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Учебное пособие: Методические указания по английскому языку для работы над устными экзаменационными темами

Название: Методические указания по английскому языку для работы над устными экзаменационными темами
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Министерство образования

Российской Федерации

САМАРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРНО-СТРОИТЕЛЬНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

КАФЕДРА ЛИНГВИСТИКИ И МЕЖЪЯЗЫКОВОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для работы над устными

экзаменационными темами

Часть 2

УТВЕРЖДЕНЫ РЕДАКЦИОННО-ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИМ

СОВЕТОМ АКАДЕМИИ 10 ЯНВАРЯ 2002 ГОДА

Самара 2003

Составители: С.Ф.Пудовкина, Л.В.Федотова, Ю.В.Лопухова, О.К.Гергенредер, Т.А.Манакова, О.А.Телешевская, Г.А.Кандалова

ББК 42(57)

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ для работы над устными экзаменационными темами. Часть 2/ Сост.: С.Ф.Пудовкина, Л.В.Федотова, Ю.В.Лопухова, О.К.Гергенредер, Т.А.Манакова, О.А.Телешевская, Г.А.Кандалова.

Самарск.гос.арх.-строит.акад. Самара, 2003. 32 с.

Методические указания рассчитаны на подготовку устных тем в соответствии с программой обучения студентов по строительным специальностям.

Предназначены для студентов 2-го курса.

Номер лицензии на издательскую деятельность ЛР № 020726 от 25 февраля 1998 г.

Самарская архитектурно-строительная академия, 2003

Настоящие методические указания не могут быть полностью или частично воспроизведены, тиражированы (в том числе ксерокопированы) и распространены без разрешения Самарской государственной архитектурно-строительной академии.

Редактор Г.Ф.Коноплина

Технический редактор А.И.Непогодина

Корректор Е.М.Исаева

Подписано в печать 25.01.03. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная.

Печать оперативная. Уч-изд.л.2,0. Усл.печ.л.1,86.Тираж 300 экз.

Самарская государственная архитектурно-строительная академия.

443001 Самара, ул. Молодогвардейская, 194.

с Самарская государственная

архитектурно-строительная академия, 2003

LESSON 7 BUILDING MATERIALS

V OCABULARY

consider - принимать во внимание, timber - лесоматериалы,

property - свойство availability - наличие

requirement - требование hard - твердый, жесткий

meet requirement - отвечать требованиям purpose - цель

fire-resistant - огнеупорный concrete - бетон

steel - сталь brick - кирпич

decay - гнить clay - глина

ancient - древний disadvantage - недостаток

harden - твердеть fine - мелкий

coarse - крупный, aggregate - заполнитель

crushed stone - щебень cement - цемент

prestressed - предварительно напряженный gravel - гравий

reinforced concrete - железобетон rod - стержень, брус

reinforcement - арматура fibre - волокно

glass reinforced plastics - стеклопластик chemicals - химикаты

polyester resin - полиэфирная смола glass - стекло

on a large scale - в большом масштабе

Text A BUILDING MATERIALS

In order to build a house the civil engineer must consider many important factors: the choice of materials, their physical properties, availability, cost, etc. Materials to be used for structural purposes should meet a number of requirements. In most cases they should be strong, durable and fire-resistant.

Steel, concrete, stone, timber and brick are the most commonly used building materials. Timber is the oldest structural material known to mankind. It is light, cheap and easy to work with. But timber has certain disadvantages: it burns and decays. Timber used for building purposes is divided into two groups: softwoods and hardwoods. Softwoods are chiefly used in construction, while hardwoods are generally used for decorative purposes.

Bricks were known many thousands of years ago. They are molded from clay into the required shape. Bricks are usually rectangular in shape. They are hardened by being fired in a kiln.

Concrete is one of the most important building materials. It is difficult to imagine modern structures without concrete. Concrete is made by mixing together a proportion of fine and coarse aggregates with cement and water. Crushed stone, broken brick and gravel are considered to be coarse aggregates. Sand is the best fine aggregate. Both quarry and river sands are extensively used.

Reinforced concrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials available - concrete and steel. There are two kinds of reinforced concrete: with ordinary reinforcement and concrete with prestressed reinforcement. Concrete is reinforced by the incorporation of steel rods.

