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Учебное пособие: Методические указания по развитию навыков устной и письменной речи для студентов младших курсов всех специальностей Мурманск

Название: Методические указания по развитию навыков устной и письменной речи для студентов младших курсов всех специальностей Мурманск
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО РЫБОЛОВСТВУ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

"МУРМАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ"

Кафедра

иностранных языков

ВЫСШЕЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ В ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ, РОССИИ И США

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN,

RUSSIA AND USA

Методические указания

по развитию навыков устной и письменной речи

для студентов младших курсов всех специальностей

Мурманск

2007


УДК 811. 111 (076.5)

ББК 81. 2Англ. – 923

B 93

Составители –

Юлия Владимировна Виноградова, преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Мурманского государственного технического университета;

Анастасия Александровна Максимова, преподаватель той же кафедры;

Мария Александровна Петрова, преподаватель той же кафедры

Методические указания рассмотрены и одобрены кафедрой, протокол № 7 от 21.02.2007 года.

Рецензент –

В. Н. Ионова, ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Мурманского государственного технического университета

Редактор Г.В. Зобнина

© Мурманский государственный технический университет, 2007

Оглавление

Введение ....................................................................................................... 4

World Declaration on Higher Education....................................................... 5

Higher Education in Great Britain................................................................ 7

Oxbridge..................................................................................................... 12

Higher Education in Russia......................................................................... 17

The Murmansk State Technical University................................................. 24

Higher Education in the USA...................................................................... 31

Yale University........................................................................................... 42

Role Play..................................................................................................... 44

Appendix.................................................................................................... 47

Список использованной литературы........................................................ 48


Введение

Методические указания построены на аутентичных англоязычных научно-популярных текстах. Целью методических указаний является развитие умений и навыков устной и письменной речи по теме «Высшее образование». Предтекстовые упражнения знакомят студентов с новыми словами и терминами, активизируют знакомую студентам лексику, готовят к обсуждению проблем, изложенных в текстах. Послетекстовые упражнения направлены на контроль понимания содержания текстов, закрепление новых лексических единиц и грамматических конструкций. Кроме того, в методических указаниях представлены упражнения, развивающие монологическую и диалогическую речь, а также творческие задания, стимулирующие высказывания студентами собственного мнения и его аргументацию. Содержание разделов будет способствовать расширению кругозора учащихся и формированию навыков межкультурного общения.

WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

"Everyone has the right to education"

"Higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of individual capacity"

the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1. Read the extract from the declaration made by the participants of the World Conference on Higher Education, assembled at UNESCO[*] Headquarters in Paris. Before reading, study the following vocabulary:

unprecedented demand

беспрецедентная потребность

diversification

диверсификация – разнообразие учебных программ и типов учебных заведений

awareness

осведомленность

young generation

молодое поколение

challenge

сложная задача, проблема, испытание

equity of conditions

равенство условий

enhancement

увеличение, улучшение

relevance of programmes

существенность, важность программ

employability

возможность устроиться на работу

to disseminate

распространять

equitable access

беспристрастный, справедливый доступ

to ensure

гарантировать, обеспечивать

WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION
FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: VISION AND ACTION

Nowadays there is an unprecedented demand for and a great diversification in higher education, as well as an increased awareness of its vital importance for sociocultural and economic development, and for building the future, for which the younger generations will need to be equipped with new skills, knowledge and ideals. Higher education includes 'all types of studies, training or training for research at the post-secondary level, provided by universities or other educational establishments that are approved as institutions of higher education by the competent State authorities'.

Everywhere higher education is faced with great challenges and difficulties related to financing, equity of conditions at access into and during the course of studies, improved staff development, skills-based training, enhancement and preservation of quality in teaching, research and services, relevance of programmes, employability of graduates, establishment of efficient co-operation agreements and equitable access to the benefits of international co-operation. At the same time, higher education is being challenged by new opportunities relating to technologies that are improving the ways in which knowledge can be produced, managed, disseminated, accessed and controlled. Equitable access to these technologies should be ensured at all levels of education systems.

2. Express your point of view about missions, functions and problems of higher education in modern world.

In the profile given below you will read about the systems of higher education in Great Britain, Russia and the USA. You will find the information about educational institutions and subjects studied by students, you will learn about degree levels and ways of students' life. Also you will get acquainted with the most famous universities of these countries.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

1. Before you read and translate the following text, study the vocabulary and learn the words by heart. If you are not sure how to pronounce the word correctly, consult the dictionary.

to get higher education

получить высшее образование

vocational training

профессиональное обучение

to be located in

располагаться, находиться

ancient

древний, старинный

to comprise

включать

technical bias

технический уклон

'redbrick' university

новые университеты Великобритании, "краснокирпичные" (т.к. построены из красного кирпича)

to cater for

удовлетворять требованиям

to award degree

присуждать степень

accommodation

жилье

hence

отсюда

to interrupt

прерывать

correspondence course

заочный курс

selective

избирательный

i. e. (сокр. от лат. id est)

то есть

via

через, посредством чего-либо

applicant

абитуриент

full- time students

студенты очного отделения

part- time students

студенты вечернего отделения

employment

занятость, работа

to get a grant

получать стипендию

to cover

покрывать

tuition fee

плата за обучение

living expenses

затраты на жилье

government loan

государственный заем, ссуда

tutor

наставник

undergraduate

студент

graduate

выпускник университета, имеющий степень

post- graduate

аспирант

arts subjects

гуманитарные предметы

to get/to obtain the degree

получить степень

Bachelor's degree

степень бакалавра

Master's degree

степень магистра

Students in Great Britain can get higher education at Universities and Colleges of higher education. Universities offer degree courses which last for three or four years. Colleges of higher education provide vocational training (including teacher training, art, drama, music and physical education) and offer one or two year non-degree courses.

The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London and Edinburgh. British universities differ in the date of foundation, size, history, traditions, ways of student life and methods of teaching. They can be broadly classified into following types:

First come the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge that date from the 13th century.

The second group of universities comprises various institutions of higher education, usually with a technical bias. These universities are also known as 'redbrick' universities. At first they catered mostly for local people and prepared students for London University degree but lately they were given the right to award their own degrees. In the mid-20th they started to accept students from all over the country. These universities have close links with local industry and they offer 'sandwich' courses, i.e. studies are interrupted by periods of work.

The third group consists of new universities founded after the Second World War. They are located in the countryside and provide accommodation for most of their students on site (hence their name 'campus' universities). They focus on relatively new academic disciplines such as social sciences and teach in small groups known as 'seminars'.

The largest teaching institution in Britain is the Open University. It was established in 1969 and it offers part-time higher education for people who can't attend regular courses and who study in their free time. The university operates like a correspondence course with books and programs on radio and TV.

Higher education in Great Britain is highly selective, i.e. entrance to British universities is via a strict selective process based on interview. After the interview a potential student (applicant) is offered a place on the basis of the results of General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-level exams. If a student does not get the proper grades, he can't take the place. Some universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, have an entrance exam before the interview. So, not everyone in Britain with A-level qualifications gets the chance to study at a university.

There are full-time and part-time students. Full-time students spend their time studying and don't have any other employment. Part-time students combine their studies with work. Students can get a grant. The grant covers tuition fees and some of living expenses. The amount of the grant depends on the parents' income. If the parents don't earn much money, their children will receive a full grant, which will cover all their expenses. There are also government loans to support students but this money must be paid back.

University studying lasts three years, however medical and veterinary courses last five or six years. The academic year starts in October and ends at the beginning of July. It is divided into three terms with vacations at Christmas, a month off at Easter, and three or four months in summer. These are periods of private study.

