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Учебное пособие: Методические указания к выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов заочников Мариуполь 2004

Название: Методические указания к выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов заочников Мариуполь 2004
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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Министерство науки и образования Украины

Приазовский государственный технический университет

Методические указания к выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов заочников

Мариуполь 2004

УДК

Методические указания по выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов-заочников.

Составили Т.И. Васильева, М.П. Мулкиджанова, Е.Ю. Мухина, В.И. Сухомлинова, Мариуполь, 2004. - стр.

В предлагаемой работе рассмотрены основные требования к выполнению и оформлению контрольных работ для студентов-заочников разработанных кафедрой иностранных языков и перевода ПГТУ.

Рецензенты: Л.Н. Лазаренко, к.п.н.

Составители: ст. преп. Т.И. Васильева

ст. преп. М.П. Мулкиджанова

преп. Е.Ю. Мухина

ст. преп. В.И. Сухомлинова.

Утверждено на заседании кафедры:

Протокол №18 от 22.04.2004

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

1. Времена глагола группы Indefinite Active и Passive.

2. Множественное число существительных.

3. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных.

4. Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, указательные, вопросительные, отрицательные, неопределенные, возвратные, определительные.

Образец выполнения задания 2.

There is a book on the shelf. -

There are books on the shelves.

Образец выполнения задания 3.

This book is (cheap) than that one but much (interesting).

This book is cheaper than that one but much more interesting. – Эта книга дешевле, чем та, но намного интереснее.

Вариант 1.

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глаголы в соответствующей временной форме группы Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите предложения .

1. Every morning the sun ( shine ) in my bedroom and (wake) me up.

2. When he (come) back? – He (arrive) two days ago.

3. The painting (deliver) tomorrow, and everybody (see) it.

4. Professor Smith, who (award) a major science prize last month, (invite) to take part in a conference.

Задание 2. Перепишите предложения, употребив существительные во множественном числе и сделав соответствующие изменения:

1. That was a long story.

2. The leaf of this tree is yellow.

3. Is this a man or a woman?

4. There is a child in the garden.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, употребив прилагательные в нужной степени сравнения. Переведите предложения .

1. Her daughter is (tall) than I but much (thin).

2. This is (warm) room in the house.

3. Old shoes are usually (comfortable) than new shoes.

He is one of (good) engineers at the plant.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув в них местоимения. Укажите разряд местоимений. Переведите предложения .

1. Who can better know my weakness than I?

2. He has never got anything interesting to say.

3. None of those dogs are ours.

4. The child fell and hurt himself badly.

Задание 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. В следующем году мой старший сын будет изучать иностранный язык.

2. Вы часто ходите в театр? – Я люблю театр, но в прошлом году я не посмотрел ни одного представления.

3. Кем была переведена эта статья? – Статью перевел наш лучший переводчик два дня назад.

4. Как часто приносят письма? – Их всегда приносят утром.

Задание 6. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Primary education

Primary education includes three age ranges: nursery for children under five years, infants from five to seven or eight and juniors from seven or eight to eleven or twelve. In the Infant school the children become acquainted with the 3R's (reading, writing, arithmetic) in the form of games. The emphasis is on learning through experience and much of the time is devoted. to playing, drawing, painting and music. The infant school lays only the foundation in reading, writing and arithmetic and tries to create an interesting beginning to these complicated learning processes which are dealt within a more systematic way in the next stage.

At this stage the first lesson of the day is usually Bible study and the second lesson is arithmetic, both written and mental. The other lessons are: reading, writing, English language, English literature, and English history, Nature Study, drawing, painting, singing, woodwork and physical training. Instead of woodwork the girls' curriculum includes needwork and cooking.

The Junior school mostly carries out a policy of streaming, when children are divided into A-stream of the cleverest, and B-stream of the next in ability, then comes a C-stream, which is the lowest.

The examination at the age of eleven “Eleven-Plus” is conducted by the local education authorities and usually consists of three papers, one in English, one in arithmetic and in Intelligence Test, the latter is thought to play the main role. The authorities think that they can ascertain the child's Intelligence Quotient, or I.Q. Only about twenty five per cent of children are successful and win places at the grammar schools, from which they may proceed to the University. The other seventy five per cent tend to be regarded as "unsuccessful" and they can only go to a secondary modern school. This system of allocating children to different types of secondary school at the age of eleven and the selection methods have caused much criticism. There are also wide regional differences in the provision of grammar school places. Some areas have more places than others in relation to the population. Far worse than the regional differences are the social ones. The servey showed that middle-class children have a far higher chance of getting to grammar school: 54 per cent of upper middle-class children got places, compared with 11 per cent of lower manual working-class ones.

1. Infant school – школа, соответствующая у нас старшей группе детского сада.

2. Eleven – Plus Examination- письменный экзамен, который сдают одиннадцатилетние школьники Англии.

Вариант 2

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите предложения .

1. She always (wear) dark spectacles. She (not see) very well.

2. Where she (go) last summer? – She (fly) to Italy.

3. The letter (send) tomorrow, so they (know) the news soon.

4. A large reception (organize) for the professor and about 200 eminent scientists (invite) to meet him that evening.

Задание 2. Перепишите данные предложения, употребив существительные во множественном числе и сделав соответствующие изменения.

1. This is a nice city.

2. The roof of this house was white.

3. Is that a goose or a hen?

4. There is a mouse in the cellar.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, употребив прилагательные в нужной степени сравнения. Переведите предложения .

1. London is (large) than Cardiff and much (noisy).

2. Which is (high) mountain in the world?

3. This text is (difficult) than the previous one.

4. He is (old) son in the family.

Задание4. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув в них местоимения. Укажите разряд местоимения. Переведите предложения.

1. Please tell me about your new friends.

2. Who wrote the book about the famous Russian sportsmen?

3. Is there anybody in the room? I see nobody.

4. On the way home he fell down and hurt himself.

Задание 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Это будет самый лучший доклад на предстоящей конференции.

2. Вы часто ездите в Крым? – Да, мы обычно ездим в Крым каждый год, но прошлым летом мы туда не ездили.

3. Чему обучают детей в детском саду? – Их учат читать, петь, танцевать.

4. Кому предложили эту работу? – Ее дали самому молодому инженеру нашего отдела.

Задание 6. Перепишите и переведите текст:

Grammar schools

The 1 grammar schools are for boys or girls or for both. They are day schools and the hours of instruction are similar to those at primary schools but the subjects are wider and more advanced: English (language and literature), mathematics, history (English and European), geography, natural science (chemistry and physics), ancient languages (Latin and Greek), modern languages (French, German, Spanish, Italian and Russian), commercial subjects (typewriting, shorthand, book-keeping and accounting), art, music, handwork and physical training.

Grammar schools have six classes called forms. The first form is the lowest class and the sixth is the highest. As a rule, the school is so arranged that each form consists of three parallel classes: class A specializing in arts (humanities), class B in science and class C in commerce. When boys and girls reach the age of sixteen they may sit for the 2 general Certificate of Education, which as its name implies shows that the holder has received a general education and has reached certain standards in various subjects. There are indeed three standards of levels: ordinary, advances and scholarship. For many pupils the GCE of O-level marks end of their school career, they may go into some whitecollar profession. A small number of pupils remain at school for another two years and sit for the GCE of A-level, which is required by most universities and colleges of education.

In the last thirty years the most successful grammar schools have become much closer to the public schools in their view of education: they have become more preoccupied with getting their pupils to university, and particularly to Oxbridge. Since the end of the First World War the trickle of grammar-school boys to Oxbridge has turned into a flood: most of them without strong family connections or wealth, have known that their career depends on a university place, and both in intelligence and ambition they compete strongly with the public-school boys.

Most of the oldest, largest and most famous grammar schools are not state schools at all, but semi-dependent ones. These are 178 "directgrant" grammar schools, financed partly by fees and funds, partly by the Department of Education (the direct grant). They earn the grant by taking not less than a quarter and now as many as sixty per cent of their pupils are from the state system, the rest are fee-paying. They must have local government people on their boards of governors, but the local authorities cannot really interfere as they do with ordinary grammar school.

