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Учебное пособие: Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения по специальности: «Экономика и управление на предприятиях химической промышленности»

Название: Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения по специальности: «Экономика и управление на предприятиях химической промышленности»
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
Тип: учебное пособие Добавлен 18:27:18 28 октября 2011 Похожие работы
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Пермский государственный технический университет

Березниковский филиал

Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания и контрольные задания

для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения по специальности:

«Экономика и управление на предприятиях химической промышленности»

Березники 2006

ББК 65.298

Ч 15

Рецензенты:
Старший преподаватель английского языка кафедры общенаучных дисциплин
БФ ПГТУ Е.Б. Кучина ,
Старший преподаватель английского языка кафедры общенаучных дисциплин
БФ УрГЭУ Л.С. Мазанова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК: Методические указания и контрольные задания./ Сост. Г.Р. Чайникова; Перм. гос. техн. ун-т, Березниковский филиал, 2006 – 48 с.

Методические указания и контрольные задания составлены в соответствии с программой по иностранным языкам для неязыковых вузов.

Предназначены для самостоятельной работы над языковыми средствами и приобретения практических навыков чтения и перевода литературы на английском языке, для формирования умения понимать общее содержание текста с целью извлечения необходимой информации.

Предназначены для выполнения контрольных работ студентов 1 – 2 курсов заочной формы обучения по специальности «Экономика и управление на предприятиях химической промышленности»

© Пермский государственный

технический университет, 2006

Введение

ПРОГРАММА КУРСА «АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК»

Общая часть

Практическое владение иностранными языками приобретает все большее значение для специалистов всех отраслей науки, техники, экономики, культуры в современных условиях широкого развития международных связей. Повышение качества перевода зарубежной литературы является предпосылкой научно-технического прогресса и служит укреплению международного сотрудничества в различных сферах.

Цели и задачи обучения

Основной целью обучения иностранному языку в вузе на неязыковых факультетах является практическое овладение навыками разговорной речи в рамках изученного материала и работы с литературой по специальности с целью извлечения полезной информации.

Задачами курса являются развитие умений и навыков иноязычного общения и понимания монологической и диалогической речи в сфере бытовой и профессиональной коммуникации, в терминологической, общенаучной и других сферах; совершенствование грамматических навыков, обеспечивающих коммуникацию без искажения смысла при письменном и устном общении; перевод и реферирование текстов по специальности.

Критерием практического владения иностранным языком является умение пользоваться наиболее употребительными и достаточно простыми языковыми средствами в основных видах речевой деятельности: говорении, аудировании (восприятии на слух), чтении (способность понимать и извлекать основную информацию из текста) и письме.

Содержание

Основой построения программы является разделение курса на два направления: «Общий язык» и «Язык профессионального направления». Они различаются между собой тематикой и лексическим составом учебных текстов, приоритетом того или иного вида речевой деятельности.

Для развития навыков чтения общенаучной литературы и литературы по специальности широкого профиля решающими факторами являются:

1) накопление словарного запаса,

2) овладение грамматическими формами и оборотами, необходимыми для понимания текста и перевода его с английского языка на русский язык.

Требования, предъявляемые студентам на зачетах и экзаменах

Зачеты и экзамены проводятся в соответствии с учебными планами высшего учебного заведения. Программа курса английского языка предусматривает сдачу зачета в конце 2-го семестра и экзамена в конце 3-го семестра обучения.

К зачету следует изучить по рекомендуемому учебнику и усвоить указанный грамматический материал, а также выполнить один из вариантов контрольной работы, построенной на этом грамматическом материале. Экзамен включает в себя грамматический материал данного семестра и предыдущего.

Экзамен включает в себя следующие задания:

1. Перевод со словарем (письменный или устный) текста по специальности или страноведению объемом 1200 – 1500 печатных знаков. Время на подготовку – 60 минут.

2. Просмотровое чтение – просмотреть текст (объем 2000–2400 печатных знака) и а) написать аннотацию к тексту на английском языке, б) кратко изложить содержание текста в устной форме на русском языке. Время на подготовку – 20–30 минут.

3. Устное изложение одной из пройденных тем (общей, специальной) по билетам.


Выполнение и оформление контрольных работ

1. Количество контрольных работ, выполняемых студентами на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом вуза. Студентам сокращенной формы обучения экономических специальностей необходимо выполнить 2 контрольные работы.

2. Каждая контрольная работа в данном пособии предлагается в четырех вариантах. Студенты должны выполнить указанный преподавателем вариант.

3. Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует на листах формата А-4. При выполнении работ следует слева оставлять поля (4 см) для замечаний, объяснений и методических рекомендаций рецензента. Образец оформления титульного листа приведен ниже.

4. Контрольные работы должны быть написаны аккуратным четким почерком. Допускается оформление контрольных работ компьютерным способом. Формулировка каждого задания должна быть записана и четко исполнена.

5. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они приведены в настоящем пособии.

6. Выполненные контрольные работы должны быть сданы для проверки и рецензирования в установленные сроки, не позднее, чем за 1 месяц до зачета или экзамена .

7. Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указаний или не полностью, она возвращается студенту без проверки.

Исправление работы на основе рецензий

При получении от рецензента проверенной контрольной работы внимательно прочитайте рецензию, ознакомьтесь с замечаниями рецензента и проанализируйте отмеченные в работе ошибки.

Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента, проработайте еще раз учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были допущены орфографические, лексические, грамматические ошибки или неточности перевода, перепишите в исправленном виде в конце данной контрольной работы.

Только после того, как будут исправлены все ошибки и выполнены все указания рецензента, можно приступать к изучению материала очередного контрольного задания и его выполнению.

Отрецензированные контрольные работы являются учебными документами, которые необходимо сохранять. Во время зачета или экзамена производится проверка усвоенного учебного материала, вошедшего в контрольные работы.

Рекомендации студентам по подготовке к зачетам и экзаменам

Для успешной сдачи зачета и экзамена рекомендуется в процессе подготовки:

- внимательно изучить соответствующие разделы по рекомендованному учебнику;

- выполнить упражнения, данные в учебнике, для контроля усвоения материала;

- прочитать и перевести тексты, размещенные в подлежащих изучению разделах учебника/ учебного пособия;

- выучить наиболее употребительные и ключевые тематические слова;

- на основе изученного материала подготовить монологическое высказывание по указанной теме для собеседования на зачете или экзамене;

- выполнить соответствующую письменную контрольную работу;

- при получении отрецензированной контрольной работы еще раз проработать материал, где были допущены ошибки или неточности, исправить все ошибки в конце письменной работы, приготовиться объяснить свои ошибки при собеседовании на зачете или экзамене.


Рекомендуемые учебные пособия:

1. Английский язык для студентов экономических специальностей: Учеб./ Е.В. Глуменкова, Е.Н. Комарова. – М.: ООО «Изд-во Астрель», 2002.

2. Полякова Т.Ю. Английский язык для инженеров: Учеб./ Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская и др. - М.: Высш.шк., 2000.

3. Кучина Е.Б. Тексты и упражнения на английском языке для студентов специальности «Экономика и управление на предприятии»: Учебное пособие/Е.Б. Кучина , Л.К. Ивонина, Г.Р. Чайникова.,О.А. Дурманова – Березники, 2003.

4. Шевелева С.А. Основы экономики и бизнеса: Учеб.пособие./С.А. Шевелева, В.Е. Стогов – М.: ЮНИТИ, 2000. – 515с. (Рекомендуется в качестве дополнительного материала).

5. Шевелева С.А. Бизнес-английский: Учеб. пособие для вузов./С.А. Шевелева, М.В. Скворцова – М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2001. (Рекомендуется в качестве дополнительного материала).


Образец оформления титульного листа контрольной работы

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Пермский государственный технический университет

Березниковский филиал

Кафедра общенаучных дисциплин

Контрольная работа №1

по английскому языку

вариант 1

Выполнил: студент 1 курса

группы

Ф.И.О.

Проверил: должность,

Ф.И.О. рецензента

Березники 2006


Контрольная работа №1

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

Словообразование суффиксация и префиксация.

  1. Имя существительное. Образование множественного числа . Притяжательный падеж существительного. Выражение падежных отношений с помощью предлогов . Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык. Существительные исчисляемые и неисчисляемые.
  2. Артикли , их значение и употребление, отсутствие артикля.
  3. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных. Сравнительные конструкции типа as...as..., not so...as..., much more interesting, twice large as..., the more...the less .
  4. Числительные . Количественные, порядковые, дробные числительные. Чтение хронологических дат.
  5. Местоимения . Личные местоимения в именительном и объектном падеже. Притяжательные местоимения в зависимой и абсолютной форме. Указательные местоимения this - these, that - those . Неопределенные местоимения some, any и отрицательное местоимение . Производные от some, any, no, every .
  6. Грамматические функции и значение слова one .
  1. Наречия . Наречия неопределенного времени (usually, sometimes, etc. ) и их место в предложении. Наречия many / much, a lot of, a great deal of; a little / a few, some-, little / few и их употребление.
  2. Глагол . Форма настоящего (Present ), прошедшего (Past ) и будущего (Future ) времен группы Indefinite/ Simple действительного и страдательного залога изъявительного наклонения. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have в Present, Past, Future Indefinite. Речевой оборот there is/are во временах Present, Past, Future Indefinite.
  3. Способы перевода страдательных конструкций на русский язык. Инфинитив страдательного залога после модальных глаголов. Страдательный залог непереходных глаголов (глаголов, требующих после себя косвенное или предложное дополнение).
  1. Модальные глаголы must , can , may и их эквиваленты have to , be to , should , ought to , be able to , be allowed to .
  2. Простые неличные формы глагола Participle I (Present Participle ), Participle II (Past Participle ) и их функции в предложении (функция определения, обстоятельства). Зависимый причастный оборот.
  3. Простое распространенное предложение. Прямой порядок слов повествовательного предложения, обратный порядок слов вопросительного предложения. пять типов вопросительных предложений: общий вопрос, специальный, альтернативный, разделительный, вопрос к подлежащему. Структура отрицательного предложения.
  4. Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия . Выражение будущего времени в придаточных предложениях времени и условия.
  5. Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзные и бессоюзные).
  6. Безличные предложения. Усилительная конструкция "It is ... that ... "
  7. Побудительное предложение. Отрицательная и вежливая формы повелительного наклонения.

Вариант 1

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения и переведите. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием s , и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-его лица единственного числа глагола в Present Simple;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Each region of the United States of America has characteristics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.

2. Nowadays English is the world's most important language in politics, science, trade and cultural relations.

3. This was one of the reasons for expanding the business.

4. The waste gases cause acid rain; this leads to forest damage and therefore reduces the resources of forestry industry.

5. What’s your sister’s name?

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения имен прилагательных и другие способы сравнения.

1. It is more expensive to study at Oxford and Cambridge Universities than at one of the other universities.

2. The income per head was lower in Egypt than in the USA in 2005.

3. The greater a person’s income, the more he will usually buy.

4. If, with a change of price, the supply increases by less than one per cent, it is called inelastic.

5. Every firm wants to sell as many goods as possible.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание не перевод местоимений.