University teaching combines lectures and tutorials, or seminars, when students meet their tutor and discuss topics in small groups. There is little continuous assessment on many courses, so the final examinations are very important. Universities offer a wide range of courses from highly academic to very vocational ones. Students study natural and technical sciences, history, law, medicine, foreign languages, arts, engineering, economics, etc.

After three years of studying students can get the Bachelor's degree. Students who are working for their first degree are called undergraduates. At the end of the third year of study undergraduates pass examinations and take the Bachelor's degree. If they study arts subjects (history, languages or law) they take Bachelor of Arts (BA). Those who study sciences such as medicine, technology or agriculture get Bachelor of Science (BS). When students are awarded the degree, they become graduates. Students who obtain their Bachelor's degree can take post-graduate courses and after one or two years of studying they get Master's degree (MA or MS). The highest degree is Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which takes two or three years.

2. Give the adequate Russian variants for the following word combinations:

to provide vocational training; to comprise various institutions of higher education; to cater for local people; to have close links with local industry; to focus on; to operate like a correspondence course; a strict selective process based on interview; on the basis of the results of General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-level exams; employment; to offer a wide range of courses; periods of private study; to cover expenses; government loans; continuous assessment.

3. Find the English equivalents for the following word combinations:

получить высшее образование; профессиональное обучение; располагаться; присуждать степень; предоставлять жилье; быть основанным; посещать занятия; заочное отделение; вступительные экзамены; собеседование; студенты очного отделения; студенты вечернего отделения; получать стипендию; покрывать плату за обучение; зависеть от чего-либо; наставник; естественные и технические предметы; иностранные языки; получить степень бакалавра/магистра; аспирантура.

4. Match the words with the definitions and give their Russian equivalents:

continuous assessment –

a) a teacher who gives private instructions to one student or to a very small class and gives advice about personal matters

sandwich course –

b) the system of judging the quality of a student's work at every stage of a course, rather than only in exams at the end of the course

a tutor –

c) a course of study in an industrial or professional subject at a college or university which includes periods of usually three or six months spent working for a company

General Certificate of Education Advanced level (GCE A-level) exam –

d) a university in which all the buildings are located in the same area, often outside a town

campus university –

e) an examination in a particular subject which students in GB take when they are 18 in order to go to the university

5. Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations. Try to do it in your own words using the information from the text.

– Undergraduate/ graduate/ post-graduate students.

– Full-time/ part-time students.

– Degree/ non-degree courses.

– Tutorial/ a tutor.

– Applicant.

6. Choose the correct translation and explain your choice:

заканчивать

a) graduate

b) graduation

c) to graduate

различие

a) different

b) difference

c) to differ

образованный

a) educated

b) education

c) to educate

7. Open the brackets and complete the sentences.

Mind that all verbs are used in the Passive Voice!

1. British higher education … (to associate with) universities.

2. Oxford and Cambridge … (to compose of) semi-independent colleges.

3. The universities with a technical bias … (to know) as 'redbrick' universities.

4. Polytechnical universities … (to design) to give practical and vocational education.

5. After the interview an applicant … (to offer) a place on the basis of GCE A-level exams.

6. The Open University … (to establish) in 1969.

8. Say if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Use the following phrases:

to express agreement:

I agree that...

It's true...

It goes without saying that...

to express disagreement:

I disagree because...

I can't agree with this statement because... It's false...

On the contrary...

1.Higher education in Britain is given at universities only.

2.All British universities are state universities.

3.'Redbrick' universities are institutions with a technical bias.

4.Every British student with A-level qualifications can study at a university.

5.If parents earn a lot of money, their child will get a full grant.

6.The British university year is divided into two terms.

7.Students who study for their first degree are called graduates.

9. Match the question and the answer:

1. What do the British universities differ in?

a) Yes, they are.

2. When does the academic year start?

b) Yes, they do.

3. Are the final examinations important?

c) In the date of foundation, size, history, traditions, ways of student life and methods of teaching.

4. 'Redbrick' universities have close links with local industry, don't they?

d) In the countryside.

5. Are 'campus' universities located in the countryside or in the cities?

e) In October.

And now give the full answers to these questions.

10. Work in pairs. Answer the following questions. Use such expressions as:

I think/ suppose/ consider/ believe/ guess…

To my mind…

In my opinion…

As far as I remember/ know/ understand…

The matter/ trouble/ problem is…

Frankly speaking…

To tell the truth…

I'm inclined to think…

1. What educational institutions provide higher education in Britain?

2. What educational institutions provide degree courses? How long do they last?

3. What vocational training do Colleges of higher education provide?

4. Which group of universities has a technical bias?

5. What do 'campus' universities focus on?

6. Who studies at the Open University? How does this university operate?

7. Is higher education in Britain selective? Prove your point of view.

8. What does the grant depend on? What does it cover?

9. How many terms are there in the academic year? How long are they?

10. What subjects do students study?

11. What degree do the students get after the graduation?

12. What degrees can they obtain if they decide to continue studying?

11. Here are the answers. Your task is to put questions.

1. Yes, they combine studies with work.

2. No, at first they catered for local people.

3. At Christmas, at Easter, and three or four months in summer.

4. Medical and veterinary courses last five or six years.

5. They get the Bachelor of Science.

12. Make up the plan and retell the text.

13. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:

1. Высшее образование в Британии основано на процессе отбора по результатам собеседования.

2. Студенты получают степень бакалавра после трех лет обучения.

3. Открытый Университет – это самое большое образовательное учреждение, которое предлагает заочное обучение.

4. Несмотря на различия в методах преподавания, обучение во всех британских университетах состоит из лекций и семинарских занятий.

5. На семинарах студенты обсуждают различные вопросы в маленьких группах.

6. У студентов-заочников очень мало свободного времени, так как они сочетают работу с учебой.

7. Студенты очного отделения получают стипендию, которая покрывает затраты на обучение и некоторые затраты на проживание.

OXBRIDGE

What are the most famous universities of Great Britain? When were they founded? How do students study there? You will find the answer to these questions if you read the next text.

Before reading study the words and phrases given in the table. Mind the pronunciation of the following words! Look them up in the dictionary and write down the transcriptions. And now practise reading them.

coat of arms

герб

self-governing

самоуправляющийся, автономный

purpose

цель

chapel

капелла, часовня

chancellor

ректор

hostel

общежитие

the cost of education

стоимость образования

speciality

специальность

individual tuition

индивидуальное обучение

to guide through

вести, быть руководителем

a wide range of subjects

широкий спектр предметов

to be awarded

присуждаться

public ceremony

общественная церемония

gown

мантия

society

общество

to debate

обсуждать, дискутировать

up-to-day issues

современные, насущные проблемы

politician

политик

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and the most traditional universities in Great Britain. They are often called Oxbridge to denote elitist education . Oxford was established in 1249, the first college at Cambridge, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284. The universities were only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was founded . Almost all colleges are mixed now and people from different parts of the world come to Oxbridge to study and to get degrees.

Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. Each college is self-governing. The large colleges have more than 400 members; the smallest ones have less than 30. Within a college there is a chapel, a dining-hall, a library, and rooms for students and for teaching purposes. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books and libraries, laboratories, university hostel . Very few students get grants . The cost of education depends on the college and speciality .

The head of the university is a chancellor who is elected for life. The teachers are usually called 'dons' and 'tutors'. Teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which Oxford and Cambridge universities are known all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges. Every student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once or twice a week a student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. Students usually study only one or two subjects, such as politics and philosophy, or German and linguistics, for the whole of their course.

After three years of study students take the Bachelor's degree , and later the Master's and the Doctor's degrees. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies . Oxford and Cambridge universities respect their traditions , such as the use of Latin at degree ceremonies. And students must wear gowns at lectures and exams.