1 Grammar School – средняя грамматическая (гуманитарная) школа.

2 General Certificate of Education – аттестат зрелости.

Вариант 3

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите предложения .

1. I (have) a car but I (not/ use) it very often.

2. What your friend (buy) at the shop yesterday? – He (buy) a lot of things and (spend) a lot of money.

3. The article (publish) next Wednesday, you (read) it soon.

4. This picture (paint) by my uncle. A lot of money (offer) for it.

Задание 2. Перепишите данные предложения, употребив существительные во множественном числе и сделав соответствующие изменения.

1. That is a happy family.

2. The book from this library is interesting.

3. Is this a tooth or a stone?

4. There was one goose in the field.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, употребив прилагательные в нужной степени сравнения. Переведите предложения .

1. My brother’s flat is (big) than mine and much (light).

2. Where is (near) shop?

3. This French film is (interesting) than the American one.

4. She is (good) student in the group.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув в них местоимения. Переведите предложения .

1. All my sisters live in Summerville, but none of them were born there.

2. What are you looking for?

3. The boy refused to tell us anything.

4. That is this week’s number one hit.

Задание 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Через два года моя старшая сестра окончит институт.

2. Ты часто занимаешься английским языком? – Да, но вчера я не занимался.

3. Кем была написана эта картина? – Картину написал мой лучший друг в прошлом году.

4. Как часто исполняют этот концерт? – Его исполняют каждый месяц.

Задание 6. Перепишите и переведите текст:

Public schools

In a very separate stream of their own, often segregated from the age of five or six, are the children at the independent or “public” schools, which for the past three decades have been the cause of mоrе controversy than any other British institution.

Most public schools were founded in Victorian times, partly to provide recruits for the empire and the army. Most of the boarding schools were sit up in the railway age, far from the main centres of population, so that the boys spent eight months a year for five years in the exclusive company of other boys. The introverted society thus created, provided an experience from which many public schools boys never recovered, and the boarding system has been blamed for most of their subsequent failings - their 1 veneration for authority, their 2 obsession with tradition, their frustrated sex lives. It is changing. Nowadays mothers are reluctant to part with their children so early and the numbers of boarding preparatory schools have decreased and many of them now take day pupils only. All age groups, particularly girls, are moving away from boarding education»

The public schools are nowadays less obviously different from the top grammar schools in their tasks and value-system; they are less obsessed by team-spirit and character building, and more concerned with examinations and universities. But they still give their pupils a very special sense of their mission and confidence.

The public schools have certainly, in the last decade, become much less isolated. Some are even going co-educational: they allow girls into the sixth form. Most schools have abolished 3 fagging and flogging of younger boys by older ones. The most assured schools are not now fussy over long hair, wild clothes or voices - many public schoolboys now deliberately react against the "public eccent" which used to be one of their chief weapons in the outside world. The public schools have become 4 less philistine and less classical. Art is no longer regarded as pansy and many schools have set up expensive art centres, greatly expanded their science sides - helped by special investment funds from big companies. Business has become respectable and some boys play the chartered accountants business games with computers against other schools.

Many British institutions still have great admiration for the public-school values, but their future is much less assured: the public schoolboys' position 5 has long since been whitling away because of the larger number of graduates from other schools. As the big grammar schools step up the pressure, so public schools find it harder to beat them in the quality of their teaching, which pushes the fees higher and higher.

1. veneration for authority – преклонение перед властью

2. obsession with tradition – приверженность традиции

3. fagging and flagging of young boys – эксплуатация и наказание младших

4. less philistine – меньше снобизма

5. to whitle away – сходить на нет

Вариант 4.

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите предложения.

  1. My father (not/go) to work by bus, he usually (walk) there.
  2. When you last (see) Mary? – I (meet) her three days ago.
  3. The parcel (send) tomorrow, you (get) it in a week.
  4. She (employ) by an international company last week and (invite) for an interview.

Задание 2. Перепишите данные предложения, употребив существительные во множественном числе и сделав соответствующие изменения:

  1. This is a big country.
  2. The life of this man was hard.
  3. Is that a mouse or a rat.
  4. There is a leaf under the tree.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, употребив прилагательные в нужной степени сравнения. Переведите предложения.

  1. His son is (short) than I and much (thin)
  2. This is (funny) story in the whole book.
  3. Today your answer is (bad) than last week.
  4. She is (ambitious) person I know.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув в них местоимения. Укажите разряд местоимений. Переведите предложения.

  1. What is her father? Where does he come from?
  2. Nobody seemed to know him well.
  3. Every day he comes here, and each time he asks me the same questions.
  4. Is there anything between him and Ann?

Задание 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

  1. Ваш доклад будет самым интересным на конференции.
  2. Он всегда упаковывает свои вещи сам, но в прошлый раз это делала его жена.
  3. Как часто приносят письма? – Обычно их приносят два раза в неделю.
  4. Когда Вам предложили эту работу? Мне об этом ничего не сказали.

Задание 6. Перепишите и переведите текст:

Comprehensive Schools.

Royal assent was given on 22 November, 1976, to the bill to require local education authorities to have regard, in all their duties relating to secondary education, that such education should be provided in schools that admitted pupils without reference to abi­lity or aptitude and to empower 1 the Secretary of State to call the proposals to complete reorganization in cases where he felt progress or further progress was necessary.

But most of the 2 comprehensive schools which exist today were started before secondary reorganization. They were introduced more than fourty years ago, and now 75% of all secondary schools are comprehensive. Pupils go to them automatically 3 regardless of intelligence. However, some comprehensives and many secon­dary schools do not have the full range of academic courses for six-formers. Pupils can transfer either to a grammar school or to a six-form college to get the courses they want.

A comprehensive school is a school for all pupils of seconda­ry school age in a school district. These schools cover, in fact, all the work done in grammar, modern and technical schools. They offer a wide range of general and vocational subjects. They tend to be large: more than a quarter have over 1,000 pupils and nearly half of them have more than 800.

Much is done in England for assistance to the development of a fully comprehensive system of education. The word “compre­hensive” expresses not only the idea that the schools in question take all the children of a given area, without selection, but also that they should offer a wider range of courses than any one of the traditional types of school. For this reason they are usually bigger than the traditional types.

Some of the comprehensive schools are simply country secon­dary schools, some are large purpose built comprehensives on new housing estates, others are housed in older buildings often some distance apart. If a council decides on comprehensive schools, there is no selection by examination and all pupils go on from pri­mary school to the comprehensive school in their area.

Many of these schools preserve the А, В, С relationship among the children, but the children are allowed to change streams according to their progress. Most, but not all of these schools have some kind of selection inside the school. The children make a choice of subjects they want to study. Most of the schools are mixed.

The comprehensive system is considered by many to be a fair one, offering wider opportunities for many more pupils and giving the 4 slower pupils a better chance of catching up.

  1. Secretary of State – зд. Министр науки и просвещения
  2. comprehensive school – средняя общеобразовательная школа
  3. regardless of intelligence – независимо от уровня умственных способностей
  4. large purpose built – большие специально построенные
  5. the slower pupils – отстающие ученики

Вариант 5.

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите предложения .

  1. How well your friend (speak) English? – He (speak) English badly.
  2. When you last (go) to the theatre? – We (be) at the theatre two weeks ago.
  3. The hotel (redecorate) by a famous designer next month. I think it (be) nice.
  4. The building (destroy) by the bomb three days ago; a lot of people (injure).

Задание 2. Перепишите данные предложения, употребив существительные во множественном числе и сделав соответствующие изменения:

  1. That was a nice woman.
  2. The story from this book is interesting.
  3. Is this a sheep or an ox?
  4. There is a big shelf in the kitchen.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, употребив прилагательные в нужной степени сравнения. Переведите предложения.

  1. The Volga is (long) than the Dnieper and much (deep).
  2. Summer is (warm) of the four seasons.
  3. This cake is (good) than my mother’s.
  4. This dress is one of (expensive) in this shop.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, подчеркнув в них местоимения. Укажите разряд местоимений. Переведите предложения.

