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Учебное пособие: Бизнес-курс английского языка методические указания для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности

Название: Бизнес-курс английского языка методические указания для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

КЕМЕРОВСКИЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

ПИЩЕВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ

Среднетехнический факультет

БИЗНЕС-КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Методические указания

для студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности

080110 “Экономика и бухгалтерский учёт (в

пищевой промышленности)”

Кемерово 2009г

Составитель:

Н.В. Борисова, преподаватель английского языка

Рассмотрено и утверждено на заседании кафедры Общих гуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин

Протокол № 1 от 0 7.09.2009г

Рекомендовано методической комиссией среднетехнического факультета

Протокол № 2 от 21.10.2009г

Представлено методическое пособие для изучения дисциплины «Английский язык», даны упражнения для практической работы, примеры выполнения задач, рекомендуемая литература

КемТИПП, 2009

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

  1. Введение 4
  2. Текст. Лексико-грамматические упражнения 5
  3. Словарь слов и словосочетаний,

используемых в текстах 66

  1. Приложение А 77
  2. Приложение Б 89
  3. Указания по выполнению контрольных работ 102
  4. Контрольная работа №1 103
  5. Контрольная работа №2 119
  6. Комплект тестовых заданий 140
  7. Список используемой и рекомендуемой литературы 164

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 4-го курса специальность 080110 (заочная форма обучения). Пособие состоит из текстов, диалогов, образцов деловой переписки и разнообразных лексико-грамматических заданий. Некоторые тексты могут использоваться для интенсивного чтения с общим пониманием содержания. В результате работы с пособием студент может овладеть навыками слушания, говорения, чтения и письма, необходимыми для чтения экономических текстов делового общения. Работая с пособием, студенты узнают об особенностях экономики разных стран. Студенты познакомятся с новыми формами экономической деятельности, которые появляются в нашей стране. Знание делового английского языка поможет читать экономические книги и статьи на английском языке и общаться с деловыми партнерами.

Учебное пособие предназначено для работы на занятиях, а также для индивидуальной работы студентов.


Text №1

Globalization

Globalization is the buzz word of our time. In the last two decades, the amount of money and goods moving between the countries has been rising steadily . At the same time, trade barriers across the world have been lowered.

It is becoming clear now that power in the world shifted from individual governments to the markets. In theory, governments are free to the set their own economic policies, in practice they must conform to a global economic model. The crises of ¢tigers¢ in the Far east some years ago showed that financial markets control national economies.

The trend towards globalization in the early 70s, when the system of fixed exchange rates , set up after World War II, stopped functioning. This mint that the value of currencies would now be determined by the markets instead of individual governments. By 1990, nearly all worlds¢ major economies had got rid of restrictions on how much money could be moved in and out of their countries.

Other factors contributing to the rise of globalization are new communications technologies, and better transportation systems. These let companies grow into multinationals goods on one side of the planet and selling them on the other.

But adjusting to this new ”economic order” is rather difficult. In the developed world, and in particular the European Union, globalization is facing widespread resistance. Critics complain that, without the protection of trade barriers, workers in poor countries are low-paid and exploited, and wages of workers in rich countries are foiling, especially in labour – intensive industries.

But how close are we to a truly global economy? For the losers, probably too close. But in terms of real economic integration, there is a long way to do. A global economy would mean complete freedom of movement of goods and services, capital and labour. Yet, even ignoring the tariffs and other restriction still in place, cross border trade is very small compared to the volume of goods and services traded within countries. Foreign investment is also extremely small, a little more then five per cent of the developed world¢s domestic investments. But what is really holding globalization back is the lack of labour mobility . Labour markets remain mostly national, even in the European Union, where people can and work in any country of the European Union.

VOCABULARY

buzz word - модное слово

amount - объем

steadily - устойчиво

T o conform - соответствовать

financial markets – финансовый рынок

exchange rates – курс обмена

currencies - валюта

restrictions - ограничения

T o contributing способствовать, делать вклад

T o adjusting регулировать, приводить в соответствие

mobility мобильность

labour intensive - трудоемкий

losers проигравший, потерпевший поражение

protection - защита

tariffs – тариф

Tasks

1. Write questions to these answers

1. __________________________________?

It is globalization.

2. __________________________________?

Yes, the amount of money and moving and goods moving between the countries has been rising steadily.

3. __________________________________?

Yes, trade barriers across the world have been lowered.

4. __________________________________?

It has shifted from individual governments to the markets.

5. __________________________________?

Yes, governments are free to set their own economic policies.

6. __________________________________?

It showed that financial markets control national economies.

7. __________________________________?

It began in the early 70s, when the system of fixed exchange rates, set up after World War II, stopped functioning.

8. __________________________________?

This meant that the value of currencies would now be determined by the markets instead of individual governments.

9. __________________________________?

By 1990.

10. __________________________________?

These are new communications technologies, and better transportation systems.

11. __________________________________?

These let companies grow into multinationals-producing goods on one side the planet and selling them on the other.

12. __________________________________?

Yes, adjusting to the new “economic order” is rather difficult.

13. _________________________________?

Yes, it is facing widespread resistance.

14. __________________________________?

They complain that, without the protection of trade barriers, workers in poor countries are low-paid and exploited, and wages of employees in rich countries are falling, especially in labor-intensive industries.

15. _________________________________?

It would mean complete freedom of movement of goods and services, capital and labour.

16. ________________________________?

It is the lack of labour mobility.

2. Complete these word combinations with verbs. They all appear in the text

1) to________widespread resistance.

2) to________ trade barriers across the world.

3) to________ an effect

4) to________ economic policies

5) to________ to the new “economic order”

6) to________ national economies

7) to________ to a global economic model

8) to________ to the rise of globalization

9) to________ into multinationals

10) to_____ goods

Таблица 1

European Union: The purpose of the EU is to from a common between members that is not restricted by tariff barriers. In 1986, a Single Market Act proposed the removal of all trade barriers and tariffs. The European Commission works on behalf of the EU to make routine decisions and to propose new lawe that will apply to new members. The Commissioner responsible for transport policy has disciplined eight EU member states for trying to make private deals with the US, rather than cooperate in the Common Aviation Policy.


3. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box

Таблица 2

Investment resources container compete

scale costs trade


The Economist has identified these key contributors to globalization

o Free movemist of capital “at the touch of a button”. This is the fuel of________ in all its forms.

o Trade liberalization, with the lowing of________ barriers.

o Lowering of shipping costs thanks to the efficiency of containerization. (The shipping charge for a whole _________ of goods crossing the Pacific be as little as $50. The transport cost for each “Japanese” TV, probably made in Malaysia or elsewhere, sole in the US or Europe, is very little.

Reduction in telecommunications and computing _________. (The cost of a 3-minute phone call from New York to London in 1930 was $300 in today¢s money. There is more computing power in the average wrist watch today than these was in all the world¢s computers in 1950. Organizations with the ___________and expertise to exploit the information on their networks on a worldwide scale will have a key competitive advantage in many industries. Operating and producing for not just one country, or even one continent, allows a company to reduce costs and benefit from economies of________.

4. Translate into English

В наши дни слово «глобализация» стало модным. В последние два десятилетия движение денег и товаров между странами стабильно растет. Одновременно торговые барьеры в мире снизились. Насколько мы близки к глобальной экономике и какое влияние она может иметь?

Сейчас становится очевидным, что власть в мире перешла от отдельных правительств к рынкам. Теоретически правительства могут свободно определять свою собственную экономическую политику, на практике же они должны соответствовать глобальной экономической модели. Кризисы в странах Дальнего Востока несколько лет назад показали, что финансовые рынки контролируют национальные экономики. Тенденция к глобализации началась в начале 1970-х годов, когда система фиксированного курса обмена перестала функционировала. Это означало, что курс валют определяли рынки, а не конкретные правительства. К 1990 году почти все ведущие государства избавились от ограничений на количество ввозимых и вывозимых из страны денег. Другие факторы, способствовавшие росту глобализации,- новые коммуникационные технологии и усовершенствованные системы транспорта.

Это позволило компаниям производить товары в одной части мира, а продавать их в другой, становясь тем самым мультинациональным.

Но приспособиться к этому новому «экономическому порядку» достаточно трудно. В экономических странах, особенно в Европейском союзе, глобализация встречает широкое сопротивление. Противники глобализации считают, что без защиты торговых барьеров рабочие в слаборазвитых странах мало оплачиваются и эксплуатируются, кроме того, и в развитых странах заработная плата рабочих падает.

Integration of Russia in the world economy

Integration of any country into the world economy depends on a number of factors. Economic potential of the country, stage of technical and economic development and human resources are among the most important ones.

Nowadays Russia does not belong to powerful states: its share in the world gross domestic product is only 2, 6%.

Material and technical base has not been renewed for many years. The average age of equipment at the plants is 16 years, which is two times more by the world standards. Its wear is almost 70%

Nowadays the structure of international trade is such that Russia trades mainly in natural resources. Our country possesses 13% of the world reserves of oil, 36% of natural gas, 12% of coal. But Russia won't be able to increase volumes of deliveries of natural resources in the nearest future. Tempos of growth of world economy are expected to increase, and new modern technologies will reduce demand for raw materials and power resources .

Nowadays, manufacturing industries and branches of Fuel - Power Complex (ТЭК) generate half of all currency. Russian manufacturing branches possess an important competitive edge , that is unique advanced technologies which are based on the achievements of Russian science. Such technologies are possessed mainly by Military- Industrial Complex. The plants of the military complex produce products which can be competitive in the world market. Thanks to military industry the export ratio of products of manufacturing branches makes 10%.

VOCABULARY

Human resources - людские ресурсы

Wear - износ

To possess -обладать

Volumes of deliveries - объем поставок

Demand - спрос

Power resources - энергетические ресурсы

Manufacturing - обрабатывающий

To generate - производить

Competitive edge - конкурентное преимущество

Achievement - достижение

Competitive - конкурентоспособный

Export ratio - удельный вес

TASKS

1.Translate into English

1) Интеграция в мировую экономику; 2) зависеть от; 3) экономический потенциал страны; 4) доля в мировом внутреннем продукте; 5) средний возраст оборудования; 6) износ оборудования; 7) увеличить объем поставок; 8) снижать спрос на сырье; 9) важное конкурентное преимущество; 10) достижения российской науки; 11) продукты которые могут быть конкурентоспособными на рынке; 12) доля экспорта составляет 10%.

2.Complete these word combinations with verbs. They all appear in the text

1) to__________products

2) to__________competitive

3) to __________on achievements of Russian science

4) to __________on a number of factors

5) to __________to powerful states

6) to___________in natural resources

7) to___________a competitive edge

8) to___________currency

3. Word families. Fill in the missing words

Таблица 3

verb

noun

adjective

(1)_______

competition

(2)________

(2)_______

(4)________

possessive

(5)_______

(6)________

productive

develop

(7)________

(8)________

4. Translate into English

Интеграция любой страны в мировую экономику зависит от ряда факторов. Наиболее важные среди них следующие: экономический потенциал страны, этап технического и экономического развития и человеческие ресурсы. Сейчас Россия не принадлежит к числу экономически развитых государств: её доля в мировом внутреннем валовом продукте составляет только 2,6 %.

Материально-техническая база не обновляется. Средний возраст оборудования на заводах составляет 16 лет, что в два раза выше мировых стандартов. Его износ составляет почти 70 %.

В наше время структура международной торговли такова, что Россия торгует в основном природными ресурсами. Наша страна обладает 13 % мировых запасов нефти, 36 % - природного газа, 12 % - угля. Но Россия не сможет увеличить объём поставок природных ресурсов в ближайшее время. Ожидается, что темпы роста мировой экономики возрастут и новые ресурсосберегающие технологии снизят спрос на сырьё и энергоресурсы. Сейчас обрабатывающие отрасли и отрасли топливно-энергетического комплекса обладают важным конкурентным преимуществом. Они владеют уникальными передовыми технологиями, которые основаны на достижении Российской науки.

Text №3

American consumer culture goes global

On every continent more and people are adopting the American consumer lifestyle of Convenience. Today about 1.2 billion people, most of them in North America, Europe, Japan and Australia live on a par with Americans do. In Latin America a number of automobile owners doubled during two last decades of the 20th century. The per capita gross domestic product of Singapore is almost the same as that of the USA. These changes are encouraged by US policy- makers who believe that free markets and consumerism can spread democracy and stability to all corners of the globe. But the fast pace of change also brings worries.

Americans, only 5 per cent of the world's population, consume one- fourth of its oil. They use more water and own more cars than anybody else. They waste more food than most people in Africa eat. If the rest of the world becomes more like of America, water, oil and food can just run out. Paul Ehrlich, the author of the book "The Population Bomb" states that the American lifestyle is driving the global ecosystem to destruction.

Other scientists say that wealth of the country depends not on its resources but on the government. Angola, a resource- rich country, can't use its wealth because of the civil war, and Russia, rich in natural resources and intellectual capital, has poor people.

Most experts think that we will see less of Mother Nature in the coming years. As more people around the world achieve the American Dream, they will consume more resources and generate more pollution. Mighty rivers like the Yangtze and Nile, will become more canal - like.

As the new century progresses, fewer and fewer of us will live on the land. Experts predict that half of humanity will live in "megacities" like Tokyo and San Paulo, Brazil- human of 12, 15, even 25 million people.

VOCABULARY

Convenience - удобство

Par - равенство

on a par - наравне, на одном уровне, в одинаковом положении

to consume - потреблять

Per capita -на душу населения

Destruction - разрушение

То predict - предсказывать

Hive – улей

TASKS

1. Study the words in the box

Таблица 4

To consume - потреблять

Consumer – потребитель

Consumer goods – потребительские товары

Consumption society – общество потребителя

Consumerism

  1. Консюмеризм
  2. Стимулирование потребительского интереса
  3. Защита интересов потребителя (от лживой рекламы, вздутых цен, низкого качества товаров и т.п.)
  4. Теория экономической выгодности развития «потребительского общества»

2. Try not to look at the text and say what these figures refer to:

1) 5; 2) 20; 3) 1, 2; 4) 12, 15, 25.

3. Complete these word combinations with the verbs

1) to ___________worries

2) to ___________water

3) to ___________cars

4) to ___________resources

5) to____________pollution

6) to____________on the government

7) to____________to destruction

8) to____________oil

4. Word families. Fill in the missing words

Таблица 5

verb

person

thing

consume

(1)______________

(2) __________

(3) ___________

believer

(4)___________

(5)____________

(6)__________

ownership

5. What about you?

1) Do you believe that free markets and consumerism can spread democracy and stability to all corners of the globe?

2) Is consumerism typical of Russia?

3) Do we have traditions of consumerism?

4) Do you agree with the statement that the wealth of the country depends not on its resources but on the government?

5) Why do you think a lot of countries rich in resources are poor and their people are poor?

6. Translate into English

Все большее количество людей в мире принимает стиль жизни американского потребителя. Сегодня около 1,2 миллиона людей, в основном из Северной Америки, Европы, Японии и Австралии, имеют такой же уровень жизни, как американцы. В Китае потребления мяса на душу населения составляет почти половину того, что потребляет США. В Латинской Америке число владельцев автомобилей возросло в два раза за два последних десятилетия XX века. Валовой внутренний доход на душу населения почти такой же, как в США.

Эти изменения поощряются американскими политиками, которые считают, что консьюмеризм может распространить демократию и стабильность во все уголки земного шара. Однако быстрый темп изменений приносит и беспокойство. Американцы, составляющие только 5% всего населения земного шара, потребляют четвертую часть всей нефти. Они используют больше воды и имеют больше машин, чем другие страны. Они выбрасывают больше еды, чем многие люди в Африке едят. Если остальной мир станет похожим на Америку, вода, нефть и продукты питания могут истощиться.

Поль Эрлих, автор книги «Взрыв населения», утверждает, что американский образ жизни ведет глобальную экосистему к разрушению. Другие ученые говорят, что богатство страны зависит не от ее ресурсов, а от ее правительства. Ангола, страна, богатая ресурсами, не может воспользоваться ими из-за гражданской войны, и Россия, богатая природными ресурсами и владеющая интеллектуальным капиталом, имеет бедное население.

TASKS

1. Study the words in the box

Таблица 6

Profit - прибыль

Profitable - выгодность

Unprofitable - невыгодность

Profitability - прибыльность, выгода


2. Complete these word combinations with verbs. They all appear in the text

1) to___________________ the dominance of the G7

2) to___________________ global trade negotiations

3) to___________________ a number of recommendations

4) to___________________ a dangerous polarization

5) to___________________ number one

6) to___________________ benefits

7) to___________________ worldwide markets for drugs and arms

8) to___________________ human development and social protection into the equation.

3. Write questions to these answers

1) _________________________________________ ?

It states that the combined wealth of the world's three richest families is greater than the annual income of 600 million people in the least developed countries, and the gap between the rich and the poor is widening.

2) __________________________________________ ?

It is creating a dangerous polarization between multi - billionaires and the millions who have been left behind.

3) __________________________________________?

It is calling for rewriting of global economic rules to avoid inequalities between poor countries and wealthy individuals.

4) ___________________________________________?

It also wants a more representative system of global governance to soften the effects of a "boom and bust" economy.

5) ____________________________________________?

They show that the last four years, the world's 200 richest people have doubled their wealth to more than $1 trillion.

6) ____________________________________________?

In the same period, the number of people living on less than a dollar a day has remained unchanged at 1.3 billion.

7) ____________________________________________?

It stood at 30 to 1.

8) _____________________________________________?

By 1990, it widened to 60 tol.

9) _____________________________________________?

Today it stands at 74 to 1.

10) ____________________________________________?

The richest fifth account For 86 per cent of world consumption.

11) ____________________________________________?

88 per cent of Internet users live in the West.

12) _________________________________ ___________?

It also helps criminals to use worldwide markets for drugs and arms.

13) _____________________________________________?

Yes, it makes a number of recommendations.

4. Try not to look at the text and say what these figures mean:

1) 600; 2) 200; 3) 71; 4) 7; 5) 88.

5. Word families. Fill in the missing words

Таблица 7

Verb

noun

Adjective

(1)_______________

(2)________________

Profitable

(3)_______________

(4)________________

Integrative

benefit

(5)________________

beneficial

6. Complete the commentary using the words in the box. One of the words is used twice

Таблица 8

Boom demand downturns

Recession slump

The amount of goods and services that are bought in an economy at a particular time is the level of (1) __________. For example, in Europe and the US during the 1920s, Booms and recessions there was a (2) _________with rising (3) ___________for goods and services and people felt good about the economy. A (4) __________ is a period when there is a negative growth, when an industry or the economy as a whole is getting smaller. If the recession is very bad, there is a (5) ___________. Following the Wall Street Crash of 1929, there was a long depression with falling production, and millions of people out of work.

There have been other recessions when there have been relatively small (6) ________ in the economy, but nothing as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930 s.

7. Complete the gaps with the words from the box. Use the proper from of the verbs. One of the world is used twice

Таблица 9

Negotiations flows annual

Chain combined boom (2)

Recession account for

1) Illegal trade in drugs $500 billion a year.

2) The__________________ of the Metro shops is one of the biggest retailers in the world.

3) In order to bring Russia's financial system closer to international standards, rules on capital _______________ should be changed.

4) __________________ wealth of the world's three richest families is greater than the_________________ income of 600 million people in the least developed countries.

5) __________________ with the European Union concerned investments in Russian economy.

6) If a business is growing fast, it is_______________. The corresponding noun is_______________________.

7) A period of fast growth followed by a period when the amount of activity falls is one of _________________.

8. Translate into English

В докладе ООН утверждается, что совокупный капитал трех самых богатых в мире семей больше, чем ежегодный доход 600 миллионов людей в наименее развитых странах, и при этом разрыв между богатыми и бедными увеличивается.

В докладе ООН так же говориться, что экономическая глобализация создает опасную поляризацию между мультимиллионерами, подобными главе « Майкрософта » Билу Гейтсу, семье Уолтон, владеющий сетью магазинов «Вол-Март», и султану Брунея, обладателю 135 миллиардов долларов, и миллионами тех, кто остался позади.

ООН призывает переписывать глобальные экономические правила для того, чтобы избежать неравенства между бедными странами и богатыми людьми. Она так же предлагает сделать систему глобального правительства более представительной в целях смягчения нежелательных эффектов экономики «процветания и разорения».

Цифры, приведенные в докладе ООН, свидетельствуют, что за последние четыре года 200 самых богатых людей мира удвоили свой капитал. За это же время количество людей живущих менее чем на доллар в день не изменилось и осталось на уровне 1,3 миллиарда. «Глобальное неравенство в доходах и уровне жизни достигло гротескных пропорций»,- говориться в докладе. 30 лет назад разрыв между самыми богатыми в мире людьми и самыми бедными составляют 30 к 1. К 1990 году он достиг пропорции 60 к 1, а сейчас равен 74 к 1. Пятая часть самых богатых людей отвечает за 86% всего потребления, в то время как пятой части самых бедных людей принадлежит всего 1%. Почти 3 четверти всех телефонных линий находиться в развитых странах, при том, что в них живет только 17 % населения мира.

Канада занимает 1 место в мире по качеству жизни в соответствии с индексом человеческого развития ООН. Россия занимает 71 место, находясь между Западным Самоа и Эквадором.

Text № 4

The rich keep getting richer

The United Nations report states that the combined wealth of the world's three richest families is greater than the annual income of 600 million people in the least developed countries, and the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. Economic globalization is creating a dangerous polarization between multi - billionaires like Microsoft's Bill gates, the Walton family, who own the chain of stores Wal - Mart, and the Sultan of Brunei - who has combined wealth of $ 135 billion - and the millions who have been left behind, the UN's annual Human Development Report states.