1. A foreign company in Great Britain must give certain information about itself to the government offices. It must also write its name and country of registration on all its documents.

2. Did you translate this text yourself?

3. Is there anything interesting on television tonight?

4. Have you got any problems with your visa?

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец : Our activity is based on close contact with our clients.

( is based ( to base) – Present Simple Passive) – Наша деятельность основывается на тесном контакте с нашими клиентами.

1. These houses were built last year.

2. A change in the price of input, price of alternative output, technological factors, and the number of firms will result in a market supply change.

3. Our activity is based on high level of technology and on close contact with our clients.

4. The machines will be inspected next month.

5. Economy does not usually rely on planning.

Задание 5 . Задайте общий вопрос к каждому предложению из задания 4 и дайте на него отрицательный ответ.


Задание 6. Перепишите предложения, переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Products can be distributed to consumers in many ways.

2. Provided additional inputs are to be obtained, producers must have smaller risks of a fall of price between the time of making a decision and the time of selling their products.

3. Planning has to be undertaken at all levels of management.

4. The economist should be able to say which factors affect the allocation of resources for producing a particular good.

5. He was not allowed to enter the concert hall after the third bell.

Задание 7 . Перепишите предложения, выпишите причастия, определите их вид и укажите функцию в предложении, то есть, является ли причастие определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. All the engineers working at the Ministry of Foreign Trade must know foreign languages.

2. The government can regulate monopolies controlling the prices or supplying the products itself.

3. Exports are goods and services sold to other countries.

4. The quantity demanded is influenced by changes in consumers’ incomes.

5. Studying advertising materials, our managers found out many interesting things.

Задание 8 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения и усилительную конструкцию "it is... that (who)". Переведите на русский язык.

1. If you agree to our terms we’ll give you a discount.

2. It is new system of management that gave the best results.

3. You can easily bring the people you need together electronically.

4. I don’t believe these contacts are necessary.

5. It is this method of analysis that yielded best results.

Задание 9 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

MARKET AND COMMAND ECONOMIES

Economics is a science that analyzes what, how, and for whom society produces. The central economic problem is to reconcile the conflict be­tween people's unlimited demands with society's ability to produce goods and services.

In industrial Western countries markets are to allocate resources. The market is the process by which production and consumption are coordinated through prices.

In a command economy, a central planning office makes decisions on what, how, and for whom to produce. Economy cannot rely entirely on com­mand, but there was extensive planning in many Soviet bloc countries.

A free market economy has no government intervention. Resources are allocated entirely through markets.

Modern economies in the West are mixed and rely mainly on the market but with a large dose of government intervention. The optimal level of gov­ernment intervention remains a problem which is of interest to economists.

The degree of government restrictions differs greatly between coun­tries that have command economies and countries that have free market economies. In the former, resources are allocated by central government planning. In the latter, there is not any government regulation of the con­sumption, production, and exchange of goods. Between the two main types lies the mixed economy where market and government are both of importance.


Задание 10. Напишите аннотацию к тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 11. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. What is the central economic problem of a society?

2. What is the market?

3. What is the function of the market in an industrial country?

4. How are decisions made in a command economy?

5. In what way does a free market economy differ from a command econ­omy?

6. To which type do most economies in the West belong?

7. What is a mixed economy?

8. To which type does the economy of present-day Russia belong?

9. Is the level of government regulation growing or falling in Russian econ­omy now?

Задание 12. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 9).

Задание 13. Выучите лексику по теме: I’ m a student. My study at the university (см. тексты и задания к зачету и экзамену). Напишите рассказ о себе на данную тему.

Вариант 2

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения и переведите. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием s , и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-его лица единственного числа глагола в Present Simple;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Russia has vast mineral resources which include oil and natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, gold and other non-ferrous metals.

2. Three-quarters of the republic’s mineral wealth is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.

3. One never knows what may happen.

4. The government plays an important role in allocating resources in the economy.

5. This engineer’s research work is of great interest.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения имен прилагательных и другие способы сравнения.

1. Russian grammar is more difficult than English grammar.

2. Two heads are better than one.

3. The higher the labour productivity, the lower the production cost.

4. The most important Federal Reserve instrument stems from its authority to purchase and sell government securities (государственные ценные бумаги) in the so-called open market.

5. The number of men working in the United Kingdom was not as high as in Germany in 2004.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание не перевод местоимений.

1. May we have your specifications (технические характеристики) for turbines? We’d like to study them before our visit to the plant.

2. Any engineer working in this field can give you this information.

3. To know everything is to know nothing.

4. I’ve got some video cassettes in English?

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец : Our activity is based on close contact with our clients.

( is based ( to base) – Present Simple Passive) – Наша деятельность основывается на тесном контакте с нашими клиентами.

1. The secretary was sent for.

2. We bought these machines at a good price last year.

3. Money received from selling goods or services is called the turnover.

4. Supply is the amount of a good that will be offered in the market at a certain price and time.

5. In a command economy, a central planning office makes decisions on what, how, and for whom to produce.

Задание 5 . Задайте общий вопрос к каждому предложению из задания 4 и дайте на него отрицательный ответ.

Задание 6. Перепишите предложения, переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Not all partners in a firm must take an active part in management.

2. They will be able to despatch the goods next week.

3. You ought to have the firm re-registration as soon as possible or you may have trouble.

4. The buyers have to reconcile what they want to do and what the market will allow them to do.

5. Making a decision, the economist should rely on all the information that he can find.

Задание 7 . Перепишите предложения, выпишите причастия, определите их вид и укажите функцию в предложении, то есть, является ли причастие определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The world economy produces mostly for the people living in the industrial countries.

2. The government can influence for whom goods are produced, taking income away from some people and giving it to other.

3. As income rise, the quantity of food bought will rise but only a little.

4. Knowing that their resources are limited, people make a decision how to allocate them in the best possible way.

5. Consumers typically buy a smaller quantity of the good sold at a higher price.

Задание 8 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения и усилительную конструкцию "it is... that (who)". Переведите на русский язык.

1. After we settle the price problem we’ll sign the contract.

2. It was our director who spoke about the losses of our company.

3. Have you still got the journal you showed me some days ago?

4. The experts find the construction will cost an enormous sum.

5. It is the accountant who prepares the balance sheet.

Задание 9 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

DEMAND AND SUPPLY

Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at each price1 . Other things equal2 , at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.

Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at each price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.

The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.

There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.

As consumer income is increased, demand for a normal good3 will also increase but demand for an inferior good4 will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.

As to supply, some factors are assumed5 as constant. Among them are technology, the input price6 , as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity good as a reduction in input prices.

Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.

Пояснения к тексту

1) each price – зд. любая цена

2) other things equal – при прочих равных условиях

3) normal good – товар стандартного качества

4) inferior good – товар низкого качества

5) are assumed – рассматриваются, принимаются

6) input price – цена ресурсов, цена основных средств производства

Задание 10. Напишите аннотацию к тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 11. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. What is demand?

2. What is supply?

3. When are the demanded and supplied quantities of goods high?

4. How are prices and the supplied and demanded quantities regulated by the market?

5. Which factors influence demand? How do they work?

6. Which factors influence supply?

7. How can governments regulate demand and supply?

8. How can prices for other goods influence the demand for a good? Sup­ply examples.

9. What inferior goods can you name?

10. What may be the result of imposing ceiling prices?

Задание 12. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 9).

Задание 13. Выучите лексику по теме: I’m a student. My study at the university (см. тексты и задания к зачету и экзамену). Напишите рассказ о себе на данную тему.


Вариант 3

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения и переведите. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием s , и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Simple;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. The standard working day in the United Kingdom and the USA starts at 9:00 a.m. and lasts till 5:00 p.m. with lunch time from 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m.

2. The USA is the world’s leading producer of copper and the world’s second producer of iron and coal.

3. The more one studies, the more one knows.

4. This university trains engineers in more than 40 specialities.

5. When there is a harvest failure, the producer’s supply will decrease.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения имен прилагательных и другие способы сравнения.

1. He is one of the most experienced managers.

2. A worker in the United Kingdom earns more than the one in India.

3. The greater is the number of sellers in a market, the better choice can a buyer make.

4. The sooner they finish the construction of the plant the better.

5. Only when demand equals supply, people can buy or sell as much as they want.

Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, переведите на русский язык предложения, обращая внимание не перевод местоимений.

1. Our products are in great demand in the world market. We export them to many countries of the world.

2. I think there’s something very important in the letter.

3. They made these experiments themselves.

4. There is no signature on the cheque. Sign it, please.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец : Our activity is based on close contact with our clients.

( is based ( to base) – Present Simple Passive) – Наша деятельность основывается на тесном контакте с нашими клиентами.

1. Such raw materials as coal and oil were used to make plastics.

2. Prices regulate consumption and production in a market economy.

3. Inputs are the factors of production (land, labour and capital, including materials) that are put into a business for producing output as a commodity or a service.

4. The commercial documents will be sent immediately.

5. No business will succeed unless it has a sound financial foundation.

Задание 5 . Задайте общий вопрос к каждому предложению из задания 4 и дайте на него отрицательный ответ.


Задание 6. Перепишите предложения, переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Plans may be long-term or short-term, depending upon the time period they are designed to cover.

2. Managers have to decide what to produce, how it should be produced, and for whom.

3. We are not able to make a reduction in price.

4. A great increase in the supply of money in the form of bank notes and bank credit is to result in inflation, that is, a rise in the general level of prices.

5. Government regulations should be in the interest of society.

Задание 7 . Перепишите предложения, выпишите причастия, определите их вид и укажите функцию в предложении, то есть, является ли причастие определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Income is money coming in regularly to a person, family or organization.

2. Reducing our imports, we decrease the exports of others.

3. For the great majority of goods, experience show that the quantity demanded will increase as the price falls.

4. When translated, his article on chemistry was sent to the International Chemical Congress.

5. While reading this book, I used the dictionary very often.

Задание 8 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения и усилительную конструкцию "it is... that (who)". Переведите на русский язык.

1. We’ll sign the contract as soon as the secretary types it.

2. It is the law of supply and demand that influences the retail price.

3. We shall spend our holidays in the same village we visited last year.

4. They realized they might be close to the discovery of a new material.

5. It was the issued stocks (выпущенные акции) that allowed the company to accumulate the necessary money for the new project.

Задание 9 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY

There is a relationship between demand and price. How much demand for a commodity1 is affected by a change in price is called elasticity of de­mand. If a small change of price results in a large change in demand, the demand is called elastic, if the demand changes only a little, it is called in­elastic. The price elasticity of demand coefficient is negative as demand usu­ally falls with a rise in price.

The price elasticity of supply shows the percentage change in the quantity supplied resulting from a one-percent change in price.

