaged 4) left 5) affected 6) not being late 7) filled 8)having been 9) having been written 10) collected
1) being 2) unaltered, changed 3) tremble 4) pronounced 5) sent 6) permitting 7) talking 8) fixed 9) having
1) The man expecting you has come from the Middle East.
2) The man who was expecting you asked for your phone number.
3) The books ordered here are usually sent by post.
4) The man who ordered the books will arrive tomorrow.
5) He was too ill to get back to work within a month.
6) Though tired, he went to bed late.
7) It being very warm, the children slept in the open air.
8) The ship was sailing along the shore of the White Sea, hundreds of birds flying over it.
9) It was very dark, with not a single star being in the sky.
10) The sun set, the tourists made a fire.
11) Journalists and reporters are known world over for not showing proper respect to governments.
12) There exist state agencies formed to control public services.
1) of 2) on/after 3) to 4) to 5) to 6) of 7) in 8) by 9) with 10) in 11) – 12) for 13) without 14) – 15) to 16) in 17) when 18) by 19) if/when 20) while/- 21) after 22) as if 23) at 24) if 25) to 26) for 27) with
1) to comply 2) appreciate 3) to be examined 4) think 5) passing 6) being liked 7) swimming 8) being bred 9) to go 10) enter 11) to check 12) to drive 13) climb 14) answering 15) to be contacted 16) to kill 17) being chased 18) being afraid 19) having committed 20) quoted 21)to be restricted 22) to have been 23) preferred
1) Any organisation involved in business does two things: it provides goods and services needed by customers.
2) The conditions created at the enterprise will make work more efficient.
3) We won’t have the long-lasting prospects without securing the nearest future.
4) It’s sometimes worth including questions into the report.
5) It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
6) These activities are held to give the managers the possibility of seeing the real situation.
7) The company applies this technique for making /to make the best decisions.
8) The Board of Directors arrived at a compromise leaving themselves a part of the annual profit, the rest being paid as dividends.
9) There is a small number of customers looking through every advertisement before deciding where to buy.
10) If presented in a table, the data will give the General manager a clear idea.
11) (While) reading the paper, I heard somebody knock at the door.
12) The books ordered last month haven’t arrived yet.
13) The drawn conclusions are based on new discoveries.
14) The language spoken by those tribes appeared to be German.
15) The boy took the fifth amendment ensuring witness protection.
16) A lawyer possessing some information dangerous for mafia is likely to be threatened.
17) Having no proof that the boy had talked to the killed man on the topic having any relation to the case, the hearing was cancelled.
18) They didn’t want to be interrupted.
19) When do you expect the goods to arrive?
20) Paper bags are said to ensure good safety of products from cold.
21) The plan appeared to be very good.
22) He seems to know the cause of the firm’s debt.
23) They are likely to have concluded a contract.
24) The goods seem to have been damaged during the storm.
25) I heard the truck come to the house.
26) Nobody expected it to happen.
27) Mark’s family being in danger, the case required a special caution.
28) On closing the door of the sitting room, Ann waited a little being absorbed in her thoughts.
29) Hearing his steps, Ann ran downstairs to meet him.
30) Being very slender, Mr Scimp looked young.
31) Having worked for this company for some time, I knew about its problems.
32) She was silent looking at her hands.
33) It was said as if thinking aloud.
34) Generally speaking. I don’t consider myself to be an optimist.
35) When asked, Ann let them understand t5hat she wouldn’t utter a single word.
36) Her spirit though suppressed wasn’t broken.
37) Having read the notes of the lectures, Nick considered himself to be ready to take the exam.
38) On coming back after University he worked out the principles of selecting staff.
39) Having been in the position of the head of the department for seven years, he has kept the custom of talking to his staff in a polite manner.
40) She can’t stand being kept waiting.
41) She is bored with doing the same job every day.
42) The letter was illegible as if being written in a hurry.
43) The judge demanded that those present in the court should speak only when spoken to.
44) Though surprised at boss’s appearance at work at such early hour, we didn’t show it.
45) We would like the losses of your company to be officially confirmed.
46) Frankly speaking, we are not doing very well.
47) The telephone company takes a strategically important position, only Ameritech threatening its Western borders.
48) As shown above, this company is expected to get the money from private financial investments.
49) To put it differently, limited liability gives the company members greater security in case of bankruptcy.
50) The economy will appear in another recession phase, with less goods being produced.
1) b 2) a 3) c 4) a/b 5) c 6) b 7) b 8) a 9) a 10) b
11) a 12) b 13) c 14) a 15) c
16) b 17) a 18) b 19) c 20) b 21) c 22) a 23) a 24) b 25) a
26) c 27) b 28) a 29) c 30) a 31) c
32) having travelled 33) playing 34) being 35) judging 36) being stirred 37) turned 38) being absorbed 39) having dined 40) left 41) wanting 42) engaged 43) being 44) put 45) annoyed 46) told 47) determined 48) disapproving 49) reading 50) settle
51) I can’t but agree with you.