The UN is calling for rewriting of global economic rules to avoid inequalities between poor countries and wealthy individuals. It also wants a more representative system of global governance to soften the effects of a "boom and bust " economy.

UN figures show that the last four years, the world's 200 richest people have doubled their wealth to more then $1 trillion. In the same period, the number of people living on less than a dollar a day has remained unchanged at 1.3 billion.

"Global inequalities in income and living standards have reached grotesque proportions," the report says. Thirty years ago, the gap between the richest fifth of the world's people and the poorest stood at 30 to 1. By 1990, it widened to 60 to 1, and today it stands at 74 to 1. The richest fifth account for 86 per cent of world consumption, while the bottom fifth account for 1 per cent. Almost three - quarters of the world's telephone lines- essential for new technologies like the Internet-are in the West, yet it has just 17 per cent of the world population.

Canada ranks number one for quality of life, according to the UN's index of human development. Russia ranks number 71 between Western Samoa and Ecuador.

Globalization is now more than just flow of money and trade, the report says. The world's people are growing even more interdependent as the amount of space and time available to them decreases . "The world is going in the direction of greater integration, driven mostly by a philosophy of market profitability and economic efficiency," says Dr. Richard Jolly, main author of the report. "We must bring human development and social protection into the equation ." Only the rich and educated use the newest technologies. 88 per cent of Internet users live in the West. Globalization also helps criminals to use worldwide markets for drugs and arms. Six major international crime syndicates are now linking in a global network , getting benefits of globalization.

The UN makes a number of recommendations, including an international forum of business, trade, unions and environmental groups to prevent the dominance of the G7 in global decision making; a code of conduct for multinationals, and creation of an international legal center to help poor countries conduct global trade negotiations .

VOCABULARY

Combined - объединенный, совокупный

Annual- годовой

Income - доход

Chain - сеть (магазинов, ресторанов)

Boom and bust - процветание и разорение

То account (for)- составлять, насчитывать

Essential- необходимый

Flow - поток

То decrease - сокращать(-ся)

Profitability - прибыльность, выгода

Economic efficiency - экономическая эффективность

Equation- уравнение

Network - сеть

Benefit - польза, выгода

G7- группа семи промышленно развитых стран

Negotiations - переговоры

Текст №5

Recruitment presents cross- border challenge

For senior executives across modern Europe, it a challenge: attracting the best employees , whether to write software or to market pet food. Recruitment is one of the new corporate art from, yet another measure of a company competitiveness and management ability. Bruce Dorsking's specialty is global recruitment strategy. His New - York City- based Dorsking Group has worked with companies in 40 countries over the past four years and helped an advertising agency TMP conduct acquisition of 24 recruitment advertising firms and Internet sites, many of them in Europe. It turner TMP into the largest recruitment communications firm in the world, with a market capitalization of $1 billion.

Speaking about the trends in European recruitment, Bruce Dorsking states, that there's consolidation in every industry and globalization. Companies need to introduce their brands or products to new markets. So there is a move towards crossborder recruitment, where the demand for talent is spreading across markets. Europeans used to sell products only in their own local markets, but now they are selling them all over the world. And they are four or five pharmaceutical markets and one common language, English. Despite high unemployment rates in Europe, there is also a shortage of people in certain disciplines, especially in information technology, sales and marketing. Another example is consulting. Andersen Consulting in Germany recruits from Switzerland and Austria. Consulting firms are among the largest recruiters in absolute numbers.

Many young graduates in Europe seek international experience. They want to move to a foreign country, deal with a new language, mostly within Western Europe. Something else to consider is that most jobs in the US are created by new companies that are less than 10 years old. In Europe the majority of jobs still come out of older companies, although in new configurations, having gone through mergers, etc.

If the companies are going to recruit in various countries, they need to establish an employer brand as well as a consumeries brand. Organizations have to market their companies to potential employees and that's not something they've been good at historically. Companies that want to be pan-European have to create recruitment campaigns in much the same way they sell their consumer products.

VOCABULARY

Challenge - вызов

Recruitment - набор персонала

Executive - менеджер

Employee- сотрудник

Employer- наниматель

Measure - мера

Acquisition- приобретение

Capitalization- капитализация

Configuration- конфигурация, очертания, форма

Merger- слияние (компаний)

TASKS

1. Write questions to these answers

1) ________________________________________ ?

It is attracting the best employees.

2) _________________________________________?

Yes, it is another measure of a company competitiveness and management ability.

3) _________________________________________?

His specialty is global recruitment strategy.

4) _________________________________________?

It has worked with companies in 40 countries over the past four years and helped an advertising agency TMP conduct acquisition of 24 recruitment advertising firms and Internet sites.

5) ________________________________________?

There's consolidation in every industry and globalization.

6) ________________________________________?

They need to introduce their brands or products to new markets.

7) _________________________________________?

Yes, demand for talent is spreading across markets

8) _________________________________________ ?

They used to sell products only in their own local markets, but now they are selling them all over the world.

9) ________________________________________?

Yes, they are locking for people to do that.

10) _______________________________________?

There are four or five pharmaceutical markets and one common language, English.

11) _______________________________________?

There is a shortage of people in certain disciplines, especially in information technology, sales and marketing.

12) _______________________________________?

Consulting firms are among the largest recruiters in absolute numbers.

13)_______________________________________?

They seek international experience.

2. Nouns used as adjectives. Join the nouns from two columns

1. recruitment A. growth

2. press B. sheet

3. export C. flow

4. balance D. form

5. cash E. release

6. application F. policy

Текст №6

Marketing

Marketing can be defined as human activity which is directed at satisfying needs and wants by creating and exchanging goods or services. The marketing concept has replaced the selling concept. The "selling concept" means that consumers have to be persuaded by selling techniques to buy non- essential goods and services. The “marketing concept”, on the contrary, means that the producer should produce the products which the customers need.

Marketing can be approached in terms of marketing mix . Its components are four Ps - product, price, place, promotion, that is selling the right product, at the right price, through the right channels, with the right support and communication.

Let's consider the case of the company "Harley-Davidson", the company in the USA which produced bikes. For a number of years the company has serious problems. Its profits decreased, and the company was facing a possibility of bankruptcy. In its operation the company was orienting to a rather narrow market, that is young people in "black leather jackets".

In order to survive, the company had to use the main principles of marketing. 1. Determine the customer groups or segments . 2. Determine their needs. 3. Position the product in a proper way. While the company was trying to determine a new group of customers, it identified a numerous group of customers; it identified a numerous group of babyboomers, born after World War II. At that time they were in their forties. The second stage of this work was determination if these rather grown-up and conservative people could become buyers of bikes. The company studied this group and the features of its buying behaviour and came to a conclusion that it was possible. These people were experiencing the crisis typical for people of their age, and they had to get new opportunities, new experience and relaxation.

The company decided to launch a new model and position it in such a way it could meet the needs of the target group . 'The new model was meant for top-end , or upmarket (Am. upscale) instead of mid-range market . 'The motorcycle was made large and reliable. The company realised that new buyers would not repair the motorcycle themselves, so it used a new motor "hard metal" to a more soft variant. Such famous personalities as Kurt Russell and Elizabeth Tailor were advertising the new model. The company was successful. Its sales have risen, and its profit margines have grown more than three times. Now the company is looking for new markets at home and internationally. It didn't suffer from foreign competition, as many automobile and electronic companies did. The company survived and began to prosper as it followed the principles of marketing.

Marketing has become a key factor in the success of western business. In the 20th century, marketing has played an increasingly larger role in determining company policy, influencing product development, pricing, methods of distribution, adverting and promotion techniques.

VOCABULARY

To define- определять

To satisfy a need - удовлетворять потребность

To persuade- убеждать

Selling - приемы и методы продаж

Non-essential - не первой необходимости

Marketing -комплекс маркетинга; смешанная система сбыта

Market segment - сегмент рынка, т.е. группа покупателей со схожими потребностями и характеристиками

То launch - запускать (завод, продукт, торговую марку)

Position the product - позиционировать товар, т.е. использовать рекламу и другие элементы комплекса маркетинга, чтобы сообщить о достоинствах товара

Product positioning - позиционирование товара

Conclusion - выход

То come to a conclusion - приходить к выводу

Target group- целевая группа

Top-end market / upmarket - рынок для элитарных покупателей (Am. upscale)

Mid- range market - рынок для потребителей со средним доходом

Bottom-end market / downmarket - рынок для (Am. downscale) потребителей с низким доходом

Profit margirne - чистая прибыль в виде процентов от продаж

Pricing- ценообразование

TASKS

1. Fill in the gaps with the world from the box

Таблица 10

Marketing mix marketing customers

Persuade positioned satisfy needs

1) Today competition is stiff, and companies which can best __________of the customers will survive and make the largest profits.

2) The factors that help a firm to sell its products are known as the________.

3) ____________ means promoting goods and services to customers.

4) The product should be distributed to the most convenient place for ________to buy it.

5) The company is looking for a trade representative possessing high communicative skills and being able to______________ people.

6) "Zolotaya bochka" is_________________ on the market as beer of high quality.

2. Fill in the prepositions or adverbs

Teenage marketing: word-of-mouth approval

The natural habitat (1) ___________Japanese teenagers is a small area (2) ____________central Tokyo between Shibuya and Harajuku stations which is full (3) ________ boutiques and music shops. (4)__________weekends, teenagers (5) _________the city and the surrounding provinces go there to spot the latest street fashions. The area is also a magnet (6)__________ anyone researching or selling (7)_________ the teenage market: fashion and cosmetics companies, record producers, editors (8)_________young fashion magazines, soft drink and snack promoters, and makers (9)___________games and gadgets.

One such company was Bandai, the toy company responsible (10) ________ Tamagotchi, the eggshaped, pocket- sized virtual pet which swept the world in the late 1990s. Tamagotchi's first appearance was (11) ______ a test marketing exercise (12)______ the streets (13)_________Shibuya.

The schoolgirls that saw it were so impressed that told all their friends, and the first Tamagotchi to hit the shops sold (14) ________immediately. Such is the power of word of mouth. Normally, word-of- mouth promotion is free, but impossible to arrange. In Japan it can be arranged__________ (15) ________ a price. There are agencies (16) _________hundreds (17) __________teenagers (18)________their books who receive new products and tell their friends (19)_______ them, others are paid to queue up (20)__________ a new product or opening of a new store, creating an "artificial buzz" (21)_______it. Mr. Morita set (22) ______the agency Teens Network Ship which is the best specialist (23)____________the teenage market, and often uses informal, word-of-mouth style marketing methods. It has a register of 2000 senior high pupils in the Tokyo area, and is now expanding nationally. Information spreads more rapidly (24) _______the 15 to 18 age group than (25) ______any other life stage. A teenager tells (26) __________average 50 of his or her friends (27) _________the "discovery", so that a group of 1,000 can spread the word (28) ________-50,000 or more.

VOCABYLARY

Approval – одобрение Habitat -среда

To spot - узнать, заметить, увидеть (разг.)

Gadgets- технические новинки

То sweep / swept / swept - здесь: охватить, пронестись

То hit the shops -попасть в магазины

3. Translate into English

Маркетинг можно определить как человеческую деятельность, направленную на удовлетворение потребностей путем создания и обмена товаров и услуг. В настоящее время концепция маркетинга заменила концепцию продаж. Концепция продаж означает, что покупателей надо убедить в необходимости товаров и услуг, которые им не очень нужны. Концепция маркетинга, напротив, означает, что производитель должен производить продукты, в которых нуждаются покупатели.

К маркетингу можно подходить с точки зрения комплекса маркетинга. Компонентами этого комплекса являются продукт, цена, место, продвижение каналам при правильной поддержке. Опыт компании «Харлей- Девитсон» показывает, что можно добиться больших успехов, если следовать основным принципам маркетинга. Компания, единственный производитель тяжелых мотоциклов, в течение многих лет испытывала серьезные проблемы. Произошло сокращения прибыли, и над компанией нависла угроза банкротства. В своей работе компания ориентировалась на достаточно узкий рынок - молодых людей в «черных кожаных куртках». Для того чтобы выжить, компания должна была использовать основные принципы маркетинга. 1. Выявить группы или сегменты рынка. 2. Определить их потребности. 3. Позиционировать товары должным образом. Компания выявила многочисленную группу людей, родившихся после Второй мировой войны, которым в то время было около 40 лет. Эти люди испытывали кризис, типичный для этого возраста. Компания решила запустить новую модель и позиционировать ее таким образом, чтобы она удовлетворяла потребности данной целевой группы. Новая модель была предназначена для элитных покупателей. Компания добилась больших успехов. Продажи возросли, и прибыль выросла более чем в три раза. Сейчас компания ищет новые рынки в своей стране и за рубежом. Она не пострадала от иностранной конкуренции, как многие автомобильные и электронные фирмы.

Текст №7

Advertising

Advertising is a message to promote a product, a service, or an idea. The purpose of most advertising is to sell products or services. Advertising plays a key role in the competition among businesses for the consumer's money. In many businesses, the volume of sales depends largely on the amount of advertising done.

Manufacturers advertise to persuade people to buy their products. Large firms also use advertising to create a favourable image of their company. The company can advertise in many ways depending on how much it wishes to spend, and the size and type of the target audience . If the company wants to enter the market or launch a new product, it often starts an advertising campaign.

Such campaigns are usually very successful because people learn about new products or services.

When South African Brewery (SAB) started producing beer "Zolotaya bochka" in Russia, it invested lost not only in production, but in advertising the product. The advertising campaign was aggressive, and as a result this brand of beer is among the most popular ones.

o There are different ways of advertising:

o Newspapers

o Television

o Direct mail

o Radio

o Magazines

o Outdoor signs

o Other ways

(Transit advertisements, window displays, point-of-purshase displays, telephone directories and novelties ).

Television is the chief medium used by advertisers. In the USA 100 largest advertisers spend on average 75 per cent of their advertising budgets on television. Food companies spend about 80 per cent on television, and candy, snack , and soft drink companies spend about 85 pen cent.

Adverising on TV is often criticised. People don't like it when programmes are interrupted every fifteen minutes. We know that the Duma passed a bill that would forbid running of commercials during television and radio programmes. In Russia TV advertising generates $300 million a year. Of course, advertising revenues are important, but there are international norms which recommend ad breaks every 45 minutes. These days outdoor advertising is popular in Moscow. Many people think it makes the city more beautiful. It is especially widely used by car manufacturers, clothing and telecommunications companies. Such advertising attracts wide audience and is cost- effective .

VOCABULARY

Advertising - реклама

Message - послание

Volume of sales - объем продаж

Manufacturers - производитель

Favourable - благоприятный

Target audience-целевая аудитория

To launch - запускать (завод, продукт)

Advertising campaing - рекламная кампания

Brewery - пивоваренный завод

Transit advertisements - реклама в городском транспорте

Window display - витрина

Point-ol - purshase display - выкладка на место покупки

Telephon directory - телефонный справочник

Noveltie s- мелкие товары (Календари, кружки, брелки,) для подарков

Medium- средство

On average - в среднем

Candy - конфеты

Snack - легкая еда

Revenues - доходы

Ad breaks = advertisement breaks - перерыв для рекламы

Outdoor advertising - наружная реклама

Cost-effective- эффективный

TASKS

1. Try not to look at the text and say what these numbers refer to:

1)100; 3) 300; 5) 80; 7)75.

2) 45; 4) 15; 6) 85;

2. Match the words with their definitions

1) snack A. A public notice selling goods or services

2) manufacturer B. Income, especially total annual income

3) advertisement C. A person or company that makes goods from raw materials

4) revenues D. Process of making goods and services known to people

5) advertising H. Light meal

3. Study the words in the box

Таблица 11

Advertising- advertisement- publicity-Marketing- public relations

Advertising - реклама товара, услуги или компании в средствах массовой информации, исходящая от коммерческого источника, например, производителя или розничного торговца.

Advertisement - объявления, реклама, анонс.

Слово advertisement исчисляемое.

То put / to place an advertisement in the newspaper / the magazine / on the Internet. An advertisement in «Moscow Times» brought lost of new customers.

Publicity - гласность, известность, слава; рекламные материалы; сообщение маркетингового характера в средствах массовой информации о компании или ее продукции, в отличие от рекламы, не оплачивается.

То seer publicity -добиваться гласности

to avoid publicity- избегать гласности

The new store was given a wide publicity . ( Новый магазин был широко

разрекламирован)

Marketing - все виды деятельности, направленные на стимулирование спроса на продукты и услуги, т.е. реклама, продвижение продаж, создание торговой марки, исследование рынка и т.д.

Public relations, or PR - связи с общественностью, сознательная попытка создать положительный имидж компании, показать, что компания преследует социальные интересы.

4. Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right.

1) Making a product or service known A. public relations

to the public (through the press,

television, cinema, etc.)

in order to sell it.

2) Attracting the public's attention but B. advertising

not necessary to sell

anything specific.

3) All the activities intended to stimulate С marketing

demand for products and services,

e. g. advertising, sales promotion,

branding, consumer tests, market

surveys and so on.

4) Part of marketing and promotion, D. publicity

but without direct involvement in selling.

Its function is to build up a good image

and reputation, to show that the firm is

socially aware and has the public interest at heart.

Таблица 12

verb

person

thing

To advertise

Advertiser

(1)________

To create

(2)________

(3)________

(4)________

(5)________

Competition

Таблица 13

AIDA

Advertisers often follow the AIDA model in their advertisements and sales literature.

Attention: the advertisement gets the reader¢s attention.

Interest: it develops the reader¢s interest

Decision: it tries to encourage them to make a decision

Action: finaly they do on it.


6. Work in a group of three or four people and write a list of things that you think help to make successful advertisements. From an advertising agency. Choose one product that your agency is going to promote. Using this list as a guideline, discuss some ideas and draw a poster or write a commercial. Remember AIDA (attention, interest, decision, action)

o What image do you want to project?

o What approach / technique will you use?

o How will you attract the reader's / listener's attention?

o What will the text of your commercial be (50- 80 words)

o Will you use someone famous to advertise the product?

7. What about y о u ?

1) Do you think advertising is really important?

2) Do you agree that advertising doesn't cost, it pays?

3) What is the most cost - effective way of advertising?

4) Do you think transit advertisements are important? Why?

8. Translate into English.

1) Наружная реклама - наиболее быстро растущий сегмент рынка.

2) США тратят на рекламу более 100 миллиардов долларов в год. Это больше, чем в любой другой стране.

3) Телевидение - наиболее распространенное средство рекламы. 4) Традиционный вид работы рекламных фирм - организация рекламных компаний.

5) Основная обязанность мерчендайзеров - следить за выкладкой на место покупки.

6) Специалисты по маркетингу считают, что объем продаж не всегда зависит от рекламы.

7) Компания «Вим-Билль-Данн», крупнейший производитель молочных продуктов и соков в стране, приобрела несколько пивоваренных заводов.

Текст №8

What is the brand?

A brand is a special trade mark, sign, symbol, design of the product that distinguishes it from other products. Products can have sub - brands. People have some beliefs and perceptions about a particular product, that is they have the brand image.

Consumers get used to some brands, and prefer to buy them. Some people drink only Nescafe, prefer mayonnaise produced by Moscow fat- producing plant (MZHK) and chocolate of Krasny Oktyabor factory and so on. In this case we can speak about brand loyalty , that is commitment to a particular brand, which people regularly buy.

Some brands have names of people. Tea brand Dilmah is composed of the parts of names Dilhan and Mailk, sons of the tea producer.

Some brands have mistakes in their names. Brand of vegetable oil is called “Zolotaaya semechka”, but according to the rules of the Russian language, it should be called "Zolotoye semechko".

It takes up to ten years to create a brand in the West. In Russia it can only take two years. It is known that 80 to 90% of new brands fail within their first six months.

If a company gives the name of the brand to its other products it's called brand-stretching . By putting their familiar trademarks on attractive and fashionable new products, companies can both generate additional revenue and increase brand-awareness . So there is Pepsi Maxwear, Camel watches and Cadberry jewellery. Brand- stretching is not always successful.

A brand like Coca-Cola has been around a long time, and dominates the fizzy drink market in almost every country, outselling local brands. One of the exceptions is Scotland, and their marketing specialists are trying to find out why this is.

One of the possible solutions is that people in Scotland are more conservative and keep to their traditions.

One of the most successful brands in the world is the Barbie. Created in 1959, it targeted girls who wanted to have dolls which were like young women. Its unique selling proposition is that Barbie looks like a young woman, not a baby. Barbie has had seventy five careers - from astronaut to presidential candidate. In 1961 Ken, the man in Barbie's life, was introduced. She had got little sisters and friends from different ethnic groups. Now there are 15,000 different items for Barbie. Costume variations and brand- stretching have been the key to her continued popularity. Her life cycle never ends. One Barbie is bought every two seconds.

VOCABULARY

To distinguish - отличать, проводить различие

Brand image - имидж торговой марки

Perception- восприятие

Brand loyalty - лояльное отношение к торговой марке

Commitment - приверженность

Brand- stretching- «расширение» торговой марки

Brand awareness - осведомленность, информированность о торговой марке

Fizzy drink- шипучий напиток

То outsell- продаваться больше / лучше

Exception- исключение

Unique selling proposition (USP) - уникальное торговое предложение

Item - здесь: вид товара, товар, изделие

TASKS

1. Study the words in the box

Таблица 14

Make (модель, марка, тип, сорт, производство)- Brand (торговая марка) — trademark (торговая марка) Logo (лого) - patent (патент) - copyright (авторское право)

Make — модель, марка, тип, сорт, производство. Чаще используется для обозначения производящей фирмы, чем самого продукта. Как правило, этот продукт предполагает сборку, как например, автомобиль.

Indesit is a popular make of washing machine.

Mercedes is a German make of car.

There are hundreds of mares of micro - computers.