The universities have over hundred societies and clubs. There are religious societies and societies for those who don't believe, sport and drama clubs. The Debating society is very popular among the students. There they debate political and other important up-to-date issues with the famous politicians and writers. Their debates are shown on TV.

A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers studied at Oxbridge, among them Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Roger Bacon, the philosopher, Oliver Cromwell, the soldier, John Milton and George Gordon Byron, the poets, Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin, the scientists.

1. Give the translation of the underlined words in the text. Learn them by heart.

2. Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations in English:

– mixed college;

– chancellor;

– tutorial system.

3. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words and phrases:

– to be established;

– to take the degree;

– to receive grant;

– a great number of;

– to be given.

4. Fill in the prepositions:

1. Oxford and Cambridge universities consist … a number of colleges.

2. All the students must pay … their education.

3. The cost … education depends … the college and speciality.

4. Teaching is carried out … tutorial system.

5. These universities are known all … the world.

6. Tutor practically guides a student … the whole course of studies.

7. Once or twice a week a student goes … his tutor to discuss his work … him.

8. The degrees are awarded … public degree ceremonies.

9. Their debates are shown … TV.

5. Complete the following sentences and use them as a plan to retell the text:

1. These universities are often called Oxbridge…

2. The first college at Cambridge…

3. The universities were only for men until 1871…

4. People from different parts of the world…

5. Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of…

6. Within a college there is…

7. The cost of education depends on…

8. Teaching is carried out by…

9. Every student has a tutor…

10. After three years of study…

11. Oxford and Cambridge universities respect…

12. There are religious societies…

6. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Самые известные университеты Великобритании находятся в Оксфорде и Кембридже.

2. Образование в этих элитных университетах очень дорогое, стоимость обучения зависит от колледжа и специальности.

3. Очень мало студентов получают стипендию, она не покрывает плату за обучение и всех расходов на жилье.

4. После окончания университета студенты получают степень бакалавра, которая присуждается на торжественной церемонии.

5. Студенты, которые интересуются политикой, могут вступить в Дискуссионный клуб (to join the Debating society) и обсуждать актуальные проблемы с ведущими политиками и писателями.

7. Read the passage about people in education and choose the correct article a/the . Sometimes there is no need to use any article, so cross out both.

A/The professor is not a/the teacher in a/the secondary school but has a/the highest academic position in a/the university. A/The lecturer is a/the university teacher. Lecturers and professors give a/the lectures. A/The students in Britain usually have a/the tutor who gives them a/the advice and teaches them in a/the small groups. You graduate from university with a/the degree. If you do a/the postgraduate work, you will have a/the supervisor to help and advise you.

8. Check your knowledge. Match the definitions with one of the given words:

tutor; professor; lecturer; undergraduate; groupmate; supervisor

– someone who is still at university studying for the first degree;

– someone who is in the same group as you;

– someone who helps and advises postgraduate students;

– someone who teaches at a college or university;

– someone who is responsible for teaching a small group of students;

– someone with the highest academic position in a university.

9. What do you know about schools in Great Britain? Read the passage and fill the gaps with an appropriate word from the list. The first letter of each missing word is given to help you.

grammar school; nursery school; state school; infant school; play school; primary school; public school; middle school; secondary school; comprehensive school

A n... or p... is for children aged two to five. A p... includes i... and lasts from the age of 5 to 11. In Britain, at the age of 9 some children go to m... before going to s... . Bright pupils sometimes go to g... after taking an examination, but most children go to a mixed ability c... . A p... in Great Britain is private and parents pay for education. A s... is free.

– Ask your teacher to find out more information about schools in Great Britain.

e.g. What does comprehensive school mean?

Make true/false statements and ask your partner to comment upon them.

Compare school education in Russia and Great Britain.

10. Put the following sentences in the correct order to make up a story:

1. Her research is in international law.

2. When she was at nursery school, Maria played and had fun.

3. After finishing her BA, she took a year off.

4. In her infant school she began learning how to read and write.

5. She got into grammar school and did well in all subjects.

6. When she was at junior school, she loved history.

7. She got a place at university to do law.

8. She decided to do postgraduate work.

9. In the sixth form she passed A-levels to get into university.

Work in pairs. Make up the dialogue – interview with Maria. Give some additional information, e.g.:

You:

What did you do when you were at nursery school?

Maria:

Oh, when I was at nursery school, I played and had fun. We had a very kind teacher, her name was Jennifer ……………

You:

Did you have to wear uniform at grammar school?

Maria:

……………

You:

Could you choose subjects you studied?

Maria:

……………

11. Would you like to get higher education in Great Britain? Imagine that you apply for vacancy in one of the British universities. Ask your groupmate, 'a British student', about higher education and students' life in Great Britain.

– Ask about different types of universities.

– Find out the entrance requirements.

– Get the information about the process of education (subjects, methods of teaching).

– Don't fail to ask about tuition fees and living expenses.

– Be sure to ask about degree titles.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

So, you have got acquainted with the British system of higher education. And what do you know about the system of higher education in Russia? Read the text and learn the information about the present day situation in the system of higher education in our country.

Before reading the text study the following words and word combinations and practise reading them.

distinguished history

выдающаяся, прославленная история

transformation

изменение, преобразование

to hire staff

нанимать персонал

accredited HE institutions

аккредитованные высшие учебные заведения

the Ministry of International Affairs

министерство иностранных дел

to distinguish

различать, характеризовать

natural sciences

естественные науки

applied sciences

прикладные науки

to acquire status

приобретать статус

to be responsible for smth

быть ответственным за что-то

local labour market

местный рынок труда

free access

свободный доступ

to promote

способствовать, поддерживать

equity

справедливость, беспристрастность

Uniform State Exam

ЕГЭ (единый государственный экзамен)

to enroll on a fee-paying basis

принимать, зачислять на платной основе

assessment

оценка, аттестация

to approve

утвердить

compulsory courses

обязательные курсы

public defense of a thesis

публичная защита диссертации

scientific or applied significance

научное или практическое значение

The Russian Federation has had a long and distinguished history of education and science. The system of higher education has changed greatly over the last decade and this transformation process continues today. At present an educational institution can choose how to organize its educational process, select and hire its own staff, organize its own research, financial and economic activity to train up-to-date well-qualified specialists and to meet international standards of education .

Higher education is provided by public and non-state accredited higher education institutions . The majority of state institutes of higher education are regulated by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. Some of them are regulated by other state Ministries, such as the Ministry of Health Care, the Ministry of International Affairs and others. At present, there are three basic kinds of higher education institutions.

Universities offer a wide spectrum of programs on all levels of education: undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate. Universities are leading research centers in fundamental fields that combine learning, teaching and research. There are 'classical' and 'technical' universities, which pay special attention to social sciences and humanities or natural and applied (engineering) sciences. Unofficial ratings also distinguish old 'classical' universities and 'new' universities, former pedagogical or technical institutes that have acquired their university status quite recently. Moscow State University is the oldest Russian university. It was founded on the initiative of M.V. Lomonosov in 1755 on Saint Tatyana's Day. And since that time Students' Day is celebrated on the 25th January.

Academies are higher educational institutions that provide higher education at all levels and conduct research mainly in one branch of science, technology or culture (Academy of Mining, Academy of Arts, etc.). They differ from universities only in that they restrict themselves to a single field.

Institutes are multi-discipline oriented higher educational institutions. They can be independent structural units , or part of a university or academy and usually specialize in one field. However pedagogical institutes are responsible for all spectrum of disciplines taught at schools.

