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”чебное пособие: ”чебно-методическое пособие по дисциплине Ђјнглийский €зык: базовый курсї

Ќазвание: ”чебно-методическое пособие по дисциплине Ђјнглийский €зык: базовый курсї
–аздел: ќстальные рефераты
“ип: учебное пособие ƒобавлен 10:01:26 25 августа 2012 ѕохожие работы
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јнглийский €зык

”чебно-методическое пособие

по дисциплине

Ђјнглийский €зык: базовый курсї

јвтор: ’усаинова ».—.

ћосква

2010

”чебно-методическое пособие по дисциплине Ђјнглийский €зыкї.

Ќасто€щее учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом высшего профессионального образовани€.

ѕособие рассчитано на весь курс обучени€ иностранному €зыку дл€ разных специальностей и форм обучени€, пор€док и сроки изучени€ тем могут быть изменены расширением кафедры иностранных €зыков.

јвтор учебно-методического пособи€: ».—. ’усаинова

јнглийский алфавит

The English Alphabet

ѕечатные буквы

¬ письме

Ќазвание буквы

ѕечатные буквы

¬ письме

Ќазвание буквы

A a

A a

[ei]

N n

N n

[en]

B b

B b

[bi:]

O o

O o

[ou]

C c

C c

[si:]

P p

P p

[pi:]

D d

D d

[di:]

Q q

Q q

[kju]

E e

E e

[i:]

R r

R r

[a: (r)]

F f

F f

[ef]

S s

S s

[es]

G g

G g

[dʒi:]

T t

T t

[ti:]

H h

H h

[eɪtʃ]

U u

U u

[ju:]

I i

I i

[ai]

V v

V v

[vi:]

J j

J j

[dʒeɪ]

W w

W w

[ ́dʌblju:]

K k

K k

[keɪ]

X x

X x

[eks]

L l

L l

[el]

Y y

Y y

[wai]

M m

Mm

[em]

Z z

Z z

[zed]

ONTENTS

Unit 1 6

Grammar: ¬водно-фонетический курс.

Unit 2 10

Text: TomТs family.

Grammar: ћестоимени€. ¬опросительные виды предложени€.

Unit 3 14

Text: My working day.

Grammar: Present Simple Tense (простое насто€щее врем€).

Unit 4 17

Text: At the Russian delegation.

Grammar: Present Progressive (Continuous) (насто€щее продолженное врем€).

Unit 5 21

Text: Meeting a businessman.

Grammar: Present Perfect Tense (насто€щее совершенное врем€).

Unit 6 23

Text: Discussing contract terms.

Grammar: Past Simple (простое прошедшее врем€).

Unit 7 27

Text: At the Airport

Grammar: Future Simple Tense (простое будущее врем€).

Unit 8 30

Text A: Going through passport control.

Text B: Going through the customs.

Text C: At the hotel.

Grammar: Past Perfect Tense (предпрошедшее врем€).

Unit 9 34

Text: Talking business.

Grammar: Past Continuous Tense (прошедшее продолженное врем€).

Unit 10 37

Text: Discussing prices and terms of payment.

Grammar: Reported Speech (косвенна€ речь).

Unit 11 43

Text: A visit to the plant.

Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses (согласование времен).

Unit 12 47

Grammar: Modal Verbs and their equivalents (модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты).

Additional Unit 50

Check yourself 56

Language summary 74

UNIT 1

Grammar: ¬водно-фонетический курс .

ѕравила чтени€ ударных гласных.

“ип слога

A a

E e

I i

O o

U u

Y y

ќткрытый слог

[ei]

case

[1:]

she

[ai]

line

[ou]

bone

[ju:]

mule

[ai]

shy

«акрытый слог

[æ]

cat

[e]

men

[i]

bit

[o]

lot

[۸]

cut

[i]

myth

√ласн. + R

√ласн. + R + согл.

[a:]

car

park

[ә:]

her

term

[ә:]

sir

bird

[o:]

or

born

[ә:]

fur

burn

[ә:]

byrd

√ласн + R + гласн.

[εә]

vary

[iә]

mere

[aiә]

hire

[o:]

story

[juә]

pure

[aiә]

tyre

 ратка€ сравнительна€ характеристика английских и русских гласных звуков:

[e] Ц произношение примерно как [э] в словах эти, жесть .

[æ] Ц средний между [э] и [a], напоминает м€гкий a в слове д€тел .

[ʌ] Ц произноситс€ как [a] в слове казак .

[a:] Ц похож на удлиненный [a-a] в слове ка-ак .

[o:] Ц произноситс€ как прот€жное [o] в слове порт .

[ə:] Ц долгий звук, средний между [o] и [э], напоминает звук [Є] в слове √Єте .

[u:] Ц соответствует русскому звуку [y] в слове уголь .

[ai] Ц близок рус. [ай] в слове дай .

[au] Ц близок рус. [ay] в слове пауза .

[ei] Ц близок рус.[ей] в слове лей .

[ou] Ц близок рус. [оу] в слове клоун .

[oi] Ц близок рус. [ой] в слове бой .

[iə] Ц близок русскому [иэ] с ударением на [i].

[uə] Ц близок рус. [уэ] с ударением на [u].

[εə ] Ц близок рус. [эа]

„тение сочетаний согласных букв:

Ck [k] luck

Sh [ʃ] she

Ch [tʃ] chess

Tch [tʃ] catch

Th [ð] this

Th [θ ] thin

Ph [f] phone

Qu [kw] question

Kn [n] knife

Ng [ŋ] long

Nk [ŋk] think

Wh + o[h] who

Wh + остальные гласн. [w] what

Wr в начале слова перед глаголом [r] write

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. ѕрочитайте слова согласно правилам чтени€.

END, CAME, TIN, LINE, FINE, LOT, BOX, NICE, NO, CLOSE, PEN, DATE, PLANE, COST, STOP, YET, LETTER, FILE, MEET, SPEAK, CUP, CARD, START, FOOD, BOOK, GOOD, SHELF, SHEEP, DRY, WITH, READ.

2. Use A or AN (используйте A или AN ).

a) Е actor

b) Е manager

c) Е e-mail address

d) Е lesson

e) Е telephone number

f) Е holiday

g) Е teacher

h) Е English teacher

3. јнтонимы (поставьте буквы в правильном пор€дке).

a) Finish

artst _______

b) Morning

venineg________

c) Go to bed

teg pu_______

d) Open

solce _______


4. Use (поставьте ): I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, THEY.

a. Е is a table.

b. Е are in the car.

c. Е is a cat.

d. Е am a student.

e. Е is a teacher.


f. Е is mr Bell.

g. Е is a young man.

h. Е am fine.

i. Е is in London.

j. Е are a good friend.


5. Use (поставьте ): AM, IS, ARE.


a. He Е a student.

b. You Е French.

c. I Е a teacher.

d. It Е a car.

e. Ann Е a doctor.

f. Pete Е happy.

g. The book Е thin.

h. Nick Е from London.

i. They Е economists.

j. She Е a young lady.

6. Read the text (прочитайте текст ).

Hello, my name is Pat. I am from France. I am a student of Russian at Moscow University. And this is my friend Nick. He is a student, too. He is from London. He is English. He is a good student. And these are Ann and Dan. They are from Canada.

Vocabulary (слова )

1. a friend Ц друг;

2. a student Ц студент;

3. this Ц это, этот; (ед.ч)

4. these Ц эти; (мн.ч)

5. too Ц тоже, так же;

6. good Ц хороший.

7. Phrases to remember (запомните словосочетани€ ).

  1. Hello! Hi! Ц ѕривет!
  2. How do you do. Ц «дравствуйте.
  3. How are you? Ц  ак дела? Ц I am fine. Ц ’орошо.
  4. Meet my friend. Ц ѕознакомьтесь с моим другом.
  5. My name is Е Ц ћен€ зовут Е
  6. Glad to meet you. Ц –ад познакомитьс€ с ¬ами.
  7. Pleased to meet you. Ц ѕри€тно познакомитьс€.
  8. See you soon. Ц ƒо скорого (свидани€).
  9. Good bye; Bye-bye; Bye. Ц ƒо свидани€; ѕока.
  10. Thank you. Ц —пасибо.
  11. You are welcome. Ц ѕожалуйста.

8. Make up dialogues (составьте диалог ).

UNIT 2

Grammar: ћестоимени€.

¬опросительные виды предложени€.

TEXT

Tom Тs family

I am Tom Brown. Tom is my first name and Brown is my surname. I am seventeen. I want to tell you a few words about my family. My family is large. I have got a mother, a father, a sister, a brother and a grandmother.

First of all some words about my parents. My mother is a teacher of English. She works at college. She likes her profession.

My father is a computer programmer. He is forty-six. My father knows all about new radio sets and likes to repair old ones.

My grandmother is a pensioner. She lives with us and helps to run the house. She is fond of knitting.

My sister Helen is twenty five. She is married and has a family of her own.

My brother Boris is eleven. He is a schoolboy. He wants to become a doctor.

I want to become a student. IТd like to learn foreign languages.

Vocabulary

  1. parents Ц родители
  2. a pensioner Ц пенсионер
  3. to run the house Ц вести хоз€йство
  4. to knit Ц в€зать
  5. to repair Ц чинить, исправл€ть
  6. own Ц собственный
  7. to be fond of smth. Ц увлекатьс€ чем либо
  8. first of all Ц в первую очередь
  9. a few Ц несколько
  10. a mother = mummy, mum Ц мама
  11. a father = dad, daddy Ц папа
  12. a sister Ц сестра
  13. a brother Ц брат

1. Use (поставьте ): I, HE, SHE, IT, WE, YOU, THEY

  1. Е am English.
  2. I have two books Е are good.
  3. The book is not yellow Е is grey.
  4. Are Е a student?
  5. You and I are Russian, Е are English.

2. Use (поставьте ): AM, ARE, IS, HAVE GOT, HAS GOT

  1. The cat Е in the box.
  2. I Е a student.
  3. Mr. Brown Е a daughter.
  4. Nick Е my good friend.
  5. She Е a large family.