  1. Suddenly I felt something soft on my knees. That was a cat.
  2. I told him everything I knew.
  3. There is nothing to worry about.
  4. Who would you like to see as your assistant?

Задание 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

  1. Завтра я увижу свою старшую сестру. Это будет самый счастливый день в моей жизни.
  2. Как твой отец обычно добирается на работу? – Обычно он ходит пешком, но вчера он добирался на автобусе.
  3. Эту картину на фестивале не показывали.
  4. Как часто обсуждаются эти вопросы? – Их обсуждают редко.

Задание 6. Перепишите и переведите текст:

Some Aspects of British University life.

A university in Great Britain is a place of higher education to which young men and women may go after finishing the course at a high school, that is, when they are about eighteen years old.

It is true that most students go to a university to study some special subject or group of subjects, a knowledge of which will make it possible for them to earn their living as doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, etc. But it is recognized that a university must do more than supply the facts of medicine, law, engineering or whatever a man may have to do or teach: it must train its students in such a way that they themselves will always be eager to search for new knowledge and new ideas.

Of the full-time students now attending English universities three quarters are men and one quarter women. Nearly half of them are engaged in the study of arts subjects such as history, languages, economics or law, the others are studying pure or applied sciences such as medicine, dentistry, technology, or agriculture,

The University of London, for instance, includes internal and external students, the latter coming to London only to sit for their examinations. Actually most external students at London University are living in London. The colleges in the University of London are essentially teaching institutions, providing instruction chiefly by means of lectures, which are attended mainly by day students. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, however, are essentially residentional institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method,

This tutorial system began at Oxford and Cambridge, where each college is a world of its own, with the 1 students in residence, and they can easily appoint tutors to look after each student individually. The system is also used to some extent in the other universities to supplement lectures. Generally speaking there's one member of the teaching staff for every eight students in the universities, The tutorial system brings the tutor into close and personal contact with the student. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, being residential, are necessarily far smaller than most of the colleges of the University of London,

Education of University standard is also given in other institutions such as colleges of technology and agricultural colleges, which prepare their students for degrees or diplomas in their own field.

The three terms into which the British University year is divided are roughly eight to ten weeks. Each term is crowded with activity. The students have vacations between the terms.

1. students in residence – студенты, живущие при университете

Контрольная работа № 2

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание № 2 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Времена глагола группы Continuous Active и Passive.
  2. Порядок слов в английском вопросительном и повествовательном предложениях.
  3. Модальные глаголы.
  4. Предлоги времени, места, направления, устойчивые предложные сочетания.

Образец выполнения 1 ( к упр 1)

Перепишите предложение, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей видо- временной форме группы Indefinite, Continuous, Active, Passive:

They ( to wait ) for him at this time yesterday. They were waiting for him at this time

yesterday.

Они ждали его в это время вчера.

Образец выполнения 2 ( к упр 2 )

Составьте предложение из данных слов, обращая внимание на порядок слов в предложении.

Do, doing, what, at, you, like, weekend, the? What do you like doing at the weekend?

Образец выполнения 3 ( к упр 3 )

Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них модальный глагол и переведите:

Need you worry about such trifles? Надо-ли тебе беспокоиться из-за таких пустяков?

Образец выполнения 4 ( к упр 4 )

Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо:

He was stopped…….a policeman He was stopped by a policeman

Вариант 1

Ι . Раскройте скобки , употребив глагол в нужном времени (Indefinite, Continuous, Active, Passive).

1. It ( to rain ) hard last night when I ( to leave ) the office.

2. Tomorrow at this time they ( to discuss ) this article.

3. He ( take care off ).

4. I ( not to drink ) coffee now. I ( to write ) an English exercise.

ΙΙ. Составьте предложение из данных слов.

1. It, am, learning, job, far, my, because, English, me, I.

3. You, of, tell, the, me, can, Paris, code?

4. Cost, does, it, how, to, here, much, park?

ΙΙΙ. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них модальный глагол и переведите:

1. You may come tomorrow a little later; she said graciously.

2. It’s the physician who decided how long a patient remains in hospital. I think you should

have another talk with your wife’s physician.

3. He needn’t stay here till five.

4. “You mustn’t speak to the gentleman like this, girl”, said Mrs. Pierce.

ΙV. Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. I looking at the stars…. the sky….. night.

2. The rain leaves…… five minutes.

3. There was a list of names…… the notice board. My name was…… the bottom of the list.

4. It was very late when we arrived……home.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Где ваш брат? – Он провожает приятеля. А сестра? – Она работает в саду.

2. Что-нибудь делается чтобы восстановить это здание?

3. Вам следует обратиться к врачу.

4. Можно взять словарь? – Да, конечно.

V. Переведите текст .

St Paul’ Cathedral is one of the most famous buildings in the world, and it is also one of the greatest survivors!

There was once a Roman temple on the site, dedicated to the goddess Diana. Since then there have been four different Christian buildings. The first Christian church was built by the Saxon King, Ethelbert of Kent. Being made of wood it didn’t work either as it was destroyed in a Viking invasion. When the Saxon used wood again on the third church, it was doomed to be destroyed by fire again!

When old St Paul’s was built in the time of William the Conqueror, stone from Northern France was used and it was much taller and wider than it is today. During the reign of King Henry VIII, financial problems meant there wasn’t enough money for the cathedral’s upkeep. Parts of it were destroyed and market place was set up inside selling, bread, meat, fish, and beer!

The first public lottery was held at St Paul’s by the west Door. But instead of the profits going to the cathedral they went to the country’s harbours. Elizabeth I granted money to the cathedral for repairs and an architect was appointed. Inigo Jones cleared out the shops and market place ready for repairs. However it fell in to decay again when soldiers used it as barracks during the Civil War.

Christopher Wren, the cathedral final architect, was asked to restore it. Before he could make much progress, parts of it were destroyed by the Great Fire of London, which started in a baker’s shop in Pudding Lane and raged for five days, destroying many of the buildings in the City.

Christopher Wren started once more with a magnificent vision of St Paul’s and the rest of the City. All this in spite of the fact that he was more of scientist and hadn’t actually built or designed anything until he was 30 years old. He laid the foundation stone for the cathedral in 1675. 35 years later he set the final stone in place. When he died he was buried in his own magnificent building.

The clock tower on the West Side houses the bell known as Great Paul. At three meters of diameter, it is the heaviest swinging bell in the country. Of course there is the famous dome and the cross on top is 365 feet from the ground. It is the second largest cathedral dome in the world. Only St Paul’s in Rome is bigger.

Why not pay St Paul’s a visit? One feature you will find interesting in the Whispering Gallery, where you can whisper at one wall, and then hear what you whispered on the opposite wall 107 feet away!

( from BBC English )

Вариант 2

Ι . Раскройте скобки , употребив глагол в нужном времени (Indefinite, Continuous, Active, Passive).

1. Where are you going this Sunday? – This Sunday I ( to go ) to the country, but usually on

Sunday I ( to stay ) at home.

2. My friend ( to talk )to the teacher, when I ( to see ) him.

3. He ( not to wait ) for us at 6 o’clock tomorrow.

4. The gates ( to paint ) now.

ΙΙ. Составьте предложение из данных слов, обращая внимание на порядок слов в предложении.

1.He, when, horse, was, his, laughing, off, he, fell.

2. Money, yesterday, the, far, is, the, looking, stolen, police.

3. For, you, looking, are, what.

4. She, speak, can, any, fluently, language, foreign?

ΙΙΙ. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.

  1. May I try on your hat?
  2. The furniture is really beautiful, but it must be very expensive.
  3. Need you be in a hurry?
  4. Why should I suffer from his mistakes?

ΙV. Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. Where is Tom? - ……his friends.

2. Are you doing anything…….Friday morning?

3. A lot of people are afraid……spiders.

4. He is very good……languages. He speaks English, French, Italian and Arabic.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Я могу заставить Анну работать, и я намерена это сделать.