As an increase in the quantity supplied is normally a result of a rise in price, the coefficient is usually positive. We have a "0" (zero) elasticity when a price change results in no quantity supplied change. This is called a perfectly inelastic supply. Provided the elasticities vary between zero and one, the supply is called inelastic. With coefficients greater than one, the supply is called elastic. The percentage change in quantity is larger than the corresponding percentage change in price.

Agricultural supply is mostly inelastic because of the high proportion of such inputs2 as land, buildings, and machinery. The elasticities of agricultural commodities (potatoes, wheat, fruits, eggs, milk) vary greatly. Because of increasing specialization of production, of farm animal products, in particular, elasticities for such commodities as pigs or broilers have decreased in recent years.


Пояснения к тексту

1) commodity – предмет потребления, товар, продукт

2) inputs – затраты, расходы (на производство)

Задание 10. Напишите аннотацию к тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 11. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. Which demand is called elastic?

2. In what units is elasticity of supply shown?

3. Why is the price elasticity of demand coefficient negative and the corresponding coefficient for supply positive?

4. What supply is called inelastic?

5. What is the difference between the inelastic and the perfectly inelastic supply?

6. Why is agricultural supply usually inelastic?

7. What is the tendency of agricultural supply development?

8. Explain the relationship between demand and price.

9. Can governments regulate demand and prices? How?

Задание 12. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 9).

Задание 13. Выучите лексику по теме: I’m a student. My study at the university (см. тексты и задания к зачету и экзамену). Напишите рассказ о себе на данную тему.

Вариант 4

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения и переведите. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием s , и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Simple;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Economics is the science that analyses what, how, and for whom society produces.

2. The transport sector makes a vital contribution to the European Community’s frontier-free single market.

3. A worker in the United Kingdom earns more than the one in India.

4. The University has laboratories and research institutes and other educational facilities.

5. Economists analyze society’s production and consumption levels.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения имен прилагательных и другие способы сравнения.

1. If other things are equal, this firm will do the work more effectively than the others.

2. New York City is the first biggest city of the States.

3. Tennis and football are the games I like best.

4. The more efficiently is the equipment used, the higher is the labour productivity and the more effective is the production.

5. I do not get up so early on Sunday as on weekdays.


Задание 3. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание не перевод местоимений.

1. Can you send us your catalogues? – I’ll post them to you next Monday.

2. Any person can find himself in one of three situations: employed, unemployed, or out of the labour force.

3. Is there anybody outside in the street? – No, there is nobody there, I think.

4. He has got no information on this problem?

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец : Our activity is based on close contact with our clients.

( is based ( to base) – Present Simple Passive) – Наша деятельность основывается на тесном контакте с нашими клиентами.

1. The letter will be answered at once.

2. I telephoned him yesterday morning.

3. The price of the goods is fixed in US Dollars.

4. These terms were confirmed in their letter.

5. Exporting brings foreign currency into the country, so governments encourage export trade by giving assistance and incentives to exporters.

Задание 5 . Задайте общий вопрос к каждому предложению из задания 4 и дайте на него отрицательный ответ.

Задание 6. Перепишите предложения, переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. Marketing managers should be in close touch with market conditions so that they can advise on the best price to charge for products.

2. He was allowed to use the mobile equipment.

3. He was to stay at the office until the report was ready.

4. He ought to take a more active part in decision making on the exports strategy of the company.

5. The entire quantity produced does not have to be sold at once.

Задание 7 . Перепишите предложения, выпишите причастия, определите их вид и укажите функцию в предложении, то есть, является ли причастие определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Resources can be a serious factor limiting production.

2. Having the aim to maximize profit, the producer should make a decision how to reduce inputs.

3. Production is the entire quantity of the goods produced.

4. When reconstructed the theatre looked more beautiful than before.

5. The developing countries hope that the industrial countries will raise imports from the less developed countries imposing tariffs on imports from other industrial countries.

Задание 8 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения и усилительную конструкцию "it is... that (who)". Переведите на русский язык.

1. If you place your order before the 1st of January we’ll give you a discount.

2. It is Adam Smith who made economics a science.

3. Real income is the amount of the goods and services a consumer can buy with his money income.

4. It is a reduction in incomes that influenced the quantity of the goods consumed.

5. A consumer is a person who consumes the products and services he buys.

Задание 9 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

MIXED ECONOMY

There are three types of management in economies. An economy may be almost totally planned, as it was in the Soviet Union. An economy may be almost totally unplanned, as it is in the USA. Or an economy may be a combination of planning and freedom of operation. Examples of the latter are Japan and South Korea.

In a planned economy the government decides what goods are to be produced and how they are to be marketed. Governments set all the priorities, and the producers are to follow the directions given to them.

In a partially planned economy such as Japan's, the government often encourages industry and helps it with subsidies. Government also makes investments and regulates trade.

The United States is an example of an unplanned economy. But it has a lot of government intervention in economic activity. As the economy of the United States grew, and as government and its importance increased, the government policy at every level acquired greater importance for the economy.

But the economy of the United States may be called unplanned because the government does not regulate what will be produced and how it will be marketed. These decisions are left to the producers. Even the great amount of government regulation that has emerged since the Great Depression has not turned the economy of the United States into a planned economy.

The name of the American economic system is capitalism. Another name for it is the free market economy.

Задание 10. Напишите аннотацию к тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 11. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. What are the types of management in economies?

2. What are the main characteristics of a planned economy?

3. What is the difference between a planned economy and a partially planned economy?

4. How does the American government influence the economy?

5. Why may the economy of the United States be called unplanned?

6. How is the American economic system called?

7. To which type do most economies in the West belong?

8. To which type does the economy of present-day Russia belong?

9. Is the level of government regulation growing or falling in Russian econ­omy now?

Задание 12. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 9).

Задание 13. Выучите лексику по теме: I’m a student. My study at the university (см. Тексты и задания к зачету и экзамену). Напишите рассказ о себе на данную тему.


Контрольная работа №2

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Видовременные формы глагола:

действительный залог

- времена группы Indefinite/Simple (Present, Past, Future Indefinite Active ),

- времена группы Continuous/Progressive (Present, Past, Future Continuous Active ),

- времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Perfect Active ),

- времена группы Perfect Continuous (Present, Past, Future Perfect Continuous Active );

страдательный залог

- времена группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite Passive ),

- времена группы Continuous/Progressive (Present, Past, Future Continuous Passive ),

- времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Perfect Passive ),

- Страдательный залог непереходных глаголов (глаголов, требующих после себя косвенное или предложное дополнение).

  1. Речевой оборот "be going to + Infinitive ".
  2. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив (Indefinite Infinitive ) и его функции в предложении (функция подлежащего, определения, дополнения, обстоятельства цели, составной части сказуемого). Способы перевода на русский язык.
  3. Субъектный и объектный инфинитивные обороты.
  4. Простые неличные формы глагола. Герундий (Gerund ). Свойства существительного и глагола. Отличия герундия от причастия I. Способы перевода герундия на русский язык.
  5. Сложные формы причастия. Независимый причастный оборот.
  6. Видовременные формы Future in the Past . Согласование времен. Прямая и косвенная речь.
  7. Функции глаголов to have, to do, to be .
  8. Условные предложения. Типы условных предложений. Сослагательное наклонение.

Вариант 1

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказу емые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец :

The article was being translated the whole day long.

was being translated - Past Continuous Passive (to translate)

Статью переводили целый день.

а)

1. They will be waiting for him at 8.30.

2. This company achieved record results in 2005.

3. Profits have risen considerably.

4. How long had they been doing business with the company before they moved to a new office?

5. The economists are monitoring the prices and levels of consumption of different goods and services.


б)

1. The manufacturing process was completely restructured.

2. The new engine is being tested in the laboratory.

3. The price problem has been settled yet.

4. This work will have been done by 7 o’clock.

Задание 2 . Перепишите предложения. Определите, признаком какой части речи является неличная форма глагола с суффиксом -ing: (причастия I, герундия или глагола в форме Continuous). Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции причастия и герундия в предложении.

Образец :

Management is the process of achieving desirable results with the

resources available. (achieving – Gerund)

Управление это процесс достижения желаемых результатов при

помощи имеющихся средств.

1. At present we are testing a consignment of units recently imported from Taiwan.

2. Taking into account the high rate of inflation in the country, potential investors are interested in putting their money in more dynamically developing companies.

3. By the end of 1987 over 250 foreign firms had expressed an interest in setting up joint ventures in the territory of the ex-USSR.

4. A company or a person buying goods in bulk (or wholesale) and selling them in small quantities is a retailer.

5. Management is the process of achieving desirable results with the resources available.

Задание 3 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на правила перевода сложных форм причастия и независимого причастного оборота.

  1. An increase in price of one percent resulting in an increase in supply of more than one percent, the supply is called elastic.
  2. Natural resources are one of the three factors of production, the other two being labour and capital.
  3. Having decreased the retail price, the new company was able to attract thousands of customers.

Задание 4 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на различные функции глаголов to be, to have, to do , укажите функцию глагола.

1. Unfortunately we’ll have to postpone the meeting with our business partners.

2. They will do everything in their power to help us.

3. A limited liability company or a corporation is headed by a board of directors elected by shareholders.

4. These machines have been sold at a profit.

5. The team of experts is to study the present situation in the country.

Задание 5 . Перепишите предложения и переведите их. Определите, что выражают видовременные формы Past Simple, Past Perfect , а также формы, включающие should/ would .

Образец :

If I took a taxi I would catch the last train. –

Если бы я взял такси, то успел бы на последний поезд. (took,

would catch – условное предложение II типа, относится к

настоящему или будущему времени)

1. He didn’t know when the consignment of equipment would arrive.

2. You should acquire certain skills before beginning the work you are so interested in.

3. The production cost would be lower provided the obsolete equipment were replaced.

4. Unless irrigation had been required because of the extreme hot weather, the agriculturists would have obtained higher profits from selling vegetables and fruits.

5. He asked me if I knew about the largest contracts concluded by the firm.

Задание 6 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие инфинитив или инфинитивные обороты. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива в предложении.

1. Firms and individuals spend their income to consume and to invest.

2. Financial capital to be used in a business may either belong to the business itself or it may be borrowed from a bank.

3. Private-sector producers consider profitability to be the most essential condition of their business.

4. A subsidy is known to be money or other resources provided by the government to support a business activity or a person.

5. We are to pay for services in dollars.

Задание 7 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

MONOPOLY

Monopoly is a market structure with only a single seller of a commodity or service dealing with a large number of buyers. When a single seller faces a single buyer, that situation is known as bilateral monopoly.

The most important features of market structure are those which influence the nature of competition and price determination. The key element in this segment of market organization is the degree of seller concentration, or the number and size distributions of the sellers. There is monopoly when there is only one seller in an industry, and there is competition when there are many sellers in an industry. In cases of an intermediate number of sellers, that is, something between monopoly and competition, there can be two sellers (duopoly), a few sellers (oligopoly), or many sellers (atomistic competition).

Today the term monopoly is usually extended to include any group of firms which act together to fix prices or levels of production. Complete control of all output is not necessary to exercise monopoly power. Any combination of firms which controls at least 80 percent of an industry’s production can dictate the prices of the remaining 20 percent.