Brand - торговая марка.

What brend of tea do you prefer?

А) Выражение ''brand name " обозначает группу продуктов, продаваемых одной фирмой.

Б) Выражение "brand new" означает «совершенно новый»

Trademark - «торговая марка» - это слово или символ, которые производитель использует, чтобы отличить продукт или ряд продуктов от других. Торговая марка обычно регистрируется и защищается законом.

Logo - это символ, эмблема, рисунок или иное изображение, особым образом написанное название компании, которое она использует на своих продуктах, в рекламе, на конвертах, фирменной бумаге.

Copyright — авторское право. Компания и отдельные изобретатели получают патенты на изобретения. Парижская конвенция защиты промышленной собственности устанавливает минимальные стандарты и признана в 100 странах. Авторское право может быть получено на литературные, музыкальные и художественные произведения.

2.Fill in the gaps with the words from the box

Таблица 15

Trademark logo make

1) British Petroleum decided to update its image. A creative team came up with a new design of the company's______________. It cost the company one million pounds.

2) Cars of Japanese_______________ are popular in the world.

3)_________________is the word or symbol that a manufacturer always uses on a product or range of products to distinguish them from other. It is usually registered and protected by law.

3. Translate into English

1) Во многих странах кока-кола продается лучше, чем местные напитки (beverages.) Только в Шотландии местные напитки пользуются большей популярностью.

2) Требуется не менее десяти лет, чтобы создать бренд на Западе. В России некоторым бизнесменам удается создать бренд за два года.

3) Уникальность торгового предложения Барби заключается в том, что кукла похожа не на ребенка, а на молодую женщину.

4) Если человек постоянно покупает определенный бренд, мы говорим, что он имеет лояльное отношение к нему.

Текст №9

Franchising

Franchising means granting a formal right to the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer to produce or to sell the company's goods or services in a special area for a specified period of time. This way of doing business is widely used in the market economy. 40% of all sales in the USA go through franchising which makes $1 billion as annual volume of sales . These figures are presented by International Franchising Association. Franchising in Great Britain is supported by government. The banks give loans to businessmen, and the government guarantees 80% of the loan.

Purchase of a franchise is a simple way of starting business. Reliable scheme of doing business, a promoted brand, product of high quality - all these things increase chances of a beginning businessman for success. For a stable company it is a good way of expanding markets. These are great advantages of franchising.

According to Russian Franchising Association, the number of franchises in Russia does not exceed two dozen. In other words, it is not developed in our country.

History of franchising in Russia dates back to 1993, when Baskin Robbins sold the first franchise in our country. Later, some Russian franchises were sold, among them a chain of shoe stores "Ekonika", fast food "Rostics", "Teremok", "Russkiye bliny", "Niam- Niam", filling stations LUKoil, TNK. But still we can't say that franchising is highly developed in Russia. Legal, administrative and financial problems are in the way of its development. Our laws don't operate the notion "franchising". One of the main things in the process of selling franchise is transfer of a brand name. According to Russian laws, brand name can't be transferred . Another serious problem is responsibility of subsidiary company. For example, if franchisee in Siberia violates standards of franchisor in Moscow, the consumer has a right to make a claim against low quality of goods or services. Open joint- stock company LUKoil which sells franchises for setting up filling stations, has special departments in the areas where its franchises operate. In order to develop this kind of business laws on franchising should be passed. Nowadays many officials in Russia don't know what franchising is.

VOCABULARY

Franchise - франшиза- лицензия, выдаваемая производителю, сбытовику, торговцу, которая позволяет производить или продавать товар или услуги компании, используя торговую марку компании

Franchisee - франчайзи (покупатель лицензии)

Franchisor - франчайзер (продавец лицензии)

Wholesaler- потовый торговец

Retailer- розничный торговец

Specified - конкретный

Volume of sales - объем продаж

Purchase - покупка, приобретение

Reliable- надежный

Promoted - здесь: раскрученный

То expand - расширять (-ся), развиваться (-ся)

Notion- понятие

Transfer- передача

Subsidiary company - дочерняя компания

То violate - нарушать

Claim - претензия

Open joint-stock company - открытое акционерное общество

TASKS

1. Write questions to these answers

1) ___________________________________________________?

Franchising means granting a formal right to the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer to produce or to sell the company's goods or services.

2) ____________________________________________________?

Yes, this way of doing business is widely used in the market economy.

3) ___________________________________________________?

Yes, the banks give loans to businessmen in Great Britain.

4) ___________________________________________________?

Yes, it is a simple way of starting business.

5) ___________________________________________________?

For a stable company it is a good way of expanding markets.

6) ___________________________________________________?

The number of franchises in Russia does not exceed two dozen.

7) ___________________________________________________?

History of franching in Russia dates back to 1993.

8) ___________________________________________________?

Franchising is used by such companies as chain of shoe stores "Ekonika", fast food "Rostics", "Teremok", "Russkiye bliny", "Niam-Niam", filling stations LUKoil, TNK

9) ___________________________________________________?

No, according to Russian laws, brand name can't be transferred.

10) ___________________________________________________?

Laws on franchising should be passed.

2. Fill in the words from the box.

Таблица 16

promoted expanding reliable

volume of sales franchisee franchisor

1) You can't start a small business without _______________ partners.

2) After launching a new brand the company is expecting to double________.

3) One of the advantages of franchising is an opportunity to use a ________brand.

4) For a stable company franchising is a good way of markets.

5) The company which buys a license is called________________.

6) The company which sells a license is called _______________.

3. Fill in the words from the box

Таблица 17

business franchising franchisees

shows guarantee figures functioning

dropping growth frachise

The Australian Franchise Federation (AFF) presented a new survey that shows a continuing boom in the (1) _________sector over the past year. The federation's annual survey of franchised (2) _________shows the sector continued to grow at 15 per cent, a level that has continued since end of the last recession in the early 1990s. The federation's chairman Bill Hawke said, "These are encouraging (3) ____________. The prospects of the franchising business are very promising. “There are believed to be more than 300 franchise systems in Australia, including some big global names.

The report (4) ________that the most popular businesses for (5) ________ continue retail outlets. However, other service businesses are also showing strong (6) ________. One area the federation thinks is likely to take off over the next few years is property and building services. The survey also shows that the cost of getting into a franchise is (7)________. The average start-up cost for a franchise is believed to be about A1$ 120,000 - down from A $135,000 last year. Business consultant Francine Gordon says that many small business owners do not understand the basic (8) ___________ of the business. Gordon says that seven out of ten small business fail within five years. “With franchising, the (9) ________ of failure are lower, because a good franchise can provide a strong business model for (10) _________to follow, "she says". "A franchise is not a (11) ____________ of success, but it certainly helps."

VOCABULARY

Retail outlets —розничные магазины

Property - собственность

Текст 10

Job search

Job search is a long process which needs lots of time and effort. You can't start it without a resume. You present the most important information about yourself in it: your background, your work experience , skills and special knowledge. You should write your objective too, that is what position you are aiming at.

With your resume drawn you start direct research. You study business magazines and newspapers and look for the companies that regularly hire in your field. You can send your resume to these companies. Employment and recruitment agencies are aimed at assisting you in finding a job.

State employment agencies are funded by state labour departments. The most effective way to use their services is to visit the local office.

Only employment agencies and some recruitment agencies will actively market you to a larger number of companies. The most part of recruitment agencies only-present the credentials on the existing position.

It is useful to visit job fairs and career days, ask your family, relatives, friends, neighbours and acquaintances to help you in job search.

You can use web pages on Internet, such as www. jobs, ru or www. hro.ru and other special web sites.

Interview is an important part in your job search. It is important to make a good impression and to wear proper clothes. Make sure your shoes are clean, well polished and in good condition. Don't fiddle with your hair, your hands or your clothes, don't cross the arms. Sit up straight. Keep long hair under control, don't wear too much jewelry . Try to keep eye contact with the key person in the meeting. It is not proper to ask about the salary at the first interview or criticize your former boss or company. It is not recommended to discuss personal or financial problems with the representative of the company. It is important assure the company representatives that you are the right person for the position.

If you are offered a position, you can negotiate the offer and ask about your salary. As you can see, the process of job search is rather difficult, but it can be a rewarding too if you get the position which you have been dreaming about.

VOCABULARY

to present - представлять

work experience — опыт работы

objective - цель

to draw - составлять

to hire - нанимать на работу

employment agency - агентство по трудоустройству

recruitment agency - агентство по набору персонала

credentials - документы

proper - соответствующий

jewelry - драгоценности

to fiddle - вертеть в руках, играть

salary - заработная плата (служащих)

former - бывший

representative - представитель

to assure - заверить

negotiate - вести переговоры

rewarding - стоящий, полезный

TASKS

1.Complete the questions

1) ___________ job search a long process?

2) ___________ it need lots of time and effort?

3) ___________ you start it without a resume?

4) ___________ you present in it?

5) ___________ you write your objective?

6) ___________ magazines and newspapers do you study?

7) ___________ employment and recruitment agencies aimed at?

8) ___________ the most effective way to use their services?

9)____________ agencies_________ you to large number of companies?

10) __________ useful to visit job fairs and career days?

11) ___________ use web pages on Internet?

12) ___________ interview is an important part in your job search?

13) ___________ you look at the interview?

14) ___________ proper to ask about the salary of the first interview or criticise your former boss or company?

15) ___________ recommended to discuss personal or financial problems with the representative of the company?

16) __________ you negotiate the offer and ask about your salary?

17) __________ the process of job search be rewarding?

2.Match these terms with their definitions

1. recruit A. right, correct

2. draw B. conduct talks

3. proper C. write, make ready

4. assure D. monthly payment for regular employment

5. salary E. chose people for vacant positions

6. negotiate F. say positively, with confidence

3. Word families. Fill in the missing words

Таблица 18

verb

person

thing

present

presenter

(1) ______

(2)________

employer / employee

(3)______

(4)________

negotiator

(5)_______

recruit

(6)_______

(7)_______

4. Translate into English

1) Когда предприятие хочет нанять новых работников, оно обращается в агентство по трудоустройству.

2) Во время интервью не принято спрашивать о заработной плате или критиковать своего бывшего начальника.

3) В резюме вы предоставляете сведения о своем образовании, об опытах работы, умении и специальных занятиях. Важно заверить представителя компании, что вы подходящий человек на эту должность.

The company. Companies and products.

Describing companies

1. Describe a company using the following plan:

o When it was started or founded and who its founder was;

o Who runs the company: who its chief executive is;

o What products it makes or what services it provides;

o Its sales figures;

o How many people work for it: how many employees it has;

o Where its headquarters are: where it is based;

o Where its factories or plants are located (if it's a manufacturing company);

o How many branches or retail outlets (shops) it has (if it's retail organization);

o Whether it sells business-to-business, or whether it's a retail organization selling to consumers;

o Whether it uses a franchising system, where retail outlets are managed by individual owners called franchisees who have a share in the profits made by their franchise.

VOCABULARY

To found - основывать

Founder - основатель

Chief executive - руководитель

Sales figures - показатели продаж

Branch - отделение

To sell business - to business - продавать предприятиям

2. To which industry does each of these companies belong?

Match the descriptions with the industries

1) This company operates a chain of supermarkets.

2) This company provides power from nuclear power plants to other industries.

3) This company develops and sells drugs for a range of medical applications.

4) This company supplies cloth to clothing manufacturers.

5) This company manufactures such items as TVs, video recorders and CD players.

6) This company audits the finances of other companies and prepares their annual financial statements for them.

o accountancy

o consumer electronics

o electricity generation

o food retailing

o pharmaceutical

o textiles

3. Describing products. Among the words in

the box describing products, find:

1) two words relating to appearance;

2) two words meaning that something is new and unlike existing products;

3) two words meaning that a product does something without wasting time and energy;

4) one word meaning that something does not break easily;

5) one word meaning that something does not break out easy;

6) one word meaning that something is small and easy to carry;

7) one word meaning that something is strong and works with a lot of force.

Таблица19

beautiful compact economical reliable

efficient good-looking innovative

powerful revolutionary robust

Текст №11

Economics as a science

Although the content and character of economics cannot be described briefly, numerous writers have attempted that. An especially useless, though once popular, example is: «Economics is what economists do.»

Similarly, a notable economist of the last century Alfred Marshall called economics «a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.» Lionel Robbins in the 1930s described economics as «the science of choice among scarce means to accomplish unlimited ends.»

During much of modern history, especially in the nineteenth century, economics was called simply «the science of wealth.» Less seriously, George Bernard Shaw was credited in the early 1900s with the witticism that «economics is the science whose practitioners , even if all were laid end to end, would not reach agreement,»

We may make better progress by comparing economies with other subjects. Like every other discipline that attempts to explain observed facts (e.g., physics, astronomy, meteorology), economics comprises a vast collection of descriptive material organized around a central core of theoretical principles. The manner in which theoretical principles are formulated and used in applications varies greatly from one science to another. Like psychology, economics draws much of its theoretical core from intuition, casual observation , and «common knowledge about human nature.» Like astronomy, economics is largely nonexperimental. Like meteorology, economics is relatively inexact, as is weather forecasting . Like particle physics and molecular biology, economics deals with an array of closely interrelated phenomena (as do sociology and social psychology). Like such disciplines as art, fantasy writing, mathematics, metaphysics, cosmology, and the like, economics attracts different people for different reasons: «One person's meat is another person's poison.» Though all disciplines differ, all are remarkably similar in one respect: all are meant to convey an interesting, persuasive, and intellectually satisfying story about selected aspects of experience. As Einstein once put it: «Science is the attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense-experience correspond to a logically uniform system of thought.»

Economics deals with data on income, employment, expenditure, interest rates, prices and individual activities of production, consumption, transportation, and trade. Economics deals directly with only a tiny fraction of the whole spectrum of human behavior, and so the range of problems considered by economists is relatively narrow. Contrary to popular opinion, economics does not normally include such things as personal finance, ways to start a small business, etc.; in relation to everyday life, the economist is more like an astronomer than a weatherforecaster, more like a physical chemist than a pharmacist , more like a professor of hydrodynamics than a plumber .

In principle almost any conceivable problem, from marriage, suicide, capital punishment, and religious observance to tooth brushing, drug abuse, extramarital affairs, and mall shopping, might serve (and, in the case of each of these examples has served) as an object for some economist's attention. There is, after all, no clear division between «economic» and «noneconomic» phenomena. In practice, however, economists have generally found it expedient to leave the physical and life sciences to those groups that first claimed them, though not always. In recent years economists have invaded territory once claimed exclusively by political scientists and sociologists, not to mention territories claimed by physical anthropologists, experimental psychologists, and paleontologists.

V OCABULARY

numerous - многочисленный

to attempt - попытаться

notable - примечательный

scarce - скудный, ограниченный

witticism [ witisizm ] - острота, шутка

practitioner [prask'tijns] - терапевт

to comprise - включать в себя

vast - обширный, громадный

core - ядро

casual observations - зд . повседневные наблюдения

weather forecasting - прогноз погоды

array - массив, масса, множе­ство

closely interrelated - тесно взаимосвязанные

phenomena - явления

to convey - передавать

income - доход

employment - занятость

expenditure - затраты, издержки, расход(ы)

interest rate - процентная ставка

range - ряд

pharmacist - фармацевт

plumber - водопроводчик

conceivable - мыслимый, вероятный, возможный

expedient - целесообразный (-о), соответствующий, подходящий, надлежа­щий

to claim - приписывать себе, претендовать

to invade – вторгаться

1. General understanding

1. Is there a common opinion on the content and character of economics?

2. What definition of economics is referred to as «especially useless»?

3. With what sciences does the author compare economics? Why?

4. What similarities with economics have the following sciences: a) psychology b) astronomy c) meteorology particle physics and molecular biology 5) art, fantasy writing, mathematics, metaphysics, cosmology, and the like

5. What is the scope of economics? What does economics deal with?

6. What does the author refer to as «popular opinion»?

7. According to the text, can such problems as marriage and extramarital affairs be the subject of economists attention? Is there a division between «economic» and «noneconomic» problems?

8. What fields have economists «invaded» in recent years?

2. Defining economics .

A. Use the text to fill in the spaces:

Таблица 20

Period of time

Person

Definition

19" century

«a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life.»

George Bernard Shaw

1930s

«the science of choice among scarce means to accomplish unlimited ends.»

B. What other two definitions could be found in the text? How does the author refer to each of them?

Таблица 21

Science (es)

Similarity

Difference

psychology

astronomy

meteorology

particle physics and molecular biology

art, fantasy writing, mathematics, metaphysics, cosmology, «and the like»

  1. Which of the following is not true about economics and economists:

A. There is no brief description of the content and character of economics.

B. Alfred Marshall and Lionel Robbins agreed that: «Economics is what economists do.»

C. In the 19th century economics was called «the science of wealth».

D. Economics is only a theoretical science.

E. Einstein once said, «One person's meat is another person's poison».

F. Economics deals with the problems of income, employment, and interest rates.

G. Economics also deals with weather forecasting, psychology and fantasy writing.

H. In recent years economists switched to the new fields, such as political science and sociology.

  1. Say in your own words what each of the following

outstanding people thought of economics and economists:

a) George Bernard Show

b) Alfred Marshall

c) Lionel Robbins

3. What is the profession of people who work in the field of:

(example): Those working in the field of economics are economists.

a) physics

b) astronomy

c) meteorology

d) psychology

e) astronomy

f) meteorology

g) sociology

h) mathematics

Текст 1 2

M icroeconomics

The word «micro» means small, and microeconomics means economics in the small. The optimizing behavior of individual units such as households and firms provides the foundation for microeconomics.

Microeconomists may investigate individual markets or even the economy as a whole, but their analyses are derived from the aggregation of the behavior of individual units. Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics . For example, it is used in industrial organization, labor economics, international trade, cost-benefit analysis, and many other economic subfields. The tools and analyses of microeconomics provide a common ground, and even a language, for economists interested in a wide range of problems.

At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

The methodological distinction became somewhat blurred during the 1970s as more and more macro-economic analyses were built upon microeconomic foundations. Nonetheless, major distinctions remain between the two major branches of economics. For example, the microeconomist is interested in the determination of individual prices and relative prices (i.e., exchange ratios between goods), whereas the macro-economist is interested more in the general price level and its change over time.

Optimization plays a key role in microeconomics. The consumer is assumed to maximize utility or satisfaction subject to the constraints imposed by income or income earning power. The producer is assumed to maximize profit or minimize cost subject to the technological constraints under which the firm, operates. Optimization of social welfare sometimes is the criterion for the determination of public policy.

Opportunity cost is an important concept in microeconomics. Many courses of action are valued in terms of what is sacrificed so that they might be undertaken . For example, the opportunity cost of a public project is the value of the additional goods that the private sector would have produced with the resources used for the public project.

Theory of the Consumer

The individual consumer or household is assumed to possess a utility function, which specifies the satisfaction, which is gained from the consumption of alternative bundles of goods. The consumer's income or income-earning power determines which bundles are available to the consumer. The consumer then selects a bundle that gives the highest possible level of utility. With few exceptions, the consumer is treated as a price taker — that is, the consumer is free to choose whatever quantities income allows but has no influence over prevailing market prices. In order to maximize utility the consumer purchases goods so that the subjective rate of substitution for each pair of goods as indicated by the consumer's utility function equals the objective rate of substitution given by the ratio of their market prices. This basic utility-maximization analysis has been modified and expanded in many different ways.

Theory of the Producer

The individual producer or firm is assumed to possess a production function, which specifies the quantity of-output produced as a function of the quantities of the inputs used in production. The producer's revenue equals the quantity of output produced and sold times its price, and the cost to the producer equals the sum of the quantities of inputs purchased and used times their prices. Profit is the difference between revenue and cost. The producer is assumed to maximize profits subject to the technology given by the production function. Profit maximization requires that the producer use each factor to a point at which its marginal contribution to revenue equals its marginal contribution to cost.

Under pure competition, the producer is a price taker who may sell at the going market price whatever has been produced. Under monopoly (one seller) the producer recognizes that price declines as sales are expanded, and under monopsony (one buyer) the producer recognizes that the price paid for an input increases as purchases are increased.

A producer's cost function gives production cost as a function of output level on the assumption that the producer combines inputs to minimize production cost. Profit maximization using revenue and cost functions requires that the producer equate the decrement in revenue from producing one less unit (called marginal revenue) to the corresponding decrement in cost (called marginal cost). Under pure competition, marginal revenue equals price. Consequently, the producer equates marginal cost of production to the going market price.

V OCABULARY

behavior – поведение

to investigate – исследовать

applied economics – прикладная экономика

distinction – отличие

subject предмет, субъект

matter вопрос, материал

to blur затуманивать, размывать

to remain оставаться

exchange ratio ставка (соотношение) обмена

optimization оптимизация

utility полезность

utility function функция полезности

satisfaction удовлетворение

constraints ограничение

monopsony монопсония (рынок, на котором выступает лишь один покупатель товара, услуги или ресурса)

opportunity cost альтернативные издержки

to sacrifice пожертвовать, приносить в жертву

to undertake взять на себя

to allow позволять, разрешать

to influence влиять

to maximize максимально увеличивать

revenue – доходы

General understanding:

  1. What is, according to the text, microeconomics?
  2. What is meant by «economics in the small»?
  3. What economic phenomena are of microeconomists attention?
  4. Where is microeconomic theory used?
  5. What is «optimization»?
  6. What is the concept of the theory of consumer?
  7. What is the major difference between the theory of consumer and the theory of producer?

1. Find equivalents in Russian:

a. optimizing behavior of individual units

b. industrial organization

c. labor economics

d. international trade

e. cost-benefit analysis

f. sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter

g. subjective rate of substitution

2. Translate into Russian:

A. Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics.