Speaking about Private educational institutions, they offer degrees in non-engineering fields such as business, culture, sociology and religion. Many of the private educational institutions are fairly small and mainly have local importance in their respective region . As a rule they were opened for the professions that were demanded by the local labour market: lawyers, economists and accountants.

The Constitution and the Russian Federation Law on Education guarantee open and free access to higher education on a competitive basis. Applications are accepted from citizens of both sexes who have completed secondary education and passed a competitive entrance examination, which is given by each higher education institution on general subjects. The higher education admissions system presently is undergoing reform. To promote equity of higher education the Uniform State Exam was introduced. Soon all higher educational institutions will use this new system of uniform entrance exams and it will be possible to apply to several higher educational institutions at the same time.

The Law on Education also sets the quota of students , which are financed, from the Federal Budget. Therefore, a certain proportion of top scoring students are awarded free tuition and scholarships from the federal budget to cover their costs. However, the scholarship is very low and only covers minimum expenses. On top of the quotas described above, the universities are free to enroll students on a fee-paying basis and have the right to define the fee for their programme according to the market price and demand .

The academic year lasts ten months from the 1st September to the end of June of the following year. It is divided into two semesters. Almost all courses at the universities and institutes are taught by lectures, tutorials, group learning, project work and partly by computer assisted learning. Students' work during the course is assessed by means of essays, seminar work, reports on practical and project work. Twice a year, at the end of each term, students take final exams.

The government of the Russian Federation has approved three levels of study:

Level I generally takes 2 years of study. This level concentrates on compulsory fundamental courses in the given disciplines. Students holding a Level I qualification may either continue their studies or, if they choose, leave the institution with an intermediate diploma.

Level II takes additional two years leading to a Bachelor's degree. Consequently , this first academic degree entails four years of study.

Level III represents an educational level for the students who receive the Diploma of higher education in special fields after five years of study or the Master's degree after 6 years of study.

After the graduation from the higher educational institutions students can enter the post-graduate course. There are two levels of doctoral scientific degrees: The Candidate of Sciences and The Doctor of Sciences. The Candidate of Sciences is granted after at least a three-year period of guided research and public defense of a thesis. The Doctor of Sciences is the highest academic degree awarded in Russia. The degree requires the completion of a dissertation that includes results of fundamental scientific or applied significance and the content of the dissertation must be based on the original research.

1. Give the adequate Russian variants for the underlined word combinations.

2. Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations and learn them by heart:

государственное высшее учебное заведение; обращать внимание на что-либо; обучать современных высококвалифицированных специалистов; проводить исследования; быть ответственным за что-то; бесплатное обучение; зачислять на платной основе.

3. Find in the text words, which correspond to the following definitions:

– the government department that deals with the Russia's political relationship with other countries and sends diplomats to represent the Russian Federation in foreign countries;

– the group of workers who do the work in an organization;

– the supply of workers in a particular country, area who are ready or suitable for work;

– a person whose job is to control and examine financial accounts of businesses or people;

– the system of laws according to which a country is governed.

4. Explain in English what is meant by:

– Uniform State Exam;

– competitive basis;

– top scoring students;

– non-state accredited universities;

– the Doctor of Sciences.

5. Make up the words of different parts of speech. You can use the following suffixes:

Noun

-ment, -ence, -tion

Verb

-ize

Adjective

-able, -ive, -al

noun

verb

adjective

to educate

assessment

to complete

organization

independent

6. Match the beginning and the end of the sentences.

1. Higher education in Russia is provided by

a) pay special attention to social sciences and humanities or natural and applied (engineering) sciences.

2. Universities combine

b) is celebrated on the 25th January.

3. There are 'classical' and 'technical' universities which

c) in that they restrict themselves to a single discipline and conduct research mainly in one branch of science, technology or culture.

4. The oldest Russian university was founded

d) in non-engineering fields such as business, culture, sociology and religion.

5. Student's Day in Russia

e) get free tuition and scholarships from the federal budget to cover their costs.

6. Academies differ from universities

f) public and non-state accredited higher education institutions.

7. Institutes are

g) to enroll students on a fee-paying basis.

8. Private institutions have local importance in their region and offer degrees

h) lectures, tutorials, group learning, project work and partly by computer assisted learning.

9. The Constitution and the Russian Federation Law on Education guarantee

i) enter the post-graduate course.

10. To promote equity of higher education

j) on the initiative of M.V. Lomonosov in 1755 on Saint Tatyana's Day.

11. A certain proportion of top scoring students

k) the completion of a dissertation based on the original research.

12. The universities are free

l) learning, teaching and research.

13. Almost all courses at universities and institutes are taught by

m) open and free access to higher education on a competitive basis.

14. After the graduation from the higher educational institutions students receive the Diploma of higher education or the Master's degree and can

n) multi-discipline oriented higher educational institutions.

15. The Candidate of Sciences is the highest academic degree awarded in Russia and it requires

o) the Uniform State Exam was introduced and now it is possible to apply to several higher educational institutions at the same time.

7. Answer the questions according to the text content. Use such expressions as:

I think/ suppose/ consider/ believe/ guess…

To my mind…

In my opinion…

As far as I remember/ know/ understand…

The matter/ trouble/ problem is…

Frankly speaking…

To tell the truth…

I'm inclined to think…

1. What educational institutions provide higher education in Russia?

2. What educational levels do universities offer?

3. How do academies differ from universities?

4. What do the Constitution and the Russian Federal Law on Education guarantee?

5. How is equity of higher education promoted in Russia?

6. Do all students in Russia study on a fee-paying basis?

7. What students are awarded free tuition?

8. Is scholarship high enough to cover all living and educational costs?

9. Are tuition fees defined by the state or by the universities?

10. When does the academic year start?

11. How are courses usually taught at universities and institutes?

12. How is students' work assessed during the course?

13. What three levels of study have been approved by the Russian government?

14. What is the first academic degree taken by students in Russia?

15. How many years of study does it require to take the Master's degree?

16. What is the highest scientific degree awarded after the postgraduate course?

8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:

1. История высшего образования в России началась в середине 18 века, когда по инициативе М.В. Ломоносова был основан Московский государственный университет.

2. Образование в высших учебных заведениях должно соответствовать всем требованиям современного общества.

3. В нашей области были открыты негосударственные учебные заведения, которые готовят высококвалифицированных специалистов для местного рынка труда.

4. После окончания школы и успешной сдачи ЕГЭ абитуриенты могут поступить в любое высшее учебное заведение страны, но многие остаются учиться в родном городе, так как плата за обучение и расходы на проживание очень велики.

5. Несмотря на то, что конституция РФ гарантирует право каждого получить высшее образование, количество бюджетных (state-subsidized place) мест ограничено, и только самые способные студенты могут учиться бесплатно и даже получать небольшую стипендию.

9. Tell about the system of higher education in the Russian Federation.

10. Make a report about the outstanding scientist, poet and founder of the Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov.

THE MURMANSK STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

What university do you study at? Do you know when your Alma Mater[†] was established? And how many faculties are there at the university? And when did it get its present name? So, read the text and find out!