Aside from private monopolies, there are public monopolies. One example of a public monopoly in the United States is the nonprofit postal service. There is also the «natural» monopoly, which exists when it is more efficient, technically, to have a single seller.

Although the precise definition of monopoly – a market structure with only a single seller of a commodity or service – cannot be applied directly to a labor union because a union is not a seller of services, labor unions have monopolistic characteristics. For example, when a union concludes a wage settlement which sets wage rates at a level higher than that acceptable to unorganized workers, the union clearly contributes to monopolistic wage results. In effect, the price of labor (wages) is set without regard to the available supply of labor.

Пояснения к тексту

bilateral – двусторонний

labor union – профсоюз

Задание 8. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на них по-английски:

1. What is a monopoly, duopoly, oligopoly, atomistic competition?

2. What is a bilateral monopoly?

3. Is full control necessary for the monopoly?

4. What is an example of a public monopoly?

5. What is a “natural” monopoly?

Задание 9. Напишите краткий реферат по данному тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 10. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 7).

Задание 11. Напишите свою автобиографию в табличной и свободной форме (см. задания к зачету и экзамену № 3 и 4).

Вариант 2

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец :

The article was being translated the whole day long.

was being translated - Past Continuous Passive (to translate)

Статью переводили целый день.

а)

1. We have been discussing the delivery terms for two days already, but we still need to clarify some details.

2. Marketing concept includes various elements such as planning, research, new product development, sales, communications, advertising, etc.

3. When are you going to have talks with the customers? (2)

4. I had already drawn up the contract by Tuesday.

5. We shall continue our growth in the Asia Pacific region.

б)

1. Our activity is based on high level of technology and on close contact with our clients.

2. The engineers will be asked to make an experimental model of the device.

3. The construction of the road was being completed when the commission arrived.

4. These models have never been manufactured at this factory.

Задание 2 . Перепишите предложения. Определите, признаком какой части речи является неличная форма глагола с суффиксом -ing: (причастия I, герундия или глагола в форме Continuous). Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции причастия и герундия в предложении.

Образец :

Management is the process of achieving desirable results with the

resources available. (achieving – Gerund)

Управление это процесс достижения желаемых результатов при

помощи имеющихся средств.

1. Resources allocation decisions are being made every day in every city, mostly through the mechanisms of markets and prices.

2. The consumer will always prefer buying the good that gives him more marginal utility (предельная полезность) per dollar spent.

3. An association is an organization formed by people having the same interests and held together by a system of management.

4. Nowadays managers must be more skilled in handling people.

5. Are you importing many goods from the United Kingdom?

Задание 3 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на правила перевода сложных форм причастия и независимого причастного оборота.

1. Ceiling prices being controlled by the government, goods may find their way to the black market.

2. The two principal economic systems were considered to be capitalism and socialism, mixed economies lying in between those.

3. Having been introduced as a standard of value, money helped to solve the problem of exchange rates of different kinds of goods.

Задание 4 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на различные функции глаголов to be, to have, to do , укажите функцию глагола.

1. Why does the company pay great attention to customers relations?

2. The limited supply of energy in some sectors of the US economy is to lead to changes in the economic situation as a whole.

3. She has to inspect the work of the local branch.

4. We have a few problem to discuss today.

5. We are going to increase our exports.

Задание 5 . Перепишите предложения и переведите их. Определите, что выражают видовременные формы Past Simple, Past Perfect , а также формы, включающие should/ would .

Образец :

If I took a taxi I would catch the last train. –

Если бы я взял такси, то успел бы на последний поезд (took,

would catch – условное предложение II типа, относится к

настоящему или будущему времени).

1. Provided the managers had considered all aspects of business activity thoroughly, the company would have earned more revenue.

2. We didn’t know whether our plan would bring us success.

3. All printed materials should be made in Russia.

4. If immigration barriers were eliminated in advanced countries, wages of resident workers in them would fall.

5. He asked if the car-manufacturing plant had expended its international operations.

Задание 6 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие инфинитив или инфинитивные обороты. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива в предложении.

1. We expect our profits to increase next year.

2. Competing suppliers may maintain their prices at a low level to attract customers from a higher-price firm.

3. The economic course to be offered to students is to bring together microeconomics and macroeconomics.

4. Demand for imports is expected to rise when domestic income and output rise.

5. All this documents are to be presented to the bank.

Задание 7 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

MONOPOLIES VERSUS COMPETITION

Pure monopoly is a theoretical market structure where there is only one seller of a commodity or service, where entry into the industry is closed to potential competitors, and where the seller has complete control over the quantity of goods offered for sale and the price at which goods are sold. Pure monopoly is one of two limiting cases used in the analysis of market structure. The other is pure competition, a situation in which there are many sellers who can influence neither the total quantity of a commodity or service offered for sale nor its selling price. Hence, monopoly is the exact antithesis of competition. It is generally agreed that neither of these two limiting cases is to be found among existing market structures.

The monopolist establishes market position by ability to control absolutely the supply of a product or service offered for sale and the related ability to set price. Theoretically, profit maximization is the primary objective, and it is often possible to achieve this by restricting output and the quantity of goods offered for sale. Levels of output are held below the quantity that would be produced in a competitive situation. Hence, monopoly is of interest to economic policymakers because it may impede the most efficient possible allocation of a nation’s economic resources.

The antitrust policy of the federal government has prevented the domination of an industry by one firm or even a few firms. Moreover, with the growth of international trade and investment, it is no longer possible to determine whether an effective monopoly exists by studying market shares. The recent competitive pressures from Japanese sellers of autos and electronic products have resulted in more competition and less monopoly power on the part of U.S. manufacturers. Thus, the trend during the last 40 years or so in the United States has been away from monopolies in many industries and toward oligopolies.

Пояснения к тексту

economic policymakers – стратеги экономики

Задание 8. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. What is a pure monopoly?

2. What are the two ″limiting cases″ used in the analysis of market structures?

3. How can the profit maximization be achieved?

4. Why are economic policymakers interested in monopolies?

5. What influence has the competitive pressure exerted?

Задание 9. Напишите краткий реферат по данному тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 10. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 7).

Задание 11. Напишите свою автобиографию в табличной и свободной форме (см. Задания к зачету и экзамену № 3 и 4).

Вариант 3

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец :

The article was being translated the whole day long.

was being translated - Past Continuous Passive (to translate)

Статью переводили целый день.

а)

1. Have the buyers confirmed payment?

2. Our company produced electronic components for washing machines.

3. The company will continue its marketing policy in future.

4. The company’s profits are constantly increasing.

5. They had been producing Model 5 for five years before they developed Model 5A.

б)

1. Now solar energy and its usage are being studied by a lot of research groups.

2. The plant had been built by the time I moved to this town.

3. Money received from selling goods or services is called the turnover.

4. The new model of the device will be worked at in the plant laboratory.

Задание 2 . Перепишите предложения. Определите, признаком какой части речи является неличная форма глагола с суффиксом -ing: (причастия I, герундия или глагола в форме Continuous). Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции причастия и герундия в предложении.

Образец :

Management is the process of achieving desirable results with the

resources available. (achieving – Gerund)

Управление - это процесс достижения желаемых результатов при

помощи имеющихся средств.

1. The economist is investigating how an increase in the price of one good influences the quantity of another good demanded.

2. Governments intervene in economies controlling the supply of money, limiting monopolies and helping private industries.

3. Did you have any difficulty in solving this problem?

4. The output can be increased by raising labour productivity.

5. Money plays an essential role in the macroeconomy affecting prices, interest rates, and, eventually, all economic activity.

Задание 3 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на правила перевода сложных форм причастия и независимого причастного оборота.

1. With a financial panic everyone wanting his money at the same time, the bank is unable to pay.

2. Free market is a market that is free from government intervention, prices rising and falling according to supply and demand.

3. Only being provided with the required resources, an enterprise can work effectively and increase its output.

Задание 4 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на различные функции глаголов to be, to have, to do , укажите функцию глагола.

1. The prices quoted in your price-list are too high.

2. Managers have to work hard.

3. Would you like to do business with this company?

4. We have sent them our catalogues.

5. All these documents are to be presented to the bank.

Задание 5 . Перепишите предложения и переведите их. Определите, что выражают видовременные формы Past Simple, Past Perfect , а также формы, включающие should/ would .

Образец :

If I took a taxi I would catch the last train. –

Если бы я взял такси, то успел бы на последний поезд (took,

would catch – условное предложение II типа, относится к

настоящему или будущему времени).

1. I think you should contact another firm.

2. If the book on that subject were available in our library, I would be able to make a good report.

3. The manager asked if the container would be ready for dispatch by the 18th of November.

4. The design would have been ready by the end of the year if they had supplied us with all the necessary equipment.

5. He said that he had tried to telephone him several times, but nobody had answered the telephone in his office.

Задание 6 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие инфинитив или инфинитивные обороты. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива в предложении.

1. Measurements to be taken by the government will not be popular.

2. To produce goods and services firms use the following factors of production: workers’ time, talents and knowledge; equipment; land; buildings.

3. High oil prices make consumers purchase substitute commodities.

4. The private sector is normally considered to use resources more productively than the government.

5. The equipment is to be manufactured in accordance with the conditions of the Contract.

Задание 7 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

WHAT IS MACROECONOMICS?

The word macroeconomics means economics in the large. The macroeconomist’s concerns are with such global questions as total production, total employment, the rate of change of overall prices, the rate of economic growth, and so on. The questions asked by the macroeconomist are in terms of broad aggregates – what determines the spending of all consumers as opposed to the microeconomic question of how the spending decisions of individual households are made; what determines the capital spending of all firms combined as opposed to the decision to build a new factory by a single firm; what determines total unemployment in the economy as opposed to why there have been layoffs in a specific industry.

Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity; analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of macroeconomic theory: forecast future economic activity; and attempt to formulate policy responses designed to reconcile forecasts with target values of production, employment, and prices.

An important task of macroeconomics is to develop ways of aggregating the values of the economic activities of individuals and firms into meaningful totals. To this end such concepts as gross domestic product (GDP), national income, personal income, and personal disposable income have been developed.

Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the magnitudes of the principal macroeconomic variables are determined and how they interact. And through the development of theories of the business cycle and economic growth, macroeconomics helps to explain the dynamics of how these aggregates move over time.

Macroeconomics is concerned with such major policy issues as the attainment and maintenance of full employment and price stability. Considerable effort must first be expended to determine what goals could be achieved. Experience teaches that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation entirely without inducing a major recession combined with high unemployment.

Пояснения к тексту

the rate of change of overall prices – коэффициент изменений предельных цен

broad aggregates – масштабные совокупности

layoffs – увольнение

meaningful totals – значимые итоги

gross domestic product (GDP) – валовой внут­ренний продукт (ВВП)

personal disposable income – личный доход пос­ле уплаты налогов

Задание 8. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на вопросы к тексту по-английски:

1. What does the macroeconomist deal with?

2. What is the difference between the questions asked by macroeconomists and microeconomics? (Try to give your own answer.)