B. Their analyses are derived from the aggregation of the behavior of individual units.

C. The consumer then selects a bundle that gives the highest possible level of utility.

D. The consumer is free to choose whatever quantities income allows but has no influence over prevailing market prices.

E. The producer equates marginal cost of production to the going market price.

F. The producer recognizes that price declines as sales are expanded.

G. Under pure competition, the producer is a price taker who may sell at the going market price whatever has been produced.

3. Give definition to the following:

a) microeconomics

b) applied economics

c) optimization

d) opportunity action

e) utility maximization

Questions for discussion:

  1. What areas of applied economics are of the most importance?
  2. What distinction in methodology between macro – and microeconomics is the most distinctive?
  3. Does the author's concept of theories of consumer and producer comply with your own?

Текст 1 3

Law of supply

Supply is a fundamental concept in both macro- and microeconomic analysis. In macroeconomic theory, aggregate supply is mainly a function of expected sales to consumers, businesses, and governments. In microanalysis supply is mainly a function of prices and costs of production. A more complex view of the supply curve for a commodity is its relation between quantities forthcoming and the possible current prices of that commodity, its expected future prices, the prices of alternative goods and services, the costs of the producer, and time.

Opportunity Costs

Incorporated in the supply curve of goods and_services are opportunity costs. Economists differ from accoun­tants and from the Internal Revenue Service by including both explicit and implicit costs, or opportunity costs. Implicit costs are mainly business costs for wages, rents, and interest, whereas opportunity costs are the alternative costs of doing something else. A sole proprietor or the owners of businesses should calculate what they forgo in wages, rents, and interest by not working for someone else, or by renting the property they use to others, or by the possibility of converting plant and equipment to alternative investment projects.

The Shape and Position of Supply Curves

In competitive markets the shape , or elasticity of supply, reflects time in the production process, such as the immediate or market period, the short run, and the long run. Elasticity of supply is the relative change in price that induces a relative change in quantity supplied. The supply curve is a line on a diagram where the vertical axis measures price and the horizontal axis is quantity. Usually the coefficient of elasticity is positive, meaning that a rise in price induces an increase in the quantity supplied. In the immediate or market period, a given moment, time is defined as too short to allow for a change in output. The supply curve is vertical, and the coefficient of elasticity is zero.

The short run is defined as a period sufficiently long to permit the producer to increase variable inputs, usually labor and materials, but not long enough to permit changes in plant and equipment. The supply curve in the short run is less inelastic or more elastic than in the immediate period. The long run permits sufficient time for the-producer to increase plant and equipment. The longer the time, the greater the elasticity of supply.

Changes in supply are shifts in the position of supply curves. An increase in supply is a rightward movement of a supply curve, with more of the commodity being offered for sale at each possible price. Conversely , a decrease in supply shifts the supply to the left. An increase in supply can occur because sellers expect lower prices in the future, or, as in the agricultural sector, because of bountiful crops . The reverse is true of a decrease in supply. Over periods of time long enough for production processes to change, improvements in technology and changes in input prices and productivities are the main causes of changes in supply.

V OCABULARY

aggregate supply — совокупное предложение

complex — сложный, комплексный

forthcoming — предстоящий, ожидаемый

opportunity costs - альтернативные издержки

accountant - бухгалтер

explicit — явный, откровенный

implicit - подразумевающийся

to calculate - подсчитывать, вычислять, рассчитывать

for ( e ) go - предшествовать(по времени или в пространстве)

to convert - обращать, преобразовывать

shape — форма

given moment - данный момент

sufficiently - достаточно, в достаточной мере

to permit - позволять, разрешать
variable - переменный, изменчивый

a variable - переменная

rightward movement — движение вправо

conversely — наоборот

bountiful crops - обильный урожай

General understanding :

  1. What is the difference of the concept of supply in
    macro— and microeconomics?
  2. What are opportunity costs?
  3. What are implicit costs?
  4. What, according to the text, a sole proprietor or the
    owners should do?
  5. What does the elasticity of supply show?
  6. What is the difference between the short-time and
    long-time supply?
  7. Why do changes in the supply affect the position of
    the supply curve?

1. Which of the following is not true:

A. Supply is a concept of macroeconomics.

B. Economists differ from bookkeepers and tax-gatherers because they include also opportunity costs.

C. The shape of the supply curve provides specialist with the information on elasticity of supply and the reflection of the shareholder.

D. The supply curve is a line on a diagram where the vertical axis measures price and the horizontal axis is quantity.

E. Bountiful crops is a cause of increase in supply,

F. Improvements in technology and changes in input prices and productivities are the main causes of the changes in elastic demand.

2. Find equivalents in Russian:

a) fundamental concept

b) current prices

c) business costs for wages,

d) sole proprietor

e) alternative investment projects.

f) coefficient of elasticity

g) a decrease in supply

h) improvements in technology

3. Find antonyms for the following words. Write
one sentence with each:

a) expected —

b) complex —

c) possible —

d) future —

e) competitive —

4. Find the synonyms of the following:

a) accountant —

b) calculate -

c) permit —

d) expect —

e) complex —

f) opportunity —

g) businessman –

5. Define the following terms in English:

a) aggregate supply

b) opportunity costs

c) sole proprietor

d) elasticity of supply

e) coefficient of elasticity

Questions for discussion:

  1. How do you understand: «Economists differ from
    accountants and from the Internal Revenue Service»?
  2. In what sphere can a person with the economic
    education work?
  3. What is a better-paid job for economist: applied
    economics or theoretical research? Give examples to
    support your opinion.

Текст 1 4

Channels of marketing

Individual consumers and corporate/organizational buyers are aware that thousands of goods and services are available through a very large number of diverse channel outlets. What they may not be well aware of is the fact that the channel structure , or the set of institutions, agencies, and establishments through which the product must move to get to them, can be amazingly complex.

Usually, combinations of institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in marketing channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers. The same is true for the marketing of services. For example, in the case of health care delivery , hospitals, ambulance services, physicians, laboratories, insurance companies , and drugstores combine efforts in an organized channel arrangement to ensure the delivery of a critical service. All these institutions depend on each other to cater effectively to consumer demands.

Therefore, marketing channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. From the outset, it should be recognized that not only do marketing channels satisfy demand by supplying goods and services at the right place, quantity, quality, and price, but they also stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units (e.g., retailers, manufacturers' representatives, sales offices, and wholesalers) comprising them. Therefore, the channel should be viewed as an orchestrated network that creates value for the user or consumer through the generation of form, possession, time, and place utilities.

A major focus of marketing channel management is on delivery. It is only through distribution that public and private goods can be made available for consumption. Producers of such goods (including manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, legislators framing laws, educational administrators conceiving new means for achieving quality education, and insurance companies developing unique health insurance coverage) are individually capable of generating only form or structural utility for their «products». They can organize their production capabilities in such a way that the products they have developed can, in fact, be seen, analyzed, debated, and, by a select few perhaps, digested . But the actual large-scale delivery of the products to the consuming public demands different types of efforts which create time, place, and possession utilities. In other words, consumers cannot obtain a finished product unless the product is transported to where they can gain access to it, stored until they are ready for it, and digested, exchanged for money or other goods or services so that they can gain possession of it. In fact, the four types of utility (form, time, place, and possession) are inseparable: there can be no «complete» product without incorporating all four into any given object, idea, or service.

V OCABULARY

diverse — разнообразный

insurance companies — страховые компании

to be aware of — остерегаться чего-либо

to ensure — обеспечивать

channel structure — структура канала как...

can be viewed as — могут быть рассмотрены,

establishment — установление, учреждение

interdependent – взаимозависимый

to join — (при)соединять(ся)

orchestrated network — слаженная сеть

health care delivery – оказание медицинских услуг

legislators - законодатели

physician - терапевт

to develop — развивать

drugstores – аптеки

to digest — переваривать

General understanding:

  1. What are individual consumers and corporate buyers aware of?
  2. What combinations of institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing usually do to
    maximize their profits?
  3. What is an example of health care delivery used for?
  4. What is the major focus of marketing channel management concentrated on?
  5. What the verb «to digest» is used for in the text?

1. Which of the following is false:

  1. Channel structure could be very complex.
  2. Many partners coordinate their efforts to make possible the delivery of goods.
  3. Channels of marketing are of the most importance and effectiveness in health care delivery.
  4. Marketing channels stimulate demand through the promotional activities of the units.
  5. Public and private goods could be available for consumption only through distribution.
  6. According to the author, legislators also use the channels of marketing to distribute their products —laws.
  7. The only way to use marketing channels is to digest them.

1. Define the following in English:

a) channels of marketing

b) channel structure

c) channel outlets

d) channel arrangement

e) marketing channel management

2 Find equivalent in Russian for:

a) consumer demand

b) ambulance services

c) interdependent organizations

d) network

e) public and private goods

f) four types of utility

3. Use the following to write sentences on channels of marketing in the sphere which is of interest and importance to you:

a) can be viewed as. ...

b) to be well aware of ...

c) to make smth. possible

d) it should be recognized as ...

e) a major focus of ... is on ...

4. Summarize the text in 8-10 sentences. Use the word patterns of the text. Dwell on the strong and weak points of the theory.

Questions for discussion:

  1. Does channel structure for individual consumers differ from that of organization? In what way?
  2. Do you agree that laws of marketing could be applied to the sphere of politics? Why and why not? Give an example.
  3. Do you agree that theory of marketing could be used in the field of medicine? Does it come into contradiction with ethics or morals?

Словарь слов и словосочетаний используемых в текстах

Таблица 22

Above-mentioned

Вышеупомянутый

Acceptable

Приемлемый, подходящий

Acceptance report

Акт о приемке

Продолжение таблицы 22

To give (to grant, to have, to get)

Предоставить, (иметь, получить)

Accident (incident, event)

Случай, случайность

Accommodation

1. помещение, жилье 2. согласование

Accomplish

Совершать, выполнять

Account

Счет

Bank account

Банковский счет

Current account

Текущий счет

For account of smb.

За чей либо счет

Accrued interest

Накопленный процент

Accumulate

Собирать

Accumulation

Накапливание

Acquisition

Приобретение одной компанией другой

Actuals

Наличные товары

Add to

Добавлять, увеличивать

Adequate

Достаточный, отвечающий требованиям, соответствующий

Ad hoc

Для данного случая

Adjust

Регулировать, настраивать,

устанавливать, поправлять, приводить в соответствие

Admit new members

Принимать новых членов (консорциума)

Advance

Аванс

Advantageous

Выгодный, благоприятный, полезный

Advertising literature

Рекламные материалы

Affect smth, smb

Действовать на, влиять, отражаться на

Продолжение таблицы 22

Agenda

Повестка дня

Agreement

Соглашение

All in cost

Суммарные (прямые и косвенные) издержки

Allotment

Размещение новых акций

Allowance

Деньги на содержание

Free allowance

Норма бесплатного проезда

Transfer allowance

Подъемные

Leave allowance

Деньги на отпуск

Alter

Изменять, меняться

Alternative

Альтернатива, выбор

Amicable

Дружеский

Amount

Количество, объем, сумма

To the amount of

На сумму

Ask for information

Запрашивать информацию

As per

Согласно

Assets

Активы (компании)

Assign

Назначать, поручать

Associated licence

Сопутствующая лицензия

Assume

Предполагать, допускать

Attach to…

Прикладывать к

Attempt at

Попытка достичь

Call smb’s attention to…

Обратить чье-либо внимание на…

Attitude

Мнение, отношение

Authority

Власть, полномочие

Avoid

Избегать, уклоняться, сторониться

Award

Награда, премия, награждать

Back to back

Компенсационный

Продолжение таблицы 22

Balance

Остаток счета

Balance sheet

Баланс

Barter

Безденежный обмен товарами

Bear in mind

Иметь в виду, не забыть

Bear the cost

Нести расходы

Benefit

Получать выгоду, пользу, помощь

Bill

Счет

Bill of lading

«Freight Collect» – «фрахт подлежит оплате грузополучателем»

Bond

Облигация или другая ценная бумага с фиксированным доходом

Bring up

Поднимать (вопрос)

Broker

Аккредитованный,

Продолжение таблицы 22

зарегистрированный агент, посредник, дилер по торговым операциям

Calculate

Вычислять, подсчитывать

Equity capital

Капитал в форме акций

Carry out

Выполнять, осуществлять (план, инструкцию, работу, заказ)

Cash

Наличные деньги

Cash down

За наличный расчет

Pay in cash

Платить наличными

Cash against documents

Плата по доставке

Cash commodity

Наличный товар

Cause

Причина, явиться причиной чего-либо

Продолжение таблицы 22

Charges

Расходы, издержки

Claim

1. претензия 2. требовать уплаты

Decline (reject) a claim

Отклонять претензию

Make a claim

Предъявить претензию

Clear up smth

Выяснить

Client country

Страна-заказчик

Closing date

День закрытия, последний день

Come to (amount to, reach)

Доходить, достигать, равняться

Come to terms (about)

Договориться о

Common market

Общий рынок

Commodity produce exchange

Товарная биржа

Competition

Конкуренция

Complaint

Жалоба

Make a complaint

Жаловаться

Comprehensively

Всесторонне

Condition

Условие

Confirmation

Подтверждение, доказательство

Consumer

Потребитель

Contain

Содержать

Consulting company

Консультативная фирма

Contract

Контракт

Costs

Расходы, издержки

Count on

Рассчитывать на

Damage

Ущерб, поломка

Deal in

Заниматься чем-либо, торговать

Debenture

Письменное долговое обязательство

Debt

Долг

Outstanding debt

Невыплаченный долг

Продолжение таблицы 22

Default

Выполнение обязанностей

Defaulting member

Член консорциума, не выполняющий свои обязательства

Delivery

Поставка

Depreciation charges

Амортизационные отчисления

Dispatch service

Отдел справки документов

Develop a process

Разработать технологию

Rate pf discharge

Норма выгрузки

Disrupt

Срывать, нарушать график

Daft

1. тратта, переводной вексель; 2. проект; 3. составлять план, проект контракта

Due

Пошлина, налог

In due form

В надлежащей форме

Duty

Пошлина, сбор

Duty – free

Беспошлинный

Customs duties

Таможенные пошлины

Import duties

Импортные пошлины

Stamp duty

Гербовый сбор

To be liable to duty

Подлежащий оплате

Economic benefit

Экономический эффект

Effect

Результаты, следствие

Employment

Служба, занятие, работа

Make enquiries

Делать запросы, наводить справки

Equity

Обыкновенная акция

Essential

Существенный, существенно важный

Estimate

Прогноз (цены)

Продолжение таблицы 22

Evergreen credit

Возобновляемый кредит, без конкретной даты погашения

Exchange

Валюта

Exchange market

Валютный рынок

Expand

Расширять (ся)

Expansion

Расширение

Estate

1. имение, поместье; 2. имущество

Face value

Номинальная стоимость

Facilities

Удобства, средства обслуживания

Transport facilities

Транспортные средства

Fall behind

Отстать от…

In one, s favour

В чью-либо пользу

Fee

Вознаграждение, гонорар

Finance

Финансировать

First option

Право первого выбора

First aid

Первая помощь

Forward a letter to a new address

Пересылать письмо по новому адресу

Forward contract

Срочная сделка

Gilt-edged securities

Ценные бумаги

Implementation

Выполнение, исполнение, осуществление

Indemnify

Возмещать убыток

Inquire

Запрашивать

Insolvent

Неплатежеспособный

То arrange for the insurance

Организовать страхование

Interest rate

Процентная ставка

In transit

В пути

Продолжение таблицы 22

In vestment

Инвестиция, вложение капитала

Job lot

Отдельная партия товара

Jointly

Сообща, совместно

Justify

Оправдывать, обосновывать

Keep up

Держаться на прежнем уровне, не меняться, поддерживать, продолжать, не бросать

Labour

Рабочая сила, труд, работа

Liability

Ответственность, обязательство

Licence agreement

Лицензионное соглашение

Loan

Заем

Local costs

Издержки в местной валюте

Losses

Убытки, потери

Lot

Партия, серия, лот товара

Manufacturer

Изготовитель

Market research

Изучение рынка

Method of payment

Форма расчета

Misleading

Вводящий в заблуждение,

обманчивый

Moreover

Кроме того, более того

Merge

Сливать(ся)

Negotiate

Вести переговоры

Non-standard equipment

Нестандартизированное оборудование

A number of

Некоторое количество, ряд

Objection

Возражение, протест

Observance

Соблюдение чего-либо

Official confirmation

Документ, подтверждающий

Продолжение таблицы 22

Over and above

Сверх

Overlook

Недосмотреть, посмотреть

Owner

Владелец, собственник

Ownership

Собственность, право собственности

Packing

Упаковка

Pay in cash

Платить наличными

To withhold payment

Приостанавливать платеж

Penalties

Штрафные санкции

Penalty clause

Положение о штрафной неустойке

Penalty rates

Размер штрафной неустойки

Poster

Объявление, плакат

Place an order

Размещать заказ

Post

Почта

Return post

Обратная почта

By return post

Обратной почтой

Preliminary

Предварительный

Price

Цена

Selling price

Продажная цена

Priority percentage

Распределение годовой прибыли по приоритетности капитала

Profit margin

Показатель чистого дохода в процентах к объему реализации капитала

Profit

Прибыль

Prospectus

Проспект, объявление о новом выпуске акций

Property

Собственность

Продолжение таблицы 22

Purchase

Покупать, закупать, покупка

Public utility service

Служба коммунальных предприятий

Public limited company

Государственная компания

Quota

Количественные ограничения на

импорт или выпуск продукции

Quotation

Котировка, курс, стоимость ценной бумаги, текущая цена и условия

поставки для потенциального покупателя (не обязательно соответствует цене, по которой будет совершаться сделка)

Quote

Назначать цену

Quoted price

Зарегистрированный на бирже курс

Recovery

Оживление, восстановление

Sale

Продажа, сбыт

Share

1. доля, долевое участие; 2. акция

Set up

Учреждать

Sell

Продавать

Securities

Ценные бумаги

Shareholder

Держатель акций

Stagnate

Застаиваться

Shortage

Нехватка

Statutory

Установленный законом

Stock exchange

Фондовая биржа

Store

Хранить, складировать

Supplier

Поставщик

Subscribe

1. подписываться (на акции); 2. вносить долю

Продолжение таблицы 22

Supply

Снабжение, поставка, предложение (на рынке)

Terms and conditions of a contract

Условия контракта

Terms of payment

Условия платежа

Transaction

Сделка

Transfer

1. перевод, переводить, перечислять

деньги 2. передача прав, имущества, уступать, передавать права

Trade

Торговля

Trust fund

Трастовый фонд: капитал переданный в доверительное управление

Trustee

Опекун, доверенное лицо

Trustee stocks

Первоклассные ценные бумаги: акции опекуна

Unemployed

Безработный

Valuation

Процесс оценки чего-либо

Variable

Изменчивый, непостоянный

Vote

Голос, голосование, голосовать

Warehouse

Склад

Warehouse receipt

Товарная квитанция

Weight

Вес

Приложение А

Образцы диалогов с помощью которых студенты могут составить свои собственные диалоги

Foreign trade and economic relations of the Russia.

Dialogue №1

- Российская внешняя торговля и внешнеэкономические связи развиваются сейчас так же, как и прежде?

- Are Russian foreign trade and economic relations developing now in the same way as before?

И да и нет. В торговле по-прежнему экспортируется много сырья и импортируется много потребительских товаров и оборудования. Но имеются различные новые формы сотрудничества.

- Well, yes and no. In trade a lot of raw materials are still exported and a lot of consumer goods and equipment are imported. But there are various new forms of cooperation

- Вы имеете в виду прямые связи предприятий и кооперативов с иностранными фирмами?

- Do you mean direct ties of enterprises and cooperatives with foreign firms?

- Совершенно верно. А также создание совместных предприятий и акционерных обществ.

- Exactly. As well as setting up joint ventures and joint-stock companies.

А строительство объектов?

- And what about construction of projects?

- В прошлом много крупных объектов строилось на условиях «под ключ» в социалистических и развивающихся странах. Сейчас положение меняется. Есть много контрактов на выполнение проектных работ за рубежом, командирование российских специалистов и обучение местного персонала заказчика. Но теперь наши возможности за рубежом меньше.

- In the past many big projects were constructed on a turn-key basis in socialist and developing countries. Now things are changing. There are a lot of contracts for carrying out design work abroad, sending Russian specialists and training local personnel of the Customer. But our possibilities for constructing projects abroad are smaller now.

- Понятно. Но ведь довольно много объектов «под ключ» построено в России.

- I see. But quite a lot of turn-key projects have been constructed in Russia

- Да. Мы хотим, чтобы иностранные фирмы вкладывали капитал в нашу экономику.

- Right. We want foreign firms to invest capital in our economy

Dialogue № 2

Петров - представитель фирмы, занимающейся промышленными предприятиями, встречает г-на Али, который приехал в Москву для проведения переговоров по контракту.

Petrov, a representative of the firm, which deals with industrialprojects meets Mr Ali who has come to Moscow to negotiate a contract.

In the Hall

- Извините меня, сэр.

Вы - г-н Али, не так ли?

Я - Петров. Я здесь, чтобы встретить вас. Здравствуйте.

P etrov : Excuse me. Sir.

You are Mr Ali, aren't you? I'm Petrov. I'm here to meet you. How do you do.

- Здравствуйте, г-н Петров. Очень любезно, что вы меня встретили.

Ali : How do you do, Mr Petrov. Awfully good of you to meet me.

- Вот гардероб, г-н Али. Вы можете оставить здесь свое пальто.

P .: Here's the cloak-room, Mr Ali. You may leave your coat here.

- Спасибо, г-н Петров.

A.: Thank you, Mr Petrov.