Before reading study the vocabulary!

specialized department

специализированная кафедра

certificate of secondary education

аттестат о среднем образовании

preliminary courses

подготовительные курсы

to brush up knowledge

освежить знания

Navigation faculty

судоводительский факультет

Marine-Engineering faculty

судомеханический факультет

Electro-Engineering faculty

электромеханический факультет

Faculty of Management, Economics and Law

факультет менеджмента, экономики и права

The Faculty of Natural Sciences

естественно-технический факультет

specialized field

специальность

general engineering subjects

общетехнические предметы

Descriptive Geometry

начертательная геометрия

curriculum (pl. curricula)

учебная программа

to be at students' disposal

быть в распоряжении студентов

to develop practical skills

развивать практические навыки

to gain working experience

приобретать опыт работы

to be compulsory

быть обязательным

to keep fit

быть в форме

to be allowed to do smth

разрешать

to fall behind the group

отставать от группы

to carry out research work

проводить исследовательскую работу

The Murmansk Higher Engineering Marine School was founded in 1950 and it was reorganized into the Murmansk State Academy of Fishing Fleet in 1991. In 1996 our educational institution got its present name – the Murmansk State Technical University. There are many faculties at our university. Each faculty has a number of specialized departments and is headed by a dean. Rector is the head of the university. If the applicant wants to enter the university, he must have the Certificate of Secondary Education, pass entrance exams and go through medical examination. University offers preliminary courses, which help to brush up knowledge received at school.

Now more than 4000 students and cadets study at the MSTU including full-time students, part-time students, post-graduate students and correspondence course students. Full-time students study at the Navigation and Marine-Engineering faculties, Polytechnic Faculty, the Faculty of Biology, the Faculty of Technology, the Faculty of Natural Sciences, the Faculty of Economics, the Faculty of Law, etc. Faculties train specialists for mining, heat engineering, biology and ecology, food, fishing, oil and gas industries. Every faculty has its own specialized laboratories, workshops and computer center.

The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects such as Higher Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Environment Protection and Descriptive Geometry. The curriculum is enriched by humanitarian subjects: History, Philosophy, Sociology, Foreign Languages, etc. Computer Science is also of great importance. Since the third course students begin to concentrate on their major subjects and take special courses in this field. Specialized study and courses help students to become well-qualified specialists and prepare them for their future work.

Our university consists of several buildings, old and new ones. There are various teaching and research laboratories at students' disposal. Laboratory work is an important part in training up-to-date specialists. Experiments in labs and workshops help students to develop practical skills. Students also have a short period of field work to gain working experience. Speaking about cadets, they have their sailing practice aboard the training vessel 'Sedov' and aboard the fishing ships of the Northern Fishing Fleets.

To prepare for the seminars students go to the university library or reading rooms, which have a vast collection of fiction and scientific books. Physical Training is compulsory during the whole course of studies. University sport gyms and simulators provide the opportunity to play different sports and to keep fit.

The academic year is divided into two terms. At the end of each term students take credits and exams. If a student fails to pass a credit, he isn't allowed to take exams and he falls behind the group. If the results of the examinations are good, students get scholarship. Attendance is compulsory. Students may miss their classes if they have valid excuse or special release from the classes. They must explain their absence in a written form or orally. Students have vocations twice a year: they have two weeks off in winter and two months off in summer. After four years of study students can get the Bachelor's Degree. If they continue their education and carry out research work, they can get the diploma and the Master's Degree. After the graduation they can take post-graduate course and study for the Doctor's Degree.

It is interesting but quite difficult to study at the university, especially for the first-year students as they don't know yet how to organize their work and time.

1. Give the adequate Russian variants for the following word combinations:

educational institution; to brush up knowledge received at school; a number of specialized departments; the Certificate of Secondary Education; heat engineering; to be enriched by humanitarian subjects; to concentrate on major subjects; to become well-qualified specialists; workshop; to have sailing practice; to be at students' disposal; a vast collection of fiction and scientific books; to provide the opportunity; to fail a credit; to be allowed to; to fall behind the group; to explain in a written form or orally; valid excuse; release from the classes.

2. Find in the text and give the English equivalents for the following word combinations:

быть основанным; поступить в университет; сдавать вступительные экзамены; проходить медицинское обследование; подготовительные курсы; общетехнические, гуманитарные, специализированные предметы; высококвалифицированные специалисты; исследовательские лаборатории; подготовка современных специалистов; развивать практические навыки; приобретать рабочий опыт; заниматься спортом; быть в форме; учебный год; сдавать зачеты и экзамены; не сдать зачет; отстать от группы; пропускать занятия; проводить исследовательскую работу; получить диплом.

3. Find in the text and give the antonyms for the following words and phrases:

– to fail a credit/exam;

– to graduate from the university;

– to attend classes;

– to be optional;

– few;

– to forget;

– once;

– boring;

– easy.

4. Find in the text and give the synonyms for the following words and phrases:

– to give the opportunity;

– to include;

– to get working experience;

– to get ready for;

– to build up practical skills;

– to go in for sports;

– to get a grant;

– to have holidays;

– to be enlarged by;

– to be obligatory;

– Physical culture;

– good excuse;

– freshmen;

– huge;

– different.

5. Make the card. Write down 5 sentences in Russian using words and word combinations from the exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4. Exchange the card with your groupmates and translate it from Russian into English.

6. Correct the statements. Use such expressions as:

I disagree because...

I can't agree with this statement because...

It's false...

On the contrary...

1. Now our educational institution is called the Murmansk State Academy of Fishing Fleet.

2. An applicant must concentrate on the major subject if he/she wants to enter the university.

3. Only the Faculty of Natural Sciences has its own specialized library, laboratories, workshops and computer center.

4. The first-year and second-year students study only humanitarian subjects.

5. Preliminary courses help students to become well-qualified specialists and prepare them for their future work.

6. Experiments in libraries help students to develop practical skills.

7. Students go to the university library or reading rooms to gain working experience.

8. If a student fails to pass a credit, he must take exams not to fall behind the group.

9. After four years of study students get the Doctor's Degree.

7. Work in pairs. Answer the following questions:

1. When was the Murmansk Higher Engineering Marine School founded and when was it reorganized into Academy? How is our educational institution called now?

2. What must the applicant have if he/she wants to enter the university? What entrance exams did you pass?

3. What do you know about preliminary courses? Did you attend them to enter the university?

4. How many cadets and students study at the University? Who studies at the part-time and correspondence departments?

5. How many faculties are there at the University? What faculties do full-time students study at? What faculty do you study at?

6. What specialized fields does your faculty comprise? What specialized field do you study at?

7. What does every faculty have at its disposal?

8. What general engineering subjects do first- and second-year students study? What humanitarian subjects does the curriculum include? What is your favourite subject? What subject are you good at? What is the most difficult subject for you? What subject do you work hard at?

9. When do students begin to concentrate on their major subjects? What subjects and courses do they study? What do these subjects and courses help students to do?

10. What laboratories do students have at their disposal? Why does the laboratory work play an important part in training up-to-date specialists? What is the aim of field work? Where do cadets have their sailing practice?

11. What books does the university library have? Are you fond of reading? What books do you prefer to read?

12. What opportunities does the university provide to play sports? Are there any sport clubs at the university? What are they? Do you go in for sport? What is your favourite sport? Why?

13. How many terms are there in the academic year? When do students have vocations? How and where do you usually spend your holidays?

14. How many credits and exams do students usually take at the end of the term? What exams will you take at the end of this term? What happens if a student fails to pass a credit?

15. Is it allowed to miss classes? What must a student do if he/she missed the classes? Do you often miss classes?

16. What degree can students get after four years of study? When can they get the Master's degree? Who may take the post-graduate course?

17. Do you like to study at the MSTU? Why?

8. Read and translate the dialogue between the students of the university:

– Hello, Alex! Glad to see you!

– Hello, Max! Glad to see you too! How are you?

– I'm a little bit tired. We have four pairs of classes today.

– What are they?

– Higher Mathematics, English, Philosophy and Descriptive Geometry.

– Are you good at these subjects?

– I'm quite good at Higher Mathematics, Descriptive Geometry is my favourite subject and English is the most difficult subject for me. I'm not good at foreign languages.