3. Use (поставьте ): MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, IT, OUR, THEIR

  1. Mary has got a new bag. Е is very big.
  2. My friends have got a new car. Е car is very nice.
  3. I have a small cat. Е is very funny.
  4. We are French. Е friends are English.
  5. My daughter has got a dog. Е nose is long.

4. Use:

a. Ђto beї in the right form (поставьте Ђto beї в правильную временную форму ).

  1. My son Е a student.
  2. His name Е Nick.
  3. We Е teachers.
  4. I Е a doctor.
  5. My friends Е engineers.
  6. They Е good friends.
  7. His daughter Е a little girl.
  8. She Е three years old.
  9. She Е a good student, Е she not?
  10. What Е your name? My name Е Mary.

b. Ђhave gotї or Ђhas gotї?

  1. He Е a large family.
  2. They Е a very nice flat in Moscow.
  3. Peter Е many friends at school.
  4. My mother Е three children.
  5. I Е two cousins, an aunt and an uncle.

5. Put all possible questions to the following sentences (поставить предложени€ в 4 вида вопросительных форм ).

  1. she is my friend.
  2. Ann is from Canada.
  3. Pete is French.
  4. they are good students.
  5. he is in London.

6. Finish the following (закончите следующие предложени€).

  1. My motherТs sister is my Е and her brother is my Е .
  2. My wifeТs mother is my .. and her father is my Е .
  3. My wifeТs sister is my Е and my wifeТs brother is my Е .
  4. My mother has got a sister, her son is my motherТs Е .
  5. My father has got a brother, his daughter is my fatherТs Е .

Members of a family (члены семьи )

a mother Ц in Ц law Ц тЄща, свекровь.

a father Ц in Ц law Ц тесть, свекор

a sister Ц in Ц law Ц невеста, золовка

a brother Ц in Ц law Ц з€ть, шурин, деверь, сво€к

an uncle Ц д€д€

an aunt Ц тЄт€

a cousin Ц кузен, двоюродный брат (сестра)

a niece Ц плем€нник

7. Put these questions into the correct order (поставьте слова в правильном пор€дке ).

Example: Is / name / your / what? - WhatТs your name?

a) married / you / are?

b) old / you / how / are?

c) your mother / old / how / is?

d) job / your / what / is?

e) your teacher / from Britain / is?

f) student / you / are / a?

g) the USA / you / are / from?

UNIT 3

Grammar: Present Simple Tense.

TEXT

My working day

On weekdays the alarm Ц clock wakes me up at 6.30 and my working day begins. I do my morning exercises. Then I go to the bathroom, take a warm shower, clean my teeth and shave. After that I go to my bedroom to get dressed.

Usually my mother makes breakfast for me. When I have breakfast, I listen to the latest news on the radio.

I leave the house at 7.30 and go to the nearest underground station. It takes me an hour and a half to get to work. I usually arrive at work at ten minutes to nine though my working day begins at 9 sharp.

I translate fax messages from English into Russian. Sometimes my boss wants me to write a letter to our business pertness abroad.

At 1 oТclock we have lunch. We usually have lunch in a small cafe. At 2 oТclock we come back to work. And we work ward till 5 oТclock.

I come home at about 7 oТclock in the evening.

My parents usually wait for me at home. We have dinner together. Then we sit in the living room drink tea watch TV or just talk.

Vocabulary

1. an alarm Ц clock Ц будильник

2. to do morning exercises Ц делать утреннюю зар€дку

3. to get dressed Ц одеватьс€

4. to leave the house Ц уходить из дома

5. it takes smb. one hour Ц требуетс€ один час

to do smth. сделать что-либо

6. abroad Ц за границей

7. latest Ц последний

8. nearest Ц ближайший

9. to translate Ц переводить

10. a fax message Ц сообщение по телефону

11. hard Ц усердно, усиленно

12. to wait Ц ждать

1. Fill in the blanks (заполнить пробелы подход€щими по смыслу словами).

a. On weekdays the Е wakes me up at 8.30.

b. After that I go to my bedroom to Е .

c. It Е me an hour and a half to get to work.

d. When I have breakfast, I listen to Е news on the radio.

e. I usually Е work at ten minutes to nine.

f. Sometimes my boss Е me to write a letter to our business Е abroad.

2. Match the words and phrases (составьте словосочетани€, соединив колонки ј и B).

A

1) listen to

2) it takes me

3) go to the bedroom

4) have lunch

5) arrive

6) work hard

B

a) in a small cafe

b) at work

c) till 5 oТclock

d) the latest news

e) an hour and a half

f) to get dressed


3. Full in the prepositions where necessary (вставьте предлоги там , где это необходимо ).

a) I leave Е the house at 7.30 and go Е the nearest underground station.

b) We usually have lunch Еa small cafe.

c) Е 1 oТclock Е the afternoon we have lunch.

d) My parents usually wait Е me.

e) And we work hard Е 5 oТclock.

f) Usually my mother makes breakfast Е me.

4. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative (поставьте предложени€ в отрицательную и вопросительную формы) .

a) She works at college.

b) He washes his hands.

c) We often drink coffee together.

d) She writes letters.

e) Her parents usually wait for her.

5. Choose the correct variant out of four (выберете правильное слово ).

1) Who Е to go to our concert?


a) does want

b) do want

c) want

d) wants

2) How long Е you to get to work?


a) does it take

b) it takes

c) do you take

d) take


3) When do I listen Е text and dialogue?


a) in

b) on

c) at

d) to


4) She is away on business, Е?


a) hasnТt she

b) isnТt she

c) is she

d) doesnТt she


5) At 1 oТclock we have lunch, Е?


a) havenТt we

b) do we

c) isnТt it

d) donТt we


UNIT 4

Grammar: Present Progressive (Continuous).

TEXT

At the Russian delegation

This is Mr. Voronin. He is an engineer of the Ministry of trade. The engineers of the ministry often go to different countries to do business with foreign companies. Now Mr. Voronin is in London. He works at the Russian trade delegation.

Mr. Voronin is usually very busy. He has got much work to do every day. His office hours begin at 8:30. In the morning he looks through Russian and English newspapers and journals. He is interested in the latest political and business events.

During the day Mr. Voronin works on the computer, meets English businessmen and discusses with them prices for different goods, terms of payment, shipment and delivery. Sometimes he discusses business matters on the phone. Together with Russian inspectors he often goes to plants.

Vocabulary

1. trade Ц торговл€

2. the Russian trade delegation Ц российское торгпредство

3. business Ц торговл€, дело, работа

4. to do business Ц вести торговлю.

5. to discuss business Ц обсуждать деловой вопрос.

6. office hours Ц рабочий день.

7. to look through Ц просматривать.

8. to be interested in smith Ц быть заинтересованным в

чем-либо

9. an event Ц событи€

10. a price (for) Ц цена (на)

11. the terms (of) Ц услови€.

12. payment Ц платеж

13. shipment Ц отгрузка

14. delivery Ц поставка

15. a matter Ц вопрос

16. an inspector Ц приемщик

17. a plant Ц завод

18. equipment Ц оборудование

19. to make a contract Ц заключать контракт

20. to make an appointment Ц назначать встречу

for (some day) Ц на какой-либо день

at (oТclock) Ц на какой-либо час

with (smb.) Ц с кем-либо

21. catalogue (for) Ц каталог (на)

22. a quotation Ц котировка

1. Open the brackets using the Present Progressive (Continuous) tense (откройте скобки и употребите глаголы в Present Progressive).

1) Where are our children? ItТs quiet at home. Ц They (lie) on the carpet and (draw).

2) What you (do) now? I (look for) my key. I canТt open the door.

3) Listen! Somebody (sing) a lovely song.

4) Why you (put on) the coat? ItТs sunny today.

5) Why you (cry)? Is something wrong?

6) I donТt speak any foreign languages, but I (learn) English now.

7) He (go) to speak to his parents.

8) I (meet) Liz tonight. She (come) from London.

9) LetТs go for a walk. It (not/rain) now.

2. Present Simple/Present Progressive (Continuous). Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант).

1) It (often/rain) in this part of the world.


a) is often raining

b) often rains


2) Take your umbrella. It (rain) cats and dogs.


a) rains

b) is raining


3) Granny is in the kitchen. She (make) apple-cake.


a) is making

b) makes


4) My wife (often/make) apple-cakes.


a) is often makes

b) often makes


5) I donТt know Spanish, but I (learn) it now.


a) am learning

b) learn


3. Present Simple / Present Progressive (Continuous).

( A) right Ц правильно

( B) wrong Ц не правильно

In this case correct it (в этом случае исправьте ).

1) Tom is in his room. He plays the piano.

2) Jim is speaking five languages.

3) IТm looking for my glasses. Where are they?

1) My brother is smoking 20 cigarettes a day.

2) I am not understanding what he is speaking about

3) How much is it costing to send a letter to Paris?

4) My parents are never drinking strong coffee.

5) What are you thinking about?

6) The play is beginning at half past seven.

4. Insert preposition where necessary (вставьте предлоги ).

1) The banks close Е 7 oТclock Е the evening.

2) He usually leaves home early Е the morning.

3) The play begins Е half past seven.

4) We arrive Е London.

5) Bye, see you Е Tuesday.

6) Bob is going to play tennis Е next Sunday.

7) He lives Е Chicago.

8) LetТs go Е cinema.

9) Look Е this photo.

10) He arrives Е university Е 9 sharp.

5. Insert pronouns in proper forms (вставьте местоиме -ни€ ).

1) She washes Е hands and face.

2) Do you know that man? Yes, I know Е .

3) That is his book. Give Е to him.

4) Peter likes to eat. Е breakfast is always big.

5) Look at them. Е are playing like kids.

6) Are Е a teacher? No, Е am not.

7) Can Е help Е?

UNIT 5

Grammar: Present Perfect Tense.

TEXT

Meeting a businessman

Blake: Now Mr. Voronin how about our quotation and a catalogues? Have you looked through them?