3. What is, according to the text, the important task of macroeconomists?

4. What does macroeconomic analysis attempt to explain?

5. What are the most important theories of macroeconomics?

Задание 9. Напишите краткий реферат по данному тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 10. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 7).

Задание 11. Напишите свою автобиографию в табличной и свободной форме (см. Задания к зачету и экзамену № 3 и 4).

Вариант 4

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, выпишите сказуемые, определите их видовременную форму и залог, в скобках укажите инфинитив глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Образец :

The article was being translated the whole day long.

was being translated - Past Continuous Passive (to translate)

Статью переводили целый день.

а)

1. We have just introduced some new marketing, product and technology to the Board of Directors.

2. On Monday evening I’ll meet him at the station.

3. He had an appointment at 11 o’clock with Mr. Brown.

4. They had been installing the machine for two hours before the inspector arrived.

5. Are you going to discuss prices with the customer?

б)

1. The letter will be answered at once.

2. Good results have been achieved in laboratory tests.

3. A great number of experiments at the designing institute had been made before the new system was worked out.

4. An interesting research is being done at our Institute.

Задание 2 . Перепишите предложения. Определите, признаком какой части речи является неличная форма глагола с суффиксом -ing: (причастия I, герундия или глагола в форме Continuous). Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции причастия и герундия в предложении.


Образец :

Management is the process of achieving desirable results with the

resources available. (achieving – Gerund)

Управление - это процесс достижения желаемых результатов при

помощи имеющихся средств.

1. A totally new safety system is being installed.

2. The essence of management is to create an environment where individuals, working together, can perform effectively and efficiently.

3. Management is often called the art of getting things done through other people.

4. The OPEC is an international organization established for the purpose of regulating quantities of oil sold.

5. The Central Bank can depress the level of interest rates increasing the quantity of money in circulation.

Задание 3 . Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на правила перевода сложных форм причастия и независимого причастного оборота.

1. The Central Bank acting as banker to commercial banks, the financial system works steadily.

2. The world distribution of income is unjust, with poor countries having 61 percent of the world’s population, but receiving only 6 percent of the world income.

3. Having made a diagnoses of the fiscal situation in the country, the economist can now offer ways of altering it.

Задание 4. Перепишите предложения, переведите, обращая внимание на различные функции глаголов to be, to have, to do , укажите функцию глагола.

1. There are a lot of factors in agriculture that must be assumed as risks by the farmer.

2. This new product had to compete with the old ones.

3. The company is to deliver the goods in April.

4. A public company must have at least two directors.

5. He works as much as you do.

Задание 5 . Перепишите предложения и переведите их. Определите, что выражают видовременные формы Past Simple, Past Perfect , а также формы, включающие should/ would .

Образец :

If I took a taxi I would catch the last train. –

Если бы я взял такси, то успел бы на последний поезд (took,

would catch – условное предложение II типа, относится к

настоящему или будущему времени).

1. It was decided that joint ventures would contribute to further development of the country’s trade, economic, scientific and technical cooperation.

2. Many companies would lose their stable position in the market if recession (спад производства) continued.

3. The goods should be packed in strong cases.

4. The company would have achieved a higher sales level if the retail price had been decreased.

5. I thought that the organization had already started its work.

Задание 6 . Перепишите предложения, содержащие инфинитив или инфинитивные обороты. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные функции инфинитива в предложении.

1. Like physical capital, human capital is important enough to be an indicator of economic development of a nation.

2. The dividends to be paid out this year will not be high.

3. We did not expect them to delay delivery.

4. The population of Russia has been found to be decreasing at a rapid rate.

5. As the price of one good rises, the consumer has to buy another good, whose price has not risen.

Задание 7 . Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

MICROECONOMICS

The word ″micro″ means small, and microeconomics means economics in the small. The optimizing behavior of individual units such as households and firms provides the foundation for microeconomics.

Microeconomists may investigate individual markets or even the economy as a whole, but their analyses are derived from the aggregation of the behavior of individual units. Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics. For example, it is used in industrial organization, labor economics, international trade, cost-benefit analysis, and many other economic subfields. The tools and analyses of microeconomics provide a common ground, and even a language, for economists interested in a wide range of problems.

At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

The methodological distinction became somewhat blurred during the 1970s as more and more macroeconomic analyses were built upon microeconcmic foundations. Nonetheless, major distinctions remain between the two major branches of economics. For example, the microeconomist is interested in the determination of individual prices and relative prices (i.e., exchange ratios between goods), whereas the macroeconomist is interested more in the general price level and its change over time.

Optimization plays a key role in microeconomics. The consumer is assumed to maximize utility or satisfaction subject to the constraints imposed by income or income earning power. The producer is assumed to maximize profit or minimize cost subject to the technological constraints under which the firm operates. Optimization of social welfare sometimes is the criterion for the determination of public policy.

Opportunity cost is an important concept in microeconomics. Many courses of action are valued in terms of what is sacrificed so that they might be undertaken. For example, the opportunity cost of a public project is the value of the additional goods that the private sector would have produced with the resources used for the public project.

Пояснения к тексту

aggregation – объединение, соединение частей

to blur – затуманивать, размывать

exchange ratios – ставка (соотношение) обмена

constraint – ограничение, стеснение

opportunity cost – альтернативные издержки

to sacrifice – пожертвовать, приносить в жертву

Задание 8. Перепишите вопросы и ответьте на них по-английски:

1. What is meant by ″economics in the small″?

2. What economic phenomena are of microeconomists’ attention?

3. Where is microeconomic theory used?

4. What is ″optimization″?


Задание 9. Напишите краткий реферат по данному тексту, используя клише данные в приложении.

Задание 10. Задайте письменно пять вопросов разного типа к тексту (Задание 7).

Задание 11. Напишите свою автобиографию в табличной и свободной форме (см. Задания к зачету и экзамену № 3 и 4).

ТЕКСТЫ И ЗАДАНИЯ К ЗАЧЕТУ И ЭКЗАМЕНУ

1. Выучите следующую лексику и приготовьтесь побеседовать на тему: I’ m a student. My study at the university .

a student

an extramural student студент-заочник

a first-year student первокурсник

to study (at) учиться (в); изучать

a university

a branch (of) филиал

a department отделение

full-time department дневное отделение

part-time department вечернее отделение

extramural / correspondence department – заочное отделение

speciality специальность

economics and management

an undergraduate = a student

to enter поступать

to graduate (from) оканчивать (высшее учебное заведение)

the course of studies курс обучения

to last длиться, продолжаться

to take ... years

an academic year (a study year) учебный год

a term семестр

to take an examination сдавать экзамен

а credit test зачет

in advance заранее

to attend посещать

a lecture лекция

practical training практические занятия

to take notes вести конспект

a course paper курсовая работа

a graduation project дипломный проект

to submit (to present ) представлять

2. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Higher education in the Russian Federation , используя вопросы после текста.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.

Every citizen of our country has the right to education. It is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and insured by different types of educational establishments.

Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. After finishing 9 forms of a secondary school young people can continue their education in the 10th and the 11th form. They can also go to a vocational or technical school, where they study academic subjects and receive a profession.

After finishing a secondary, vocational, technical school young people can start working or go on in higher education. They can enter an institute or a university. There are the following types of higher schools in Russia: universities, institutes, various higher military schools and academies. They train specialists in different fields. There are three departments at the universities and institutes of Russia: full-time, part-time and extramural departments. The complete course of studies at an institute or a university usually takes 5 years.

Part-time and extramural students have an opportunity to study without leaving their jobs. All applicants must take competitive exams if they want to enter a higher educational establishment. Higher education institutions offer a programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s degree or a doctoral degree.

Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Prorectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing in a field of study.

Training specialists at our Institutes combines theoretical studies with practical work and industrial training. Students have lectures and practical lessons. They attend lectures on different subjects and they take notes. During practical lessons they study the material of the lectures.

The academic year is divided into two terms from September to January and from February to July. Students take examinations at the end of a term or a study year. To pass examinations successfully students are to work hard during the academic year. They must not miss lectures and they must study regularly. Sometimes students take examinations and credit tests in advance. At the end of each term the student submits a course paper, and at the end of course of studies he presents a graduation project or passes final state examinations.

Education in our country is free at most schools. At many institutes and universities there are also departments where students have to pay for their education. Full-time students of universities and institutes get scholarships.

Our country needs more and more specialists with higher education every year.

Notes on the Text

the right to education право на образование

compulsory обязательный

inclusive включительно

to finish a secondary school оканчивать среднюю школу

a vocational school училище

a technical school техникум

an applicant абитуриент

an academic year (a study year) учебный год

a graduate course аспирантура

a theses диссертация

a candidate degree степень кандидата наук

a doctoral degree степень доктора наук

an objective цель

to decentralize уничтожить централизацию

to be funded by the state финансироваться государством

to get a scholarship получать стипендию

to take notes вести конспект

credit tests зачеты

in advance заранее

a course paper курсовая работа

a graduation project дипломный проект

to submit (to present) представлять

  1. What is the right to education ensured by?
  2. What programmes of study do different types of school in Russia offer?
  3. What is necessary for entering a higher education establishment?
  4. What are the advantages of instruction by correspondence?
  5. What is the structure of an institute or a university?
  6. What does training at a higher educational establishment include?
  7. Do people in our country have to pay for education?
  8. Do you think it’s necessary to get a higher education? Why?

3. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Higher education in Great Britain , используя вопросы после текста.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

Higher education in Great Britain is provided by a great number of universities and polytechnics. There are about 50 universities in the country. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), the 19th century universities such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities. The new universities are divided into various faculties, e.g. the faculty of science, faculty of social and economic studies. In each faculty there may be a number of departments dealing with separate subjects. Some years ago there were also polytechnics (now universities).

After graduating from a polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree. 30 former polytechnics were given university status in 1992. There are not only universities in Britain but also 350 colleges and institutes of higher education (some of which train teachers or professions connected with medicine). There is a competition to get into the best universities. They accept students mainly on the basis of their “A” level results (on the bases of the results of advanced level examinations).

The rules of teaching process differ from university to university. The teaching is based on the tutorial system as well as lectures. Each student has a tutor. He decides what lectures the students must attend, recommends books for reading, discusses and criticizes their written works. All lectures and examinations for all students are organized by the University authorities.

The academic year in Britain is divided into three terms, which usually run from October to December, from January to March and from April to June. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including foreign languages (where courses include a year abroad). Medicine and dentistry courses are 5-7 years. After these years of studies and successful final examinations the students get their first degree B.A. – Bachelor of Arts or B.Sc. – Bachelor of Science. There are various postgraduate degrees, including Master and Doctor of Philosophy. The last two are awarded for research in arts and sciences.

At present, students who have been accepted by universities or other institutions of higher education receive a grant from their Local Education Authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may cover living expenses (accommodation, transport and food). This grant depends on the income of parents. Parents with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Until 1990 the grant did not have to be paid back, but now a system of loans has been introduced. That is why most students are to work. But students don’t usually have a job during term time because lectures and tutorials (small groups) are full time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings or during their vacation.