2. Эта работа не может быть сделана в такой короткий период времени.

3. Сейчас музей ремонтируют.

4. Почему вы стоите в коридоре? Звонит звонок и пора идти в класс.

V. Переведите текст .

THE TOWER OF LONDON

“ Halt! Who goes there?”

“ The Keys.”

“ Whose Keys?”

“ Queen Elizabeth’s Keys.”

“ God preserve Queen Elizabeth.”

“ Amen!”

These words can be heard every night just before 10 o’clock. They mean that the Tower’s been locked up for the night. The Ceremony of the keys is at least 700 years old.

What is the Tower?

The tower has many things: a palace, a fortress, a prison, a place of execution, a Zoo. Today, it is best known as a historical museum. About 150 people and six ravens live here.

The Zoo.

Kings sometimes get strange presents. About 700 years ago King Henry III got 3 leopards, one elephant and polar bear. He kept them in the Tower. The elephant died after two years but the polar bear was happy as it went swimming and fishing in the Thames with a strong rope round its neck. That was the start of the London Zoo. In 1835 all animals left the Tower and were sent to the Zoo in Regent’s Park. Only the ravens stayed on.

Ravens.

There are always at least 6 ravens at the Tower. The first ones probably built their nests here because they liked the old stone houses and walls. There is a story that they bring good luck to Britain, if they stay at the Tower. That’s why they get “paid” meat and biscuits every day. But their wings are cut so that they can’t fly away. They are not very friendly. Once one of them bit a German minister.

The Beefeaters

The Beefeaters used to guard the Tower and prisoners. Today they work mostly as guides. They show people around and tell stories about all the terrible things that have happened here. They still wear the high ruffs and scarlet tunics assigned to them during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

The Prison

The Tower was a royal palace long ago. Then it became a prison. Kings, queens and noblemen were locked up here. Many, like Lady Jane Grey, lost their heads on Tower Green inside the walls or nearby on Tower Hill. The last time it was used as a prison was during the Second World War when German spies were kept and sometimes shot there.

The Crown Jewels

The Crown Jewels are shown in the Jewel House. They are well looked after. Once they were stolen by a man called Colonel Blood. But he was caught just as he was leaving the Tower. Thomas Blood didn’t have to go to prison. The king gave him a pension instead. It was in 1671.

( from Speak Out, abridged )

Вариант 3

Ι Раскройте скобки , употребив глагол в нужном времени (Indefinite, Continuous, Active, Passive).

1. When we (to come) to this town a new theatre (to build) here.

2. He (to look) at her: “You (to shake). Are you all right ?”

3. “You (to drive) out tonight? – We usually dine at home. But today we (to go) to the café.

4. Large crowds (to wait) at the station when the delegation (to arrive).

5. When I (to wake up) this morning, the sun (to shine) high in the sky.

ΙΙ Составьте предложение из данных слов.

1. Am, must, I, to, hurry, going, I, because, doctor’s, the.

2. You, served, are, being, madam?

3. Out, are, and, you, together, going, Alan, still?

4. Be, fifty, she, about, must.

ΙΙΙ Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.

1. Must they pay the rent beforehand ?

2. The goods may arrive earlier than you expected.

3. Don’t forget to bring me the journal, I need it for my report.

4. He ought to be ashamed of himself.

ΙV Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. She goes to work … foot.

2. I was bitten … a dog.

3. John lives … a small village … the south-west of England.

4. I’m afraid I can’t come to the party … Sunday evening.

V Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Его телеграмма пришла, когда я выходил из дома.

2. Закройте окно. Идёт дождь.

3. Он не мог бегло говорить по-английски в прошлом году.

4. Вам следует напомнить ей о своих обязанностях.

V Ι Переведите текст .

Parks and Gardens

The special feature that distinguishes London from other capital cities is its many green parks, which been enjoyed by its citizens since Hyde Park became the first public garden (1637). Five of London’s nine royal parks are in the very feart of the capital. Among the most important parks that bring fresh life and colour to London are St. James’s Park, Green Park, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens that stretch across the West End. Each has its own character. Laid out in the midst of government buildings and palaces, ST. JAMES’s PARK is one of the smallest, but with its charming lake enlivened by water birds, well– maintained flower beds and view of Westminster from the bridge, is easily the most attractive. To the west, divided by The Mall1 , is GREEN PARK, an unpretentious stretch of especially thick, rich grass and luxuriant stands of trees, the plainest of the Royal Parks. HYDE PARK has an area of 361 acres and its outstanding feature is the 40 – acre Serpentine2 boating lake. One of the great urban parks of the world was once a deer – hunting park for Henry VΙΙΙ and in 1851 it was the site for London’s Great Exhibition. Londoners love to use this park and you’ll find joggers – not to mention riding enthusiasts cantering around the horse track – taking advantage of its spaciousness. Another attraction of the park is Speaker’s Corner, near the Marble Arch, where anyone can get up on a makeshift rostrum – often a cardboard box – and spout their opinions. It’s hard to believe that the roads were once infested by villains and popular with duelists.

KENSINGTON GARDENS are separated from Hyde Park by a road, but the difference in character is at once apparent – it is more formal, more enclosed. The Gardens share the boating lake with the neighboring park, but at this section it is called the Long Water, where depending on the weather there is boating and ice – skating, or swimming. William ΙΙΙ nipped 26 acres off the western and of Hyde Park in 1689 to make a garden for Kensington Palace. Kensington Gardens were not opened to the general public until the mid – 19th century and, until recently, still retain some feeling of elevated separateness. Expensive boats are still sailed in the Round Pond and magnificent kites are flown. Another park set apart from the others (northwest of the City) is REGENT’s PARK. It was once a royal hunting area. The park was laid out for George ΙV when he was Prince regent and was given its present name about 1814. If Primrose Hill is included in its area, it is the largest of all parks, at 670 acres. Given its look by John Nash, this “aristocratic garden suburb” is roughly circular in shape and encircled by a carriage road. Within the park are the 34 – acre (14 – hectare) Zoological Gardens, Queen Mary’s Garden and the Open Air Theatre.


1 Mall – [mæl] – см. “London Panorama”

2 Serpentine – [‘sз:pəntain] – Серпантин – узкое искусственное озеро в Гайд- Парке (букв. змееобразное).

Вариант 4

Ι Раскройте скобки , употребив глагол в нужном времени (Indefenit, Continuous, Active, Passive).

1. Look! How many birds (to fly) high up in the air!

2. Yesterday he (to tell) us for two hours about his trip to India.

3. I (to watch) TV, when somebody (to knock) at the door.

4. These goods (to export) to all European countries.

ΙΙ Составьте предложения из данных слов.

1. Tomorrow, shall, at, we, for, here, you, this, be, time, waiting.

2. Now, being, what, are, questions, discussed?

3. Him, there, to, 20 minutes, get, takes, it.

4. In, they, while, were, got, working, together, married, Malaysia, they.

ΙΙΙ Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.

1. You may call me Dolly if you like, but you mustn’t call me child.

2. You must be at an office at 10 o’clock.

3. You needn’t deal with this shop if you don’t like it.

4. He can lend me a dictionary for a week.

ΙV Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. Our vacation begins … the 27 of may.

2. There was much snow … the ground.

3. She’s usually late, but I think she’ll be … time this evening.

4. Can you play tennis … next Sunday?

V Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Почему они так смотрят на нас?

2. Эта работа не может быть сделана в такой короткий период времени.

3. Ты всё ещё читаешь? Очень поздно. Туши свет, я так устала, что засыпаю над книгой.

4. Я обедал, когда он позвонил мне.

VΙ Переведите текст.

Madame Tussaud

For over 200 years, Madame Tussaud’s exhibition of wax figures has been one of Britain’s most popular attractions. The exhibition has constantly developed and now visitors can see the world’s public figures, including men and women who have made a lasting impact on our lives, Kings and Queens, great statesmen, religious leaders, superstars past and present who have become legends.