Voronin: Sure. WeТve studied them closely. The new model of tools is certainly good.

Blake: Yes, itТs of high quality. WeТve just started producing the model and weТve already received a lot of orders.

Voronin: Your tools meet our requirements and we are interested in buying them. Mr. Blake, have you seen our contract form?

Blake: Not yet.

Voronin: Would you like to look through it?

Blake: Yes, certainly.

Voronin: Here you are, Mr. Blake. Please study our terms and letТs meet again next Tuesday.

Blake: All right, Mr. Voronin. Good-bye for now.

Vocabulary

1. to study closely Ц изучить внимательно

2. high price Ц высока€ цена

3. quality Ц качество

4. to be of high quality Ц высокого качества

5. to produce Ц изготовл€ть, производить

6. an order (for) Ц заказ (на что-либо)

7. a requirement Ц требовани€

8. to meet the Ц отвечать чьим-либо

requirements (of) требовани€м

9. to buy Ц покупать

10. a contract form Ц типовой контракт

11. tools Ц инструменты

1. Insert an exact word from the text (вставьте правильные слова , использу€ текст ).

1) How about our Е and Е?

2) WeТve Е them Е .

3) The new model of Е is certainly good.

4) Your tools meet our Е and we are Е in buying them.

2. Make up words out of the following letters (поставьте буквы в правильном пор€дке ).


1) iscoly

2) aqlyuit

3) qeietsnrmure

4) dopurec

5) dreor


3. Put all possible questions to the following (поставьте предложени€ в четыре формы вопроса ).

1) You have looked through them.

2) WeТve studied them closely.

3) WeТve already received a lot of orders.

4) TheyТve just started producing the model.

5) You have seen our contract form.

4. Insert prepositions where necessary (вставьте предлоги ).

1) LetТs meet again Е next Tuesday.

2) IТd like to look Е it.

3) We are interested Е buying them.

4) WeТve received a lot Е orders.

5) The new model Е tools is certainly good.

5. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect tense (откройте скобки , использу€ Present Perfect).

1) IТm afraid. / I(forget) my book at home.

2) Е the secretary (yet/come)?

3) Е you (ever/be) to Italy?

4) Kelvin (already/leave for) Manchester.

5) I (not/see) Tom for ages.

6) Е you (have) a holiday this year?

7) Alan (work) in the bank for a year.

8) They (already/inform) her about the accident.

UNIT 6

Grammar: Past Simple.

TEXT

Discussing contract terms

Mr. Blake studied the BuyerТs contract terms and on Tuesday he came to the Russian Trade Delegation to discuss it with Mr. Voronin.

Voronin: Good morning, Mr. Blake.

Blake: Good morning, Mr. Voronin.

Voronin: May I offer you a cup of coffee?

Blake: Yes, thank you. Well, Mr. Voronin, I think we can discuss business now. I'd like to clarify some details with you. How many machines would you like to buy?

Voronin: We can buy 40 machines.

Blake: And when do you require the goods?

Voronin: As soon as possible, say, in December.

Blake: In December? Let me see. I'm afraid, that's impossible. Our machines are selling very well, and we are heavy with or≠ders. We can deliver only 15 units in December.

Voronin: And what about the other 25 units?

Blake: We can deliver them only in 6 months.

Voronin: All right. And how about the terms of delivery? I hope they suit you.

Blake: Yes, we agree to sell the goods FOB English port and we can accept payment for collection too.

Voronin: Fine. Now comes the question of price. I must say that your price is not attractive to us. Can you give us a 10% discount?

Blake: That's a bit difficult. The fact is our machines are in great demand at this price. However we can offer you a discount of 5% as we've been good part≠ners for a long time.

Voronin: I think we can agree to a 5% discount. Could we meet tomorrow at 10 to sign the contract?

Blake: Yes, certainly. Good buy.

Voronin: Good buy. See you tomorrow.

Vocabulary

1. a buyer Ц покупатель

2. a seller Ц продавец

3. can (could) Ц мочь, уметь, быть в состо€нии

4. to offer Ц предлагать

5. to clarify Ц уточн€ть, вносить €сность

6. in detail Ц подробно

7. to require [riТkwaiә] Ц требовать

8. as soon as possible Ц как можно скорее

9. to be heavy with orders Ц иметь много заказов

10. to deliver Ц поставл€ть

11. to suit Ц устраивать, подходить

12. to agree (to smth). Ц согласитьс€ на что-либо

(with smb). Ц согласитьс€ с кем-либо

13. to accept Ц принимать

14. payment for collection Ц платеж в форме инкассо,

платеж по факсу

15. attractive Ц привлекательный, приемлемый

16. a discount Ц скидка

17. the fact is Ц дело в том, что

18. a demand Ц спрос

19. however Ц однако

20. to sign Ц подписывать

1. Insert a word or a word combination from the text (вставьте слово или словосочетание из текста ).

1) IТd like to Е some Е with you.

2) Could we meet Е at 10 Е the contract?

3) I hope they Е you.

4) IТm Е thatТs impossible.

5) And when do you Е the goods?

6) We can Е payment Е too.

7) Can you give us a 10% ... ?

8) Let me ... .

9) As soon as ... .

10) Now comes the ... of price.

2. Make up words out of the letters (составьте слова из предлагаемых букв ).

1) c e a c t p

2) e g a e r

3) t u s i

4) r e i d e y l

5) g s n i

3. Fill in the prepositions where necessary (вставьте предлоги ).

1) IТd like Е clarify some details ... you.

2) ... December.

3) We are heavy ... orders.

4) What about the other ... 25 machines?

5) How about the terms ... delivery?

4. Open the brackets using the Past Simple (раскройте скобки, став€ глаголы в правильное врем€ ).

1) I walked quickly because I (fell) cold.

2) It (take) him 2 hours to get to London.

3) My husband (speak) to his boss last week.

4) Yesterday Mr. Blake (drink) too much at the party.

5) Ten minutes ago I (hear) a strange noise.

6) I sleep well, but last night I (not / sleep) at all.

7) He (not / play) tennis yesterday.

8) They (live) in a small house last year.

9) It seemed impossible for him to win, but he (win).

10) My dad always goes to work by car, but last week he (go) to work on foot.

6. Present Perfect / Past Simple. Choose the correct variant (используйте правильный вариант ).

1) We (not / have) a holiday last year.

a) didnТt have

b) havenТt had

c) hadnТt have

  1. Е it (stop) raining yet?

a) didnТt stop

b) is it stopped

c) has it stopped

  1. DonТt worry about your letter. I (send) it the day before yesterday.

a) sanded

b) have sent

c) sent

  1. I canТt find my umbrella. I think somebody (take) by mistake.

a) took

b) takes

c) has taken

  1. Ц Are you tired?

Ц Yes, a little. I (paint) the ceiling today.

a) have painted

b) painted

c) paint

UNIT 7

Grammar: Future Simple Tense.

TEXT

At the Airport

Heathrow Airport in London is a very large and busy place. Hundreds of planes land and take off and thousands of passengers get on and off planes at Heathrow every day. They fly to and from ninety countries. People usually make reservations for flights in advance, especially in summer time.

Voronin has been to London for a year and today he is going to fly back to Moscow. He has just arrived at Heathrow. He is speaking to a clerk at the check-in desk.

Voronin: Can I check in for the flight to Moscow here?

Clerk: Yes, sir. May I see your ticket and passport, please?

Voronin: Certainly. Here you are.

Clerk: Will you put your luggage on the scales? Oh, it's too heavy. You must pay an extra charge for overweight, I'm afraid.

Voronin: I'll take out a couple of the catalogues then.

Clerk: Can you put the luggage on the scales again, sir? ItТs all right now. You may take your ticket and passport and here is your boarding pass.

Voronin: Thank you.

Vocabulary

1. hundred ['h۸ndrәd] Ц сто, сотн€

2. to land Ц приземл€тьс€,

совершать посадку

3. to take off Ц вылетать, отправл€тьс€

4. a thousand (of) Ц тыс€ча

5. a passenger Ц пассажир

6. to get on Ц садитьс€ (на самолет, поезд)

7. to get off Ц сходить, выходить

(из транспорта)

8. a reservation (for) Ц предварительный заказ

9. a flight Ц рейс, полет

10. in advance Ц заранее

11. to fly Ц лететь

12. back Ц обратно, назад

13. to arrive Ц прибывать, приходить

14. to check in Ц регистрироватьс€

15. a check in desk Ц место регистрации

16. luggage Ц багаж

17. scales Ц весы

18. to pay (for) Ц платить

19. extra Ц дополнительный (сверх нормы)

20. a charge [tʃa:dз] Ц цена, плата

21. to take out Ц вынимать

22. a couple (of) Ц пара, два

23. then Ц тогда

24. a boarding pass Ц посадочный талон

25. an information desk Ц справочное бюро

26. on time Ц воврем€

(в точно назначенное врем€)

27. in time Ц воврем€ (заблаговременно)

28. a delay [diТlei] Ц задержка, опоздание

29. a departure lounge Ц зал дл€ отъезжающих пассажиров

[diТpa:tʃә Тlaundз]

30. to wait (for) Ц ждать

31. a duty-free shop Ц магазин беспошлинной торговли

32. an announcement Ц объ€вление

[әТnaunsmәnt]

1. Put the questions to the following sentences (поставьте в вопросительную форму следующие предложени€ ).

1) People usually make reservations for flights in advance. (Who)

2) Hundreds of planes land and take off at Heathrow every day. (Special)

3) Voronin has been to London for a year. (Alternative)

4) He has just arrived at Heathrow. (General)

5) He is speaking to a clerk. (Tag)

2. Open the brackets using the Future Simple Tense (откройте скобки , использу€ врем€ Future Simple).

1) IТm tired. I (go) to bed.

2) ItТs late. I think I (take) a taxi.

3) ... I (answer) the question?

4) We donТt know their address. What (we / do)?

5) IТm afraid they (not / wait) for us.