Most students live away from home, in flats or halls of residence.

Notes on the Text

to be provided by – обеспечиваться

to be divided into – делиться

to deal with – иметь дело, касаться

status – статус

a former polytechnic – бывший политехнический институт

to accept = to admit

on the basis of ″A″ level results – на основе результатов экзаменов продвинутого уровня

a tutorial system – система наставничества

an undergraduate course – курс для студентов

full-time study – дневное обучение

a Bachelor’s degree in Arts or Science – степень бакалавра гуманитарных или естественных наук

a postgraduate degree – ученая степень (присуждается после обучения в

аспирантуре или докторантуре)

Master of Philosophy – магистр гуманитарных наук

to be awarded for smth. – присуждается за что-либо

to receive a grant – получать стипендию

Local Education Authority – местный комитет по образованию

to cover the cost of smth. – покрывать расходы на что-либо

living expenses – стоимость проживание

to make a contribution – зд.: возместить часть расходов

to introduce a system of loans – ввести систему займов

1. What is necessary to go on to higher education?

2. What types of higher educational establishments are there in the U.K.?

3. What is the teaching in GB based on?

4. How many years does the course of studies in GB take?

5. What is the procedure of awarding degrees?

6. What are the conditions of receiving grants?

7. Can you compare the system of higher education in the U.K. with the Russian one?

4. Просмотрите данную автобиографию в анкетной форме. Составьте по аналогии свою автобиографию.

RESUME

1. NAME/SURNAME Mariana Smirnova

2. AGE 14 October, 1984

3. MARITAL STATUS Single

4. CONTACT TELEPHONE 412 70 81

5. LANGUAGES English (fluent) - translating, interpreting

and negotiating skills

6. EDUCATION A fourth-year student at the evening department

of the Institute of Foreign Relations (MGIMO)

International Economy

7. COURSES AND PROFES­SIONAL 2001-2002

TRAINING Typing and computer courses

2002-2003

Interpreting courses

8. WORK EXPERIENCE 2001 -2005 JSC, Poliphondis Securities

Assistant General Director

2005 - MADI Institute (Automobile Institute,

Economics department)

Translator/Interpreter, Office Assistant

9. SALARY HISTORY $ 700 per month including lunch

10.COMPUTER SKILLS Word for Windows,

EXCEL, Norton Commander

11.PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE 1. Oral and -written translation

2. Travel arrangement

3. Meetings and negotiations arrangement

4. Business letters and contracts making

5. Carrying out administrative duties about the office

6. Working with clients, marketing experience

12. INTERPERSONAL QUALITIES Good communication skills, energetic, well-organised, flexible, friendly, honest, responsible, intelligent

Vocabulary

resume [`rezju(:)mei] – краткие анкетные данные (о поступающем на работу)

marital status – семейное положение

skills – навыки

experience – опыт

previous – предыдущий, предшествующий

securities – ценные бумаги

assistant – референт, секретарь

salary – жалование, оклад, заработная плата

arrangement – приготовление

negotiation – переговоры

quality – качество, характерная черта

5. Напишите свою автобиографию в свободной форме. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему My autobiography.

6. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Business I’ d like to start , используя вопросы после текста.

HOW TO CHOOSE YOUR BUSINESS

Business is a word which is commonly used in many different languages. But exactly what does it mean? The concepts and activities of business have increased in modern times. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today it has a more technical definition. One definition of business is the production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for a profit.

What kind of business will be right for you? Maybe you already have an idea for a business based on your special knowledge, skill, experience, or interests. Maybe you know you’d like to start a business, but you’re still looking around for ideas. Look around at your community and the people in it. What do they need that you can supply? Remember that, in the end, success depends on providing something your potential customers will want to buy from you. Some general rules may help you narrow down the possibilities.

Rule 1: Choose a Business You Know

Your chances of success increase greatly if you choose a business in which you’ve had previous experience or training. This rule may seem limiting, but it really isn’t. You need not do exactly what you have done before.

The trick is to pick a field in which you have an interest, contacts, a sense of the tricks of the trade – but one that’s different enough from what you were doing to keep you interested or to supply or anticipate a need.

Rule 2: Remember That Business Has Cycles

General economic conditions that you can’t control may have good or bad effects on your business. During the fuel shortage, people travelled less. Travel-related business suffered. Gasoline and motel sales went down, but more dollars were spent on home repairs.

Consumer tastes have cycles, too. For example, people will always need to eat, but today more people eat in restaurants or buy prepackaged and catered foods. Fewer people cook from scratch at home.

Rule 3: Analyze Your Interests

If you can't keep your checkbook straight and tend to put off paying bills, it’s unlikely you’ll want to start an accounting service. Are you good with your hands, or good with people? Do you like noise, action, and crowds, or shun them? Are you better with words or with numbers? Do you like gadgets or do machines conspire against you?

Maybe your friends have told you how good you are at something – a craft, or cooking, or writing letters. Be careful, though; cooking is only a small part of running a restaurant, for example. There’s ordering food, planning, decorating, scheduling, promoting, supervising to be done.

Are you good with a camera and good with children and pets? Perhaps a specialized photography service is for you. Don't be afraid to let your imagination roam. Who would have thought that hot air balloons had a future?

Once you know the general area of your interests, consider that there are three ways you can serve consumer needs in that area: Making a product (manufacturing), selling a product (retail or wholesale sales), or providing a service. These are the three basic categories of business.

Notes on the Text

narrow down the possibilities – сузить выбор

a sense of the tricks of the trade – понимание секретов профессии

to supply or anticipate a need – чтобы удовлетворить существующую потребность или

предвосхитить её

prepackaged and catered food – полуфабрикаты или приготовленная и доставленная на дом

еда

from scratch – с самого начала, зд . из продуктов

shun them – избегать их

gadgets – технические новинки, приспособления

do machine conspire against you? – вы не в ладу с техникой?

to let your imagination roam – дать свободу своему соображению

  1. What is business?
  2. What does success in business depend on?
  3. What rules can help you to increase your chances of success?
  4. What kinds of business are there?
  5. What business would you like to start? Why?
  6. Why do you think this kind of business will be right for you?
  7. Will you start it alone? Who is going to make the decisions and control the profits in your business?
  8. Can you estimate (оценить, подсчитать) the amount of money you need, and the length of the period before you achieve profitability? Where are you going to get the capital?
  9. How many employees are you going to hire (нанять) for your business? Will you hire your relatives or friends? Yes or no? Why?
  10. Can you do your books yourself? Are you going to hire a book-keeper?
  11. What will you do if your business fails?

7. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Forms of business , используя вопросы после текста.

TYPES OF BUSINESS UNITS IN THE U.K.

Consider now different types of firms in a western economy, such as the United Kingdom:

sole proprietorship (one-man business):

partnership

joint - stock company

branch of a foreign company.

The one man business is the most common type of firm. As the one-man business is small it can provide a personal service to its customers and can respond flexibly to the requirements of the market. Decisions can be taken quickly as the owner doesn't have to consult with any directors. But the disadvantage associated with one-man business is that there is no legal distinction between the owner and his business. The owner has, therefore, unlimited liability for any debit incurred by the business, so that in the eventually bankruptcy all his assets (for example his house and car) are liable to seizure. There are many one-man owners, for example: a farmer, a doctor, a solicitor, an estate agent, a builder, a hairdresser etc.

Partnership. An ordinary partnership contains from two to twenty partners. The major disadvantage, once again, is unlimited liability. As each partner is able to commit the other partners to agreements entered into, all of the others may suffer from the errors of one unreliable or fool hardly partner. Partnerships are often found in the professions, for example, among doctors, dentists, solicitors and architects.

Joint − stock company. The joint-stock company with limited liability developed in the second half of the nineteenth century. The liability of the shareholders is limited to the amount they have subscribed to the firm capital and each shareholder knows the extent of his potential loss if the company goes bankrupt. All joint-stock companies are required to file annually with the Registrar of Companies details of their profits, assets and other financial information, such as the remuneration of the directors. A joint-stock company can be either a private limited company or a public limited company. The shares of a private company cannot be offered for sale to the public and thus are not traded on the Stock Exchange. The shares cannot be transferred without the consent of the other shareholders. Private companies require a minimum of two and a maximum of fifty shareholders. The names of such companies end simply in Ltd. For example: Wilson and Son Ltd.

The shares of a public company can be offered for sale to the public. A public company requires as minimum of two shareholders, but there is no upper limit. The company is required to hold an annual general meeting where shareholders are able to question the directors, to change the company's articles of association, to elect or dismiss the board of directors, to sanction the payment of dividends, to approve the choice auditors and to fix their remuneration.

The names of public companies end in p.l.c. For instance: John and Michael p.l.c.

A branch of a foreign company is a part of a company incorporated outside Great Britain but acting under the law of the U.K. Usually these companies act in the U.K. under their normal foreign names.

Vocabulary

advantage – преимущество

assets – актив, средства, фонды, имущество

to commit – поручать, вверять

company

limited company – АО с ограниченной ответственностью

public company – открытое АО

private company – закрытая акционерная компания

to file – представлять, подавать к.-л. документ

joint-stock company – акционерное общество

legal – законный, правовой

liability – ответственность

owner – владелец, собственник

remuneration – вознаграждение, оплата; заработная плата

to require – требовать

requirement – требование, потребность

seizure – конфискация, опись

share – акция

shareholder – акционер, владелец акций

stock exchange – фондовая биржа

  1. What forms of business organization are there in the UK?
  2. What are the main characteristic features of each form of business?
  3. What are advantages and disadvantages of each form?
  4. Compare the forms of business in the UK with the forms of business in the Russian Federation.

8. Прочитайте текст и

a) ответьте на вопросы после текста;

MANAGEMENT

All organizations, whether small or large, have to be managed. Management means the planning, controlling, directing and co­ordinating of various ideas, activities and programmes in order to achieve a stated objective.

This means that there is a need for people with special abilities and skills. There are three management levels: top management, middle management and operating management. Top management includes the president, vice presidents, and the general manager. Middle management includes department managers and plant managers. Operating management includes supervisors, foremen, etc.

The main responsibility of the senior managers of any business is decision-making. These decisions are connected with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work to be done.

Planning has to be undertaken at all levels of management. An organization without proper plans is like a ship without a rudder.

Managers have to decide what to produce, how it should be produced, and for whom. This is at the centre of the planning process. The operation also involves:

1. estimating what resources will be needed,

2. considering what problems are likely to arise,

3. deciding how these can best be overcome.

The ultimate responsibility of management is to direct. This means making decisions and issuing the necessary commands through the management structure.

If the directions issued by management are to be effective, there must be a proper communication system within the organization since, obviously, the orders must reach those who are to carry them out. It is equally important that there should be an effective ‘reporting back’ system – communication is a two-way issue.