– Do you have to work hard?

– Oh, yes. I want to pass the credit on time so I work really hard: I read & translate texts, learn new words, study grammar rules, do a lot of exercises.

– And what about Philosophy?

– Well, frankly speaking, I'm not ready for the seminar today. So I don't think I'll take part in the discussion.

– Don't worry! You can take my book, there are some good articles on your topic! You still have time to look them through and to prepare for the seminar!

– Thank you very much!

– You are welcome! See you!

Make up your own dialogue, speak about the usual working day at the university: your pairs of classes, favourite/difficult subjects, work during the classes and seminars.

9. Make up the plan of the text and tell about your Alma Mater.

10. So, you have got acquainted with the systems of higher education in Great Britain and in Russia. And now compare these systems. Divide into groups and put down your ideas about the difference between the British and Russian systems of higher education. Speak about the educational institutions, entrance to the university, academic year, etc.

e.g. The academic year in British universities starts in October whereas in Russia it starts in September.

Share your ideas with the other groups.

11. What advantages and disadvantages do the Russian and British systems of higher education have? Where would you like to study? Why?

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA

A lot of young people in Russia nowadays want to get higher education abroad. They go to different countries but one of the most attractive countries for students are the USA. Do you want to study there? If yes, read the texts about higher education in the USA very attentively and get the necessary information.

1. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian using a dictionary:

to be admitted, to achieve a degree of success, needy, to do exceptionally well, dormitory (dorm), outskirt, to set standards, ability, creativity, to comprise, sophomore, to be devoted to smth., to be aimed at smth., to last, regular academic subjects, area, carpentry, tuition fee, state residents, to be subsidized by, to receive a degree, liberal arts, to designate, to be scattered, enrollments.

2. Practise the pronunciation of the following words. Translate them .
Harvard [׳ha:vәd]
Massachusetts [׳mæsә׳t∫u:sets]
Yale University [jeil]
Princeton University [׳prinstәn]
Columbia University [ko׳lambiә]
campus [׳kæmpәs]
dormitory [׳do:mitri]
specialization [ֽspe∫iәlai׳ zei∫n]
tertiary education [׳tз:∫әri]
prestigious

[pre׳stidзәs]

3. Scan the terms below and memorize them.

to repay a loan with interest возвратить заем (ссуду, долг) с процентами
community college/ technical college / junior college / a city college муниципальный колледж
tertiary education образование, получаемое в университете, колледже
publicly funded university (state university) университет, финансируемый государством и контролируемый штатом
privately funded university (private university) университет, финансируемый из частных источников
board of regents/ board of trustees коллегия университетского совета
chairman заведующий кафедрой
to have a special subject area специализироваться в определенной области
central unit центральное звено
separate corporate entity отдельная составная единица
associate professor доцент
4. Read the text about the education in The United States of America and put the paragraph titles in the correct place in the text.

1. Funding.

2. The world famous universities.

3. Entrance standards.

4. General information.

5. Institution administration.

6. Categories of higher educational institutions.7. Degrees. a) ______________________

Higher education began in the United States in 1636, when Harvard College (established by John Harvard, English clergyman) was founded in Massachusetts. The aim was to train men for service in church and civil state. Yale College, Princeton University, Columbia University are the oldest and the most famous American higher educational institutions.

Now there are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to enter universities.

In the United States, out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for 'higher education'. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities of the United States, a high school graduate achieves a degree of success.

Every young person who enters a higher educational institution can get financial assistance. If a student is offered a loan, he should repay it (with interest) after he has left the college. Needy students are awarded grants, which they do not have to repay. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at school.

American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called 'campus', with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together on one site, often on the outskirts of the city. Some universities consist of many campuses. The University of California, for example, has 9 campuses, the biggest being Berkeley (founded in 1868), San Francisco (1873), Los Angeles (1919), Santa Barbara (1944), Santa Cruz (1965).

All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies, setting their own admission standards and deciding which students meet their standards. The greater the prestige of the university is, the higher the credits and grades are required.

In the USA the lecture method is combined with the informal discussion. The aim is to develop such abilities as logical thinking, creativity, curiosity and imagination.

b) ________________________

There are several ways to continue higher education in the USA: universities, colleges, community colleges, and technical or vocational training schools (institutions).In other words the system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institutions:The university . A university in the United States usually has several different colleges in it. Each has a special subject area. There may be a college of liberal arts where humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and mathematics are taught. There may be a college of education and a college of business.

A distinctive feature of American university is its 2 levels – the separation of undergraduate from graduate school education. The first level is Undergraduate school of 4 years duration. Here the work of undergraduate students during the first 2 years (the freshman and the sophomore years – the junior years) usually consists of broadly based studies in humanities, social sciences, applied and natural sciences. The last 2 years (the senior years) are devoted almost entirely to the major discipline.

The first 2 years are aimed at providing general education and preparing for more special studies. If all goes well, this undergraduate education culminates in a Bachelor's degree (BS or BA). It's usually known as first degree and may be terminal qualification but it often considered a background for further specialization, a step toward higher (advanced) degree.

The advanced degrees (Master's degree and the PhD) can be obtained in Graduate school , which is the second level of university education. There are two levels at graduate school: the lower to obtaining the Master's degree and upper level for the doctorate or the PhD, which is the research degree.

The graduate students work for 2 or 3 years. During that time they take courses, pass exams, do some laboratory research under a competent professor. On submitting thesis they are awarded a Master's degree.

The four-year undergraduate institution the college . The American college is known by various titles such as the college of liberal arts, the college of arts and sciences, the college of literature, science and arts. The college may be the central unit around which the university is organized, or it may be a separate corporate entity, independent from the university. A college does not have graduate or professional programs. If a college student completes a course of study in arts or science, he or she gets Bachelor of Arts or Science degree. If college students want to continue for a graduate or professional degree, they must go to University.The two-year , or community college , sometimes called a technical college, a junior college, a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates and diplomas. The name derives from the fact that community colleges primarily attracted and accepted students from the local community.

From this type of college students may enter many professions or may go to four-year colleges or universities. The program of study in the community college usually lasts two years. Not all of the subjects taught there are the usual school subjects. The community college may give courses in the regular academic subjects or subjects like dental technology, sewing and other non-academic subjects. Not all students of the community college have a high school diploma. They may then go to a college for two more years to get the Bachelor's degree.

The technical or vocational training schools (institutions) , at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration, and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling and business accounting to computer programming.

The technical or vocational training institutions have only job training, they have no academic program. Entering this type of institution usually it is not necessary for students to have a high school diploma. Programs may take from six months to two years and more. The technical or vocational institutions give training for work in areas such as electronics, carpentry and others.

c) _________________________

The university may get money from several different sources. A publicly funded university (state university) gets some money from the state government; privately funded university (private university) gets money only from private sources; or the university may be funded by a religious group.

Students have to pay to go both private and state universities. In the state institutions the fees are lower especially for state residents. They are subsidized by state government, e.g. the University of California and the State University of New York. Yet it more prestigious to get a degree at a private university where the quality of education is almost always better.

The vast majority of students (up to 70 percent) lack the financial resources to pay tuition fees and must rely on student loans (money lent by bank on educaton purposes) and scholarships from their university, the federal government, or a private lender. Generally, private universities charge much higher tuition than their public counterparts, which rely on state funds to make up the difference.