But the story of Madame Tussaud is as impressive as her exhibition. Two things about her are especially interesting. First, she spent her early years in the turmoil of the French Revolution and came to meet many of its characters, and perhaps more unusually, she succeeded in business at a time when women were seldom involved in the world of commerce.

Madame Tussaud whose first name is Marie was born in France in 1761. Her father, a soldier, was killed in battle two month before her birth. She lived with the mother who worked as a housekeeper for the doctor who had a wonderful skill of modeling anatomical subjects in wax. Soon Marie and her mother with the doctor Curtius moved to Paris.

France was approaching the Revolution. Dr. Curtius’s house became a meeting place of philosophers, writers and revolutionaries. Marie soon discovered she had a talent for observation and remembering the details of faces.

Dr. Curtius acted as a teacher to Marie, schooling her in the techniques of wax portraits. Thanks to him she used a scientific approach in wax portraiture. She was soon allowed to model the great figures of the time. Among them were François Voltaire and the American statesman Benjamin Franklin. Dr. Curtius’s exhibition was patronized by the French Royal family and Marie was invited to the royal Court.

At the time of the revolution Marie and her mother were imprisoned for some time. Later Marie was asked to prepare the death masks of French aristocrats who had been executed – among them the King and the Queen.

The time of terror came to an end. In 1794 the doctor died and Marie inherited the business which had grown under her influence.

In the following years she married a French engineer, François Tussaud and by 1800 had given birth to three children: a daughter who died and two sons. It was difficult for the exhibition to survive in France and in 1802 Marie Tussaud made a monument decision. She would leave her husband and baby son in Paris while she and her elder son would tour the exhibition round the British Isles.

Marie was to see neither France nor her husband again. She spent the next 33 years traveling in Great Britain. Later her other son joined her. Both of her sons were interested in the business. The travels ended in 1835 when Madame Tussaud’s exhibition found a permanent home in London. Since that there have been fires and disasters but many new figures have been added to the collection. This unusual woman died in 1884 at the age of 89.

You can see her remarkable self – portrait in Museum as well.

Вариант 5

Ι Раскройте скобки , употребив глагол в нужном времени (Indefinite, Continuous, Active, Passive).

1. Why you (to interrupt) me? I (to have) an amusing conversation with Dick.

2. They (to discuss) something important when I (to come) in.

3. The article (to discuss) at this time yesterday.

4. You (to wait) in the hall. Hurry up!

ΙΙ Составьте предложения из данных слов.

1. English, well, you, can, how, speak?

2. Will, when, be, new, the, bridge, built?

3. After, today, I, work, am, meeting, Jane.

4. While, was, I, the, friend, met, a, I, doing, shopping.

ΙΙΙ Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.

1. James should be told the news as soon as possible.

2. This house must be built next month.

3. Can you always tell a person’s mood by the expression on his face?

4. You might be more considerable to your parents who always think of your well – being.

ΙV Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. The new road goes … the village.

2. Do you like traveling … train?

3. I’m starting my new job … 3 June.

4. “Why don’t you like him?” “Because I’m afraid … him”.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Тихо! Читают интересную книгу.

2. Мне надо перевести всю эту статью.

3. Когда мы приедем в лабораторию, они будут показывать свои опыты.

4. Мне надо купить лекарства маме.

V. Переведите текст.

Trafalgar Square

At the beginning of the 19th century England defeated the French and Spaniards in the great sea battle at Trafalgar.

Trafalgar Square commemorates Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. It was in 1805. Napoleon had threatened to invade Britain several times. While the preparations to defend Britain were being made at home, Admiral Nelson swept the seas searching for the French navy and at last met it in Trafalgar Bay, off the coast of Spain. Nelson was killed in the Battle, but the victory was won. Napoleon’s power on the sea was utterly destroyed. Britain was once more saved from all fear of invasion and the ribbon of water between Britain and the Continent was enough to keep her safe.

In the middle of the Square rises the Nelson Column, a monument to Admiral Nelson. It was erected in 1843.

But Trafalgar Square is not used only for the commemoration of Admiral Nelson. It is also the meeting – place of the members and supporters of the British peace movement. In fact, mass rallies of many organizations take place here and the monument’s plinth is often used as a platform by the speakers. Sometimes there are hundreds of Londoners here, strolling up and down the Square, meeting friends and resting. There are huge flocks of pigeons here. They seem to be always hungry, and people like to feed them. Most of them are so tame that they will perch on your outstretched hand or even on your head.

BUCKINGHAM PALACE

Buckingham Palace, which is today the official residence of the British Monarchy, has served that function only since comparatively recent times. In the Middle Ages the principal London residence of the kings was the Palace of Westminster, now rebuilt as the Houses of Parliament.

Today the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh live in the private apartments on the north side of the palace. In all Buckingham Palace has 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 182 stuff rooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. Some 450 people work in the palace and 40000 people are entertained there every year. Unlike many other historical monuments, Buckingham Palace remains a fully occupied, working royal palace and it gives it a particular fascination. The Queen, as head of state, receives there a large number of formal and informal visitors, including the Prime Minister at weekly audiences, foreign and British ambassadors and high commissioners, bishops, and senior officers of the armed services and the civil service.

The highlight of royal entertaining, however, is the state banquet, usually for about 170 guests, given by the Queen on the first evening of the state visit of foreign head of state of the United Kingdom.

Контрольная работа №3

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание №3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Времена глагола группы Perfect Active and Passive.
  2. Эквиваленты модальных глаголов.
  3. Замена будущего времени настоящим в придаточных времени и условия.
  4. Простые неличные формы глагола: причастие I, причастие II, Герундий. Их функции в предложении.

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр.1)

Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите.

You (see) him lately? No, I …

Have you seen him lately? No, I haven’t.

Ты видел его в последнее время? Нет.

Образец выполнения 2 (к упр.2)

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

I don’t have to get up early tomorrow, because I’m on holiday.

Мне не нужно завтра рано вставать, потому что я в отпуске.

Образец выполнения 3 (к упр.3)

Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation.

If the house burn down we can claim compensation.

Если дом сгорит, мы можем потребовать компенсацию.

Вариант 1

I. Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите .

1. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet.

2. We didn’t need to queue because I (buy) already the ticket.

3. Jenny flew to Rome last year. She never (be) on a plane before that.

4. When this street (be widened) the residents (be kept) awake all night by the roar of the traffic.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

1. We have to play the rent every month.

2. At the moment Ann can speak French quite well, and if she studies hard, perhaps she’ll be able to work as an interpreter.

3. People shouldn’t be allowed to park there.

4. The talks were to be attended by the representatives of fifteen European countries.

III. Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

1. When the fog (lift) we’ll be able to see where we are.

2. When everybody (leave) the park the park-keeper will look the gates.

3. If she (not/pass) this exam she won’t get the job that she wants.

4. If you (not/like) this one I’ll bring you another.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и Gerund и установите функции каждого из них. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

1. Raising the output we must not forget the task of improving the quality at the same time.

2. Engineers find use for titanium and prefer it to aluminium which loses its strength rapidly when subjected to high temperatures.

3. The Moon, like the Earth, shines with the reflected light of the Sun.

4. All the difficulties in organizing the laboratories and in supplying them with the necessary equipment had to be overcome.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Вы уже переехали на новую квартиру?

2. Вчера мне пришлось ответить на все эти письма.

3. Закончив работу, я пошёл домой.

4. Если они выиграют, они будут чемпионами.

VI. Переписать и перевести текст.

History and future of the internet

The internet technology was created by Vinton Cerf in early 1973 as part of a project headed by the advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the United States Department of Defence. Later Cerf made many efforts to build and standardize the internet. In 1984 the technology and the network were turned over to the private sector and to government scientific agencies for further development. The growth has internet available to home and business users enter the market in ever-increasing numbers. By early 1995, access was available in 180 countries and more than 30 million users used the internet. The internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect in promoting the exchange of information, making possible rapid transactions among individuals and organizations. More than 100 million computers are connected via the global internet in 2000 and even more are attached to enterprise internets. The development of the World Wide Web leads to the rapid introduction of new business transactions on the internet worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

Вариант 2

I. Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите .

  1. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (look) for a better post bat so far he (not find) anything.
  2. I didn’t watch the film because I (see) it before/
  3. George (wait) for one hour before the bus came.
  4. The For Sale notice has been taken so I suppose the house (sell) (be sold).

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. I couldn’t watch that programme last night because I had to go out.
  2. When I have passed my driving test I’m be able to hive a car from our local garage.
  3. We won’t have to get tickets in advance.
  4. You are to write your name at the top of the paper.

III. Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

  1. You shouldn’t wait. You should reply as soon as you (receive) the invitation.
  2. Don’t drive at more than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,000 kilometers.
  3. I’ll go to the doctor’s if I (not/fell) better.
  4. I’ll buy that camera if it (not/cost) too much.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и Gerund и установите функции каждого из них. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. The hostages were rescued without a shot being fired.
  2. I wish my refrigerator would stop making that terrible noise. You can’t hear anyone speaking.
  3. The results received were of great importance for further work.
  4. People living in Japan have some customs different from ours.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Мы уже пообедали, когда он пришел.
  2. Телеграмму нет необходимости посылать сегодня.
  3. Этот вопрос должен быть решен до того, как соглашение будет подписано.
  4. Я помню, что встречал его где-то.

VI. Переписать и перевести текст.

Metals

Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.

Вариант 3.

I. Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите.

  1. What you (do) with my type writer? I can’t find it anywhere. – Tom just (go) off with it. He says he’ll bring it back when he (finish).
  2. I couldn’t buy it because I (spend) all my money.
  3. George (work) at the university for 45 years before he retired.
  4. Various valuable minerals (be obtained) in that area.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. They couldn’t talk for a long time, because Jane had to go out.
  2. When the fog lifts we’ll be able to see where we are.
  3. He isn’t allowed to drive since his accident.
  4. The talks were to be attended by the representatives of fifteen European countries.

III. Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

  1. When he (return) I’ll give him the key.
  2. When he (sell) his newspapers he’ll go home.
  3. If he (not phone) this afternoon I’ll phone him this evening.
  4. If I lend you 10 pounds when you (repay) me?

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и Gerund и установите функции каждого из них. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. Would you mind writing your name and address on the back of the cheque?
  2. Having looked through all the documents and letters received that day he called his secretary.
  3. She showed us a list of the newly published books.
  4. Thinking we were lost, he offered to show us the way home.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Этот вопрос ещё не решен.
  2. Счета пришлось проверить ещё раз.
  3. Посидите здесь, пожалуйста, пока не вернется директор.
  4. Все студенты, принимающие участие в этой работе, должны придти в институт сегодня в 6 часов вечера.

VI. Переписать и перевести текст.

Energy resources

Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are the main energy resources used by humans. They are mostly burnt in power stations to produce electricity. Only a certain amount of these fuels exists, so they are known as non-renewable energy resources. Once used up they cannot be replaced as they take millions of years to form. Uranium, used as fuel in nuclear power stations is also a non-renewable energy resource.

Renewable energy resources are those which will not run out, or can be easily replenished. Examples are solar power, wind power, tidal power, hydroelectric power (from fast-flowing water), geothermal power (using the internal heat of the earth) and wood (trees grow quickly enough to replenish supplies).

There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to each of these energy resources.

- Non-renewable energy resources should be
used sparingly as they will not last for ever.

- Burning fossil fuels in power stations causes pollution. Sulphur dioxide (a cause of acid rain) and carbon dioxide (which increases the greenhouse effect) are produced. There is also concern that large-scale projects such as ‘wind farms’ (large groups of wind turbines) spoil the landscape.

- Some energy resources are more reliable than other: the sun and wind will not always be available when needed!

- Nuclear fuels must be treated very carefully as they are radioactive. Public opinion is often against their use, because of the risk of an accident. Nuclear power stations are relatively cheap to run, but very expensive to ‘decommission’ at the end of their lives to make them safe. Radioactive waste products are produced by nuclear power stations, and these are difficult to dispose of satisfactorily.

- The costs of resources vary. The sun, winds and tides are free, whereas fossil fuels must be mined. However, the equipment needed to harness the sun, winds and tides is expensive, as very large-scale projects are needed to generate as much electricity as one coal power station.

Electricity is the most convenient form of energy for us to use. It is generated in power stations.

In a traditional power station, fuel (coal/oil/gas) is burnt to heat water. The steam produced is used to turn turbines. The turbines drive the generators which produce electricity.

In nuclear power stations the heat from nuclear reactions heats the water, and in geothermal power stations water is pumped through hot rocks underground. In both cases the stream produced turns the turbines to drive the generators.

In other types of power station steam is not used. The turbines are turned directly by the wind, the flow of water downhill, or the water flowing out at low tide. The turbines then drive the generators in the same way.

Solar cells can be used to convert the sun’s energy directly to electricity. They are often used on satellites.

Вариант 4.

I. Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите.

  1. Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect billes.
  2. I was tired because I (get up) very early that morning.
  3. This scientific theory now (be proved) to be false.
  4. Before Ali went to sleep he (call) his family.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. He’ll have to look for another job.
  2. The police were suspicious at first but I was able to convince them that we were innocent.
  3. When he was a child he was allowed to do exactly as he liked.
  4. He was not allowed to enter the concert hall after the third bell.

III. Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

  1. She will be delighted when she (hear) this.
  2. When we (take) our exams we’ll have holiday.
  3. She will be angry if I (be) late.
  4. If he (like) the house well he buy it?

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и Gerund и установите функции каждого из них. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. Imagine living with someone who never stops talking.
  2. Having been taught by a good teacher he knew German well.
  3. The explanation given was not complete.
  4. Sitting in the front row and using opera glasses, I saw every thing beautifully.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Вам не придется ждать. Документы будут проверены и письма напечатаны, когда вы придете.
  2. Пароход должен был выйти из порта в понедельник, но из-за шторма ему пришлось остаться в порту до вторника.
  3. Я поговорю с ним об этом, когда я его встречу.
  4. К сожалению, предложенный товар не удовлетворяет нашим требованиям.

VI. Переписать и перевести текст.

Electrical and electronics engineering

Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most diverse field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fibre optics.

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electronic power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

Electric power and machinery

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyse the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.

Вариант 5.

I. Перепишите предложение раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме группы Perfect Active и Passive. Переведите .

  1. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)?
  2. When we came out of the restaurant, we saw that our car (disappear).
  3. A special edition for children (be written) by the author.
  4. Helen (learn) English since last autumn.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. Do I have to pay in cash next week or can I give you a cheque?
  2. People shouldn’t be allowed to park there.
  3. These factors are not to be considered the most important in helping us to improve the quality of the service.
  4. I’m afraid that he won’t be able to come back in time.

III. Перепишите предложения раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в придаточных предложениях времени и условия в соответствующей форме.

  1. I shan’t buy tomatoes till the price (come) down.
  2. After the plane (land) you may unfasten your belts.
  3. If you (not go) away I’ll send for the police.
  4. Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и Gerund и установите функции каждого из них. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

  1. You’d better consult your lawyer before deciding to buy the property.
  2. Having been advised by the doctor to go to the south, she decided to spend her leave in Sochi.
  3. A balsa tree found in South America is lighter than any other.
  4. The tree unrooted by the gale, had fallen across the road.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Подписано ли это письмо?
  2. В котором часу вы должны быть в институте завтра?
  3. Если он не придет завтра, пошлите ему телеграмму.
  4. Рабочие, разгружающие пароход, будут свободны через час.

VI. Переписать и перевести текст.

Electronics

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

Prior to the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices – resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes – assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. The electronics revolution of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.

Communications and control

Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, such as those that run a lift, to the exotic, such as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.

Контрольная работа № 4

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание 3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы английского языка:

1. Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив

2. Прямая и косвенная речь

3. Согласование времен

4. Все формы Active и Passive Voice.

Вариант 1.