- Сюда, пожалуйста. Лифт вон там, г-н Али. Кабинет г-на Иванова наверху, на девятом этаже. Он ожидает вас.

P .: This way, please. The lift is over there, Mr Ali. Mr Ivanov's office is upstairs, on the 8th floor. He's expecting you.

Dialogue №3

In the l ift

- Вы впервые в Москве, не так ли, г-н Али?

P : It's your first visit to Moscow, isn't it, Mr. Ali?

- Да. И я с нетерпением жду осмотра достопримечательностей Москвы.

A : Yes, it is. And I'm looking forward to seeing Moscow sights.

- Я надеюсь, что после того, как мы решим все проблемы, у нас будет

время осмотреть достопримечательности.

P.: I hope that when we settle all our problems, you'll have some time for sightseeing.

- Я тоже на это надеюсь. Говорят, Москва и ее пригороды так красивы.

A.: I hope so too. They say Moscow and suburbs are so beautiful.

- О, вот мы и приехали! Прошу вас, г-н Али, я после вас.

P .: Oh, here we are... After you. Mr Ali.

- Спасибо.

A.: Thank you.

Dialogue № 4

In the office

- Доброе утро, г-н Иванов.

A: Good morning, Mr Ivanov,

- Доброе утро, г-н Али. Садитесь, пожалуйста

I: Good morning, Mr ALi. Will you sit down?

- Спасибо.

A.: Thank you.

- Курите.

I.: Have a cigarette.

- Нет, спасибо, я не курю.

A. : No, thank you, I don't smoke.

- Не хотите ли кофе? .:

I. : Would you like some coffee?

- Да, спасибо. Г-н Иванов. Мы получили ваш проект контракта. В целом он приемлем, но мы бы хотели выяснить некоторые вопросы.

A. : Yes, please. Well, Mr Ivanov. we've received your Draft contract. On the whole it's acceptable but we'd like to clear up some points.

- Какие это вопросы?

I.: What are they?

- Прежде всего, нас не устраивают наши условия СИФ.

A.: First of all, your C.I.F. terms of delivery don't suit us.

- Вы хотите, чтобы мы поставили оборудование на условиях ФОБ?

I.: : Do you want us to deliver the equipment on F.O.B. terms?

- Именно это мы и хотели, чтобы вы сделали.

A.: That's just what we would like you to do.

- Я полагаю, мы можем изменить условия поставки. Но мне нужно

связаться с моими коллегами и обсудить эту возможность с ними.

I.: I think we can change the terms of delivery. But I need to contact my people and discuss the possibility with them.

- Хорошо. А теперь давайте перейдем к срокам поставки.

Они не совсем приемлемы.

A.: That's good. And now let's pass on to the delivery dates. They aren't quite acceptable.

- Мы могли бы поставить оборудование в течение 12 месяцев от даты подписания контракта. Вы хотели бы, чтобы мы ускорили поставку?

I.: We could deliver the equipment within 12 months from the date of signing the contract. Would you like us to speed up the delivery?

- Да, не могли бы вы сократить срок поставки до 9 месяцев? Это очень важно для нас.

A.: Yes, could you reduce the delivery period to 9 months? It's very important to us.

- Думаю, да. Наше новое предложение может быть готово через день или два. Тем временем, не хотели бы вы посетить наш завод и посмотреть оборудование в действии?

I.: I think we could. Our new proposal can be ready in a day or two. Meanwhile, would you like to visit our plant and see the equipment in operation?

- С удовольствием. Не возражаете, если наш главный инженер

присоединится к нам?

A.: With pleasure. Do you mind if our chief

- Нет, я буду рад.

.: No, I don't. He's

- Хорошо.

A: Good.

- Тогда один из наших инженеров заедет за вами в гостиницу завтра около 9 часов.

I.: Then one of our engineers will call for you at the hotel about 9 o'clock tomorrow.

- Это будет замечательно. Спасибо. До завтра.

A.: That'll be fine. Thank you. See you tomorrow then.

- До свидания, г-н Али.

I.: Good-bye, Mr Ali.

NOTES

1. C.I.F. terms -условия СИФ (cost, insurance, freight), условия поставки по морю, согласно которым продавец обязан за свой счет застраховать товар, застраховать судно, а также доставить товар в порт назначения. Ср. C.I.F. price - цена на условиях СИФ (цена, включающая стоимость товара, страхования и фрахта).

2. F.O.B . terms — условия ФОБ (free on board), условия поставки, согласно которым продавец обязан за свой счет доставить и погрузить товар на борт судна.

Ср. F.O.B. price - цена на условиях ФОБ (цена, включающая стоимость товара и доставки на борт судна).

Dialogue № 5

Going abroad

Traveling by Air

Вадим Козлов, главный инженер одной российской торговой фирмы, на прошлой неделе был в командировке в Дели. Вот что он делал в день отъезда.

Vadim Kozlov, Chief Engineer of a Russian trade firm, traveled to Delhi on business last week. This is what he did on the day of his departure

В день отъезда Козлов прибыл в аэропорт Шереметьево за час до вылета самолета. Он зарегистрировал свой билет, заполнил декларацию и присоединился к пассажирам в зале ожидания.

On the day of departure Kozlov had arrived at Sheremetjevo airport an hourbefore the plane took off. He had his ticket registered, filled in a declaration form and joined the passengers in the waiting-room.

Когда они услышали объявление "Внимание. Пассажиров, следующих рейсом 34 до Дели, просят пройти к выходу 3", их багаж был просвечен рентгеновскими лучами и пассажиры сели в самолет. Стюардесса дала Козлову для заполнения бланк прибытия

When they heard the announcement, "Attention, please. Will passengers for Delhi join flight 34, at gate 3", the passengers had their personal luggage X-rayed and got on board the plane. The hostess gave Kozlov an arrival card to fill in.

Он написал печатными буквами свое полное имя, домашний адрес и цель поездки.

Не wrote in block letters his full name, home address and the purpose of his visit.

Появилась надпись "Прекратите курение. Пристегните ремни сидений", и самолет взлетел. Хотя он летел на большой скорости, пассажиры на борту самолета чувствовали себя удобно. Пять с половиной часов спустя самолет приземлился в аэропорту Палам в Дели.

The sign "Stop smoking. Fasten seat belts" appeared and the plane took off. Although it flew at a high speed, the passengers on board the plane felt comfortable. Five and a half hours later the plane landed at Palam airport in Delhi.

Dialogue № 6

Going through the Customs Formalities

Козлов проходит таможенный досмотр в аэропорту Палам в Дели.

Kozlov is going through the customs control at Palam airport in Delhi.

- Это ваш чемодан, сэр?

C :It this your suit-case, sir?

- Да, мой. Мне открыть его?

K : Yes, that's right. Shall I open it?

- Да, пожалуйста. У вас есть вещи, на ввоз которых имеются ограничения?

C.: Do, please. Have you got anything to declare?

Нет, я не думаю. У меня есть сигареты для личного пользования.

K. : No, I don't think so. I've got some cigarettes for my own use.

Сколько у вас пачек сигарет?

CO. : How many packets?

Только 3 пачки. По-моему,

K. : Only three packets. I think they are duty free.

Да, конечно. Имеете ли вы вещи, которые облагаются пошлиной?

CO .: Yes, of course. Have you got any things liable to duty?

- Нет.

K.: No, I haven't.

- Благодарю вас, сэр.

CO.: Thank you, sir.

Спасибо.

K. : Thank you.

Dialogue № 7

After the Flight

-Сюда, пожалуйста, г-н Козлов. Садитесь в машину. Как вы себя чувствуете после полета?

Menon : This way, Mr Kozlov. Get into the car, please. How are you feeling after the flight?

По правде говоря, не очень хорошо. У меня сильно болит голова. Это давление, думаю.

K: Not very well, to tell the truth. I have a terrible headache. It's my blood pressure, I think.

Очень жаль! Вам следует немедленно показаться врачу

M .: Oh, what a pity! You should see a doctor right away.

Не беспокойтесь, г-н Менон. Мне просто надо принять лекарство, и завтра я буду здоров. Мы сможем приступить к работе без промедления.

K.: Don't worry, Mr Menon. I'll just have to take a medicine and I'll be all right tomorrow. We'll be able to get down to work without delay.

-Я надеюсь. Сейчас я отвезу вас в гостиницу, а завтра мы обсудим программу вашего пребывания в Дели.

M.: I hope so. I'm taking you to the hotel now and tomorrow we are going to discuss the programme of your stay in Delhi.

Прекрасно

K.: Fine.

Dialogue № 8

Checking into the Hotel

Администратор: добрый вечер, господа. Чем могу быть полезен?

Receptionist : Good evening, gentlemen. What can I do for you?

Я заказывал номер для г-на Козлова с 5-го января.

M. : I've booked accommodation for Mr Kozlov from the 5th of January.

- Минуточку, сэр. Я проверю заказ. Назовите, пожалуйста, фамилию по буквам

R.: Just a moment, sir. I'll check the reservation. Will you spell the name please?

- Хорошо. К-о-з-л-о-в.

M.: OK. K-o-z-l-o-v.

- Так. Мы можем предоставить г-ну Козлову прекрасный одноместный номер с ванной на 4-м этаже.

R.: Right. We can give Mr Kozlov a nice single room with private bath on the 3rd floor

Заполните, пожалуйста, этот регистрационный бланк: фамилия, имя, отчество, адрес, национальность, род деятельности

Fill in this check-in card, please: full name, address, nationality occupation, date and place of birth.

Какой номер комнаты?

K. : What's the number of the room?

305. Носильщик поможет вам багажом и проводит вас в номер. Вот ключ от вашего номера.

R.: 305. The porter will help you with the luggage and take you to your room. Here's the key to your room.

Большое спасибо.

K .: Thank you very much.

Мне пора идти, г-н Козлов. Я надеюсь, у вас все будет в порядке. Я заеду за вами в гостиницу завтра в 10. Президент ожидает вас в 10..30.

M.: I must be going, Mr Kozlov. I hope you'll be all right now. I'll call for you at the hotel at 10 tomorrow. The President is expecting you at 10.30.

Спокойной ночи, г-н Менон. Вы мне очень помогли. Спасибо.

K. : Good night, Mr Menon. You¢ve been very helpful. Thank you.

Доброй ночи, г-н Козлов.

M.: Good night, Mr Kozlov.

Dialogue № 9

In the room of hotel

Когда г-н Козлов распаковал свой чемодан, он набрал 08, чтобы связаться со службой обслуживания в номере.

When Kozlov unpacked his suit-case he dialed 08 to get the room service.

Горничная: Добрый вечер, сэр. Чем могу быть полезна?

Reseptionist : Good evening, gentlemen. What can I do for you?

Добрый вечер. Не мог бы я погладить пиджак и брюки?

K. : Good evening. Could I have my jacket and trousers pressed, please?

-Да, сэр. Я сейчас же сделаю это. Какой у вас номер комнаты?

M .: Yes, sir. I'll do it right away. What's your room number?

- 305. И еще одна вещь, ресторан сейчас открыт?

K.: 305. And another thing, is the restaurant open now?

Да, сэр. Вам что-нибудь принести?

М.: Yes, sir. Can I get you something?

Бутылку минеральной воды. пожалуйста.

K.: A bottle of mineral water, please.

-Хорошо, сэр.

M. : All right, sir.

В котором часу утра открывается ресторан?

K .: What time does the restaurant open in the morning?

В 8 часов. Завтрак подается с 8 до 10, обед - с 12 до 3.30. Вам могут принести завтрак в номер, если хотите.

M: At 8. Breakfast is served from 8 to 10, lunch from 12 to 3.30. You can have your breakfast brought to your room if you wish.

Спасибо, не нужно. Разбудите меня, пожалуйста, в 8 часов. Я боюсь проспать.

K.: No, thank you. Will you wake Me up at 8 o'clock, please. I'm afraid to oversleep.

Не беспокойтесь, сэр. Я вам позвоню.

M. : Don't worry, sir. I'll call you.

Приложение Б

Структура делового письма

Адреса в Англии и Америке имеют следующий вид:

Ms J . Simpson

Foreign Rights Manager

Chapman & Hall Ltd.

11 New Fetter Lane

London EC4P 4EE

England

Ms A. Arafel

Product Information Manager

McCraw-Hill Book Co

1221 Avenue of the Americas

New York, N.Y. 10020

USA

Обратите внимание на почтовый индекс и сокращение названий штатов.

Различия между британским и американским стилями представлены на следующей схеме:

British

American

Дата

12th December,

19 —

December 12, 19—

12 December 19—

12 Dec. 19—

Приветствие

(Salutation)

Dear Sir,

Dear Sir;

Dear Madam,

Dear Madam:

Dear Mrs Smith,

Dear Mrs Smith:

For the attention

of

Attention: Mr E.C. Wilson

Mr E. Wilson

Dear Sirs,

Gentlemen:

Комплементарная концовка

(Complimentary Close)

Yours faithfully, Sincerely yours,

Yours sincerely, Yours truly

В письмах не допускается никаких грамматических сокраще­ний типа I ' m , don ' t , we ' ve , и т.п.

Все эти слова нужно писать полностью.

Формат

1.Шапка письма

2.Внутренний адрес

3. Строка: Внимание (не обязательно)

4. Дата

5.Приветствие

6.Ссылка

7. Комплементарная концовка

8. Подпись, должность, отдел

9. Посылочные инициалы

10. Вложения

11. Копии

Government of Canada 1

Office of the Chairman 2.

Public Service Commission

Ottawa, Ontario

KIA ON7

Attention: P. Smith3 December 8, 19964

Dear Sir: 5

Ref: PC Program analyst6

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Yours sincerely,7

A. Robertson

A. Robertson 8

Director

General Services Division

AP/CL9

Encl. 10

cc: D. Dube 11

1 . Большинство писем пишутся на бланках, где уже есть название, адрес, номера телефонов фирмы и прочие данные. Адрес отправителя иногда стоит в конце письма после имени и должности.

2 . Адрес того, кому предназначено письмо, размещается вверху слева.

3. Включается в тех случаях, когда письмо отправляется на фирму, но адресовано кому-то лично. Часто пишется на конверте в нижнем левом углу .

4 . Обычно пишется следующим образом: March 1, 1995 или 1 March,1995.

5 . За приветствием стоит двоеточие или запятая.

6. Заимствована из служебных записок, но в письмах используется редко.

7. Обычно окончания: Yours truly, Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully.

8. Подпись, расшифровка подписи, должность, адрес следуют друг за другом в строку в левом либо в правом углу письма. Иногда письмо может быть продиктовано одним человеком, а подписано другим, обычно секретарем. Например, директор, отправляясь командировку, оставил напечатать и подписать письмо секретарю. В этом случае подпись будет выглядеть так:

рр Diana Price

David Bradly

Managing Director,

где рр (per procurationem, лат.) означает по доверенности, за кого-то.

9 . Посылочные инициалы указывают на тех, кто писал (пере­водил) письмо и/или печатал его.

10 . Если к письму прилагаются какие-то материалы (прейску­ранты, реклама и др.), то об этом упоминается после посылочных инициалов.

11. Указания на адресатов копий письма даются в самом конце.

Письмо-запрос

(Inquiry)

Письмо-запрос (inquiry, или enquiry) компания посылает, когда хочет:

—получить подробную информацию о товарах (goods);

—узнать, имеются ли они в наличии (availability of goods);

—уточнить время и сроки поставки (delivery dates);

—получить информацию об условиях поставки и скидках (terms and discounts), способе транспортировки (method of trans­portation), страховании (insurance);

—получить информацию о ценах на товары (prices of goods);

—получить каталоги (catalogues) и образцы товара (samples of goods), и т. п.

При написании писем-запросов следует как можно более подробно изложить суть вопроса (to give full details), что позволит Вашему деловому партнеру сократить время на составление ответа.

В случае, если Вы обращаетесь с запросом в данную компа­нию первый раз, в письмо желательно включить следующие пункты:

1) Указание на источник информации о данной компании и ее товаре.

2) Суть вопроса.

3) Краткие сведения о Вашей компании.

4) Выражение надежды на сотрудничество.

Причем совсем не обязательно строго придерживаться данной последовательности. При повторном запросе в письмо обычно включается только второй пункт. Как и большинство других деловых писем, письмо-запрос, как правило, печатается на фирменном бланке, на котором указаны название компании-отправителя запроса, ее почтовый адрес, номера телефонов и факса.

Образец письма-запроса

(Sample of Inquiry)

Pet Products Ltd. 180 London Road Exeter EX4 4JY England

25th February, 1997

Dear Sirs,

We read your advertisement in the 'Pet Magazine' of 25th December. We are interested in buying your equipment for pro­ducing pet food. Would you kindly send us more information about this equipment:

price (please quote CIF Odessa price)

dates of delivery

terms of payment

guarantees

if the price includes the cost of equipment installation and
our staff training.

Our company specializes in distributing pet products in Ukraine. We have more than 50 dealers and representatives in different regions and would like to start producing pet food in Ukraine. If your equipment meets our requirements, and we receive a favourable offer, we will be able to place a large order for your equipment.

Your early reply would be appreciated

Yours faithfully,

V.Smurov

V.Smurov Export-Import Manager

Письмо - предложение

( Offer )

Письмом-предложением поставщик (the Supplier) обычно отве­чает на письмо-запрос. Отвечая на общий запрос, он благодарит за проявленный интерес и обычно прилагает прейскуранты (price-lists), каталоги (catalogues) или условия типового договора (Typical Contract). Ответ на специальный запрос предусматривает ответы на все вопросы потенциального клиента.

Структура письма-предложения:

1. Повод написания.

2. Ответы на вопросы потенциального заказчика.

3. Дополнительные предложения.

4. Выражение надежды на заказ.

Отвечая на вопросы, следует дать точное описание товара, по возможности сопроводить его фотоматериалами и/или рисунками и/или образцами (samples). При определении цены ( price ) учиты­ваются возможные скидки (discounts). Отдельно решаются вопросы расходов на упаковку (packing), транспортных расходов {transportation costs), условий поставки (terms of delivery) и оплаты (terms of payment).

Письма-предложения посылают также без предшествующего запроса, если поставщик желает привлечь внимание потенциаль­ных клиентов или найти новых заказчиков на конкретные продукты (special products) или их ассортимент (range). Твердое предложение (firm offer) предусматривает особые условия, напри­мер, конечный срок (deadline) получения заказа и систему скидок в зависимости от количества товара и других условий.

Образец письма-предложения

( Sample of Offer )

Mr Fred North Purchasing Manager Broadway Autos

11 November, 19—

Dear Mr North,

Thank you very much for your enquiry. We are of course very famil­iar with your range of vehicles and are pleased to inform you that we have a new line in batteries that fit your specifications exactly.

The most suitable of our products for your requirements is the Artemis 66A Plus. This product combines economy, high power out­put and quick charging time and is available now from stock.

I enclose a detailed quotation with prices, specifications and deliv­ery terms. As you will see from this, our prices are very competitive. I have arranged for our agent Mr Martin of Fillmore S.A. to deliver five of these batteries to you next week, so that you can carry out the laboratory tests. Our own laboratory reports, enclosed with this letter, show that our new Artemis 66A Plus performs as well as any of our competitor's product and, in some respects, outperforms them.

If you would like further information, please telephone or telex me: my extension number is 776. Or you may prefer to contact Mr John

Martin of Fillmore S.A. in M____ : his telephone number is

01 77 99 02.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Fred Stock

Fred Stock

Заказ. Подтверждение и отклонение заказов

(Order. Acknowledgement (Confirmation) and Refusal of Orders)

Для того чтобы сделать заказ (to place an order) на закупку тех или иных товаров обычно заполняют специальные бланки заказов (order forms), в которых указывается количество (quantity) изделий, их описание (description), цена (price), условия оплаты (terms of payment), дата поставки (date of delivery), скидки (discounts) и т.п. В ряде случаев, когда необходимо прояснить отдельные пункты заказа (to make certain points quite clear), пишется сопроводительное письмо (cover letter), к которому прилагается бланк заказа.

Если Продавец (Seller) или Поставщик (Supplier) товара в состоянии выполнить заказ, он посылает Покупателю (Buyer) подтверждение заказа (order acknowledgement, or confirmation), которое чаще всего представляет собой копию заказа (order copy, or

duplicate ), подписанную Продавцом. Обычно подтверждение заказа прилагается к сопроводительному письму, в котором Продавец выражает благодарность за заказ, а также сообщает Покупателю о тех или иных изменениях (изменении цен, сроков поставки и т. п.).

Если Продавец либо Поставщик товара по каким-либо причинам не в состоянии выполнить заказ, он либо отказывается от заказа ( to refuse ( to reject , to decline ) the order ), либо предлагает адек­ватную замену ( substitute ) товару, которого нет в наличии.

Образец заказа

(Sample of Order)

Men's Clothes Dealers Ltd. 142 South

Road Sheffield S20 4HL England

Dear Sirs,

21st March, 1997

Our Order for Silk Shirts ur lett f 17

In response to your letter of 17th March, we thank you for sending us your catalogues of men's silk shirts. We are sure there will be a great demand for them in Ukraine. We are enclosing our Order No. 144, and would ask you to return its duplicate to us, duly signed, as an acknowledgement.

Yours faithfully

Vladimyr Smurov

Vladimyr Smurov Manag

Export-Import ManagerEnc.

Order No. 142

Таблица 23

ORDER

No. 142

(please refer to

this number on all

correspondence)

Men's Clothes Dealers Ltd.

142 South Road

Продолжение таблицы 23

Sheffield S20 4HL

England

21th March, 1997

Please

supply 400 men's silk shirts

in the colours and sizes (collar)

specified below:

Size

Colour

Quantity

14

white

70

14

blue

30

15

15

white

70

blue

30

16

white

70

16

blue

30

17

white

70

17

blue

30

Price:

$10.53 each (total — $4212)

Delivery:

air freight, CIF Kiev

Payment:

by letter

of credit

Packing:

standard

p.p. Chief Buyer

Alexey Postnikov

Vysteria Ltd.

acknowledgement.