Decision-making is a characteristic of management at all levels. The more important the matter is, the higher up the management ladder the decision is made. In large organizations – particularly in the public sector – it is often difficult to identify exactly where decisions are made. The point at which they are apparently made is often different from the point at which they are actually made.

A business is usually divided into a number of departments, each being responsible for a specific range of work (such as production, finance, personnel, marketing). The structure of the departments and sub-departments can be shown in an organization chart. This shows the departments how they are related to each other, and the lines of communication between them.

The amount of work involved in running a large business is usually too much for the senior managers to cope with entirely on their own. This means that responsibilities, authority and duties have to be passed 'down the line' to others – i.e. to middle management and first-line management. This is known as delegation. One of the arts of management is to know to whom particular tasks can be delegated – and to whom they should not. Proper delegation means the spreading of the work load. It also means that particular tasks can be delegated to those who have special experience or qualifications to deal with them. However, there is always the risk that the person a task is delegated to will prove to be incompetent. There is also the risk that unless there is proper 'reporting back', the senior manager will not know what is going on.

Plans are pointless unless there is a periodic check – a control – on what is being achieved. Whereas planning is concerned with the future, control is concerned with the (immediate) past. Problems can arise at any point during the implementation of a plan. Furthermore, unless a specific check is made on them, they can go unnoticed for so long that they become impossible to remedy. The controls should therefore be carefully planned so that they spot-light the problems which are likely to arise. Also, they should take place regularly.

There are several different types of control. Some can be measured in specific 'quantity' terms. With these, an actual figure proposed in the plan (often known as the budgeted or standard figure) can be compared with the figure actually achieved. For example, the planned quantity of raw material expected to be used, together with its anticipated cost, can be compared with the actual quantity used and the actual cost. Similarly, the 'standard' (i.e. anticipated) wage rates and the time a job is expected to take can be compared with the actual.

Vocabulary

to direct – управлять, руководить

to estimate – оценивать

implementation – выполнение, осуществление

to make decisions – принимать решения

to manage – управлять

organization chart – структура организации

to undertake – предпринимать, совершать

1. What is management?

2. What levels of management are there?

3. Whom does top/ middle/ operating management include?

4. What are the main functions of management?

5. What decisions do managers have to take?

6. What is necessary that the directions issued by management should be effective?

7. What charts reflect the structure of an organization?

8. What is known as delegation? What is its purpose?

9. What is the purpose of control? Why is it so important?

б) Вы – руководитель фирмы, схема которой представлена на рисунке. Расскажите о своей фирме, ответив на вопросы.

Research and Development

Manager

President Marketing Research

Manager

Chief of the Credit Executive Product Research

Department Vice-President Manager


Sales Manager Production Manager Controller

- How many departments are there at the company?

- How many managers work at the company?

- What is in your opinion the most important department?

в) Вы – руководитель фирмы. Вашу фирму должен посетить представитель британской компании. Подготовьтесь к встрече. Продумайте:

- с чего вы начнете разговор;

- что вы расскажете о фирме;

- каким будет программа пребывания гостя, как вы ее обсудите.

г) Вы – представитель британской компании, приехавший для заключения контракта. Продумайте интересующие вас вопросы, в частности:

- когда было открыто дело (бизнес) (to establish a business);

- кто создал/ учредил компанию (to form/ set up a company);

- кто возглавляет (to head) компанию;

- что представляет из себя фирма согласно юридическому статусу (according to the legal status);

- каков постоянный/ временный штат фирмы (permanent/ temporary staff);

- каков оборот (turnover) фирмы и т.п.

9. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему The manages’ s role , используя вопросы после текста.

THE MANAGER'S ROLE

Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all these organizations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager although they do not have that title. The vice-chancellor of a university, the president of a students’ union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have a responsibility to use the resources of their organization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Are there certain activities common to all managers? Can we define the task of a manager? A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said to manage is “to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control”. This definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about command , they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers.

Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful. However, in most companies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as the chairman and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how it should face up to the competition, whether it should diversify etc. These strategic decisions are part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.

On the other hand, middle management and supervisors are generally making the day-to­day decisions which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They must respond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with unhappy customer, chasing up supplies, meeting urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr. Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform five basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these should be, and how the organization can achieve them. For this task, they need analytical ability. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the resources of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of human beings. Their third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to get people to work as a term, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels of the organization – their superiors, colleagues, and subordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organization, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger and richer persons.

In Peter Drucker’s view, successful managers are not necessarily people who are liked or who get on well with others. They are people who command the respect of workers, and who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses but must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

Notes on the Text

to command the respect – внушать, вызывать уважение

    1. According to the writer, what is the main duty of the head of an organization?
    2. What is a classic definition of the manager’s role?
    3. Why do some people disagree with Henri Fayol’s definition of the role of management?

4. What do the activities of a manager depend on?

  1. In what ways are the functions of a company director, for example, different from those of a middle manager?
  2. In Peter Drucker’s opinion, what are the basic operations performed by managers?
  3. Who can be a successful manager, from your point of view?
  4. What will you deal with in your future job?
  5. Why have you chosen this occupation?
  1. Why do you think it will be right for you?

  1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему The role of marketing , используя вопросы после текста.

MARKETING

If production is to meet needs efficiently, two things are necessary.

These are:

- Producers must know what to produce.

- Consumers must know that it is being produced.

Linking these two factors together is the task and responsibility of the marketing staff.

Marketing involves keeping producers aware of the needs of consumers and ensuring that their products are made available to consumers in the way and form they want.

Note the emphasis on meeting the needs of consumers. Any firm which accepts this need as its main responsibility is said to be dominated by the marketing concept. This attitude distinguishes firms in free-market economies from those in centrally-planned economies where central government dictates what should be produced and supplied to consumers.

The marketing function involves:

1. Market research

This involves finding out:

a) what consumers want and advising producers accordingly, and

b) recommending the standard of quality, style of packaging, choice of brand-name and general design of the products concerned.

2. Distribution

Products can be distributed to consumers in different ways. Some are best distributed through the manufacturer's own retail outlet, some through a network of wholesalers and retailers, others by direct mail-order.

3. Pricing

Marketing managers should always be in close touch with market conditions so that they can advise on the best price (not necessarily the highest) to charge for products.

4. Advertising

If customers do not know about new products, they will never buy them. They also need to be reminded, from time to time, of the existence of established products. Marketing managers are expected to know the best ways to advertise products. This involves choice of media (for example, radio, television, press). It also involves knowing the best form advertisements should take, and the advertising slogan to be used.

5 Selling

This involves the skills of personal selling, together with display and presentation skills such as those involved in window displays, exhibitions, news releases, and product promotions.

Vocabulary

to advertise – рекламировать

brand-name – название марки, фабричная марка

to charge for – назначать цену, просить

display – выставка, показ

to meet the needs – отвечать потребностям; удовлетворять потребности

promotion – продвижение, содействие

release – выпуск

retail – розничная продажа

outlet – торговая точка, рынок сбыта

staff – штат, персонал

wholesaler – оптовик

1. What factors are important in order that production meets needs of consumers efficiently?

2. What does marketing involve?

3. What decisions are taken by marketing managers?

4. What is the most important thing in marketing?

5. What is the goal of marketing research?

6. Is it reasonable, from your point of view, to use independent marketing research in small business?

7. How are the products advertised?

8. Do you agree that marketing plays a very important role in business?

11. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Assets and liabilities , используя вопросы после текста.

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES

The term "asset" means anything of value that is owned by a company and can be expressed in terms of money. Economic resources that provide a poten­tial future service to the organization are called assets in accounting. A com­pany’s total assets include such items as cash, buildings, equipment, any oth­er property and accounts receivable, that is, money owned by its customers.

Assets are usually classified as current and long-term, both types consist­ing of tangible as well as of intangible items. Current tangible assets including cash, accounts receivable, stock-in-trade are usually converted into cash within one year and sometimes can be used as a means of payment. On the other hand, current intangible assets consist of short-term investments in stocks and bonds.

Long-term intangible assets are not really visible and include such items as goodwill, patents, trademarks, copyrights, these assets often being the most important factor for obtaining future incomes. For example, goodwill means an intangible asset which takes into account the value added to a business as a result of its reputation which cannot be really calculated. In contrast, the real estate (such as farm land, machinery, buildings and other physical ob­jects) belongs to long-term tangible assets.

Liabilities are obligations that a company owes to another organization, to an individual (such as creditors and employees) or to the government. Like assets, liabilities are divided into current and long-term ones. Current liabilities are usually amounts that are paid within one year, including accounts payable, taxes on income and property, short-term loans, salaries and wages, and amounts of money owed to suppliers of goods and services. Concurrent liabilities often called long-term are usually debts, such as bonds and long-term loans.

The amount by which the total assets exceed total liabilities is known as the net worth which is usually called the equity for companies. When the company is a corporation, the equity means the investment interest of the owners (that is, the stockholders) in the organization’s assets. The owners’ equity can be increased either by investing more money in the company or by earning a profit and can be decreased because of the company’s losses.

All companies keep proper accounting system in order to know whether or not they are operating profitably, each of the assets and the liabilities and the equity being shown in a company’s accounts separately. The balance sheet prepared by the company’s accountant is one of the important financial reports showing the value of the total assets, total liabilities and equity on a given date. The relationship of these main categories is represented by the fundamental accounting equation: assets (everything that is owned) are equal to liabilities (owed) plus equity (clear of debt).

ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY

As all three factors are expressed in terms of money, they are limited to items that can be given a monetary value. The accounting equation should always be in balance, so that one side must equal the other.