52) To tell the truth, I haven’t read this book.
53) He was the first to break the silence.
54) I didn’t expect you to leave so soon.
55) I always considered them to be my friends.
56) Nick saw her enter the reading hall.
57) The Romans are known to have built good roads and fortresses on the British Isles.
58) He is unlikely to be appointed the General accountant.
59) He seems to have been working at this article for two weeks.
60) This building is said to have been constructed in the 17th
61) The first thing we must do is to reserve tickets.
62) They are hard to please.
63) He was left without any money, and there was nobody to take care of him.
64) I wouldn’t like you to tell anyone what I have said.
65) I wanted to go to the concert yesterday, but it was impossible.
66) Would you mind my sitting in your room a little while?
67) When the verdict was pronounced, the accused couldn’t but cry.
68) I can’t remember lending you any money.
69) Sam didn’t expect Richard to jump into the waterfall.
70) Ann pretended not to have seen me when she met me in the street some days ago.
71) It is for the police to be involved in such cases as exceeding speed limit and careless driving.
72) The Queen has the power to prevent any politician from setting up dictatorship.
73) Have you got a complaint to put forward?
74) George invented a new machine which was known to be giving his master a good profit.
75) To put it mildly, he didn’t tell you the whole truth.
76) To cut the long story short, their fault hasn’t been proved.
77) Tracy couldn’t stand queuing for unemployment benefit.
78) The situation was so funny that nobody could help laughing.
79) My friends were fond of hitchhiking.
80) The director apologised for not keeping his promise.
81) At last I succeeded in passing my exam in economics.
82) I’m thinking of buying a new colour television set.
83) I was afraid of missing the train.
84) It’s no use calling him now. He is out.
85) Playing football takes all Steve’s spare time.
86) Creating new working places in this region will decrease the level of unemployment.
87) The attorney insisted on Mark’s testifying.
88) Jack got in touch with the bank to find out what sum of money remained on his current bank account.
89) He is known to be rather an experienced reporter to make bad mistakes in preparing an article for publishing.
90) Ten months passed after signing the contract.
91) What is the reason of your being dissatisfied?
92) In announcing the voting results there appeared dissatisfaction among the members of the Board of Directors.
93) The possibility of losing a job bothers many people used to the guarantee of employment.
94) These measures will give additional advantages of evaluating bank loans granted to industrial enterprises.
95) Both capital and skills possessed by people are the basis of ensuring public wealth.
96) Greece took measures ensuring its joining the European currency.
97) West-European law has the advantage of having been tested and appeared to be active.
98) You have the right to sell the company’s assets.
99) The success is usually guaranteed to the company which is the first to get the market niche.
100) The activity of any organisation is the activity of people aimed at achieving their goals.
1) seven hundred thousand
2) one thousand five hundred and two, or fifteen hundred and two
3) five hundred thousand and ninety-seven
4) two hundred and three thousand six hundred and ten
5) four thousand five hundred million seven hundred thousand
1) eleven hundred
2) nineteen ninety-nine
3) nineteen [ou] five
4) three thousand B. C. ; (or
thirty hundred B. C.)
5) two thousand and ten
1) second 2) fouth 3) fifth 4) eighth 5) ninth 6) eighteenth 7) nineteenth 8) twentieth 9) twenty-first 10) thirtieth
1) three hundred and twenty five (in US: three hundred twenty five)
2) seven hundred and nineteen (US: seven hundred nineteen)
3) three thousand and seventy seven (US: three thousand seventy-seven)
4) one/a hundred and one passengers
5) six hundred men
6) seven o five o; nine o
7) thirty – love
8) an eighth (or one eighth)
9) three eighths
10) one and four ninths
11) two-thirds of the population
12) two hundred and twenty over four hundred and eight
13) seven tenths of a mile.
14) nought point five, or point five (US: zero point five)
15) three point three seven five (or three point three hundred and seventy-five)
16) sixteen hundred B. C., or
one thousand six hundred B. C.
1) Three thousand and forty-two voters selected Ross. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)
2) forty-five. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)
3) ninety-nine percent. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)
4) One/A hundred and thirty-five men. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)
5) A third. (It is better to write out ordinal numbers unless they are used in special texts.)
6) No change is necessary.
7) Please, refer to page 184 in chapter 6 of your history book. (Whenever mentioning parts of a book (page numbers, sections, chapters, exercises), use figures.)
8) At eight the gong sounded for supper. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)
9) The show was visited by 1,525 people. (In writing, commas (but not full stops) are used to separate thousands.)
10) Three thousand pounds. (A definite number of the word 'thousand' is not made plural and is never followed by of
11) Eleven thousand one hundred. (When other numbers are used before hundred, thousand, etc., one
, not a
, is more usual.)