Образец подтверждение заказа

Vysteria Ltd

P.O.Box 82

Kiev 253206

Ukraine

28th March, 1997

Ref: Order #142 of 2 lth March, 1997

Dear Sirs.

Thank you for your letter of 21th March, 1997. We are pleased to acknowledge your order for 400 men's silk shirts and enclose the copy of it, duly signed, as requested.

Delivery will be made immediately on opening a letter of credit with our bank for the amount of $4212.

We hope our shirts will be in great demand in Ukraine and you will be able to place large orders with us in the future.

Yours faithfully,

Alfred Smithers

Alfred Smithers

Sales Manager

Письмо-рекламация

Ответ на письмо-рекламацию

(Letter of Complaint. Answering a Complaint)

В деловой практике основными причинами отправки писем-рекламаций {letters of complaint, claim letters) являются следующие:

— недопоставка товара {short-delivery, short-shipment);

— поставка недоброкачественных товаров либо не тех товаров, которые были заказаны {substandard or wrong goods);

— задержки в поставке {delays in delivery);

— отправка по неправильному адресу {misdirection and errors in addressing);

— повреждения товара {damages of goods);

—производственные дефекты {manufacturing defects), обнаруженные при эксплуатации оборудования {equipment operating).

Несмотря на раздражение, которое может возникнуть у покупа­теля (заказчика) в связи с возникшими проблемами, в письме-рекламации ему следует как можно яснее изложить суть этих проблем и предложить свои пути их решения.

Особый такт следует соблюдать в ответе на письмо-рекламацию и в решении изложенных в нем проблем {in handling complaints). Если жалоба или претензия была обоснованной, то кроме извинений необходимо подробно написать, какие меры будут приняты для того, чтобы исправить оплошность. Если жалоба или претензия была необоснованной, то необходимо подробно изложить свои доводы и предложить пути решения возникших проблем.

Образец письма - рекламации

(Sample of Letter of Complaint)

Men's Clothes Dealers Ltd. 142 South Road Sheffield S20 4HL England

18th April, 1997

Ref: Our Order #142 of 21st March, 1997

Dear Sirs,

Thank you for your delivery of men's silk shirts, which we ordered on 21th March, 1997. At the same time we would like to?draw your attention to the following.

After examination of the shirts we discovered some manufacturing defects:

there are oil stains on 12 shirts;

the colour of buttons of 5 shirts does not match the colour of these shirts;

one shirt is in a different style.

We are returning defective shirts by separate mail, carriage for­ward, and would ask you to replace them by shirts in the colours and sizes specified below:

Size Colour Quantity

15 white 9
17
white 1
14
blue 6

16 blue 2
We would appreciate a prompt reply.

Yours faithfully,

Vladimyr Smurov

Export-Import

Manager

Образец ответа

(Sample of Answer)

Vysteria Ltd.

P.O.Box 82

Kiev 253206

Ukraine

21st April, 1997

Ref: Order si42 of 2lst March, 1997 Dear Sirs,

Your letter of 18th April, 1997, was duly noted. The shirts you returned us are indeed defective. We have to admit that these defects were overlooked by our controller and offer apologies for the oversight.

We are sending you new shirts as a replacement this week by air. carriage paid, and would ask you to confirm their receipt by fax.

If any other problems arise, please do not hesitate to contact us in the shortest possible time.

Yours faithfully,

Jack Brown

Jack Brown

Claims Department

Указания по выполнению контрольной работы

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №1, вам необходимо проработать по учебнику английского языка следующий грамматический материал:

  1. Имя существительное;
  2. Спряжение глагола to be;
  3. Спряжение глагола to have;
  4. Местоимения;
  5. Степени сравнения прилагательных;
  6. Оборот – there is/are;
  7. Предмет времени;
  8. Порядковые существительные;
  9. Модальные глаголы и их эквивалент;
  10. Местоимения some, any, no и их производные;
  11. Времена группф Simple;
  12. Времена группы Perfect;
  13. Прямая и косвенная речь;

Грамматические задания для всех вариантов

Задание 1. Измените следующие предложения с образцом.

Образец : English is not easy to learn but (есть несколько) students in our group who know it well.

English is not easy to learn but there are a few students in our group who know it well.

Контрольная работа №1

Вариант 1, 10 .

  1. (Есть несколько) countries where people speak English as their mother tongue.
  2. Our library is very good, (есть много) books on economics in it.

Вариант 2, 9.

  1. I want to study marketing, (имеется много) information on this subject.
  2. English words are not easy to remember, if (мало) practice in using them in speech.

Вариант 3, 8.

  1. Many students know how to handle tape-recorders, but (находится мало) students who know how to operate computers.
  2. In our library (есть много) English books.

Вариант 4, 7.

  1. (Есть несколько) students in this room.
  2. (Есть мало) computers for practice.

Вариант 5, 6.

  1. (Есть мало) information on this subject in our computers.
  2. (Имеется много) contries in which English is spoken.

Задание 2 . Заполните пропуски соответствующими формами глаголов «to be» и «to have» переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец : I ____ a first year student.

I am a first year student.

Вариант 1, 10

  1. ______ English grammar difficult to learn?
  2. They ______ got some interestig information on the subject.

Вариант 2, 9

  1. ______it important to know the meaning of some words in context?
  2. English ______many financial and economic terms.

Вариант 3, 8

  1. ______there many forms in English?
  2. There _______several students in the room?

Вариант 4, 7

  1. ________you interested in studying banking?
  2. This town _______got many banks.

Вариант 5, 6

  1. ________you got any information about the use of English in countries other than Great Britain?
  2. There _______much practice at English lessons.

Задание 3. Сделайте следующие предложения вопросительными, а затем отрицательными.

Вариант 1,10

  1. They store information on compyters.
  2. My mother will come home after work at 5.
  3. I was listening to the news when yoou came in.

Вариант 2, 9

  1. When mother came into the room, her daughter was painting a wonderful picture.
  2. I switched off the light and went out.
  3. They will travel in summer.

Вариант 3, 8

  1. He does his homework in the evening.
  2. Last summer we lived in Sochi.
  3. They will be traveling by car at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

Вариант 4, 7

  1. He goes to his tehnical scholl every day.
  2. They will be discussing the article at this time tomottow.
  3. The boy drank a glass of juice.

Вариант 5, 6

  1. tom lost his pen in the yard.
  2. At 8 o’clock in the tomorrow
  3. She wants to start her own business

Задание 4 . Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский, используя различные передачи будущего времени.

Вариант 1, 10

  1. В соответствии с договоренностью группа экономистов из Великобритании посетит нашу область в декабре.
  2. В будущем году уровень инфляции будет 5-6%.
  3. Если в субботу будет плохая погода, ме не поедем за город.

Вариант 2, 9

  1. Я помогу ему в работе, если у меня будет свободное время.
  2. Когда он закончит школу, он пойдет учиться в университет.
  3. Я думаю, что он очень рассердиться, когда я скажу ему об этом.

Вариант 3, 8

  1. Он собирается работать в банке после окончания техникума.
  2. Когда придет Ольга, мы попьем чай и обсудим новости.
  3. Когда он поедет в Москву?

Вариант 4, 7

  1. Девочка купит хлеб и молоко, если мама даст ей денег.
  2. Пока она разговаривает по телефону, мы посмотрим письма и телеграммы.
  3. Если Ольга придет раньше чем обычно, мы пойдем в театр.

Вариант 5, 6

  1. Если Генри понравится эта идея, он присоединится к нам.
  2. Я помогу Вам с этой работой.
  3. Мой друг собирается изучать экономику в следующем году.

Задание 5. Прочитайте и переведите письменно следующий текст и выполните послетекстовые задания.

Вариант 1, 10

Текст “The Tower of London”

Вариант 2, 9

Текст “The Universities in Britain”

Вариант 3, 8

Текст “The Education system in Britain”

Вариант 4, 7

Текст “The Working of the House of Commons”

Вариант 1, 10

The Tower of London1

The Tower of London has been called “The Cradle of the English race”. It is the oldest palace, fortess and prison in Europe.

The great fortess was created by William the Conqueror2 , nearly 900 years ago. The site was well chosen, the fortess commanded the river approaches to the city and it protected the king and government from the citizens of London.

The Tower of London is roughly square in chape with two lines of defensive walls enclosing the tower which for centuries has been known as the White Tower. The outer wall is defenced by six towers on the river face and by semi-circular bastions at the north-east and north-west.

Over the centries the Tower has served many purposes. It has been a citadel a royal, a prison for dangerous offenders against the state.

The Tower is entered at the foot of Tower Hill3 . One of the most well-known towers is the Lion Tower. In this semicircular tower the royalmenagerie was housed. In 1834 the menagerie was sent to Regent’s Park4 where it formed the present London Zoo. The tower was then demolished.

1 Tower of London – Тауэр (старинная крепость на берегу з. Темзы)

2 William the Conqueror – Вильгельм Завоеватель

3 Tower Hill – Тауэр Хилл (площаль около Тауэра)

4 Regent’s Park – Риджентс-Парк

The most terrible of them was Bloody Tower: Sir Thomas Moore was a prisoner there.

There have always been ravens at the Tower and some are still there. These large birds traditionally associated with ill-omen live on raw meat and offal, but their favorite food is raw eggs. They are unfriendly and it is unwise to touch or feed them.

There are six birds. Their wings are clipped so that they cannot fly away.

Every night at exactly seven minutes to 10 o’clock the oldest and most colourful ceremony takes place for the last 700 years in the same form as it is seen today.

(From “Tower of London” by T. Butler)

II. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. How many years ago was the Tower of London created?
  2. What is the shape of the Tower?
  3. What purposes has the Tower served over the centries?
  4. What formed the London Zoo?
  5. Why do six ravens live in the Tower?

III . Выпишите из текста интернациональные слова.

IV . Определите по суффиксу часть речи:

fourteen, spoken, amendment, biologist, brighten, cooly, brutal, cruelty, fuzzy, gabber.

V . Выпишите из текста и переведите предложения с оборотом there is ( are ) и предложения, в которых глагол употребляется в настоящем неопределенном времени в действительном и страдательном залогах.

VI . Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова:

board a) Don’t polish these boards, I don’t like it;

b) Who is on board that ship?

c) Is it true that your sister is going on boards?

d) When did he board the ship?

compose a) Water (H2 O) is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

b) He is composing a new song now, you’ll hear is soot.

c) The boy was crying bitterly but when he saw a toy he composed himself.

complaint a) He is full of complaints: this is not well and that is wrong.

b) I have no complaints to make.

c) This old man is suffering from a heart complaint.

VII . Закончите предложения.

a) I was asked… c) He doesn’t…

b) My family… d) Have you seen…?

e) I am…

Вариант 2, 9

The universities in Britain

There are more than forty universities in Britain. By 1970 about 10% of men aged eighteen to twenty-one were in universities – and about 4% women.

All British universities are private institutions. Each has its own gevorning council. The state began to give grants to them fifty years ago. Students have to pay fees and living costs. Most students take jobs in the summer for about six weeks.

Each university has its own syllabuses, and there are some quite important differences between one and another. In general the Bachelor’s degree is given to students who pass examinations at the end of three or four years of study, Bachelor of Arts for history, philosophy, languageand literature, or Bachelor of Science or Commerce or Musoc. The classifications are not the same in all same in all universities, and students do naot normally move from one university to the another during their studies. Bachelors’ degrees are at two levels, Honours and Pass. In some cases the Honours degree1 is given for intensive study and examinations in one, two or perhaps three related subjects, while the Pass (or “General”) degree2 may be somewhat broader. In other cases there is no differernce betwenn Honours and Pass courses, and the Honours degree is given to the students who are more successful in their examinations.

England had no other universities, apart from Oxford and Cambridge, until the nineteenth century. During the nineteenth century, institutions of higher education were founded in most of the biggest industrial towns. For a long time they could not give degrees themselves, but prepared students for the London University examinations. All of them have now achieved independent status, some only since 1945.

(From “Life of Modern Britain”)

II . Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How many universities are there in Britain?

2. How many women were in universities by 1970?

3. Why do most students take jobs in the summer?

4. Who is given the Bachelor’s degree?

5. When is the Honours degree given?

III . Выпишите из текста интернациональные слова.

IV . Определите по суффиксу часть речи:

dominate, domination, homage, justify, kindness, kindly, layer, logical, moneyless, hardly.

V . Выпишите из текста и переведите предложения:

а) с глаголом to have в значении «иметь»;

б) с глаголом в 3-м лице ед. числе настоящем неопределенном времени в страдательном залоге;

в) с глаголом в прошедшем неопределенном времени в страдательном залоге.

VI .Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова:

tap a) The young man stood near the door tapping his foot on the floor impatiently:

b) Who left the taps running?

c) Where is the tap , please?

secure a) The Soviet people feel secure about their future.

b) “Can you secure me two good seats for the concert?”

c) “Are you sure the ladder is secure ?”

page a) What pages have you read in English?

b) Please, take that work and page it…

c) I called him but he didn’t hear, page him, please.

VII. Закончите предложения:

a) He is the best…

b) Was she asked…?

c) They have never been… .

d) Does he study… ?

e) I don’t know… .

Вариант 3, 4

The educational system in Britain

There are more than forty universities in Britain but the names of the most famous institutions are Eton, Oxford and Cambridge; peopledo not always realisewhat place these institutions occupy in the whole educational system. Oxford and Cambridge are universities each having about 10000 students. Eton is a public school, and the best know of the public schools, which, in soite of their name, are not really public at all, but independent and private secondary schools taking boys from the age of thirteen to eighteen years. The public schools in reality form a very small part of the whole system of secondary education; only about one out forty English boys goes to a public school, and one cent of 1500 goes to Eton. Apart from public school there is a complete system of state primary and secondary education. All children must, by law, receive fuul-time education between the ages of five and fifteen. Any child may attend, without paying fees, a school, and the great majority attend such schools. They may continue, still without paying fees, until they are eighteen. Children, who continue at school until they are sixteen can take the examinations for General Certificate of Education at Ordinary Level. This may be taken in any number of subjects. Many, after gaining this certificate, leave school to start training for various careers. Those who stay at school after passing their examinations prepare themselves for an attempt to win a certificate at advance level usually in only three or four subjects. During the last years at school the pupils are almost obliged to specialize in narrow fields.

The academie year begins after summer holidays and is divided into three “terms”.

Day-schools mostly work Mondays to Fridays only, from about 9 a.m. to between 3 and 4 p.m.

(From “Life in Modern Britain”)

II. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. What are the names of the most famous institutions in Britain?
  2. Who studies in Eton?
  3. Who receives full-time education?
  4. How old are children who take examinations for the “General Certificate of Education”?
  5. How many “term” is the academic year divided into?

III . Выпишите из текста интернациональные слова.

IV. Определите по суффиксу часть речи:

likely, buyer, chamber, characteristic, devotion, active, equipment, fruitfully, gaily.

V . Выпишите из текста и переведите предложения:

а) с оборотом there is (are);

б) с причастием I (Participle I);

в) с модальным глаголом must

VI . Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова:

change a) “You’ve change since I last saw you!” I said to my friend.

b) Let us go this way for a change.

c) Can you give me some change?

finger a) There are five fingers on each hand.

b) I forbid you to lay a finger on the boy.

impression a) What were your first impressions of Kiev?

b) It’s my impression that he does not want to read this book.

c) Fifty impressions of this book were sold yesterday.

man a) When I entered the room I saw a man and a woman there.

b) Your friend is a man of character, isn’t he?

c) Does that man of straw help against birds?

VII. Закончите предложение:

a) Can you …?

b) You mustn’t….

c) Has she …?

d) We didn’t…

e) They are….

Вариант 4, 7

The working of the house of commons1

As a hundred years ago government in Britain is called “parlamentary government”. It was true to say that the ministers held office only for so long as they continued to be supported by a majority in the House of Commons.

The two Houses of Parliament, the Lords and the Commons, share the same building, the Palace of Westminster. The present buildings of the Palace were erected between 1840 and 1852 to replace older buildingswhich had destroyed by fire in 1834.

The Commons occupy the north part of the Palace, the Lords the south end. The part of the Palace of Westminster induces some hundreds of rooms, among which are library, restaurants, committee rooms and so on. Ministers have offices for themselves within the Palce of Westmoinster, but ordinary members do not.

The Commons debating chamber is usually called “The House”. It has seats for only about 370 of its total membership of over 600. Members do not have special seats. The shape and arrangement of the House are of great political significance. It is rectangular, with the Speaker’s chair at one end, and with five rows of benches running down one side along its whole length, and fiverows on the side so that the rows of benches face each other across the floor…

Members of the House of Commons have received salaries since 1911.

Each chamber has galleries, parts of which are kept for the use of the public. The beginning of a day’s businnes is at 2.30 p.m. The office of the Speaker has a special importance. The choice of a new Speaker is made by a vote of the House.

The House of Commons meets every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at 2.30 in the afternoon, and normally sits until 10.30 p.m. A light at the top clock tower, where the famous Big Ben strikes is kept on for so long as the House is sitting.

1 House of Commons – палата общин

II . Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. How is government in Britain called?
  2. What is the building the Lords and the Commons share?
  3. When was the fire in London?
  4. Whenn is the beginning of a day’s business?
  5. What is the sign that the House is sitting?

III . Выпишите из текста интернациональные слова.

IV .Определите по суффиксу часть речи и переведите слова на русский язык:

moralist, moralize, morality, mainly, nomination, offensive, offender, quantity, tasteless, ready

V . Выпишите из текста предложения, иллюстрирующие:

а) прошедшее неопределенное время, страдательный залог (3-е лицо ед. числа);

б) причастие I;

в) настоящее совершенное время.

VI . Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова:

absence a) Who knows the reason of Pete’s absence from school?

b) The boy often forgot his books at home because of his absence of mind .

c) Cold is the absence of heat.

bed a) I suppose, you have time to make the bed .

b) Go to bed’s it’s high time to do it.

c) There was a wonderful flowerbed before the house.

ask a) May I ask you a question?

b) He always asks after your sister’s health.

c) This task asks for your special attention.

VII. Закончите предложения:

a) I am to …

b) Can you…

c) You may…

d) She has done …

e) Are you…?

Вариант 5, 6

Theatres, concerts, festivals and cinema

The theatre is mainly concentrated in London, where there are at least forty theatres functioning, and a successful play can continue to be shown for many month or even years. Outside London a few large towns have theatres in which are performed, generally for one weeek at a time, plays which take a trial run befor opening in London.

Orchestral concerts are given regularly in London by several first-class orchestraswhich are based there. The largest provincial centers also maintain permanent orchestras, which give regular concerts. Seasons of opera are performed at the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, in central London, and also of balllet by the Royal Ballet, “Festivals” of the arts take place in several towns, of which the best known is the annual International Festival of Music and Drama in Endinburgh.

From about 1930 until very recent times the cinema became very popular in Britain. More recently the rapid spread of television has brought a great change. In 1946 the average British person went to the cinema forty times in the yaer, but by 1966 the figure had fallen to six, and 1500 cinema were closed. Most films shown are from Hollywood, but some.

Britich films have won great international success. French and other foreign language fiilms are usually showm with English sub-titles.

(From “Life in Modern Britain”)

II. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. Where is the theatre concentrated?
  2. Where are plays performed except London?
  3. What kind of orchestras gave their concerts in London?
  4. When did the cinema become very popular?
  5. Why were 1500 cinemas closed?

III . Выпишите из текста интернациональные слова.

IV . Определите по суффиксу часть речи:

spiteful, quite, newly, music, native, limitary, kingdom, indifferently

V . Выпишите из текста и переведите предложения, в которы глагол употребляется в настоящем и прошедшем совершенном времени в действительном залоге.

VI . Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова:

cap : a) Does he wear a cap or hat?

b) Where is the cap of that box, I wonder?

cloud a) Clouds of dust covered the grass and it became of grey colour.

b) His face clouded when he heard the news.

c) He is not attentive today: he is in the clouds .

knife a) Don’t give the child a knife .

b) Children were playing a good knife and fork after that long waik.

c) The boy disappeared befor he could say knife.

VII. Закончите предложения:

a) You could…

b) I have to …

c) She is to …

d) Has he…?

e) They haven’t…

Контрольная работа №2

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №2, вам необходимо проработать по учебнику английского языка следующий грамматический материал:

  1. Конструкция going to + инфинитив;
  2. Конструкция used to + инфинитив;
  3. Употребление модальных глаголов со сложными формами инфинитива;
  4. Конструкция дополнение + инфинитив или причастие I;
  5. Конструкция глаголов в пассиве + инфинитив;
  6. Причастие I и II. Причастные обороты;
  7. Страдательный залог;
  8. Словообразование;
  9. Технические сокращения;
  10. Термин и способы его выражения;
  11. Особенности перевода свободных словосочетаний, фразеологических единиц;
  12. Неологизмы. Профессионализмы. Абревиатуры;
  13. Денежные единицы. Меры веса и длины.

Вариант 1

1. Переведите текст .

Transport and delivery terms

Multimodal (Door to Door) transport is wide-spread in shipping now. It involves a transfer of the goods from one mode of transport to another.

Traditionally, the ship’s rail was considered the critical point of responsibility, that is when all risks of loss or damage are transferred from one party to the other. Now it is no longer the ship’s rail but the port terminal which may be such a point. In sea port areas the goods are put into containers, on pallets or aboard the ship.

The main carrier often prefers to assume through responsibility for the cargo he carries. In a through movement of the goods a combined transport document is issued instead of a traditional Bill of Lading.

Like a traditional Bill of Lading it is a receipt for the consignment.