Vocabulary

account – счет, финансовый отчет, запись финансовой операции

accounts – отчетность, деловые кни­ги

accounts receivable – счета дебито­ров, счета к получению; ожидаемые поступления

accounts payable – счета к оплате; ожидаемые выплаты

capital account – счет основного ка­питала, счет основных фондов;

баланс движения капиталов

income account – счет доходов (прибылей) и убытков

to take into account − принимать во внимание

accountant – эксперт по анализу балансов и финансовой от­четности, квалифицированный

бухгалтер; ревизор, контролер

accounting – учет, отчетность, бухгалтерское дело; анализ хозяйственной деятельности

accounting cycle – цикл учета; учет­ный период syn . accounting period

asset(s) – актив, фонд; капи­тал, имущество

assets and liabilities – актив и пассив

capital assets – основные фонды, основной капитал, основные сред­ства

balance sheet – балансовый отчет

balance sheet account – статья бух­галтерского баланса

to be in balance – быть сбалансиро­ванным

copyright – авторское право

current – текущий

current account – текущий счет

current assets – оборотные средства (фонды); текущие (легкореализуемые, ликвид-

ные) активы

current liabilities — краткосрочные обязательства; текущие пассивы

debt – долг, обязательство

clear of debt – без долга

employee – служащий, рабо­чий, работающий по найму

equation – уравнение, равен­ство; правильное соотношение

accounting equation — бухгалтерская сбалансированность

equity – капитал компании, ак­ционерный капитал;

активы (пред­приятия) за вычетом задолжен­ности

goodwill – гудвил, деловая ре­путация; ценность фирмы, определяющаяся ее клиентурой,

репутацией, деловыми связями; престиж фирмы

invesment interest — процент инвести­ций

item – отдельный предмет, вид товара, изделия; статья (в счете, балансе), пункт, позиция, параграф

long-term li­abilities — долгосрочные обязатель­ства

net worth – стоимость иму­щества за вычетом обязательств; собственный капитал (пред-

приятия), чистая стоимость компании

operate – работать, управ­лять

proper – правильный, надлежа­щий

properly – правильно, дол­жным образом

real estate – недвижимое имущество

salary – заработная плата (слу­жащих), оклад

stock-in-trade – товарный запас, товарная наличность, остаток непроданных товаров

stock(s) – активы, запас(ы), фонд(ы)

in stock − в запасе, в наличии, в ас­сортименте

stockholder – акционер, владелец акций, владелец государ­ственных ценных бумаг

syn shareholder

tangible – осязаемый, мате­риальный

tangible assets – материальные ак­тивы

tangible item – материальный предмет

intangible – неосязаемый, нематериальный

intangible assets – нематериальный актив

intangible item – нематериальный предмет

term – термин, выражение; пе­риод

terms – условия

credit terms – условия аккредитива, условия ссуды

lending terms — условия выдачи кре­дита

trademark – торговая мар­ка

  1. What does the term ″asset″ mean?
  2. How can the company’s assets be classified?
  3. How can ″goodwill″ increase the company’s profits?
  4. What liabilities does the company usually have? How ate they classified?
  5. How is the net worth calculated?
  6. What accounts should be kept by the company?
  7. What is the main accounting equation?
  8. Why is it important to keep the proper accounting system?
  9. What is common and what is different in a person’s and a company’s assets and liabilities?
  10. How is the copyright protected in Russia?
  1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после текста. Подготовьтесь к собеседованию на тему Bookkeeping as part of accounting cycle , используя вопросы после текста.

BOOKKEEPING AS PART OF ACCOUNTING CYCLE

For management of any company to be efficient, extensive and accurate information concerning receipts and payments, assets and liabilities, depre­ciation of assets and other data about company status are required. Such information being obtained mainly from different records, additional funds and time should be invested in bookkeeping and accounting system.

In general, accounting and bookkeeping mean identifying, measuring, recording economic information about any business, bookkeeping being considered the preliminary stage and part of the larger field of accounting.

The task of a bookkeeper is to ensure the record-keeping aspect of accounting and therefore to provide the data to which accounting principles are applied in the preparation of financial statements. Bookkeeping provides the basic accounting data by systematical recording such day-to-day financial information as income from the sale of products or services, expenses of busi­ness operations such as the cost of the goods sold and overhead expenses such as a rent, wages, salaries.

Accounting principles determine which financial events and transactions should be recorded in the bookkeeper’s books. The analysis and interpretation of these records is the primary function of accounting. The various financial statements produced by accountants then provide managers with the basis for future financial planning and control, and provide other interested parties (investors, the government) with useful information about the company.

Modern accounting system is considered to be a seven-step cycle. The first three steps fall under the bookkeeping function, such as: 1) the systemat­ic recording of financial transactions; 2) the transferring of the amounts from various journals to general ledger (also called "posting step"); 3) the drawing up of the trial balance.

Record keeping of companies is based on a double-entry system, due to which each transaction is recorded on the basis of its dual impact on the company’s financial position. To make a complete bookkeeping record of every transaction in a journal, one should consider interrelated aspects of every transaction, and entries must be made in different accounts to keep the ins (receipts) and outs (payments) balanced.

A typical account is known to have two sides: the items on the left side are called debits, while the items on the right side are credits.

Thus, double-entry bookkeeping doesn't mean that the same transaction is entered twice, it means that the same amount of money is always debited to one account and credited to another account, each record having its own effect on the whole financial structure of the company. Certain accounts are increased with debits and decreased with credits, while other accounts are increased with credits and decreased with debits.

In the second step in the accounting cycle, the amounts from the various journals are usually monthly transferred to the company’s general ledger – a procedure called posting. Posting data to the ledgers is followed by listing the balances of all the accounts and calculating whether the sum of all the debit balances agrees with the sum of all the credit balances. This procedure known as the drawing up of a trial balance and those that follow it usually take place at the end of the fiscal year. By making a trial balance, the record-keeping accuracy can be checked. The trial balance having been successfully prepared the bookkeeping portion of the accounting cycle is completed.

The double-entry system of bookkeeping enables every company to determine at any time the value of each item that is owned, how much of this value belongs to creditors, the total profit and how much belongs to the business clear of debt. Thus, one advantage of the double-entry system is that its information is complete enough to be used as the basis for making business decisions. Another advantage is that errors are readily detected, since the system is based on equations that must always be in balance.

Vocabulary

account – счет, финансовый отчет, бухгалтерский отчет, статистический отчет

accounting – учет; отчетность; бухгалтерское дело

assets – 1) активы 2) средства, фонды, имущество

balance – баланс; сальдо; ос­таток

trial balance – пробный, предварительный бухгалтерский баланс; частичный пробный баланс

bookkeeping – бухгалтерия; бухгалтерский учет

double-entry bookkeeping – система бухгалтерского учета с двойной записью

data – данные

depre­ciation – износ, амортизация; снижение стоимости

draw up – составлять

expenses – расходы, издержки

overhead expenses — накладные расходы

impact – влияние, воздействие

dual impact – двойное воздействие

income – доход, доходы

journal – бухгалтерский жур­нал, регистр; ведомость

general journal — главный журнал учета

ledger – бухгалтерская книга, бухгалтерский регистр, гроссбух

general ledger – общая бухгалтерская книга

liabilities – долги, денежные обязательства, задолженность

list – список

to list – вносить в список, составлять список

posting – разноска по счетам, перенос в бухгалтерскую книгу; проводка

preliminary – предваритель­ный

receipts – денежные поступления, выручка; приход; доходы

record – запись; регистрация; pl учетные документы; документа­ция

to record – записывать; реги­стрировать

record-keeping – ведение учета; учет

statement – отчет; ведомость, смета; бюллетень

financial statements — финансовая документация

transaction – 1) дело, сделка 2) операция (торговая)

financial transaction – 1) финансовая операция 2) финансовая сделка

  1. What kind of information is of great importance for proper company management?
  2. What role does bookkeeping play in the accounting cycle?
  3. What kind of data is collected by a bookkeeper?
  4. What is the difference between bookkeeping and accounting?
  5. Who is interested in obtaining accurate accounting information?
  6. What is the modern concept of the accounting system?
  7. What tasks should a bookkeeper solve at the first three steps of the accounting cycle?
  8. What does double-entry bookkeeping mean?
  9. What data are recorded in the company’s general ledger?
  10. When is the bookkeeping cycle considered to be completed?
  11. What are the advantages of the double-entry system?
  12. Why is it necessary to develop similar accounting system in different countries? What do you think about it?

SUPPLIMENT (Приложение)

Rendering the text

1. Аннотация – предельно сжатое, краткое изложение главного содержания текста. Основным отличием аннотации от реферата является то, что реферат дает представление о содержании текста, а аннотация только о его тематике. Аннотация перечисляет, называет вопросы, проблемы оригинала, но не раскрывает их.

Структура аннотации:

1) автор, название работы (на иностранном языке), перевод названия;

2) выходные данные источника (заглавие, место издательства, год издания, или журнал, его название и номер);

3).содержание аннотации.

(В аннотацию могут также быть включены: а) Предметная рубрика: называется область и раздел знания, к которому относится аннотируемый материал. б) Тема.)

2. Реферат ( precis [`preisi:]) сжатое, краткое изложение основного содержания первичного оригинального документа – текста (статьи, главы, параграфа, книги) по всем затронутым в нем вопросам, полученное в результате его смысловой обработки. Объем реферата определяется степенью важности реферируемого материала.

Структура реферата

1. Автор, название работы (на иностранном языке), перевод названия.

2. Выходные данные источника (см. схему составления аннотации).

3. Краткое содержание работы (в последовательности первоисточника).

4. Комментарий, примечание референта (указание, на кого рассчитан реферируемый материал, кого он может заинтересовать).

Рефераты делятся на: а) рефераты-конспекты и б) рефераты-резюме. Первые достаточно полно излагают все основные положения, доказательства и выводы. Вторые перечисляют лишь главные положения и выводы по ним без изложения доказательств.

The plan of rendering the text. Some expressions to be used while rendering the text.

1. The title of the article/text. The article is headlined ...

The headline of the article I have read is...

2. The author of the article. The author of the article is ...

The article is written by ...

It is/was published/ printed in …

3. The main idea of the article. The article is about

is devoted to

deals with

touches upon

The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information on ...

The aim of the article is to provide the reader with some material on ...

4. The contents of the article a) The author writes (stresses, thinks, points out) that...

(some facts, names, figures).

The article contains / includes / describes / analyzes...

In the article it is considered / discussed …

b) According to the text the author reports ...

The author gives some examples … to illustrate …

c) The author arrives at /comes to/ the (following) conclusion(s)...

To sum up / In conclusion I’d like to say thay

5. Your opinion of the article. a) I found the article interesting (important, valuable,

useful, well-illustrated, dull, of no value, poor, inadequate, disappointing, irrelevant, too hard to understand)

I think it’s new / up-to-date

b) The article is stimulating / thought-provoking …


СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Глушенкова Е.В. Английский язык для студентов экономических специальностей: Учеб. – М.: ООО «Изд-во АСТ»: ООО «Изд-во Астрель», 2002. – 352с.

2. Полякова Т.Ю.Английский для инженеров: Учеб./ Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская, О.И. Тынкова, Э.С. Улановская. – М.: Высш.шк., 2000. – 463с.

3. Коваленко П.И. Английский для экономистов: Учеб.пособие./ П.И. Коваленко, И.А. Агабекян. – Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 1999. – 352с.

4. Шевелева С.А. Основы экономики и бизнеса: Учеб.пособие./ С.А. Шевелева, В.Е. Стогов – М.: ЮНИТИ, 2000. – 515с.

5. Шевелева С.А. Бизнес-английский: Учеб. пособие для вузов./ С.А. Шевелева, М.В. Скворцова – М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2001.

6. Кучина Е.Б. Тексты и упражнения на английском языке для студентов специальности «Экономика и управление на предприятии»: Учебное пособие/Е.Б. Кучина, Л.К. Ивонина, Г.Р. Чайникова, О.А. Дурманова – Березники, 2003.

Английский язык

Методические указания и контрольные задания

для выполнения контрольных работ

Составитель Чайникова Г.Р.

Корректор Н.В. Шиляева

Лицензия ЛР № 020370

Подписано в печать 2006

Формат 6090/16. Объем 3,0 п.л.

Тираж 150. Заказ 55/2006.

Редакционно-издательский отдел

Пермского государственного технического университета

(Березниковский филиал)

Отпечатано в ООО «Типограф». Адрес:618540, г. Соликамск,

Соликамское шоссе, 17.

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