6) Diana (come) to the party tomorrow?

7) We (not / book) the tickets in advance.

8) You (arrive) in Paris tomorrow evening.

3. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

  1. I can give Bob the message if I (see) him.

a) will see

b) see


  1. If I (hear) any news, I (phone) you.

a) will hear, will phone

b) will hear, phone

c) hear, will phone


  1. If the weather (be) fine tomorrow, we are going to have picnic.

a) is

b) will be


  1. Hurry up! If you (catch) a taxi, you (meet) Mary at the station.

a) catch, will meet

b) will catch, meet

c) will catch, will meet


  1. When I (arrive) in Manchester next week, I (phone) you.

a) will arrive, will phone

b) will arrive, phone

c) arrive, will phone

UNIT 8

Grammar: Past Perfect Tense.

TEXT

A: Going through passport control

Now Borisov is at Heathrow Airport in London. He is going through passport control.

Immigration officer: Could I see your passport, please?

Borisov: Here you are.

Immigration officer: WhatТs the purpose of your visit to London, sir?

Borisov: I am here on business.

Immigration officer: How long will you stay in London?

Borisov: For 3 weeks.

Immigration officer: Your passport is in order. Please go through the Customs over there.

Borisov: Thank you.

B: Going through the customs

Customs officer: How much luggages have you got?

Borisov: Just this suitcase.

Customs officer: Have you got any things to declare? I mean perfume, cigarettes, spirits?

Borisov: IТve got two blocks of cigarettes.

Customs officer: You can have them duty-free.

Borisov: Shall I open the suitcase? IТve got only my personal things in it.

Customs officer: No, that is not necessary, IТll just mark it. Have a nice stay in Great Britain, sir.

C: At the hotel

Mr. Stanley: Good afternoon. IТm from Bond&Co. We have reserved accommodation for Mr. Borisov at your hotel.

Receptionist: Wait a minute, please IТll check it. Yes. ThatТs right. A single room with a bathroom from today. The room is on the third floor, No 301.

Borisov: I hope the room is not noisy.

Receptionist: ItТs very quiet .It doesnТt face the street. Now, sir, will you fill in the form please?

(Borisov fills in the form).

Receptionist: Thank you. Here is the key to your room. IТll call the porter and heТll take your luggage up to your room in the lift. I hope, youТll enjoy your stay at our hotel, Mr. Borisov.

Vocabulary

1. to go through [θru:] Ц пройти через Е

2. a purpose [Тpә:pәs] (of) Ц цель, намерение

3. a visit (to) Ц визит, посещение (в)

4. (in) order [Тo:dә] Ц (в) пор€дке, (в) исправности

5. (out of) order Ц не в пор€дке, неисправный

6. the customs Ц таможн€

7. to go through the customs Ц пройти таможенный досмотр

8. a customs officer Ц таможенник

9. to declare [diТklεә] Ц декларировать

10. to be duty-free Ц не подлежать

налогообложению

11. an immigration officer Ц сотрудник иммиграционной

службы

12. a reception [riТsepʃn] Ц прием

13. to fill in Ц заполн€ть

14. to fill in a form Ц заполн€ть бланк

15. a key (to) [ki:] Ц ключ

16. mark [mλ:k] Ц отмечать, делать отметки

17. to check [tʃek] Ц провер€ть

18. a porter [Тpo: tә] Ц портье


WORD STUDY

1. Find in text opposites to the following (найдите в тексте антонимические значени€ ).

a) on holiday

b) for a week

c) out of order

d) close

e) with a bathroom

f) on the first floor

g) is not quiet

h) a double room


GRAMMAR PRACTICE

2. Write 3 forms of the following verbs (напишите три формы следующих слов ).


a) to make

b) to take

c) to spend

d) to see

e) to meet

f) to go

g) to have

h) to learn

i) to get

j) to buy

3. Open the brackets using Past Perfect Tense (откройте скобки , использу€ Past Perfect Tense).

1) Jill was afraid she (forget) her key at home, but she found it in her handbag.

2) Dad wasnТt at home when I came back. He (go) out twenty minutes before.

3) Peter saw an urgent message on his table. Somebody (leave) it the day before.

4) I apologized I (not/phone) her.

5) Mr. Jackson said that he (already/buy) everything for lunch.

4. Past Perfect / Past Simple. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) We were late. The meeting (start) an hour before.


a) started

b) had started


2) That morning she (dress), (phone) somebody, and went out.


a) dressed

b) had dressed

a) phoned

b) had phoned


3) That morning she went out after she (phone) somebody.


a) phoned

b) had phoned


4) He has tired because he (work) hard in the garden all day.


a) worked

b) had worked


5) After I (write) all my letters, I went to the kitchen to make coffee.


a) wrote

b) had written


6) He (already promise) to play football with his friends.


a) already promised

b) had already promised


5. Past Perfect / Present Perfect. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) Why are you looking so unhappy? Ц I Е my purse.


a) have lost

b) had lost


2) Mother asked the children if they Е some biscuits for tea.


a) has bought

b) had bought


3) Tell Tommy about these wonderful islands. He Е about them.


a) has never heard

b) had never heard


4) IТm so happy to see you again. I Е you since I left London.


a) havenТt seen

b) hadnТt seen


5) She said she Е him since she left London.


a) hasnТt seen

b) hadnТt seen


UNIT 9

Grammar: Past Continuous Tense.

TEXT

Talking business

Rossimport is interested in buying pumps for a new shop of a large plant in Siberia [sai'biэria]. The shop is already under construction and the customers require the goods.

Urgently, as they must complete the construction of the shop by the end of the year, Mr. Borisov, a representative of Rossimport, who deals in this kind of equipment, got instructions to buy pumps from a British company. As soon as he arrived in London he contacted Bond & Co., a leading manufacturer of pumps. Mr. Stanley, the manager of the company, invited him to come to his office.

Vocabulary

1. a pump [рλmp] Ц насос

2. a shop [ʃэр] Ц цех

3. to be under construction Ц строитьс€

4. urgently [Тә:dзәntli] Ц срочно

5. to complete [kәm'pliit] Ц заканчивать

6. a representative [repriТzentәtiv] Ц представитель

7. to deal [di:l] (in) Ц заниматьс€ чем-либо

(with) Ц торговать с кем-либо

8. an instruction [inТstrλkʃn] Ц инструкци€

9. leading [Тli:diŋ] Ц ведущий

10. a manufacturer [ТmænjuТfæktʃәrә] Ц изготовитель

11. to place an order (with) Ц размещать заказ (у)

12. immediate [iТmi:djэt] Ц срочный, немедленный

13. balance (of) Ц остаток

14. to contact Ц св€затьс€

15. to ship Ц отгружать

16. a lot Ц парти€ (товара)

17. shipping facilities Ц транспортные средства

18. to change for the better Ц изменитьс€ к лучшему

WORD STUDY

1. Fill in the blanks with words or word-combinations from the text (вставьте правильные слова , использу€ текст ).

1) He Е Bond & Co. A Е Е of pumps.

2) The customers require the goodsЕ .

3) They must Е the construction of the shop Е Е of the year.

4) The shop is already Е Е

5) He got Е to buy pumps from a British company.

2. Put prepositions where necessary (вставьте предлоги ).

1) Rossimport is interested Е buying pumps.

2) They must complete the construction Е The shop Е the end Е the year.

3) Who deals Е this kind Е equipment?

4) A large plant Е Siberia.

5) Mr. Stanley, the manager Е the company.

3. Put all possible questions to the following sentences (задайте все возможные вопросы к следующим предложени€м ).

1) The shop is already under construction.

2) Mr. Borisov is a representative of Rossimport.

3) Rossimport is interested in buying pumps for a new shop.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

4. Open the brackets using Past Continuous Tense (откройте скобки , использу€ Past Continuous Tense).

1) When I arrived, Tom (lie) on the sofa and (speak) over the phone.

2) The police caught Dan when he (rob) a shop.

3) He couldnТt speak because he (die) of laugh.

4) What you (do) between one and two? Ц I (play) the piano and heard nothing.

5) When you rang me yesterday I (have) a bath.

6) I (sit) by the window when I heard the noise.

7) At six oТclock I (wait) for Jane at one station.

5. Past Continuous / Past Simple. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) Yesterday as I was walking down Cherry Lane, I (meet) Thomas, an old friend of mine.


a) met

b) was meeting


2) While my son (wait) for my call, somebody knocked at the door.


a) waited

b) was waiting


3) We (just talk) about him when he suddenly (come) in.


a) just talked

b) were just talking

a) came in

b) was coming in


4) Yesterday while Dad (shave), he (cut) himself slightly.


a) shaved

b) was shaving

a) cut

b) was cutting


UNIT 10

Grammar: Reported Speech.

TEXT

Discussing prices and terms of payment

After Mr. Stanley and Mr. Borisov had discussed the number of pumps, the time and the terms of delivery. They started discussing the price and the terms of payment.

Stanley: Good morning, Mr. Borisov.

Borisov: Good morning, Mr. Stanley.

Stanley: Happy to meet you again.

Borisov: The pleasure is mine. Let's get down to business. I'd like to start with the price. Mr. Stanley, I 'm sorry to say it is not accept≠able to us. We think you have quoted a very high price.

Stanley: Oh, ... per unit is quite a reasonable price. As you know we have improved the model. And besides the price includes export packing.

Borisov: Yes, we know that. But we also know that the prices on the world market for this type of pumps are lower than yours.

Stanley: But the quality of our pumps is higher and weТve delivered a lot of pumps to different countries of the world at this price.

Borisov: And still, Mr. Stanley, we find the price a bit high. I'd like to stress that it's our trial order with your company and if we are satisfied with our transaction you can expect repeat orders from us.

Stanley: Well, the only thing we can do is to give you a discount of 2% off the value of the contract.

Borisov: Fine. That settles the price problem.

Stanley: And how about the manner of payment? I hope payment by a Letter of Credit against shipping documents will suit you.

Borisov: Yes, it will.