12) Correct. (In special or technical texts cardinals and ordinals should always be indicated by figures.)
13) A sample schedule appears on page 5. (Whenever mentioning parts of a book (page numbers, sections, chapters, exercises), figures are used.)
14) Private property worth $2,500,000. (In writing, commas (but not full stops) are used to separate thousands.)
1) Millions of people die every year from starvation.
2) I’ve told him so hundreds of times.
3) He paid several million dollars.
4) Is it tram 5?
5) Read Lesson 5 again.
6) You owe me two hundred and eighty-one dollars.
7) Seven is a lucky number.
8) He lives in Flat 5.
9) Four hundred of people are participating in the Congress.
10) Forty-two dollars and twenty-five cents covered all his expenses.
11) Thirteen were from California.
12) You’ll need a dozen eggs to make the cake.
13) He was the hundred and first customer.
14) I usually go to my work by bus 10.
15) There are more than 250 houses in this street.
16) In 358 A. D. they conquered the island.
17) Eighteen is a wonderful age.
18) The book was published in the seventies/in the ’70s/in the 1970s.
19) They stayed (for) a quarter of an hour.
20) A tenth of the population is illiterate.
1) third. (Ordinal numbers are usually spelled out.)
2) ten, twenty-two. (Numbers under 100 are spelled out.)
3) $2 million, first. (Large numbers are spelled out. Ordinal numbers are spelled out.)
4) nineteenth. (Ordinal numbers are spelled out.)
5) One thousand one hundred and thirty nine. (Numbers that begin a sentence are spelled out.)
6) four, 8. (Numbers under 100 are spelled out but parts of a book are referred to by figures.)
7) Correct. (It is usually clearer to use figures when writing a fraction.)
8) Two hundred and twenty-five people. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)
9) twelwe chairs. Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.
10) three soldiers. (Numbers under 100 are usually spelled out.)
11) One/A hundred and thirty-five men. (A number that starts a sentence should always be spelled out, even if is over 100.)
12) A third. (It is better to write out ordinal numbers unless they are used in special texts.
13) No change is necessary.
1) Fifty one books.
2) A (one) hundred people.
3) Three hundred and seventy-one/seventy-one applications.
4) Six hundred people.
5) A (one) million (1,000,000) red roses.
6) Hundreds of people come here annually.
7) Four hundred and twenty-seven thousand five hundred and twenty.
8) Two thousand shoppers/clients/purchases.
9) Twenty-one days.
10) Twenty-three thousand.
11) One thousand two hundred and fifty.
12) One thousand and first tourist.
13) England won 4:0 (four nil/ (to) nothing).
14) Fifty kilograms
15) Three hundred cars
16) Sixty-one grams
17) Two million two hundred thousand and one tons.
18) Hundreds of cases.
19) Three thousand and one roubles.
20) Three of my friends.
1) five hundred and three
2) six thousand and fifteen, or sixty hundred and fifteen
3) seven thousand one hundred and forty, or seventy-one hundred and forty
4) one thousands nine hundred and ten, or nineteen hundred and ten.
5) two thousand one hundred and six, or twenty one hundred and six.
1) nineteen hundred
2) nineteen eighty-four
3) sixteen o ([ou]) one
4) two thousand
5) two thousand and three
1) first 2) third 3) fifth 4) ninth 5) twelfth 6) nineteenth 7) fortieth 8) one hundredth 9) one hundred and first 10) four hundredth
1) There are two million books in the library.
2) Millions of people will watch the Olympic games in Greece.
3) ‘One/a million red roses’ is her favourite song.
4) I’ll go by bus 10.
5) Open the book at page 57.
6) A thousand and one nights.
7) John has a third and I have two thirds of the shares.
8) Chapter 7 is the most interesting.
9) Five thousand two hundred and forty-five votes were enough for him to win the elections.
10) The work is nine-tenths finished.
11) Two hundred and ten guests arrived from different parts of the country.
12) Dozens of apples were under the tree.
13) Eleven thousand people make up the population of this town.
14) He was only fifty-four but he looked very old.
15) I have already read more than 450 pages.
16) It happened in 309 B. C.
17) He earns over a million a year.
18) She is in her forties.
19) They stayed (for) a half hour/ half an hour.
20) Two thirds of the population voted for him.
1. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Грамматика английского языка (на англ. яз.). – Ленинград: Просвещение, 1973.
2. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка. – Ленинград: Просвещение, 1973.
3. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. – Longman, 1997.
4. Azar, Betty Schramper. Fundamentals of English Grammar. – New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1985.
5. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Exploring Grammar in Context. – Cambridge: CUP, 2000.
6. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Grammar Reference and Practice. – Cambridge: CUP, 2000.