But instead of ports of shipment and discharge it shows the place of delivery and receipt. The new system of multimodal shipment in international trade is reflected in the International Commercial Terms (Incoterms 1980).

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

mode of transport, ship’s rail, critical point of reponsibility, assume responsibility, port of shipment, port of dischrge, risk of loss, risk of damage, fullil obligations, meet the requirements, marine insurance, insurance premium.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы .

importsnce, impotant, growth, selfless, assistance, achievement, cooperation, insurance, shipment, carrier, insured, discharge, responsibility, terminal, carriage.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Я старалась много работать, чтобы не думать о том что случилось.

b) Я сказала вам всю правду. Мне нечего от вас скрывать.

c) Мы обогащаем свои знания, читая книги.

d) Мы обсуждаем статью, написанную вами.

e) Отправленная телеграмма была подписана директором.

f) Они не заметили, как он вошел в кабинет.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I now that he will take part in the discussion.

b) Ann knows that the lecture will take place on Monday.

c) Mike hopes that his friend will help him.

d) The children know that the Earth goes round the sun.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) Traditionally, the ship’s rail was considered the critical point of responsibility, that is when all risks of loss or damage are transferred from one party to the other.

b) Packing goods for export is a highly specialized job.

c) FOB Aiport is based on the same main principle as the ordinary FOB term.

d) FOB means “Free on Board”. The goods are placed on board a ship by the seller at a port of shipment named in the sales contract.

Вариант 2

1. Переведите текст .

How to manage the managers

The Low on Enterprise resently enacted by the Government must help create a relationship when a factory manager and his work collective b ecome parters. Management and employees must be equally interested in the fruite of their labour.

In a result-oriented management the key thing is not to issue instructions but to get results. That is why a manager’s pay should increase. If the productions plan is not met, then a manager must be penalized along with the workers he supervises. About 40 or 50 per cent of a manager’s monthly pay should depend on the end result of the enterptise. If the result is poor and a manager doesn’t get the full pay for a few months running he must leave his office. New people schould come instead. It’ll be a naturel selection of a managerial staff when people with better knowledge, more expertise and truly original thinking will come to management.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

delegate responsibilities, decision-making, cross-communication, long-range planning, midde management, managerial staff, result-oriented management, manager’s pay, the end result of the enterprise, top management, a comparative basis, equal partners.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

recently, government, relationship, partner, manager, managemant, performance, instruction, collective, interested, production, produced, running, monthly.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Дорога, которая должна соединить эти два города, строится.

b) Мы должны много работать, чтобы овладеть английским.

c) Я имел удовольствие знать его лично.

d) Он не любил, когда на него смотрели.

e) Посмотрев журналы, он отдал их Майклу.

f) Эта новость обрадовала меня.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) The director says to him that he must charter a steamer of 8000tons.

b) I know that he will work at his new book new book next year.

c) I think that we shall do this work next week.

d) I nottice that he makes progress in his Englich.

e) I know that he is going to the cinema now.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The insured is better protected if his goods are insured against all risks.

b) The goods are placed on board a ship by the seller at a port of shi[ment named in the sales contract.

c) The risk of loos of or damage to the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail.

d) They said this book had been published by the end of the month.

Вариант 3

1. Переведите текст.

Force majeure

Force majeure is a force against which you cannot act or fight.

Every contract has a force mejeure clause. It usually includes natural disasters such as an earthquake, floods, fire, ect. It can also list such contingencies as war, embargo, sanctions. Along with this there are some other circumstances beyond the Seller’s control. The Seller may find himself in a situation when he can’t fulfil his obligation under the Contract. It may happen if there is a general strike in the country, a strike of coal-miners, transport workers ect. Production may be suspended if there is a shortage of the energy supply. When negotiating a contract a list of contingencies must be agreed on and put into the Contract.

When a manager makes up a contract he must not think only of his on-sided interest. He must think in terms of common interest with his counterpart. Only then will he prove loyal to his partner.

In case of a contingency the Seller must notify the Buyers of a force majeure. The Article of the Contract to this effect may run: “Should the Seller fail to notify the Buyer of a contingency the Seller is denied a right to refer to these circumstances”. The Seller is to nitify the Buyer of a contingency right away. If it’s done in due time the Buyer may take immediate action to protect his interest. He way sing a contract with another supplier on similar terms or if it’s impossible he will secure the besr possible terms he can have at the moment. If prices are rising he will be quick to act and will do everything possible to negotiate the best ptice obtainable at the moment.

A force majeure must be a proven fact. The Seller is to submit to the Buyer a written confirmation issued by the Chamber of Commerce to this effect. The certificate testifies that a contingency really took place. It describes its nature and confirms its dutayion.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

negotiate a contract, claim compensation, force-majeure, partial fulfillment, a proven fact, a written confirmation, a contingency right, the fact of contingency the after-effects, insurance company, a force majeure clause, a general strike, shortage of the energy supply, a list of contingencies, common interest.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

usually, disaster, contingency, sanction, circumstances, situation, obligation, suspended, production, manager, buyer, action, testify, fulfill ment.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Статья, которая будет обсуждаться завтра, написана нашим профессором.

b) Поздно спорить об этом. Уже ничего нельзя изменить.

c) Мне не нравиться его манера чтения.

d) Надеюсь, вы не возражаете, если ей все скажут

e) Доктор, за которым послали, жил в сосоедней дереыне.

f) Никак не ожидали, что холода наступят так рано.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I know that he translated the article an hour ago.

b) I think that he will play hockey tomorrow.

c) Peter says that she will bring her coin collection.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) In a through movement of the goods a combined transport document is issued of a traditional Bill of Lading.

b) The new system of multimodal shipment in international trade had been reflected in the International Commercial Terms last year.

c) Free Carrier…This term has been designed to meet the requirements of modern transport, particularly such “multimodal” transport as container or “roll on roll off” traffic by trailers and ferries.

d) They should only be used when the goods are to be carried by rail.

Вариант 4

1. Переведите текст.

Green management

Companies that to be green make large investments in cleaner tehnology. Big profitable companies find it easier to be green than small ones. Many small companies are not obeying environmental rules.

Companies that take the environment seriously try to change not only their technology, but the way they run themselves, too. Often, such changes go hand in hand with improvements in the quality of management.

Badly managed companies are seldom kind to the environment; companies that try hard to reduce the damage do to the environment are usually well managed.

A clever manager cares about employees and product quality. Yt may spend a lot of time and money working on health safety and the environment. If employees see that their manager cares about environment they come up with green ideas of their own. Many companies find that their shop-floor employees (who may live nearer their plants than do managers) and their younger, graduate managers are the strongest advocates of greenery.

In some industries the pressure to be green is changing links between companies and their customers. Some companies now offer to take back the waste product from their customers and clean it up.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

waste product, shop-floor employee, cleaner tehnology, profitable companies, environmental rules, to go hand in hand, the quality of management, well managed, health safety, green idea, the strongest advocates of greenery, to build links with eachother, green regulation.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

investment, cleaner, profitable, tehnology, environmental, environmental, environment, seriously, manager, management, hazardous, resysle, customer, changing, greenery.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Читать книги при плохом освещении вредно.

b) Он слишком устал, чтобы продолжать путь.

c) Они шли быстро, не останавливаясь на отдых.

d) Закончив опыт, они обсуждали результаты.

e) Мы видели, как он шел по противоположной стороне улицы.

f) Они сидели, разговаривая о планах на будущее.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I know that he goes to the cinema every day.

b) I think that he will be working at this book all the day round.

c) The teacher says that he is pleased with our work.

d) My uncle writes that he will come to visit us in May.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The term “Delivered Duty Paid” may be used irrespective of the mode of ttransport.

b) Time to market can be shortened very significantly.

c) Management control is improved and tightened with betterinformation aiding major decision-making.

d) The Seller in his turn is entitled to make a ckaim on his counterpart if the Buyer fails to meet his contractual obligations.

Вариант 5

1. Переведите текст .

What my be the grounds for complaint coming from the Seller and what are the ways of settlement?

The Seller in his turn is entitled to make a claim on his connterpart if the Buver fails to meet his contractual obligations.

The Seller may inflict penalties on the Buyer if there is a default in payment.

In an f.o.b. transaction the Seller is entitled to compensation for extra storage expenses if the Buyer’s vessel bound to pick up the goods fails to call at the port in time.

In a c.i.f. transaction the Seller may claim the demurrage if his own vessel stays idle at the port awaiting unloading.

The demurrage claims may emerge from the Buyer as well if a Contract is signed on f.o.b. terms of delivery. If it is a c.i.f. contract, the Buyer is liable to extra storage expenses when through the Seller’s fault he cannot clear the goods from the customs within the allowable period.

Financially, legitimate claims are in large part settled by debit or credit notes.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

breach of contract, make a claim on smb., statement of claim, survey report, meet the claim, decline the claim, settle the xlaim, clean bill of lading, retain the goods, allowance for damage, agreed and liquidated damages, compensate smb. for smth., at someone’s expense, through smb’s fault, clear the goods, debit note, credit note.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

seller, entitled, coming, settlement, complaint, transaction, contractual, unloading, liable, allowable, financially, demurrage, delivery.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Сообщалось, в этот район была послана большая группа строителей.

b) Было обнаружено, что вода этого озера пресная.

c) Интересно, что заставило его уйти так быстро.

d) Он показал нам журналы, полученные библиотекой.

e) Просить его об этом было бесполезно.

f) Вот письмо, которое надо отправить немедленно.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I am surprised that she lives in the same house.

b) He thinks that he lost the money.

c) The teacher says that he is pleased with our work.

d) We knew that he is liaving for the country.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The Seller in his turn is entitled to make a claim on his counterpart.

b) Sometimes if deviation in quality is within certain limits the goods can be retained but with an allowans proportionate to the discrepancy in quality.

c) The Seller has also a full right to decline a clain if the goods are disorderly stored, mishandled or misused by the Buyer.

d) A force majeure must be a proven fact.

Вариант 6

1. Переведите текст.

What are the ways of settling a claim?

In case ofv short-weight it is recompensed by a load sent separately or at the of follow-up shipments. In a case of damage or fauls, the goods at the Buyer’s option can be repaired or replaced, all at the Seller’s expense.

Sometimes if deviation in quality is within certain limits the goods can be retained but with an allowace proportionate to the discrepancy in quality. This is usually the case with raw materials, foodstuffs or any other goods sent in bulk.

If the goods are missing the Seller must necessarily locate them. Sometimes it is quite a problem as consignments may be lost when transshipped at some intermediate port or if sent at a wrong address. If the goods are not recovered compensation must be paid by the party directly responsible for it.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

offer without obligation, goods-in-transit insurance, marine insurance, documentary evidence, missing goods, admit a claim, counter claim, withdraw a claim, expert’s report, inspection report, surveyor’s report, make repairs, reject a claim.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

exemination, inspection, surveyor, failure, evidece, defective, counter, damaged, withdrawn, arbitrator, documantary.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Дорога, которая должна соединить эти два города, строится.

b) Он первым поднял этот вопрос.

c) При списывании текста, он сделал несколько ошибок.

d) Я понимал, почему он избегает говорить об этом.

e) В комнатенесколько сломанных стульев.

f) Я чувствовал, что кто-то идет за мной.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) She doesn’t know the teacher will explain this rule at the next lesou.

b) The student explain to them that they want to attend his lecture.

c) We don’t suppose that they can come across each other in this city.

d) I think you can meet him there.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The results will be reffered to in the next chapter.

b) Their achierments were not spoken about at the conference.

c) In a dispute between the Buyer and the Seller not only the fact of a confegency is to be ascertained.

d) If is proved the Seller is not liable and the execution of a contract is poslponed until all the after-effects causing damage are eliminated.

Вариант 7

1. Переведите текст.

What is the claim procedure?

The Buyer must write a statement of claim and mail it to the Seller together with the supporting documents. Bill of Lading, Airway and Railway Bill, Survey Report, Quality Certificate may serve as documentary evidence. If necessary, drawings, photos, samples are enclosed as proofs of claims.

The date of a compliant is the date on which it is mailed.

Claims ean be lodged during a certain oeriod of time, which is usually fixed in a Contract.

During the claim period the Seller is to enquire into the case and communicate his reply. He either meets the claim or declimes it.

The Seller declines liability if the B/L is “clean”, that is the shipping comppany hasn’t made any remarks about the quantity or condition of the cargo shipped.

The Seller has also a full right to decline a claim if the goods are disorderly stored, miscandlind or misused by the Buyer.

If a claim has a legiyimate ground behind it the parties try to settle it amicably.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

a statement of claim, supporting documents, Bill of Lading, Airway Bill, Railway Bill, Survey Report, Quality Certificate, documentary evidence, a proof of claim, the date of a complaint, to lodge a claim, claim compensation, negotiate a contract, the duration of a force mejeure.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

During, communicate, shipped, disorderly, legitimate, amicably, enclosed? supporting, statement, lodged, enquiry, usually, fixed, shipping, unusually, documentary.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Эта новость обрадовала меня.

b) Надеюсь, что вы напишите мне.

c) Вряд ли его можно заставить сделать что-либо, если он этого не захочет.

d) Полагают, что эта статья будет опубликована в следующем месяце.

e) Открыв дверь, он подождал немного и вошел в комнату.

f) Я имел удовольствие знать его лично.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) Do you knon that he is going to publish his new book?

b) We decide that when winter comes, we shall ski and skate every Sunday.

c) I believe the weather will be fine to tomorrow.

d) I hope that you are happy to see your brother again.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The Seller has a full right to decline a claim if the goods are disorderly stored, mishandled or misused by the Buyer.

b) A force majeure must be a proven fact. The Seller is to submit to the Buyer a written confirmation by the Chamber of Commerce to this effect.

c) The question was being discussed from 9 to 11.

Вариант 8

1. Переведите текст.

Insurance of goods

The export trade is subject to many risks. Ships may sink or collide; cinsignments may be lost or damaged. All sensible businessmen now insure goods for the full vakue. The idea of insurance is to obtain indemnity in case of damage or loss. Insurance is against risk.

While goods are in a warehouse, the insurance covers the rosk of fire, burglary, etc.

As soon as the goods are in transit they are insured against pilferage, damage by water, breakage or leakage. Other risks may also be covered.

The unsured is better protected if his goods are insured against all risks. The goods may be also covered general and particular average.

In the insurance business the word average means loss.

Particular average refers to risks affecting only one shipper’s consigment.

General average refers to a loss incurred by one consignor but shared by all the other consignors who use the same vessel on the same voyage.

Soviet foreign trade organizations in most cases take out insurance with Ingosstrakh. Goods may be insured as well with some other insurance companies which have recently appearers in the USSR.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

Insurance indemmty, particular average, general everage, incur losses, incure goods, make up a contract, force-mejeure, assume responsibility, meet the requiremeuts, port of discharge, port of shippment, marine insurance, on board a ship, insurance premium, fulfil obligations, risk of loss or damage, mode of transport, critical point of responsibility.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

Consignment, damaged, sensible, insurance, indemnity, leakage, breakage, covered, particular, affecting, shipper, affecting, average, protected, documentary, carrier, requirement, obligation, packing.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Чувствуя себя плохо, он решил пойти к врачу.

b) Мы приветствуем ранний приход весны.

c) Термометр – это прибор, который показывает температуру.

d) Предполагают, что студенты сделают эту работу.

e) Дети гордились тем, что их пригласили на вечер учительского клуба.

f) Он, должно быть, все еще читает

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I suppose that he is drawing a picture.

b) We know that he will come after he has finished his work.

c) She says the car will have gone a long way by eleven o’clock.

d) I think that you will write to me if II go away.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) A liar is belived by nobody.

b) He is said to read a lot.

c) The equipment and spare parts are to be shipped in export sea packing meeting the requirements of each particular type of equioment.

d) Packing goods for export is a highly specialized job.

Вариант 9

1. Переведите текст.

Computers as tools for marketing

Since 1975 the personal computer (PC) has changed the world of business. In the past, the slide ruler, adding machine, the telegraph, the telephone, the hand calculator and airplane each greatly affected the way business is done. Today the computer has began to greatly the marketing field.

Computer programmes are now available for collecting assessing and anayzing date even projecting or predicting the future based upon current trends. Some programmes have been developted that can simulate potential market conditions so that marketers can pretest strategies. These are mostly experimental but with a very short time they will be as commonly available as the PC’s are today.

With the use of telephone modems, connected to PC’s and computer printers and data base marketers today can assess information about any market, segment of a market, even a specific buyer anywhere in the world right from their own office.

Computer software is now avilable to write data collecting questionnairs, job interveiw forms, analyse advertising media effectiveness, sales and marketing management, create graphas and charts for analyss of market trends.

Some US companies in specific marketing areas of consumer goods, forest products, mining products and capital equipment plan for the future up to 50 years by forecasting trends in possible and probable long-term marketing conditions.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

Slide ruler, personal computer, adding machine, the world of business, telephone modem, potential market, current trend, segment of a market, software support, training and maintenance services, leading organization, associated products, a computerassisted modelling of a market, marketing manager, executive work, effective tool for marketing.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

Connected, printer, information, ruler, unchauged, calculator, adding, greatly, analyzing, undeveloped, experimentally, available, effectiveness, questionnary, management, specific, organization.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Придя домой, он цвидел своих друзей.

b) Я знаю о его делах.

c) Я пошла в библиотеку для того, чтобы прочитьать статью.

d) Мы настаивали на том, чтобы собрание отложили.

e) Контрольные обычно пишуться в конце семестра.

f) Работа, сделанная им, очень важна.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) We expect that the machine will work well.

b) We know that Lommonosov discoved the atmospehere on Venus.

c) It is known that television has both adventages and disadvantages.

d) It is thought that this problem has benn solved by our seientists.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The artucles hadn’t been looked through by the end of the week.

b) This work will be finisged tomorrow.

c) CIF mians “Cost, Insurance and Freight”. This term is basically the same as CLF but with the addition that the seller has to procure marine insurance against the risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

d) “Delivered at Frontier” means that the seller’s obligations are fulfilled when the goods have arrived at the frontier but before “the customs border” of the country named in the seles contract.

Вариант 10

1. Переведите 2 текст a.

Freight Carriage Paid to

Like C & F “Freight or Carriage pai to…” means that the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. However, the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, is transferred from the seller to the buyer whan the goods have been delivered into the custody of the first carrier and at the ship’s rail. It can be used for all modes of transport including multimodal operations and container or roll on-roll off traffic by trailers and ferries. When the Seller has to furnish a bill of lading, waybill or carrier’s receit, he duly fulfills this obligation by presenting such a document issued by the person with whom he has contracted for carriage to the named destination.

Freight Carriage and Insurance Paid To

This term is the same as “Freight or Carriage Paid to …” but with the addition that the seller has to procure transport insurance against the risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts with the insurer and pays the insurance premium.

2. Выпишите из текста термины.

3. Переведите на русский язык сочетания слов:

EX-works, FRC-Free carrier…named point, FOR/FOT-Free on Rail/Track, FOA-FOB Airport, FAS-Free alonside ship, FOB-Free on Board, Freght/Carriage paid to, CIF-Cost, Insurance, ExShip, Ex Quay, DAF-Delivered at Frontier, DDP-Delivered Duty Paid, critical point ofresponsibility, CFR-C and F-Cost and Freight.

4. Найдите в словах префиксы и суффиксы

Meaning, seller, destination, derivery, undelivered, documentary,insurance, presenting, container, multimodal, carrier, named, addition, procure, carriage, insurer, issued, fulfillment, obligation.

5. Переведите предложения, повторив предварительно неличные формы глагола.

a) Вы должны много работать, чтобы овладеть английским.

b) Трудно вставать рано утром.

c) Мы обогащаем свои знания, читая книги.

d) Я не возражаю, когда меня критикуют, если это справедливо.

e) Отправленная телеграмма была подписана директором.

f) Никто не заметил, как они вошли.

6. Поставьте глагол главного предложения в Past Simple и внесите соответствующие изменения в придаточное предложение (правило согласования времен).

a) I know that he will go to the cinema next Sunday.

b) I know that he will have been working on the book for 2 years by the beginning of 1999.

c) Ann says that she comes to our meeting.

d) My uncle writes that he comes to us in May.

7. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на страдательный залог.

a) The goods are placed on board a chip by the seller at a port of shipment named in the sales contract.

b) Traditionally the ship’s rail was considered the critical point of responsibility, that is when all risks of loss damage are transferred from one party to the other.

c) The new system of multymodal shipment in international trade is reflected in the International Commercial Terms.

d) If it is proved the Seller is not liable and execution of a contract is postponed until all the after-effects causing damage are eliminated.

Комплект тестовых заданий

Введение

Комплект тестовых заданий предназначен для контроля знаний студентов по дисциплине «Английский язык» по разделам: «Грамматика», «Чтение», «Лексика». Тестовые задания разработаны в соответствии с действующей на СТФ рабочей программой дисциплины и могут быть использованы для итогового контроля знаний студентов по дисциплине на I-III курсах соответственно.

Таблица 25

Информация о количестве тестовых заданий

№ темы

Наименование темы

Кол-во

заданий

1

Глаголы be и to have

2

2

Артикль

2

3

Местоимения

5

4

Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

3

5

Наречия

2

6

Предлоги

4

7

Вопросительные предлржения

3

8

Модальные глаголы

3

9

Условные предложения

2

10

Времена английского глагола

13

11

Чтение

2 курс

1

Имя существительное.

2

2

Артикль

1

3

Местоимения.

5

4

Средства усиления сравнительной степени. Прилагательные another, other и the other

2

5

Наречие.

2

6

Глагол

12

Продолжение таблицы 25

7

Структура предложения.

4

8

Конструкция сложное дополнение.

2

9

Неличные формы глагола

б

10.