Stanley: Good. You are to open a L/C with the Moscow Narodny Bank after our Notification of the Readiness of the goods for shipment.

Borisov: All right. One more thing, Mr. Stanley. Our people would like to visit your manufacturing plant, if it is possible.

Stanley: No problem. We can easily arrange it and I myself will take you there. We'll do our best to make your visit useful.

Borisov: Thank you, Mr. Stanley.

Stanley: Thank you, Mr. Borisov. We are looking forward to establishing good business relations with your company. You are welcome to our company any time.

Vocabulary

1. the pleasure is mine Ц € тоже, мне тоже при€тно

2. to be acceptable (to smb.) Ц быть приемлемым (кому-либо)

3. to quote [kwout] Ц назначать

4. per [pә:] Ц за (штуку, единицу товара)

5. a unit ['ju:nit] Ц единица (товара), штука

6. the goods Ц товар

7. packing ['pækiŋ] Ц упаковка

8. a market [mТa:kit] Ц рынок

9. on the world market Ц на мировом рынке

10. to stress Ц подчеркивать

11. trial ['traiәl] Ц пробный

12. to be satisfied with Ц быть удовлетворенным

13. repeat Ц повторный

14. value (of) Ц стоимость

15. to settle Ц 1. решить, договоритьс€

2. разрешать, улаживать

16. a manner (of) Ц способ

17. to open a Letter Ц открыть аккредитив

of Credit (with)

18. against Ц против

19. against shipping documents Ц против отгрузочных

документов

20. a Notification of the Readiness Ц уведомление о готовности

of the goods for shipment товарa к отгрузке

21. a manufacturing plant Ц завод-изготовитель

22. to arrange [ә'reind3] Ц организовать, устроить

23. to establish [is'tæbliʃ] Ц устанавливать

24. relations [ri'leiʃnz] Ц отношени€

25. to look forward to Ц с нетерпением ждать

26. to look forward to establish Ц стремитьс€ к установлению

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. Reported speech. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) John sad: УIТm sorry to disturb you, ElizaФ.

a) John told that he was sorry to disturb Eliz.

b) John told Eliza he was sorry to disturb her.

c) John said to Eliza he had been sorry to disturb her.

2) He said: УWhere is Jill going?Ф

a) He asked where was Jill going.

b) He asked where Jill went.

c) He asked where Jill was going.

3) The doctor asked: УHow do you feel?Ф

a) The doctor asked how did I feel.

b) The doctor asked how I felt.

c) The doctor asked how I had felt.

4) УWill you be free tomorrow?Ф Colin asked Richard.

a) Richard asked would Colin be free the next day.

b) Colin asked Richard if he would be free the following day.

c) Colin asked if Richard will be free tomorrow.

5) УWhere is the nearest bus stop?Ф the old man asked to policeman.

a) The old man asked where was the nearest bus stop.

b) The old man asked a policeman where the nearest bus stop was.

c) The old man told a policeman where the nearest bus stop was.

6) The teacher said to us УBe quiet, pleaseФ.

a) The teacher asked us be quiet.

b) The teacher told us to be quiet.

c) The teacher said to us to be quiet.

7) DonТt swim too far, asked dad.

a) Dad asked him not to swim too far.

b) Dad asked him donТt swim too far.

c) Dad asked him if he wouldnТt swim too far.

2. Insert a proper preposition FOR, SINCE, AGO (выберите предлоги ).

1) Dad isnТt at home. He went to the work an hour ... .

2) Jill hasnТt been there ... three years.

3) They have lived there ... 1984.

4) They got that flat twelve years ... .

5) He has worked for this company ... April.

6) Two years ... Deny bought a car.

7) I phoned him two days ... .

3. Change the following sentences into indirect speech (измените пр€мую речь в косвенную ).

1) Jack told his father: УIТve lost my notebookФ.

2) Henry said to me: УI didnТt throw stones at your dogФ.

3) He said: УI have eaten nothing for two daysФ.

4) Mary said: УI donТt want to wear my old dressФ.

5) I said to my sister: УGeorge has written me a long letterФ.

4. Change the following sentences into direct speech (измените косвенную речь в пр€мую ).

1) The teacher told his students that he was going to give them a test.

2) I told him that I hadnТt seen his brother for a long time.

3) Henry told the teacher that he liked arithmetic, but he didnТt like algebra.

4) We told the teacher that we didnТt understand his question.

5) I told the taxi-driver that he was driving too fast.

6) She said that her children were playing in the garden.

5. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. Use Ђ toldї or Ђ askedї (измените пр€мую речь в косвенную, использу€ Ђ toldї или Ђ askedї).

1) I said to Jack: УPlease give me your dictionaryФ.

2) The teacher said to Tom: УCollect the exercise-books and put them on my tableФ.

3) I said to my friend: УMeet me outside the cinema at six oТclockФ.

4) MaryТs mother said to her: УDonТt go out without your coatФ.

5) The teacher said to the student: УClean the blackboard, pleaseФ.

6. Change the following sentences into indirect speech (измените пр€мую речь в косвенную ).

1) Margaret asked Richard: УWhere are you going for your holidays?Т

2) Ann asked Mary: УWhat do you usually have for breakfast?Ф

3) The teacher asked Bob: УWhen did you learn to swim?Ф

4) MaryТs mother asked her: УWhere have you put your shoes?Ф

5) I asked Bob: УWhy didnТt you answer my letter?Ф

6) I asked УThe old gentleman: УAre you feeling tired?Ф

7) The hotel manager asked the visitors: УDid you sleep well?Ф

8) A man stopped me in the street and asked: УHave you got a match?Ф

9) The teacher asked us: УDo you understand the question or not?Ф

10) He asked his secretary: УDo you want to be an engineer or doctor?Ф

UNIT 11

Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses.

TEXT

A visit to the plant

When Mr. Stanley and the Russian engineers arrived in Glasgow they hired a taxi to the Central Hotel where Mr. White, the production manager of the plant, had reserved accommodation for them.

At a quarter to 9 Mr. White's car picked them up at the hotel and took them to the plant. Mr. Stanley introduced Mr. Borisov and Mr. Kozin to Mr. White and told him that the Russian engineers wanted to see the production shops of the plant.

White: If you like I can show you round the whole plant, so that you can get a good idea of the range of our products.

Borisov: WeТd be delighted to, if it doesnТt take too much of your time!

White: I'll be happy to help you and answer any of your queries. I'll lead the way.

(In the plant.)

White: This is the assembly shop and here you can see the finished products. We produce pumps of high capacity for different applications. Look, here is the latest model. We modified it last year.

Borisov: How does it compare with the previous model?

White: That's a good question. It's easier to operate and more reliable as compared with the previous model. Besides, its capacity is higher than the capacity of the pumps of other companies. We export this model to many countries of the world.

Stanley: I say, John, Mr. Borisov told me on our way here that he wanted to see your test department as well. Is it possible?

White: Yes, of course. We thoroughly test every pump and we've had very good reports from the customers both in our country and abroad. This is where we test our pumps. In fact they are starting a test. If you want to see the test we must go to the shop right now not to miss it.

Vocabulary

1. weТd be delighted to Ц weТd be very glad

2. a production manager Ц начальник производства

3. to show round Ц провести (по заводу)

4. a range [reind3] Ц ассортимент

5. finished products Ц готовые издели€

6. to be delighted [diТlaitid] Ц быть в восторге

7. a query [Сkwiәri] Ц вопрос (не€сность)

8. an assembly shop Ц сборочный цех

9. capacity Ц мощность,

производительность

10. as compared (with) Ц по сравнению (с)

11. reliable [riТlaiәbl] Ц надежный

12. a test department Ц цех испытаний

13. thoroughly [Сθλrәli] Ц тщательно

14. a report [riТpo:t] Ц 1. отзыв; 2. доклад

15. a drawing [Сdro:iŋ] Ц чертеж

16. available [әТveilәbl] Ц наличный,

имеющийс€ в распор€жении

17. correspondence Ц переписка

18. abroad [әbТro:d] Ц за границей

WORD STUDY

1. Complete the sentience with the information given in the text (вставьте правильные слова , использу€ текст ).

1) The Russian engineers wanted to see ... shops of the plant.

2) I can ... you ... the whole plant.

3) IТll be happy to help you and answer any of your ... .

4) This is the ... shop.

5) We produce pumps her ... for different ... .

6) We ... it last year.

7) ItТs easier ... .

8) We ... this model to many countries of the world.

9) He wanted to see your ... Е .

10) We ... every pump and weТve had very good ... from the customers.

2. Match the words in column A with those in column B (составьте словосочетани€ , соединив колонки ј и B).

A

1) Show

2) Assembly

3) Test

4) Production

B

a) Manager

b) Department

c) Round

d) Shop

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

3. Sequence of tenses. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) Mike hoped that his friend (help) him.


a) would help

b) will help

c) helped


2) Yesterday Tom heard that his aunt (be ill) for five days.


a) was ill

b) has been ill

c) had been ill


3) He gave all his money to me because he (trust) me.


a) would trust

b) trusted

c) had trusted


4) We said that Andrew (go) to enter that college.


a) is going

b) went

c) was going


5) My parents decided that we (celebrate) my birthday on Saturday.


a) would celebrate

b) shall celebrate

c) celebrated


4. Open the brackets using sequence of tenses (откройте скобки ).

1) When I (arrive) the lecture already (start).

2) He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction.

3) Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave) so we only had time for a few words.

4) When I came in they (sit) round the fire.

5) When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me.

UNIT 12

Grammar: Modal verbs and their equivalents.

ћодальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

ћодальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

«начение

Present

Past

Future

Can

‘изическа€ или умственна€ способность или возможность совершить действие

I, you, he, she, it, we, they can read

I, you, he, she, it, we, they could read

Ёквивалент to be able to

To be able to

I am

You, we, they are

He, she, it is able to read

I, he, she, it was

you, we, they, were able to read

I, we shall

you, we, they, he, she, it will be able to read

Must

ƒолженствование

I, you, he, she, it, we, they must read

Ёквивалент to have to

Ёквивалент to have to

To have to

ƒолжен, вынужден

I, you, we, they have to read

he, she, it has to read

I, you, he, she, it we

they had to read

I, we shall have to read, you, we, they he, she will have to read

To be to

ƒолжен (по плану, по договоренности)

I am to you, we, they are to

he, she it is to read

I, he, she, it was to

you, we, they were to read

Should

ћоральный долг, совет

I, he, she, it, you, we, they should read

Ought to

May

–азрешение (мне разрешено)

I, he, she, it, you, we, they may read

I, he, she, it, you, we, they might read

Ёквивалент (to be allowed to )

To be allowed to

I am

you, they are he, she, it is allowed to read

I, he, she, it, was

you, we, they, were allowed to read

I, we shall you, we, they, he, she will be allowed to read

ћодальные глаголы can, could, may, might .

‘раза

«начение

Can I have a ticket, please.

Can I have the bill, please.

ƒайте мне билет, пожалуйста.

—чет, пожалуйста.

Could you lend me $ 10 until tomorrow?

Ќе могли бы ¬ы одолжить мне 10 долларов до завтра?

ћодальный глагол may в просьбе употребл€ют от первого лица, предполага€ разрешение собеседника.

May I borrow your English dictionary for a moment?

May I show you our latest catalogue?

ћожно попросить на минутку ¬аш английский словарь?

ћожно показать ¬ам наш последний каталог?

”потребление формы might придает просьбе недовольной оттенок

You might make a little less noise.

¬ы бы могли шуметь поменьше.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. Supply modal verbs or equivalents in the correct tense form (подберите эквиваленты или модальные глаголы в правильной форме ).

1) We (to be, to go) to the plant with Mr. Brown this Monday. But he (not to arrive) in Moscow yet.

2) We (to be, to go) to the plant next week.

3) There is no stop near this building, you (have, to get off) at the next stop.

4) If you donТt leave now, you (not to be able, to come) to the concert on time.

5) When the sellers (to be, to deliver) the goods?

6) We (to be, to reserve) accommodation for Mr. Brown tomorrow.

7) As the Buyer (cannot, to provide) shipping facilities.

2. Put Ђcanї, Ђmayї, Ђmustї, Ђshouldї, Ђought toї, Ђhave toї, Ђbe toї, Ђbe able toї, ЂneednТtї in the spaces (вставьте нужный глагол ).

Example: Larry begins work at 8, so he has to leave home early?

1) If you donТt know the meaning of a word you ... use a dictionary.

2) I ... speak to you now I ... go home.

3) Ц ... I go to the cinema, Mother?

Ц No, you ... .

4) You ... send the mail and to make an appointment with Mr. Brook

5) HeТll ... to receive you only in the afternoon, Mr. Brown.

6) Mary feels bad. She ... see a doctor.

3. Complete the questions with CAN and a suitable verb from the box. Then match each question with an answer (закончите вопросы, вставл€€ нужные слова, ответьте на вопросы).

ride, use, make, speak, see, play, play

  1. Can you play the piano?
  2. _____ you _____ any foreign languages?
  3. _____ you _____ the guitar?
  4. _____ you _____ a motorbike?
  5. _____ you _____ a cake?
  6. _____ you _____ a word processor?
  7. _____ you _____ mountains from your room?
  1. Yes, I can. French and Spanish.
  2. No, I can't. But I can type.
  3. No, I can't. I think they're dangerous.
  4. Yes, we can. The view is wonderful.
  5. No, I can't. But I can play the piano.
  6. Yes, I can. I like playing Chopino.
  7. No, I can't. I don't like cooking.

4. Make the true sentences (составьте правильные фразы ).

A

B

C

1. Policemen

2. Nurses

3. The US President

4. Soldiers

5. English school children

6. Postmen

7. Air Hostesses

8. The queen

9. Interpreters

have to

has to

a) wear a crown sometimes

b) meet leaders from many countries

c) serve food

d) start work very early in the morning

e) speak a foreign languages very well

f) wear a uniform

g) work at night

h) go to war

me

him

her

Let

us (letТs)

read this book.

them

my brother

Voronin

5. ѕереведите:

1) ѕусть секретарь просмотрит почту.

2) ѕусть бизнесмены изучат эти каталоги сегодн€.

3) Ќаш менеджер хорошо знает английский €зык. ѕусть он переведет эти письма.

4) —екретарь сейчас не зан€та. ѕусть она договоритс€ о встрече с господином Ѕеллом.

5) ƒавайте пригласим мистера Ѕлейка в —анкт-ѕетербург.

ADDITIONAL UNIT

Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous.

TEXT

Correspondence concerning the purchase of computers

The Russian Trade Delegation,

27th March 200...

34 Highgate, Westhill,

London, N-6.

England.

Dear Sirs,

Thank you for your enquiry of the 20th March 200Е in which you inform us that you are interested in purchasing the model R 800 computers from us. We enclose with the letter all particulars concerning technical characteristics of this model.

Our company enjoys a first-class reputation and our products are exported to many countries. We have had to develop special features in our computers to satisfy market demands. Now our computers are widely known in many countries of Europe and Asia. We are happy to inform you that we can meet your quantity requirements and offer you three computers at the price of Е per unit. The price includes packing. We are sure that at this price our computers are the best on the world market. We can promise delivery in two months if we receive your order immediately. We hope the above information will be helpful. However, if further information is required please do not hesitate to contact us. We hope you will be able to accept out offer and look forward to our future discussions with you.

Yours faithfully

УWilson & COФ LTD

Vocabulary

1. to supply Ц поставл€ть, обеспечить, снабжать

2. prompt Ц немедленный, срочный

3. for prompt delivery Ц с немедленной поставкой

4. to inform Ц сообщать, информировать

to inform smb. to smth.

5. to purchase Ц покупать

6. to enclose Ц прилагать

7. particulars Ц подробности

8. concerning Ц относительно, касательно

9. characteristic Ц характеристика,

характерна€ особенность

10. a reputation Ц репутаци€, доброе им€

11. to develop Ц 1) развивать; 2) вводить,

разрабатывать, создавать

12. a feature Ц характерна€ черта, особенность

13. to satisfy Ц удовлетвор€ть

14. Asia Ц јзи€

15. to promise Ц обещать

16. above Ц вышеупом€нутый

17. to hesitate Ц колебатьс€

18. discussion Ц 1) обсуждение; 2) переговоры

19. to depend (on) Ц зависеть (от)

20. to increase (to) Ц увеличивать (до)

(by) Ц увеличивать (на)

WORD STUDY

1. Find in the text synonymic expressions to the following (найдите в тексте синонимы ).

1) to buy

2) to let smb. know

3) details

4) talks

2. Make up words out of the following letters (составьте слова ).

1) v b a o e

2) p l u p s y

3) y a i t s f s

4) e d o l e v p

5) m r o f n i

3. Complete the sentences (составьте предложени€ ). Find the endings of the sentences (найдите концовки предложений ).

1) Our company enjoys a first-class ... .

2) We enclose with the letter all particulars concerning technical ... .

3) Our computers are widely known in many countries of ... ... .

4) We are sure that at this price our computers are the best on the ... ... .

5) We hope the above information will be ... .

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

4. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense (раскройте скобки , использу€ врем€ Present Perfect Continuous).

1) Hurry up, John. IТm waiting for you. You (have a bath) for an hour.

2) Where is dad? I (wait) for him since 6 p.m.

3) Dora is playing the piano. She (play) the piano since I came.

4) ArenТt you going to tell me what (you / do) in my absence?

5) How long you (sit) here?

6) IТll go and wash my eyes, I donТt want my husband to see that I (cry).

5. Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) He knows Africa well because he (travel) a lot there.

a) has been traveling

b) has traveled

2) You (write) this composition for two hours and canТt complete it.

a) have been writing

b) have writing

3) Alice promised to come, but sheТs absent. Something (happen) to her.

a) has been happening

b) has happened

4) The children are drawing. They (draw) for 2 hours.

a) have been drawing

b) have drawn

1) Ц John is still repairing his car.

Ц He must be tired. He (repair) it all day.

a) has repaired

b) has been repairing

CHECK YOURSELF

1. Write Ђaї or Ђtheї in the correct places in the sentences, (вставьте Ђaї или Ђtheї).

1) Can you ride Е bicycle?

2) Does it take a long time to get to Е centre of London?

3) I always drive to work, but lot of people comes by Е underground.

4) The traffic is very bad in Е evening.

5) Have you got Е car?

2. In each sentence, one Ђtheї is unnecessary. Cross it out (уберите лишний артикль ).

1) Parking is very difficult in the city centre, so I always go there by bus.

2) 8 oТclock is a good time to phone Thomas, he is always at the home in the evening.

3) ItТs so cold today that a lot of people canТt go to the work.

4) The train times are different on the Sundays.

5) What do you think of the public transport in the London?

6) You can use a Rail Card in most countries in the Europe.

7) Do the people drive on the left in the United States?

8) Our plane arrives in Los Angeles at the 2 p.m.

3. Complete the words to make words or phrases to express the opposite (вставьте подход€щие антонимы ).

1) It was boring! It was fun!

2) A busy weekend A q_ _ _t weekend

3) Stay in Go _ _ _

4) Get up S_ _y in b_ _

5) Never A_ _ _ _s

4. Insert Уto beФ in a proper form (вставьте Уto beФ в правильной форме ).

1) Where Е you from?

2) How old Е? How old Е your brother?

3) What Е your auntТs name?

4) I Е glad to see you. How Е you?

5) The dog Е in the garden?

6) TomТs parents ... travel agents.

7) John Е (not) a student, he Е a doctor.

8) That book Е (not) very interesting.

9) Moscow Е the capital of Russia.

10) Е Tom and Bob good football players?

11) Е you hungry?

5. Present Simple. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) My mother ... a bad headache.


a) have got

b) am

c) has got


2) Where the Johnsons (live)?

a) Where do the Johnsons live?

b) Where are the Johnsons live?

c) Where does the Johnsons live?