7. Carton-Sprenger, J., Greenhall, S. Flying Colours. – Heineman, 1992.
8. Collins Cobuild Student's Grammar. Practice Material by Dave Willis. Self-study edition with answer keys. – Birmingham: The University of Birmingham, 1993.
9. Collins Cobuild English Grammar. – Birmingham: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.
10. Craig, Ruth Parle. 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar. – New York: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., 1986.
11. Evans, V. FCE use of English. – Express Publishing, 2000.
12. Huddleston, Rodney and Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. – Cambridge: CUP, 2002.
13. Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan. A Communicative Grammar of English. – Moscow: Prosveshcheniye, 1983.
14. Murphy, Raymond. Essential Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English. – Cambridge: CUP, 1997.
15. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students. – Cambridge: CUP, 1994.
16. Super Review of English Language. New Jersey: Research and Educational Association, 2000.
17. Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. – Oxford: OUP, 1986.
18. Thomson, A.S., Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford: OUP, 1986.
19. Thomson, A.S. and Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Exercises. – Oxford: OUP, 1990.
20. Vince, M. Advanced Language Practice. – Heinemann, 1994.
21. Vince, M. Intermediate Language Practice. – Heinemann, 1998.
1. Fowler, H.W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. – Greenwich House, 1983.
2. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Longman Group Limited, 1978.
3. Longman Language Activation. – Longman Group UK Limited, 1995.
C O N T E N T S
Chapter 7. VERBS
Unit 1. Meaning and use
§ 1. Can/could to express ability or capability
§ 2. Can/could to express possibility, choices and opportunities
§ 3. Can/could to express uncertainty, doubt, astonishment and improbability
§ 4. Can/could: to express permission, requests, and offers
§ 5. Can/could in set phrases
Unit 3. May/Might
§ 1. May/might
to express permission
§ 2. May/might
to express possibility
§ 3. May/might
to express wishes, persuasive requests, and criticism
§ 4. May/might
in set phrases
§ 5. Compare may
for permission and possibility
Unit 4. Must
§ 1. Must
to express obligation and prohibition
§ 2. Must
to express a command and an emphatic request
§ 3. Must
to express supposition
§ 4. Compare must
for supposition and prohibition
Unit 5. Need
Unit 6. To have (got)
Unit 7. To be
Unit 8. Must
, to have to
, and to be to
Unit 9. Should
and ought to
§ 1. Should
and ought to
§ 2. Must
, and ought to
§ 3. Emotional should
: in subordinate clauses, emphatic constructions
Unit 10. Shall
Unit 11. Will
§ 1. Will
for characteristic habit, criticizing, natural tendency, and requests
§ 2. Will
for intention, insistence, certainty or supposition
MOOD. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Unit 1. The Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive Moods
§ 1. Mood. General Information
§ 2. The Subjunctive Mood
Unit 2. Three Types of Conditional Sentences
Unit 3. Type I Conditionals with Real Condition
Unit 4. Type II Conditionals with an Unreal Condition
in the Present
Unit 5. Type III Conditionals with an Unreal Condition
in the Past
Unit 6. Mixed Conditionals
Unit 7. "If only","I wish"
Sequence of Tenses and REPORTED SPEECH
Unit 1. Sequence of Tenses
Unit 2. Reported Speech. Meaning
Unit 3. Reported statements
Unit 4. Reported questions
Unit 5. Reported commands, requests, suggestions
Unit 6. Modals in Reported Speech
CHAPTER 8. VERBALS (NONFINITE FORMS
OF THE VERB)
Unit 1. General Information
Unit 2. The Infinitive
§ 1. General Information
§ 2. The Use of Particle to
with the Infinitive
§ 3. Forms of the Infinitive
§ 4. The Functions of the Infinitive
§ 5. The Infinitive Constructions
5.1. Complex Object with the Infinitive
5.2. Complex Subject
(The Subjective Infinitive Construction)
5.3. The For-to
Unit 3. The Gerund
§ 1. General Information
§ 2. The Forms of the Gerund
§ 3. The Functions of the Gerund
§ 4. The Use of the Gerund
Unit 4. The Participles (Participle I and Participle II)
§ 1. General Information
§ 2. The Forms of the Participles
§ 3. The Functions of the Participles
§ 4. Participial Constructions
4.1. Complex Object
4.2. Absolute Participial Construction
§ 5. Parenthesis
CHAPTER 9. NUMERALS
Unit 1. Numerals. Meaning and Use
Система открытого образования
Практическая грамматика английского языка
для среднего и продвинутого уровней обучения
для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов
В трех частях
Под общ. ред. д-ра филол. наук, проф. Л.М. Лещевой
В авторской редакции
Ответственный за выпуск Л.М. Лещева
Технический редактор Т.В. Жибуль
Художник обложки О.А. Стасевич
Компьютерная верстка Н.Н. Котовой
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