Выражение будущего времени в условных придаточных предложениях

3

11

Чтение. Прочитать тексты и понять содержание

1

3 курс

1

Видо-временные формы глагола в действтельном и страдательном залоге.

45

2

Косвенный вопрос

6

3

Степени сравнения прилпгптельных

3

4

Притяжительный падеж существительных

2

5

Безличные предложения

3

6

Неличные формы глагола

6

7

Чтение. Текст

10

Критерии оценки результатов тестирования

Таблица 26

Доля правильных ответов,%

Оценка

Менее 55%

Неудовлетворительно

От 55 до 70%

Удовлетврительно

От 71 до 85%

Хорошо

Свыше 85%

Отлично

Рекомендации для студентов по выполнению тестовых заданий.

В течении 40 минут студенты должны выполнить тестовые задания для I и II курса. Тестовые задания дня III курса выполняются 80 минут.

В лексаико-грамматических тестовых заданиях вы должны напротив правильного ответа поставить знак «+». Тест на понимание содержания текста прочитать и выбрать правильный ответ, поставив знак «+» напротив буквы с правильным ответом. В тесте №1 для студентов III курса в первом тестовом задании необходимо вместо цифр поставить в правильной видо-временной форме, стоящей в скобках глагол. Например; 1 -waved.

1 Oranges. Cabbage, and green lettuce________rich In vitamin C/

A) has

B) have

C) is

D) are

2 The news he told us________interesting.

A) was

B) were

C) be

D) are

3 ____beef Is kind of_____meat.

A) The, the

B) A, the

C) The, -

D) -, -

4 Did you tell ____ not to buy that car?

A) he

B) him

C) himself

D) his

5 Friends are people______close to us.

A) who is

B) who are

C) which is

D) which are

6 No letters again! _____ has written to me for a month.

A) anybody

B) somebody

C) some

D) nobody

7 What is the ______ important invention in the twentieth century?

A) much

B) more

C) most

D) much more

8 This bank of the river isn't_______that one.

A) more beautiful

B) beautiful

C) so beautiful

D) so beautiful as

9 You look much ___ today.

A) good

B) better

C) the best

D) best

10 I got two letters. One was from my father. _____ was from my girl-friend.

A) the other

B) another

C) others

D) the others

11 His leg was hurt and he could________walk.

A) hard

B) hardly

C) heavy

D) heavily

12 I'd like to ask you ________ questions.

A) very little

B) a little

C) a few

D) little

13 My father has lived in Japan__________five years.

A) at

B) on

C) in

D) for

14 I'll be on vacation_______next week.

A) On

B)-

C) at

D) the

15 He _______ her he was tired.

A) said

B) told

C) told

D)spoke

16 On a typical day, the average person_______about 48000 words. How many words did you speak today?

A) spoke

B) was speaking

C) speaks

D) is speaking

17. It______ since early morning.

A) rained

B) rains

C) had rained

D) has been raining

18. 1'm afraid____five minuts ago.

A) leaves

B) left

C) is leaving

D) has left

19. While I____ home, it began to rain.

A) walked

B) was walking

C) walk

D) had walked

20. _____Steve_____ Ann the other day?

A) has, seen

B) does, see

C) did, see

D) will, see

21. I___him since 1990.

A) have known

B) know

C) knew

D) had known

22 Until yesterday I _________ about it.

A) never heard

B) had never heard

C) was never heard

D) have never heard

23. Children ______ by special instructors how to swim.

A) ave taught

B) had taught

C) are taught

D) teach

24. What are you laughing __________?

A) on

B) at

C) over

D) above

25 I'm really angry_____you!

A) With

B) About

C) on

D) over

26 _____you do me a favour?

A) may

B) should

C) can

D) need

27 It was so late that I____take a taxi

A) was able

B) саn

C) must

D) had to

Тестовое задание на понимание содержания текста. Прочитать текст. Понять его содержание. Отметить знаком

«+» правильный ответ.

In the United States Julia Howe suggested the idea of Mother's Day in 1872. Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia is credited with bringing about the official observance of Mother's Day. But when she died in 1948, at the age of 84, Jarvis had become a woman of great ironies. Never a mother herself, her maternal fortune dissipated by her efforts to stop the commercialization of the holiday she had founded, Jarvis told a reporter shortly before her death that she was sorry she had ever started Mother's Day. She spoke these words in a nursing home where every Mother's Day her room had been filled with cards from all over the world.

Перед смертью Анна Джарвис говорила о том, она:

А) рада, что праздник «День Матери:» существует.

B) Счастлива, что люди помнят о ней как об инициаторе празднования «Дня Матери»,

C) Сожалеет, что подала идею празднования «Дня Матери».

D) Сожалеет, что ей самой не посчастливилось стать матерью.

Ответы к заданиям:

1.D; 2.А; 3. D; 4.В; S.B; 6.D; 7.С; 8.D; 9,В; 10.А; 1LB;

12.С; 13.D; 14В; 15.С; 16.С; 17.D; 18.В; 19.В;20.С;21.А;

22.В; 23.С; 24В; 25.А; 26.С; 27.D; 28.С; 29.D; 30.D; 31.С;

32.С; ЗЗ.А; 34С; 35,D; 36,D; 37.C; 38.D; 39.В; 40.С.

Тест на проверку остаточных знаний студентов

II курса , СП. 080110

II. Программный материал по английскому языку для студентов II курса:

Имя существительное. Множественное число существительное.

Притяжательный падеж. Исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные. Существительные, образованные по правилу, и исключения.

Артикль. Основные случаи употребления определенного и неопределенного артикля. Употребление существительных без артикля.

Местоимение. Личные, притяжательные. Вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные, возвратные местоимения. Местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные.

Прилагательное, Степени сравнения прилагательных, образованные по правилу, а также исключения. Средства усиления сравнительной степени. Прилагательные another, other и их производные,

Наречие. Степени сравнения наречий. Наречия many, much few, little и их производные. Числительные: количественные, порядковые.

Предлог. Предлоги места, направления, времени и их отсутствие.

Глагол. Правильные и неправильные глаголы. Образование и употребление настоящих, прошедших и будущих времен действительного залога. Образование и употребление настоящих, прошедших и будущих времен страдательного залога. Способы выражения будущего времени. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Обороты be used to и used to. Устойчивые сочетания и фразовые глаголы. Глаголы make, do, wish. Инфинитив, герундий, первое и второе причастия.

Структура предложения, безличные предложения. Типы вопросов и ответы на них. Структура типа So Do I. Повелительные предложения. Косвенная речь. Выражение будущего времени в придаточных предложениях времени. Придаточные дополнительные предложения. Сложноподчиненные предложения с союзами, Прямая и косвенная речь. Конструкция «сложное дополнение». Условные предложения всех типов.

Варианты тестовых заданий.

Лексико-грамматический тест.

Множественный выбор. Отметить правильный ответ знаком «+».

1 The English _____ strong traditions.

A) have many

B) have much

C) has many

D) has much

2 _____ President of_______United States lives in________White House in__________Washington D.C.

A) -, the, the, -

B) -, the,- the

C) -. -. The, the

D) the, the, The, -

3 Learner drivers arte not allowed to drive by______.

A) Them

B) Themselves

C) they

D) theirs

4 They can't have_____more strawberries. I want________to make jam.

A) some, any

B) no, some

C) any, any

D) any, some

5 I work for Mr. Anderson every_______Sunday.

A) Other

B) another

C) the other

D) others

6 She made the soup by mixing________ meat with some rice.

A) Little

B) a little

C) few

D) a few

7 I have my English class__________Monday morning.

A) In

B) At

C) for

D) on

8. ________breakfast yet? - Yes, I______.

A) did you have, have

B) had you had, have

C) have you had, have

D) do you have, had

9. I______a new car last week, but I_______ my old car yet, so I now

A) bought, haven't sold

B) buy, don’t sell

C) have bought, sold

D) had bought, didn't sell

10. I _________ all the questions since I began working ой this test

A) am answering

B) answer

C) have answered

D) had answered

11. I was late. The teacher________ a test when I ________to class.

A) has already given, got

B) had already given, got

C) has already given, get

D) was already giving, get

12 Tomorrow at this time, I_________ school

A) will attend

B) will have been attending

C) will have attended

D) will be attending

13. I_____ very busy lately.

A) was

B) was being

C) had been

D) have been

14. George______Lisa.

A) has bees married with

B) marries with

C) is married to

D) Is married with

15. The new highway_________sometime next month.

A) Completed

B) completes

D) will complete

C) will be completed

16 You have a passport if you want to travel abroad.

A) have to

B) can

C) may

D) might

17 Have you heard anything from Ted? Is he still in Africa? – He_________be, or he____ be on his way home. I'm just not sure,

A) could, must

B) must, could

C) could, could

D) must, must

18. Paul should_______"thank you" to you when you gave him a gift.

A) Say

B) have said

C) has said

D) said

19. I ______ with my family, but now I live alone.

A) am used to live

B) used to live

C) used to living

D) was used to live

20 What time does your plane take _______?

A) Off

B) Out

C) to

D) from

21 After faffing his driving test four times, he finally ____ trying to pass.

А) gave in

В) gave off

С) gave away

D) gave up

22. You are always_______excuses for not_____you homework on time.

A) making, making

B) Doing, doing

C) making, doing

D) doing, making

23. I can't speak French. I wish I________.

A) Can

B) Would

C) could

D) had been able

24 The doctor suggested ______ two aspirin.

A) Taking

B) he took

C) to take

D) that he take

25 Don't forget _______me as soon as you_____home.

A) calling, come

B) to call, come

C) calling, will come

D) to call, will come

26 We ail.____ his story as a joke,

A) Thought

B) Intended

C) treated

D) found

27 1 have her business card, but strangely I don't_______her at all.

A) Memorise

B) Remind

C) forget

D) recall

28. _______not any glass in the windows, that is why _______ so could in the room.

A) there is, it is

B) it is, there is

C) there are, it is

D) it was, there is

29.1 have always enjoyed traveling. My sister, ___, prefers to stay home.

A) Although

В) Though

C) however

D)but

30. It____me two hours to drive there last night.

A) Takes

B) Gave

C) needed

D) took

31 Either .John ______ Mary______my book.

A) or, have

B) or, has

C) nor, have

D) and, has

32 The teacher wanted to know whether ________the homework.

A) would I prepare

B) if I prepared

C) I had prepared

D) did I prepare

33 Mary has never been to London,____, she?

A) Has

B) Did

C) hasn't

D) didn't

34. Nothing was stolen,_____?

A) was it

B) wasn't anything

C) wasn't it

D) was anything

35. 1 enjoyed the film last night_______.

A) neither do I

B) neither did I

C) so do I

D) so did I

36. When I________translating the text, I'll go the cinema.

A) will finish

B) will have finished

C) have finished

D) am fini

37. I expected______today.

A) them come

B) they came

C) they come

D) them to come

38. If it _____ raining yesterday, we _____ the game.

A) hadn’t been, would have finished

B) wasn't, will finish

C) weren't, would have finished

D) weren't, would finish

39. How old_______ now if you____born in 1900?

A) will you be, had been

B) would you be, were

C) are you, were

D) would you be, had been

40. Прочитать текст, понять его содержание и отметить правильный ответ.

The Earl of St. Vincent dates back to the 12th century, when it was built as a boarding house for the masons who constructed the church. It was named after a former. Admiral who sailed with Lord Nelson. Lovingly restored by the present owners, it is a most extraordinary pub, filled with antiques and hidden away in the old part of the tiny, picturesque village of Engloshayle, in beautiful North Cornwall, England. North Cornwall is one of the last, unspoilt places in the British Isles to offer the visitor coastal scenery as magnificent and beautiful as anywhere in the world, together with the facilities and hospitality to ensure that you will return time and time again. The Earl of St. Vincent is to be found off the A389 Wadebridge to Bodmin Road.

Close by there are the picturesque harbours of Padstow and Port Isaac, some superb golfing and a great many historic monuments and ancient sites.

Чем привлекает туристов описанный паб? Тем, что:

A) он расположен в доме, где в веке находилась церковь.

B) в доме, где он расположен, жил соратник адмирала Нельсона.

C) до него удобно добираться на автотранспорте.

D) В нем до сих пор сохранился дух сторой Англии

Ответы к заданиям:

1. A; 2.D; З.В; 4.D; 5.А; б. В; 7.D; 8.С; 9.А; 10.С; 11. B;

12. D; 13. D; 14.С; 15.D; 16.A; 17.С; 18.В; 19.B;20.A;21.D;

22. С; 23. С; 24. А; 25. В; 26. С; 27. D; 28.А; 29.С; 30.D; 31.В;

32. С; ЗЗ. А; 34. А; 35. D; 36. С; 37. D; 38. А; 39. D; 40. D

Тест. Не проверку остаточных знаний студентов III курса,

сп . 080110

I. Complete the story by supplying the correct form of the verb.

The manager _____ I (to wave) his hand towards the chair on the other side of the desk and Henry______2 (to tell)_____3 (to take) a seat

"I_____4 (to wait) for a long-distance call from Manchester" – the manager explained. The telephone_____5 (to ring) as he______6 (to speak). The manager________7 (to pick up) the receiver and for some minutes________8 (to speak) rapidly and impatiently into the telephone. Henry_______9 (to wait) till the manager_____10 (to finish) the telephone talk. He _____11 (to wait) rather long, He______12 (to feel) rather upset that the interview, which he_____13 (to dread) for days_____14 (not to begin) at once. By the time the manager______15 (to finish), his secretary already_______16 (to be) in office also_______17 (to wait) for the manager to finish the talk. She______18 (to come) in with a pile of letters.

"I really_____19 (not to keep) you________20 (to wait) much longer", - said the manager apologetically as he_______21 (to pick up) some papers and_____22 (to begin) to read them, - "these______23 (to have)_____24 (to catch) the next post".

By that time Henry already_______25 (to be) so tired and nervous that he thought he ________26 (to find) no voice to speak. He________27 (to pass) the time by_______28 (to examine) the manager's office in detail. Оn his right there was a large window with a view of the factory yard. Henry could see two workmen______29 (to push) a trolley across it. Close to the window there_____30 (to be) a long low table and three chairs________31 (to arrange) around

it. To Henry's left there_______32 (to stand) a bookcase which_____33 (to cover) the greater part of the wall. The shelves_________34 (to cram) with technical journals which Henry thought,________35 (may) at any moment ________36 (to slip) and________37 (to fall) to the floor.

Henry______38 (to finish) his survey of the room and was watching the manager as the latter signed the last paper. He____39 (not to notice) the secretary_______40 (to enter) the room and he rather________41 (to surprise) to see her standtag nearby.

"Now let me______42 (to see)", - the manager said addressing Henry, - "You_____43 (to come) about our advertisement for a clerk, Is that right?" Henry nodded and said: "Yes sir, I'd like to work for your firm as…" – He already______44 (to answer) the ma-nager's questions. His interview________45 (to begin).

To dread (v. reqular) страшиться, опасаться чего-либо

То cram (v. reqular) набивать битком, укладывать вплотную.

II. Make up five questions about the story.

III. Chose the right answer. Only one answer is correct

1. When the police_______the______will have escaped.

A. arrive/thieves

В .arrives/thiefs

С .arrived/thieves

D. has arrived/thiefs

2. Exactly a year ago, I _____ the same еxаm; I hope I _____ this year!

A have taken/succeed

В passed/will succeed

С was taking/succeeded

D took/will succeed

3. "Which do you prefer - the blue vase or the red vase?" - "The blue vase is ________».

A definitely better

В better definitely

С definite better

D better definite

4. "How did you like the lecture?" - "It was_____I had ever listened to".

A a more boring

В the most bored one

С a more bored one

D the most boring one

5. The Dutch and the Chinese were the only foreigners_______living in Japan in the 16th century.

A that

В which

С who

D-

6. "Why don't you call the company back aed ask for that information?" - "I don't know________.

A who I should speak

В who should I speak with

С with whom I should speak

D whom should 1 speak with

7. “Jeff and Bill are mart” - (Yes, but Betty is_____ of the three".

A the smartest

В the smarter

С smartest

D smarter

8. They didn't consult their teacher. They could translate the article________.

A them selves

В by theirselves

С them selves

В theirselves

9. Here are four clocks. One Is an alarm clock,________are wall clocks.

A another

В the others

С others

D other

10. Because of the accident, our meeting was put ______ until оnе o'clock on Monday of next week,

A away

B in

С off

D out

11. How did you like______last night's TV talk show?

A a

B an

С the

D -

12. “The refrigerator is really empty.” – “Yes, all the food ______ eaten”.

A is been

В has been

С have been

D been

13. "How can you stand all this traffic?" - "I _______ at ruch-hour."

A am used to driving

В am used to drive

С used driving

D used to driving

14. Economics _______ as interesting to me as literature.

A doesn't

B are

С isn't

D aren't

15. Knowing many_______useful if you want to find an international job.

A language is

В language are

С languages is

D languages are

16. She took some medicine _____ her headache.

A for

В from

С because

D to

17. Some people In the village are planning to go to town, but _____ are staying home,

A most of people

В many of a number

С many of them

D the most people

18. We were in the station for at least half an hour, waiting________ start.

A for the train

В the train to

С the train's

D for the train, to

19. _________noisy in the room that I could hardly make out anything.

A It was such

В It was so

С there was so

D It was

20. 1 like my_______ dresses.

A sister's s-in-law С sister's-in-law's

В sister's-in-law's D sister's-in-law's

IV. Translate into English

  1. К тому времени, как вы доберетесь до реки, уже стемнеет, и вам придется возвращаться тем же путем, каким вы пришли.
  2. Наступило лето. Во дворе очень тихо. Все дети уехали за город.
  3. Давай останемся дома, пока не прекратится дождь, хорошо?
  4. Они видели, как двое полицейских вошли в дом на другой стороне улицы, и очень удивились, так как в этом доме уже давно никто не живет.
  5. Мама сказала, что преподаватель не рассердится на меня, если я объясню ему, что случилось и почему я опоздала.
  6. Энн больна уже неделю, завтра ее кладут в больницу.
  7. Вам часто приходится отвечать на вопросы студентов, да?

- Это правда, но некоторые вопросы звучат странно.

  1. В сегодняшней газете гораздо меньше новостей, чем в той, что я читал вчера. Сегодня ничего интересного не произошло.
  2. Она ни разу не солгала» с тех пор как я ее знаю. — И ее старшая сестра тоже.
  3. Все удивились, почему в комнате мало мебели: там был лишь стол и несколько стульев

KEYS:

1. waved; 2, was told; 3. to take; 4, am waiting; 5, rang/was ringing; 6. spoke/was speaking: 7, picked; 8. spoke; 9, waited; 10, finished/had finished; 11. waited; 12. felt/was feeling; 13. had been dreading/had dreaded; 14, hadn't begun; 15. finished;

16. was; 17. waiting; 18. had come; 19. won't keep; 20. waiting; 21. picked up; 22. began; 23. have/will have/shell have; 24. to catch; 25. was; 26. would find; 27. passed/was passing;

28. examining; 29. pushing/push; 30. was; 31. arranged/were arranged; 32. stood; 33. covered; 34. were crammed; 35. might; 36. slip; 37. fall; 38. had finished; 39. hadn't noticed;

40. enter/entering; 41. was surprised; 42. see; 43. have come/came; 44. was answering; 45. had begun,

III. 1.A; 2.D; 3.A; 4.D; 5.D; 6.C; 7.A; 8,A; 9.B; 10.C; ll.D; 12.B; 13.A; 14.C; 15.C; 16.A; 17.C: 18.D; 19.B; 20.D.

IV. 1. By the time you reach/get to the river it will have already got/become/grown dark and you will have to return/come back/get back the way/the same way you came/have come.

2. Summer has come. It is very quiet in the yard. All the children have gone to/have left for the country/have gone out of town.

3. let's stay at home till/until it stops raining/has stopped raining/the rain stops/has stopped, shall we?

4. They saw two policemen enter/come the/a house on the other/opposite side of the street and were/got very greatly/very much surprised as no one/nobody had lived/had been living/there had been no one living in the house for a long time.

5. (My) mother said (that) the teacher wouldn't be/get angry/cross with me if I explained to him what had happened and why I was/had been late.

6. Аnn has been ill for a week already, she will be taken/sent to hospital tomorrow.

7. You often have to answer the/your students questions, don't you? - That's true/right. I have to, but some (of the) questions sound strange.

8. There is much/far/rather less news in today/s paper than in the one I read yesterday. Nothing interesting/of interest has happened today.

9. She has never told a lie/lied since I have known her,

- Neither has her elder/eldest/older/oldest sister/her ... sister hasn't either.

10. Everybody/everyone was/all were surprised why there was so little furniture in the room, there was (only) a table and a few/some/several chairs only.

Список используемой литературы

1) Любимцева С.Н., Тарковская Б.М., Памухина Л.Г., «Английский язык для деловых людей» Начальный курс – М: Внешняя школа, 1991 – 300 с;

2) Богацкий И.С., Дюканова Н.М., «Бизнес – курс английского языка» Словарь-справочник. Под общей редакцией Богацеого И.С. 2-е издание – переработано – Киев: «Логос» 1997 – 352 с.;

3) Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский язык для экономистов. Серия «Учебник и учебные пособия». Ростов-на-Дону: «Федоникс», 2002 -416 с.

Список рекомендуемой литературы

  1. Дубилинка Г.А., Драчинская Н.Ф., Матявика М.Ф., Английский язык. Пособие для вузов з-е издание исп. и доп. Москва. Издательство Экзамен 2003г. – 208 с.
  2. Голубев А.П., Английский язык: учебное пособие для студентов проф. учебного заведения. 5-е издание исправ. Москва. Издательский центр Академия. 2007-336с.
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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
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