Private schools are typically more expensive. Depending upon the type of school and program, annual graduate program tuition can vary from $15,000 to as high as $40,000. Note that these prices do not include living expenses (rent, room/board, etc.) or additional fees that schools add on such as 'activities fees'. These fees, especially room and board, can range from $6,000 to $12,000 per academic year (assuming a single student without children).

d) _________________________

As it was mentioned above to enter such institutions as the community college and the technical or vocational training schools, usually it is not even necessary to have a high school diploma but the entrance standards at the universities and at the four-year colleges are much more rigid. Applicants here are chosen on the basis of:

a) high school records;b) recommendations from high school teachers;c) an autobiographical essay written by an applicant;d) the impression they make during interviews at the university;e) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT).

It is necessary to note that entrance standard and admission policies may be different considerably from university to university.

e) _________________________

There are no final examinations at colleges and universities, and students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject. The traditional degree which crowns the undergraduate course is that of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or a Bachelor of Science (B.C.). The lower level of graduate school is for obtaining a Master's Degree (M.A. or M.C.), and the upper level is for the degree of a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

f) __________________________

Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or a board of trustees.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or a college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor (full professor). Graduate students who give some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

g) _________________________

Speaking about the most famous American higher educational institutions it is necessary to name the oldest one that is Harvard College (Massachusetts), established in 1636. The College of William and Mary (Virginia, 1693) is the second institution of higher education founded in the Colonies. In 1701 Connecticut Puritans established Yale College (Connecticut).

All these Colonial colleges were gradually turned into Universities with classical education. Their aim was to train men for service in church and civil state.

By the 1770s several more colleges had been opened: University of Pennsylvania (1740), Princeton University (1746), Washington and Lee University (1749), Columbia University (1754), Brown University (1764), Rutgers College (1766), Dartmouth College (1769).

Though the colleges in the first half of the 19th century were numerous and widely scattered over the settled area, their enrollments were comparatively small. Since 1870s the colleges have developed enormously. Their resources have multiplied, the number of their students has increased by leaps and bounds, the program of studies has broadened and deepened, the standards have been raised, and the efficiency of the instruction has greatly increased. Rigidly prescribed courses of study have given way to elective courses.

In the course of time, when research centers and experiment stations were attached to the Universities, these institutions turned into the strongholds of science and higher education.

5. Translate the words and word combinations into English:

цель; служба; быть принятым в университет; достичь успеха; вернуть долг с процентами; необеспеченный студент; общежитие; развивать навыки; муниципальный колледж; техническое и профессиональное училище; специализироваться в определенной области; первый и второй годы обучения (младшие годы обучения); степень бакалавра гуманитарных или естественных наук; аспирантура; диссертация; требования при поступлении в университет; выпускные экзамены; декан; заведующий кафедрой; преподаватель; доцент; профессор.

6. Find the words in the text which mean:

– purpose;

– aid;

– poor;

– percents;

– consisting of many different parts;

– to be funded by;

– one of the best and the most important;

– money paid for education;

– strict;

– the length of time;

– to get;

– to be presided by;

– to choose somebody for a particular job or purpose;

– to study very good at school;

– initially.

7. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

exceptionally; public; Harvard; annual; developed; campus; complex; are governed by; go on

1. Higher education began in the United States in 1636, when _____ College was founded in Massachusetts.

2. In the United States, out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million _____ for 'higher education'.

3. Scholarships are given when a student is doing _____ well at school.

4. American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called '_____'.

5. The system of higher education in the United States is _____, comprising four categories of institutions.

6. _____ undergraduate tuition varies widely from state to state. A typical year's tuition at a _____ university (for residents of the state) is about $5,000.

7. Higher educational institutions usually _____ a board of regents or a board of trustees.

8. In 1870s the colleges of the USA _____ enormously: they became bigger in size, the number of faculties and specialities increased.

8. Match the beginning and the end of the sentences.

1. Higher education began in the United States

a) from the state government.

2. Yale College, Princeton University, Columbia University are

b) is about $5,000.

3. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities of the United States,

c) it is necessary to name the oldest one that is Harvard College.

4. Scholarships are given

d) in 1636.

5. A distinctive feature of American University is its 2 levels –

e) a high school graduate achieves a degree of success.

6. In other words the system of higher education in the United States is complex,

f) deans.

7. A publicly funded university (state university) gets some money

g) the oldest and the most famous American higher educational institutions.

8. A typical year's tuition at a public university (for residents of the state)

h) when a student is doing exceptionally well at school.

9. Speaking about the most famous American higher educational institutions

i) comprising four categories of institutions.

10. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by

j) the separation of undergraduate from graduate school education.

9. Correct the statements.

1. Higher education began in the United States in 1600, when Yale College was founded.

2. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and the most famous American higher educational institutions.

3. Nowadays there are about 100 colleges and universities in the US.

4. If a student is offered a loan, he shouldn't repay it after he has left the college.

5. The University of California has 5 campuses.

6. In the USA the lecture method is combined with laboratory works.

7. There are 2 ways to get higher education in the USA: universities and colleges.

8. A distinctive feature of American University is its 3 levels – undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate school education.

9. Depending upon the type of school and program, annual graduate program tuition can vary from $1,000 to as high as $4,000.

10. Applicants are chosen only on the basis of their personal qualities.

11. There are 7 final examinations at each college and university.

10. The purpose of studying at the university is to get some degree. As it is known a distinctive feature of American University is its 2 levels – the separation of undergraduate from graduate education. Each level has its own system of degrees. Complete the chart with information about the degrees on each level.

Degree

Abbreviation

The full name

Undergraduate education

Graduate education

11. Do the translation into English. 1. Гарвардский колледж был основан в 1936 году в штате Массачусетс английским священником Джоном Гарвардом.2. В США в первой половине XIX в. колледжи были довольно многочисленны. Они были разбросаны по всей территории Америки, но количество студентов в них было небольшое.3. В США существует около 3000 колледжей и университетов, которые финансируются государством, из частного источника или религиозной группой.4. В американских университетах существует двухуровневая система образования, состоящая из программы для студентов (рассчитанной на получение степени бакалавра гуманитарных или естественных наук) и программы для аспирантов (продолжение образования с целью получения степени магистра или доктора наук).5. Обучение в муниципальном колледже длится два года, после чего студенты поступают в университет и учатся еще два года, для того чтобы получить степень бакалавра.6. Президент – глава университета; деканы управляют различными колледжами, входящими в состав университета; заведующие кафедрами возглавляют многочисленные кафедры. Другой персонал университета – это инструкторы, преподаватели, доценты и профессора, а также аспиранты-преподаватели.12. Discuss the following issues:

1. Comment on the entrance standard and admission policies at the universities.

2. Speak about the average annual graduate program tuition and 'activities fees'.

3. Dwell on a financial assistance that is given to the students. Should they repay it? What is awarded to needy students? What is a scholarship?

4. Explain the functions of the university administration: the president, deans, the chairman, graduate assistants.

5. Speak about such a distinctive feature of American University as its 2 levels.

6. Prove that the system of higher education in the United States is complex.

7. Name the most famous American higher educational institutions.

YALE UNIVERSITY

1. Before reading the text translate the following words and word combinations into Russian using a dictionary:

along with smb.; prominent; to feature a journal/ magazine/ newspaper; intramural sport; vibrant; to be coed; rivals; notably.

2. Yale University is one of the oldest and best-known universities of the USA. Read the text and find the information about:

– the date of foundation;

– famous people who studied at Yale;

– the number of faculty members working at Yale;

– the number of undergraduate and graduate students studying at Yale;

– students' organizations;

– sports life at Yale;

– Yale mascot.

Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School this university is considered as the third-largest university of the USA (after The Harvard University and The College of William and Mary).