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

1. To translate this text I had to work much.

2. Your work is to observe the rise of temperature.

3. The engineers were glad to have obtained such good results in the tests of the new model.

4. The method to be followed by us is rather interesting.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. He says he will drive a car himself.

2. He said he didn’t expect anybody to come in the evening.

3. She said she had seen that magazine in our library.

4. The professor asked Eric whether he had had any experienced in physics research.

III. Перепишите предложения; используйте косвенную речь. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Helen said “My parents are well”. Helen said that …

2. Helen said “I can read English”. Helen said that …

3. Helen said “I am expecting visitors”. Helen said that …

4. Helen asked me “Do you live in London?” Helen asked me...

IV. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите.

1. Many accidents (to cause) by dangerous driving.

2. Two hundred people (to employ) by the company next year.

3. S. Kovalevskaya (to make) a valuable addition to the results submitted by famous scientists.

4. The roof of the building (to damage) in a storm a few days ago.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Дом – это здание, в котором мы живем.

2. Учитель спросил хорошо ли я выучил новые слова.

3. Когда изобрели телефон?

4. К концу февраля я сдам все экзамены.

VI. Перепишите текст и переведите его на русский язык.

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens, one of the greatest and most popular English novelists, was born on the 7th of February, 1812, in a small English town. He was a weak child and did not like to take part in noisy and active games. The little boy was very clever and learnt to read at an early age. He read a lot of books in his childhood. When he was about six, someone took him to the theatre for the first time. He saw a play by Shakespeare and liked it so much that he decided to write a play of his own. When it was ready, he performed it with some of his friends. Everybody enjoyed the performance, and the little writer felt very happy.

When Dickens was nine years old, the family moved to London where they lived in an old house in the suburbs.

They had a very hard life. They were several younger children in the family besides Charles. The future writer could not even go to school, because at that time his father was in the Marshalsea Debtors’ Prison. The was nobody in London to whom Mr. Dickens could go for money, and his wife with all the children except Charles went to join him in the prison.

Charles was only able to start going to school when he was nearly twelve, and his father was out of prison. He very much wanted to study, but he did not finish his schooling. After two years of school he began working again. He had to work hard to earn his living, and tried very many trades, but he did not like any of them. His ambition was to study and become a well-educated man. At the age of fifteen he often went to the famous library of the British Museum. He spent a lot of time in the library reading-room. He read and studied there and in this way he got an education.

Later Dickens described his childhood and youth in some of his famous novels, among them “Little Dorrit” and “David Copperfield”.

The great writer died more than a hundred years ago (in 1870), but everybody still enjoys reading his books.

Вариант 2.

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

1. To make this experiment is very important.

2. To build up a magnetic field requires the expenditure of a certain amount of energy.

3. Another important factor to have been referred to in that article was that current strength was equal at all points of a series circuit.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. She thinks (that) they will speak about great achievements in nuclear physics.

2. We asked him if such minerals occurred in Pamirs.

3. The professor asked him why he had chosen, of all professions, nuclear physics.

4. They thought that no accidents could happen through human weakness.

III. Перепишите предложения; используйте косвенную речь. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Charlie said “My father isn’t very well”. Charlie said that …

2. Charlie said “I can drive a car”. Charlie said that …

3. Charlie said “I am not enjoying my job very much”. Charlie said that …

4. Charlie asked me “Do you often go to the library?”. Charlie asked me …

IV. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите.

1. An interesting problem (to discuss) at the lecture every week.

2. All the work (to do) by automatic machinery tomorrow.

3. Jokyo police (to use) an oxygen-inhaller after on hour of directing traffic.

4. In their room they (to begin) to examine the more than 10,000 precious objects they had had dug out from the earth.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Библиотека – это место, в котором мы берем книги.

2. Мама спросила ходил ли сын за покупками.

3. Когда открыли рентгеновские лучи?

4. К концу недели я выполню перевод.

VI. Перепишите текст и переведите его на русский язык.

William Shakespeare

(1564-1616)

The great poet and dramatist William Shakespeare is often called by his people “Our National Bard”, “The Immoral Poet of Nature” and “The Great Unknown”.

Little indeed can be told about his life with certainty, even the year of his birth is much doubted. Yet, a patient research among old tomes of the 16th century has helped some scholars if not to restore his biography, at least to bring back the personality of the dramatist, who being the greatest was at the same time the humblest of poets.

Shakespeare’s native place was Stratford-on-Avon, a little town in Warwickshire, which is generally described as being in the middle of England.

John Shakespeare, the poet’s father, was engaged in the wool industry. he had some pasture land of his own, and also rented a house and land belonging to Robert Arden (3 miles from the town) whose youngest daughter Mary he later married. When his business prospered, the couple settled in Stratford.

Some documents of the time indicate that John Shakespeare was illiterate; he marked his name by a cross because he was unable to write it. John and Mary Shakespeare had eight children, four girls and four boys, but their two eldest daughters died at an early age. The third child that was born to them was a son. He was named William.

William was a boy of a free and open nature, much like his mother who was a woman of a lively disposition.

There was a free Grammar School at Stratford. The priest of the Church was also schoolmaster. At this school William Shakespeare learned to read and spell and was taught his first Latin.

In Shakespeare’s time there was much guess-work in the way English children were taught to read. Reading was the same as learning by heart. If, for example, the children had to learn the word “BAR”, the first two letters were given – BA, the last letter R was replaced by a sign shaped like a horn - - ’ (BA’). The pupil had to guess this last missing consonant. A book of such exercises was called the “Horn-book”. Shakespeare gives an example of such an exercise in his play “Love’s Labour’s Lost” (“Love’s Labour Is Lost”).

“What is A, B, spelt backwards with a horn to it?” The answer should have been BAR, but the boy said, “It’s a most silly sheep with a horn on the head.” (Bah … Bah …)

It was not easy to learn by such a rebus-like method. The schoolmasters of the 16th century kept up discipline according to the proverb: “Spare the rod and you spoil the child”.

William Shakespeare was still a boy when he began to set and produce plays. Though he had to work hard in his father’s business nothing would make him give up his hobby.

Вариант 3.

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

1. To discover the properties of the new elements Mendeleyev had to work much.

2. The duty of every student is to master at least one foreign language.

3. Ishernov was proud to have found the best temperatures for the hot working of steel.

4. The device to be tested has been brought to our laboratories.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. He asks whether you can read English.

2. He head of the research laboratory said that he was not completely satisfied with the results achieved.

3. The professor asked Eric whether he had had any experience in (physics) chemistry research.

4. We were told that we should have to consult a schedule.

III. Перепишите предложения; используйте косвенную речь. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Tom said “My wife isn’t very well.” Tom said that …

2. Tom said “I am going to drive.” Tom said that …

3. Tom said “I can’t come to the party on Friday.”

Tom said that …

4. Tom said “I want to go away for a holiday.” Tom said that …

IV. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите.

1. The porch the building (to damage) in a storm a few days ago.

2. Water (to cover) most of the Earth’s surface.

3. While I was on holiday, my camera (to disappear) from my hotel room.

4. In the United States, elections for President (to hold) every four years.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Кинотеатр – это место, где демонстрируют фильмы.

2. Подруга спросила хорошо ли я подготовилась к контрольной работе.

3. Когда изобрели радио?

4. К концу лета я закончу своё исследование.

VI. Перепишите текст и переведите его на русский язык.

Daniel Defoe

(1661 – 1731)

Daniel Defoe was born in 1661 in London. His father was a butcher. The family were non-conformists (Dissenters) which means that they did not go to the Anglican Church. Their name was Foe, and Daniel was about forty years of age when he first changed his signature D. Foe into the surname of Defore. His father was wealthy enough to give his son a good education. Daniel used to say that his father did not spare himself and gave him the best education he could afford. Daniel was to become a minister (a priest) in the Nonconformist Church, therefore at the age of 14 he was placed in an academy for the training of ministers, and remained there for the full course of five years.