3) Mary and her sister ... wonderful voices


a) does

b) has got

c) have got


4) I (not / understand) that man because I (not / know) English.

a) not understand, donТt know

b) donТt understand, not know

c) donТt understand, donТt know

5) Ц ... you ... any time to help me?

Ц Sorry, I ...

a) Do you have, donТt

b) Have you got, am not

c) Do you have, have got

6) ... Jane Smith (speak) English?

a) Is speak

b) Does ... speak

c) Do ... speaks

7) The Browns ... a nice house in the country

a) has got

b) have got

8) ... you (like) swimming?

a) Do you like

b) Does you like

c) Are you like

9) ... dad ... any brothers or sisters?

a) have dad got

b) does dad have

c) does dad has

10) ... your sister often (go) to the theatre?

a) Is ... go

b) Does ... go

c) Do ... goes

11) We ... a car, but we are going to buy it.

a) donТt have

b) arenТt have

c) hasnТt

12) ... Bob (know) what I want?

a) Bob knows

b) Do Bob knows

c) Does Bob know

13) Jack lives not far from us, but we (not / see) him often.

a) not see

b) doesnТt see

c) donТt see

14) DonТt give him cigarettes. He (not / smoke).

a) isnТt smoke

b) doesnТt smoke

c) donТt smoke

15) ... Pete ... any beer in the fridge?

a) Does Pete have

b) Do Pete has

c) Have Pete got

16) My daughter Mary (not / like) apples, but she likes oranges.

a) not likes

b) doesnТt likes

c) doesnТt like

17) WhatТs the matter? You (look) very happy.

a) look

b) looks

6. Put the words in brackets in the correct places in the sentences, as in the example (вставьте слова в скобках в нужное место ).

Example:

I sometimes have dinner at my friendТs house. (sometimes)

  1. Caroline eats fish. (never)
  2. I often eat in a restaurant. (donТt)
  3. I get up late on a Sunday morning. (usually)
  4. ItТs very hot in August in my city. (always)
  5. The Brown family usually to Italy on holiday. (go)
  6. The weather always cold in January. (is)
  7. The bus is late. (often)

7. Which words are missing from the following sentences (какие слова пропущены в следующих предложени€х )?

1) My wife and I ... in a big house in Washington.

2) Simon and Carina ... to school a 8.30.

3) We ... Law at Manchester University.

4) Do you ... tea with milk?

5) What time do you ... lunch?

6) Do your children ... English?

8. Complete the sentences with verbs from the box (вставьте слова ).

read, watch, listen, plays, go, visit, study, write

1) Do you read the newspaper every day? Ц No, I donТt. I only read magazines.

2) Do you ever _____ swimming at the weekend? Ц No, I donТt, but I often _____ shopping.

3) My mother and father always _____ a video on Friday night.

4) I usually _____ to a CD when I drive to work I never _____ to the radio.

5) My brother Hector loves sport: he _____ rugby, basketball and tennis.

6) I never _____ letters: but I _____ a lot of e-mails!

7) I always _____ my friend Roger when IТm in London.

8) Ц IТm at Edinburgh University.

Ц What do you _____?

Ц Law.

9. Tag Ц Questions. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) He can play golf well, Е?

a) doesnТt he

b) can he

c) canТt he

2) You are the new secretary, Е?

a) arenТt you

b) are you

c) donТt you

3) Mr. Evans is speaking over the phone, Е?

a) is he

b) isnТt he

c) doesnТt you

4) You like black coffee, Е?

a) arenТt you

b) donТt you

c) do you

5) ItТs a nice day, Е?

a) does it

b) is it

c) isnТt it

6) We havenТt got much time, Е?

a) do we

b) donТt we

c) have we

7) Sam doesnТt work hard, Е?

a) is he

b) does he

c) have he

8) There was nobody there, Е?

a) was there

b) wasnТt there

c) were there

9) They sent a letter the day before yesterday, Е?

a) did they

b) hadnТt they

c) didnТt they

10) My dad hasnТt read the newspaper yet, Е?

a) hasnТt he

b) has he

c) did he

11) There will be a nice film on TV tonight, Е?

a) wonТt there

b) will it

c) will there

12) He never uses his car except when itТs necessary, Е?

a) doesnТt he

b) does he

c) isnТt he

10. Special questions. Choose the correct variant (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) After lunch you phone someone.

a) Who rang you?

b) Who did you ring?

2) The policeman is interviewing the robber.

a) Who is interviewing the robber?

b) Who is the robber interviewing?

3) Е would you like to drink?

a) Which

b) What

4) Е of brothers Grimm was the eldest?

a) Who

b) What

c) Which

5) ItТs so cold today. Е put on your warm coat?

a) Why you havenТt

b) Why havenТt you

6) Е does it cost to stay at the Hilton Hotel?

a) How many

b) How mach

c) What

7) You can have a photo. Е one would you like?

a) What

b) Which

8) Ц Е will it take me to learn French?

Ц I think youТll be able to speak in another few months.

a) How much

b) How long

c) What

9) Bob and Alice got married in 1991.

a) How long have they been married?

b) How long is it since they got married?

c) When did they get married?

11. Circle the correct question words below (выберите правильный вариант ).

  1. Which / What do foxes eat?
  2. How much / How many water do people need to drink?
  3. How much / How many pets have you got?
  4. What / Which do you like best, cats or dogs?
  5. What / Which is your dogТs name?

12. Write questions about Malcolm Tracey (напишите вопросы ).

  1. (Where / live) Where does he live ?

Ц In Bray.

  1. (When / get up) ________?

Ц At 9 a.m.

  1. (What / do / after breakfast) ________?

Ц He drives his children to school.

  1. (Where / read the newspaper) ________?

Ц In the garden.

  1. (Where / go on holiday) ________?

Ц To the Caribbean.

  1. (What time / finish works) ________?

Ц At 4 p.m.

13. Put the words in the correct order (поставьте слова в правильном пор€дке )

1) evening / studies / the / never / Ellen / in .

2) six / sometimes / Javier / in the morning / at / leaves home.

3) to / you / listen / never / me.

4) but this fish / donТt usually / is / like fish / good / I.

5) city / very / is / New York / a / exciting.

6) help / daughter / me / in the house / My / doesnТt often.

14. The following sentences have mistake. Correct them (исправьте ошибки ).

  1. Jessica and I really like dogs.
  2. Do you live in Tokyo? No, I donТt live.
  3. I no speak English.
  4. Do you like pasta? Yes, I like.
  5. What time people finish work in your country?

15. Which words are missing from the following sentences (какие слова пропущены в следующих предложени€х )?

  1. ItТs quarter to three.
  2. Do your cousins live their parents?
  3. What time you have lunch?
  4. WeТve got an English lesson at 8.30 in morning.
  5. My sister and her family live the city center.

16. Present Simple or Present Continuous?

1) I am a vegetarian. I _____ eat meet.

2) A: What _____ you want to do tonight?

B: Why _____ we go and see James?

A: We canТt because he _____ working late tonight.

3) A: Where _____ you going?

B: I _____ going to the bank.

4) How many children _____ you sister have?

5) A: I _____ looking for a pair of black shoes.

B: Certainly, what size _____ you take?

6) A: Why _____ Hans studying Chinese?

B: Because he _____ going to China on holiday.

7) A: Bonjour.

B: Sorry. I _____ understand. I _____ speak French.

17. Past Simple Tense. Write questions and answers about the people (напишите вопросы и ответьте ).

A: Do you usually work eight hours a day?

B: Yes, I do.

A: Did you work five hours yesterday?

B: No, I didnТt. I worked twelve hours.

1) A: Does Ann usually drive to work?

B: Yes, ______.

A: Did she ______ yesterday?

B: No, ______.

2) A: Does Max usually watch TV in the evening?

B: Yes, ______.

A: Did he ______ yesterday evening?

B: No, ______.

3) A: Do Ann and Max usually go sailing at weekend?

B: _______.

A: _______.

B: _______.

18. Use SAY / SAID or TELL / TOLD (вставьте SAY / SAID или TELL / TOLD).

1) Sandra _____ that she went to India for a holiday.

2) Sandra _____ Bob that she didnТt see the Taj Mahal.

3) What did Anna _____?

4) What did Anna _____ Peter?

5) She _____ it was cold in the park.

6) Did he _____ you his telephone number?

19. Past Simple or Present Perfect?

1) Barbara Lively ____ (write) a lot of books.

She ____ (write) her first 15 years ago.

2) ___ you ever ___ (try) Indian food?

3) I ___ never ___ (be) to Russia. When ___ you ___ (go)?

4) I ____ (live) in London for 8 years and I donТt want to move.

5) He ____ (live) in Oxford for two years and then in 1989 ____ (move) to London.

6) We _____ (meet) Tim and Ann three years ago.

How long ____ you ____ (know) them?

20. Out of the four variants (A), (B), (C), (D) choose the correct one (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) I _____ Michael for ages.

a) didnТt see

b) donТt see

c) havenТt seen

d) saw not

2) How much _____ to fly to New York?

a) costs it

b) it costs

c) does cost

d) does it cost

3) My brother Nick is very good _____ maths.

a) for

b) at

c) about

d) in

4) When did you discover that your car _____?

a) was disappeared

b) had been disappeared

c) had disappeared

d) disappearing

5) If he ______ hard, heТll fail his final exams.

a) doesnТt work

b) wonТt work

c) hadnТt work

d) wouldnТt work

6) IТm very busy at the moment. I ______ for my English.

a) am preparing

b) prepare

c) have been preparing

d) am going prepare

7) Ann said that she ______ a new dress.

a) had bought

b) bought

c) will buy

d) buy

8) I have known Dr. Simon ______ 1982.

a) since

b) for

c) about

d) from

9) If the weather ______ fine tomorrow, weТll go to the park.

a) is

b) will

c) will be

d) were

10) You have never been to Canada, _________?

a) isnТt

b) is it

c) havenТt you

d) have you

21. Underline the word that is incorrect in the following sentences; write in the correct word (выберите правильный вариант ).