All U.S. presidents since 1989 have been Yale graduates, namely George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton (who attended the University's Law School along with his wife, New York Senator Hillary Clinton). Many of the 2004 presidential candidates attended Yale: Dick Cheney (although he did not graduate), John Kerry, Howard Dean, and Joe Lieberman. Many other famous politicians, artists, sportsmen studied at Yale. The Yale School of Drama is notable for producing many prominent Hollywood and Broadway actors.

Yale has 3,200 faculty members, who teach 5,200 undergraduate students and 6,000 graduate students. A large number of students' organizations are associated with the university. The Yale Political Union is the oldest students' political organization in the United States.

The university features a variety of student journals, magazines, and newspapers. The latter category includes the Yale Daily News, which was first published in 1878 and is the oldest daily college newspaper in the United States.

The Yale College Council runs several agencies that oversee campus wide activities and student services. The campus also includes several fraternities and sororities, the most famous of which is The Whiffenpoofs. A number of prominent secret societies, including Skull and Bones, are composed of Yale College students.

Yale intramural sports are a vibrant aspect of student life. Students compete for their respective residential colleges, which fosters a friendly rivalry. The year is divided into Fall, Winter, and Spring seasons, each of which includes about ten different sports. About half the sports are coed. At the end of the year, the residential college with the most points wins the Tyng Cup.

Yale supports 35 varsity athletic teams that compete in the Ivy League. Yale has numerous athletic facilities, including the Yale Bowl (the nation's first natural 'bowl' stadium, and prototype for such stadiums as the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the Rose Bowl), and the Payne Whitney Gymnasium, the second-largest indoor athletic complex in the world. The Yale Corinthian Yacht Club, founded in 1881, is the oldest collegiate sailing club in the world. The yacht club produced several Olympic sailors. Yale and Harvard have for most of their history been rivals in almost everything, notably academics, rowing and football.

The school mascot is 'Handsome Dan', the famous Yale bulldog, and the Yale fight song contains the refrain, "Bulldog, bulldog, bow wow wow." The school color is Yale Blue (dark blue).

Yale president Richard C. Levin summarized the university's institutional priorities for its fourth century: "First, among the nation's finest research universities, Yale is distinctively committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders."

3. Comment on the quotation of Richard C. Levin naming the main institutional priorities of The Yale University.

4. Write the summary of the text.

5. Would you like to get higher education in one of the American universities? If yes, read this information for International Applicants and fill in the application form. Good luck! (see Appendix)

International Applicants!

We appreciate your interest in Harvard College! Since 1636, Harvard has attracted curious, energetic and passionate students to live and to learn in Cambridge. Our undergraduates come from all over the United States as well as 80 countries and have a rich mix of interests, backgrounds, and talents.

If you are applying from a school outside the United States or Canada, you should follow the same procedures and timetables as candidates applying from schools in the United States. There is, however, some special information for students applying from abroad, which you can find on our website: www.harvard.edu.

ROLE PLAY

What role does higher education play in the life of our society? Is it important to have a Diploma to make a successful career? Or is it possible to succeed without higher education?

Read this passage, then choose one of the suggested roles and express your opinion.

Durability of higher education

Occasionally, it is argued that higher education is no longer necessary as it becomes obsolete soon after graduation. This observation is raised of a couple of reasons:

* Industry changes are so fast these days that a particular know-how is only relevant for a short time before it becomes obsolete by the next fad.

* The Internet has made information so pervasive that one can understand and undertake most jobs that previously required training after a short on line search.

* Globalization has led to a decreased emphasis on research as both governments and industries have pursued cost cutting policy. Employers therefore value employees who can provide narrow immediate skills more than those who have broad knowledge. This is ironic that most government leaders are trying to move their governments to information economy.

* Higher education no longer guarantees employment as it used to do in the past.

* As governments have cut back on education spending, some higher education institutions have based their teaching material to a specific vendor in an attempt to secure funding. This however reduces the durability of awarded diploma as its validity is rigidly tied to a particular vendor.

Despite these observations, higher education especially in universities is still important. Higher education, when well delivered, is supposed to educate the candidate how to acquire a necessary skill and why a specific way of dealing with a problem is superior to an alternative. This is possible as higher education allows one to face a problem from a holistic point of view. Higher education also helps to fill the information gap, which is very pervasive in skilled but uneducated employees.

Some relevant facts:

– Britian, Canada and the USA have cut their education budget substantially in the last 15 years.

– China, on the other hand, has increased its education spending to a ridiculous level. BBC claimed that China has over 700,000 government sponsored students in western universities. That's on top of those who are trained locally.

A host

Announce the theme of discussion and introduce the participants. You must follow the ideas of each participant, ask questions if necessary and carry on the role play.

A first-year student

You've just entered the university and want to become a well-qualified specialist to apply for a well-paid job in future.

A graduate

You are not satisfied with the received education. You work is not connected with the received speciality.

A student who wants to enter the post-graduate course

You are sure that even basic higher education is not enough to reach success in modern world. You want to continue education after the graduation from the university.

A part-time student

It's difficult for you to combine work and study, but you are sure that Diploma will help to make a career and earn good money.

A businessman

You don't have higher education but you've made a fortune. You think that personal qualities and business connections are more important than a Diploma.

Parents

You worry about your 16 y.o. son. You don't want him to join the army but you are scared that he won't be able to get free higher education and you can't afford to cover his tuition fees.

A housewife

You have graduated from the university but you haven't worked a day – you are too busy running the house and bringing up children. You believe that family is more important than career.

A professor

You have been teaching students for 20 years and think that 'present day' students are greatly different from the 'old' ones.

A girl

You want to marry money because you think that it's impossible for a girl to make a career in a 'men's world'.

An unemployed

You have two diplomas but don't have a job. You think that higher education is important but we must also take into account personal qualities and business connections.

Write an essay and express your thoughts about the role of higher education in modern world.

Appendix

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Арбаева, Е.И. Сборник иностранных текстов для изучения английского языка по теме «Наш университет» / Е.И. Арбаева. – Мурманск : МГТУ, 2000.

2. Бурлак, А.И. Знакомьтесь: Америка! / А.И. Бурлак, Л.И. Кравцова. – М. : Высшая школа, 2005.

3. Истомина, Е.А. Profiles of the United States / Е.А. Истомина, Ю.Е. Ваулина. – М. : Астрель, АСТ, 2003.

4. Левашова, В.А. Britain today: life and institutions / В.А. Левашова. – М. : Инфра-М, 2001.

5. Токарева, Н.Д. What is it like in the USA? / Н.Д. Токарева. – М. : Гриф, МОРФ, 2005.

6. McDowall, D. Britain in Close-Up / D. McDowall. – London : Longman Group, 2003.

7. Garton-Sprenger, J. Flying Colours / J. Garton-Sprenger, S. Greenall. – Heinemann, 1992.

8. Universities in the USA [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.america.com. – Заглавие с экрана.

9. Universities in the USA [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.studyusa.com – Заглавие с экрана.

10. Admissions and Financial Aid [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.harvard.edu. – Заглавие с экрана.

11. Higher Education [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.en.wikipedia.org. – Заглавие с экрана.

12. World Declaration on Higher Education for the twenty first century: Vision and Action [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.unesco.org. – Заглавие с экрана.

13. American Education [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.madrassas.com. – Заглавие с экрана.

14. Learning Russian in Moscow / Education system in Russia [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.studyrussian.com. – Заглавие с экрана.

15. System of Russian Education [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.useic.ru. – Заглавие с экрана.

16. Europe / the Russian Federation / A brief description of Russian Higher Education [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.gse.buffalo.edu. – Заглавие с экрана.


[*] United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

[†] Alma mater – лат. "Кормящая мать" – почтительное наименование студентами своего университета.

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Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya16:54:45 01 сентября 2019
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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



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