When his training was completed, he refused to devote himself to the ministry, as in his opinion it was neither honourable, pleaslent nor profitable. He decided to engage in business as a hose merchant. It was his cherished desire to become a wealthy merchant, but his dream never came true though he was energetic and practical, a business man to the finger-tips. Defoe was a complete failure in business and went bankrupt several times. He was always deep in debt. In 1692, he had to flee from his creditors. “Thirty times I was rich and poor”, he used to say. The only branch of business in which he proved successful was journalism and literature.

When Defoe was about 23, he started writing pamphlets on questions of the hour. In his first pamphlet he attacked the policy of Charles II, but he did not sign it. Defoe wrote exactly what he chose and did not care whether the government liked it or not. Naturally sometimes his pamphlets got him into trouble. In 1685, he took part in the revolt led by the Duke of Monmouth (the bastard son of Charles II) against James II. Monmouth hoped to be made king by the Protestants. The rebellion was put down, and Defoe narrowly escaped prosecution by Judge Jeffreys whose cruelty to the common people and to the Dissenters has never been forgotten.

When the Protestant king, William III, came to power (1688), Defoe started writing pamphlets praising his policy. It was the beginning of Defoe’s literary career. In his “Essay on Projects” Defoe anticipated the greatest public improvements of modern times: higher education for women, the protection of seamen, the constraction of highways and the opening of saving-banks. He urged the esteblishment of a special academy to study literature and languages.

Вариант 4.

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

1. To read is a great pleasure.

2. Mendeleyev left blank spaces in his Table for the elements to be discovered in future.

3. The term “pure metal” is used to describe a material from which all chemical elements but one have eliminated.

4. Experiments helped Mendeleyev to discover the properties of new elements.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. He says that he doesn’t expect anybody to come in the evening.

2. When I was leaving Moscow my adviser asked me whether I would have any opportunity to go on with my work.

3. The mother asked the teacher if her child had studied properly.

4. He said he would return home about 3 o’clock.

III. Перепишите предложения; используйте косвенную речь. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Ann said “My husband is ill.” Ann said that …

2. Ann said “I have never been to the United States.”

Ann said that …

3. Ann said “I don’t have any brothers or sisters.”

Ann said that …

4. Ann said “My friend has a well-paid job.” Ann said that …

IV. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите.

1. It’s a big company. It (to employ) two hundred people.

2. This house (to build) in by my grandfather in 1930.

3. We (to wake up) by a loud noise during the night.

4. The letter (to post) next week.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Магазин – это место, где покупают товары и продукты.

2. Его спросили умет ли он водить машину.

3. Когда изобрели телевидение?

4. К концу года я напишу диссертацию.

VI. Перепишите текст и переведите его на русский язык.

Agatha Christie

(1891-1976)

Agatha Christie known throughout the world as the Queen of Crime was born at Torquay, Devonshire. She was educated at home and took singing lessons in Paris. At the end of World War I she began writing. Her first novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles appeared in 1920. Here she created Hercule Poirot, the little Belgian detective with the egg-shaped head and the passion for order – the most popular sleuth in fiction since Sherlock Holmes. General recognition came with the publication of her sixth title, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (1926). With Murder at the Vicarage (1930) Agatha Christie began a series of novels featuring Miss Marple, this time a lady detective who won a universal appeal for her wise but unimposing methods of unraveling a crime.

Beginning with 1952 Agatha Christie enjoyed another run of success with theatre adaptations of her fiction and plays (The Mousetrap is still staged after thirty years). many of her stories have been filmed including The Secret Adversary, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (cinema title Alibi) , Ten Little Niggers, Murder on the Orient Express and Witness for the Prosecution, the most famous of them. Agatha Christie also wrote six romantic novels under the pen-name Mary Westmacott. Her last Poirot book, Curtain, appeared shortly before her death (though written in the 1940s) and her last Miss Marple story, Sleeping Murder and her Autobiography were published posthumously.

She is the author of seventy-seven detective novels and books of stories that have been translating into every major language.

Ahatha Christie’s success with millions of readers cannot be accounted for by the name fact that her simple prose provided good entertainment; the explanation lies in her ability to combine clever plots with excellent character drawing, and a keen sense of humour with great powers of observation that result in social scenery of a wide range. Besides her books seem to proclaim that justice will prevail and evil will be conquered even by one man’s effort; they defend rationality and never go beyond those aspects of human nature that are our common stock.

Вариант 5.

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание различные функции инфинитива.

1. To defend the country is the scared duty of every citizen.

2. The task set before the metallurgists of the 20th centuary to develop new metals capable of withstanding very high temperatures is of great importance.

3. Scientists should take into consideration the behavior of metals under various conditions.

4. Lavoisier was the first to discover the importance of quantitative analysis of chemical elements.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. He asks whether you can read English.

2. They asked if I was expecting visitors.

3. We were told that we should have to consult a schedule.

4. Eric explained that he really didn’t know enough about any of them because all he had had as a student were the usual courses in mechanics, light, thermodynamics and electricity.

III. Перепишите предложения; используйте косвенную речь. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Jane said “My children are very well.” Jane said that …

2. Jane said “I am going to study French.” Jane said that …

3. Jane said “John has given up his job.” Jane said that …

4. Jane said “I can’t come to the party on Friday.”

Jane said that …

IV. Перепишите предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в соответствующей временной форме Indefinite Active и Passive. Переведите.

1. The situation is serious. Something must (to do) before it’s two late.

2. A decision will not (to make) until the next morning.

3. My umbrella disappeared. Somebody (to take) it.

4. It’s not certain how the fire started but it might (to cause) by an electric fault.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Книжный шкаф – это место, где хранят книги.

2. Врач спросил, хорошо ли я себя чувствую.

3. Кто изобрел компьютер?

4. К концу лета он напишет книгу.

VI. Перепишите текст и переведите его на русский язык.

John Galsworthy

(1867 – 1933)

Born into an upper-class family, John Galsworthy was educated at Harrow and New College, Oxford. In 1890 he was called to the Bar. With a view to specializing in marine law, he took a voyage around the world, during which he encountered Joseph Conrad, then mate of a merchant ship, who became his lifelong friend. Galsworty found law uncongenial and took to writing. For his first works From the four Winds (1897), a volume of short stories, and the novels Jocelyn (1898) and Villa Rubein (1900), he used the pseudonym “John Sinjohn”. The first book to appear under his own name was The Island Pharisees (1904).

Galsworthy achieved his first success with The man of Property (1906) which began the famous novel sequence The Forsyte Saga to be continued with In Chancery (1920) and To Let (1921). The record of the Forsyte family, representatives of the Victorian and Edwardian moneyed classes, is resumed in A Modern Comedy depicting English post-war life and consisting of The White Monkey (1924), The Silver Spoon (1926), and Swan Song (1928) and in the final trilogy End of the Chapter (1934). The author’s shrewd study of middle-class mentality turned his characters into bywords. Galsworthy’s non-Forsyte novels include The Country House (1907), Fraternity (1909), The Patrician (1911), The Freelands (1915), A Saint’s Progress (1919).

A passionate partisan of liberal humanitarianism, Galsworthy had little sympathy with the literary movements of his time. He always kept up with the best traditions of realism in literature recognizing that his art was greatly influenced by Turgenev and Tolstoy. His novels and plays give a true picture of English bourgeois society in the late nineteenth and early twenties centuries, showing the steady decline of the class he himself belonged to. Galsworthy was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1932.


Список использованной литературы:

1. Петрова А.В. Самоучитель англ. языка / Петрова А.В. – Харьков: Проминь, 1999. – 432с.

2. Полякова Т.Ю. Английский язык для инженеров / Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская, О.И. Тынкова, Э.С. Улановская – Москва: Высшая школа, 2000. – 463с.

3. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык для технических вузов / И.П. Агабекян – Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2001, - 350с.

4. Красинская М.С. 1992 Учебник англ. Яз. / Красинская М.С, - Высшая школа, 320с.

5. Grammar Spectrum, Oxford University Press, 1999.

6. Grammar Murphy, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

7. Oxford University Press, 1998.

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Работы, похожие на Учебное пособие: Методические указания к выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов заочников Мариуполь 2004

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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



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