1) Did you have / have you had a nice weekend?

2) Did you see Jan at the party? Ц Yes, I saw.

3) IТm sorry, what did you said?

4) What time did you got up this morning?

5) It was a very long flight the journey take more than thirteen hours.

6) We went to the shopping centre yesterday, but we didnТt bought anything.

7) I come home early because I felt very tired.

8) Did you enjoyed the film?

9) I didnТt understood what they said to me.

10) Where did you went on Friday night?

22. Correcting mistakes (исправьте ошибки ). Make the fooling sentences negative (сделайте предложени€ отрицательными ). Then give the right information (дайте правильную информацию ).

  1. Shakespeare wrote songs.
  2. Christopher Columbus discovered India.
  3. Beethoven came from Paris.
  4. Leonardo Da Vinci lived in Brazil.
  5. The Americans landed on the moon in the 19th century.
  6. Agatha Christie wrote love stories.
  7. Pushkin lived in France.

23. Past Perfect. Complete the sentences, using the right tense (поставьте глагол в правильную форму ).

1) Did you see the Director or he (to go) by the time you got there?

2) I couldnТt get into the office yesterday morning because I (leave) my keys at home.

3) The bank returned the cheque to me because I (not to sign) it.

4) I found out about the job too late. When my letter arrived, they (find) someone else.

24. Past Simple / Past Continuous / Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous.

1) They (sit) in the room when the taxi arrived.

a) sat

b) had sat

c) were sitting

d) had been sitting

2) He quickly forgot everything he (learn) at school.

a) learnt

b) had learnt

c) was learning

d) had been

3) I visited Brazil in April. I (stay) at a nice hotel for a fortnight.

a) stayed

b) had stayed

c) had been staying

d) was staying

4) I (stay) at the hotel for a fortnight when I received you letter.

a) stayed

b) had stayed

c) had been staying

d) was staying

5) The musician (play) the piano for a whole hour when we came in.

a) played

b) had played

c) had been playing

d) was playing

6) I (talk) over the phone for a whole hour when the porter knocked at the door.

a) talked

b) had talked

c) had been talking

d) was talking

7) First I (answer) the phone, and then I read your letter.

a) answered

b) had answered

c) had been answering

d) was answering

25. Translate into English (переведите на английский).

√-н Ѕелов Ц инженер Ђ–осэкспортаї.

ќн работает в ћинистерстве торговли. ≈го фирма продает товары в различные страны. √-н Ѕелов часто встречаетс€ с представител€ми английских и французских фирм. ќни обсуждают цены, услови€ платежа и поставки.

” него всегда бывает много работы: он просматривает почту, читает телексы и письма, говорит по телефону с заказчиками, работает на компьютере.

26. Translate into English (переведите на английский).

1) ћы только что изучили ваши последние каталоги и полагаем что модель — отвечает нашим требовани€м.

2) ¬ы уже обсудили цену на оборудование?

3) ћы никогда не вели торговлю с фирмой ЂЅелл энд  ої.

4) ¬ы когда-либо были в Ћондоне? Ц ƒа.

5) ¬ этом мес€це мы заключили контракт на офисное оборудование с фирмой ЂЅраун энд  ої.

27. Translate into English (переведите на английский).

1) Ц ¬ы уже обсудили услови€ поставки с г-ном Ѕрауном?

Ц ƒа.

Ц ј когда вы обсудили эти услови€?

Ц ћы обсудили их на прошлой неделе.

2) Ц ћы хотели бы получить скидку с цены.

Ц ¬ас устроит 5% скидка?

Ц ƒа, мы можем согласитс€ с вашим предложением.

3) ћы не можем поставить моторы заказчику в августе, т.к. наш товар пользуетс€ большим спросом, и у нас очень много заказов от разных фирм.

4) ћы согласны на платежи в форме инкассо, но нам хотелось бы уточнить услови€ поставки.

28. Translate into English (переведите на английский ).

1. Ёто Ц офис. ќн очень большой. Ѕизнесмены сейчас в офисе. ќни за своими рабочими столами. ѕисьма и факсы на столах. ј это Ц секретарь. ќна молода€, при€тна€ женщина.

2. Ц √де контракт с фирмой Ђ√рин энд  ˚ї, јнна?

Ц ќн на вашем столе.

Ц ј чьи это письма?

Ц Ёто Ц ¬аши письма, мистер √рин.

3. Ц Ёто фотографи€ вашей жены?

Ц ƒа, это Ц мо€ жена.

Ц „ем она занимаетс€?

Ц ќна Ц врач. —ейчас она в »талии с нашими детьми.

4. ѕривет. я Ц “ом Ѕраун. я из јмерики. я Ц менеджер большой јмериканской компании. ћой офис находитс€ в „икаго (Chicago). —ейчас € нахожусь в Ћондоне в командировке.

LANGUAGE SUMMARY

“аблица 1

—оответствие английских
буквосочетаний русским буквам

–усска€ буква

јнглийское

буквосочетание

ѕримеры

Ye

Yelena

®

Yo

Dyomin

Zh

Zhukov

Kh

Kharkov

÷

Ts

Tsaritsino

Ch

Ivanovich

Tch

Ivanovitch

Ў

SH

Shpola

ў

Shch

Shchyolkovo

џ

Y

Kimry

Ё

E

Ella

ё

Yu

Yura

я

Ya

Yakov

“аблица 2

ћестоимение (the pronoun)

»менительный падеж

ѕрит€жательный падеж

ќбъектный падеж

јбсолютна€ форма

¬озвратные местоимени€

I Ц €

My Ц мой, мо€

Me Ц мне

Mine Ц моЄ

Myself

You Ц ты

Your Ц твой

You Ц тебе

Yours Ц твоЄ

Yourself

He Ц он

His Ц его

Him Ц ему

His Ц его

Himself

She Ц она

Her Ц еЄ

Her Ц ей

Hers Ц еЄ

Herself

It Ц он, она, оно

Its Ц его, еЄ

It Ц ему, ей

Its Ц его, еЄ

Itself

We Ц мы

Our Ц наш, наша

Us Ц нам

Ours Ц наш

Ourselves

You Ц вы

Your Ц ваше

You Ц вам

Yours Ц ваш

Yourselves

They Ц они

Their Ц их

Them Ц им

Theirs Ц их

Themselves

“аблица 3

Special question

—пециальный вопрос

What [wot]

„то, какой

Where [wεә]

√де, куда

Why [wai]

ѕочему

When [wen]

 огда

Who [hu:]

 то, который

Whose [hu:z]

„ей

Whom [hu:m]

 ого, кому

Which [witʃ]

 оторый, какой

How [hau]

 ак, каким образом

How (many; much; old)

—колько

How often

 ак часто

How long

 ак долго

How far

 ак далеко

“аблица 4

THERE IS / THERE ARE
Present Tense

THERE

is
's
isn't

a swimming pool
a museum

in our town.

are
're
aren't

two discos
four cinemas

Guestion form

Is

THERE

a station
a cinema

in our town?

Are

there churches
a lot of shops

“аблица 5

TO BE

Affirmative - утвердительные

I

am
'm

from America.

in the garden.

here.

You
We
They

are
're

She
He
It

is
's

Negative - отрицательные

I

am not
'm mot

from Britain.

in the kitchen.

here.

You
We
They

are not
aren't

She
He
It

is not
isn't

Guestion form - вопросительные

Am

I

from Greece?

Are

you
we
they

Is

she
he
it

“аблица 6

TO HAVE GOT

Affirmative - утвердительные

I
We
You
They

have
've

got

fifty records.
two sisters.
a dog.

She
He
It

has
's

Negative - отрицательные

I
We
You
They

have not

haven't

got

fifty records.
two sisters.
a dog.

She
He
It

has not

hasn't

Guestion form - вопросительна€

Have

I
we
you
they

got

a ticket for the show?
a penfriend in Brazil?

Has

she
he
it

“аблица 7

Ќеправильные глаголы

Irregular Verbs

Ќеопред.

форма

Infinitive

ѕростое прошедшее врем€

Past Simple

ѕричастие

II

Participle II

ѕричастие I

Participle I

ѕеревод

Translate

be

was, were

been

being

быть

begin

began

begun

beginning

начать

bring

brought

brought

bringing

приносить

buy

bought

bought

buying

купить

cut

cut

cut

cutting

резать

do

did

done

doing

делать

drink

drank

drunk

drinking

пить

eat

ate

eaten

eating

кушать

find

found

found

finding

найти

get

got

got

getting

получить

give

gave

given

giving

дать

go

went

gone

going

идти

have

had

had

having

иметь

know

knew

known

knowing

знать

lay

laid

laid

laying

класть, положить

lose

lost

lost

losing

тер€ть

make

made

made

making

делать

meet

met

met

meeting

встретить

pay

paid

paid

paying

платить

put

put

put

putting

положить

read

read

read

reading

читать

ring

rang

rung

ringing

звонить

run

ran

run

running

бегать

say

said

said

saying

говорить, сказать

see

saw

seen

seeing

видеть

sell

sold

sold

selling

продавать

send

sent

sent

sending

продавать

shine

shone

shone

shining

си€ть, светить

show

showed

shown

showing

показывать

sit

sat

sat

sitting

сидеть

sleep

slept

slept

sleeping

спать

speak

spoke

spoken

speaking

говорить

spend

spent

spent

spending

тратить

swim

swam

swum

swimming

плавать

take

took

taken

taking

брать, вз€ть

teach

taught

taught

teaching

учить

tell

told

told

telling

рассказывать

think

thought

thought

thinking

думать

understand

understood

understood

understanding

понимать

win

won

won

winning

победить

write

wrote

written

writing

писать

—писок используемой литературы:

1. УEnglish for BusinessmenФ √.ј. ƒудкина, ћ.¬. ѕавлова

2. УHeadway ElementaryФ Workbook

3. У”скоренный курс английского €зыкаФ ».√. ‘едотова

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