Plastics and glass reinforced plastics are comparatively new building materials, but they have already found many uses in modern construction. Plastics combine all the best characteristics of building materials with good insulating properties. Plastics are produced from chemicals. Glass-reinforced plastics are produced from polyester resins reinforced with glass fibres. Plastics and glass-reinforced plastics are the materials to be used in modern construction on a large scale.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions :

1. What must a civil engineer consider to build a house?

2. What requirements should building materials meet?

3. What are the most commonly used building materials?

4. Into what groups is timber divided?

5. For what purposes are they used?

6. What does concrete consist of?

7. What fine and coarse aggregates do you know?

8. What components does reinforced concrete include?

9. What is the process of reinforcing ordinary concrete structures.

10. Why have plastics already found use in modern construction?

Exercise 2. Give the necessary English equivalents:

1. Materials used in modern construction should (отвечать нескольким требованиям).

2. (Лесоматериал) is light, cheap and easy to work with, but it has certain (недостатки).

3. (Кирпичи) are hardened (обжигом в печи).

4. Building materials should be (прочный, огнеупорный).

5. Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, gravel and water (в нужных пропорциях).

6. (Ввести стальные стержни в бетон) is to reinforce ordinary concrete structures.

7. Plastics are produced from (химикаты).

8. Sand is the best (мелкий заполнитель).

Exercise 3. Translate into English :

1. Для строительства здания необходимы разнообразные строительные материалы.

2. Кирпич, лесоматериалы, бетон, железобетон и пластмассы - это наиболее важные материалы, применяемые в строительстве.

3. Сталь используется в качестве арматуры в железобетонных конструкциях.

4. Бетон изготовляется путем замешивания в соответствующих пропорциях мелкого и крупного заполнителей, цемента и воды.

5. Кирпич - это искусственный материал, изготовленный из глины и закаленный обжигом на солнце или в обжиговой печи.

6. Железобетон состоит из двух прочнейших материалов - бетона и стали. Он широко применяется для строительства жилых и промышленных зданий.

7. Пластмассы и стеклопластики являются новейшими стройматериалами. Они обладают хорошими изоляционными свойствами.

Exercise 4. Translate into Russian :

Text C. REINFORCED CONCRETE

Reinforced cocrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials, concrete and steel.

This term is applied to a construction in which steel bars or heavy steel mesh are properly embedded in concrete. The steel is put in position and concrete is poured around and over it, then tamped in place so that the steel is completely embedded. When the concrete hardens ans sets, the resulting material gains great strength. This new structural concrete came into practical application at the turn of the 19th century. The first results of the tests of the reinforced concrete beams were published in 1887. Since that time the development of reinforced concrete work has made great progress. And the reasons of this progress are quite evident. Concrete has poor elastic and tensional properties, but it is rigid, strong in compression, durable under and above ground and in the presence or absence of air and water, it increases its strength with age, it is fireproof.

Steel has great tensional, compressive and elastic properties, but it is not durable being exposed to moisture, it loses its strength with age, or being subjected to high temperature. So, what is the effect of the addition of steel reinforcement to concrete.?

Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying but concrete does and therefore the steel acts as a restraining medium in a reinforced concrete member. Shrinkage causes tensile stresses in the concrete which are balanced by compressive stresses in the steel. For getting the best from reinforced concrete the following consideration should be kept in mind:

1. For general use the most suitable proportions of cement and aggregate are: I part cement, 2 parts sand and 4 parts of gravel.

2. only fresh water free from organic matter should be used for reinforced work. Sea water is not allowed.

3. Homogeneity of the concrete is a very important requirement.

Steel costructions with reinforced concrete have become the most important building materials invented in centuries and they have given modern architecture its peculiar features.

Exercise 5. Make up your own topic "Building Materials" on the base of the three texts.

LESSON 8 PARTS OF A BUILDING

TEXT A. THE VARIOUS PARTS OF A BUILDING

A building consists of two main parts: the substructure and the superstructure. The substructure is the part of a building below ground level. It includes the footing, the basement and the foundation walls. The superstructure is the part of a building above ground level. It includes the walls, floors, roofs, beams, columns and trusses.

To build a house first the excavation must be dug for the basement, then the foundation walls are constructed. After that the framework is erected, sheathed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The foundation is the lowest part of the structure upon which the superstructure rests. Foundations are usually made of monolithic concrete, concrete blocks, piles or bricks. They keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, support the superstructure and prevent the building from sinking.

Walls enclose internal spaces and support the weight of the floors and roof . Non-structural subdividing walls are called partitions. Walls also protect the interior from exposure to the weather. They are made of wood, brick, stone, concrete, concrete blocks, reinforced concrete and/or other natural or artificial building materials.

A window is an opening in the wall of a structure which lets the light and air. Doors are constructed in walls to allow access. Floors divide a building into storeys. They may be of timber or constructed from fire-resistant materials. At present floors finished in wood or linoleum are very popular.

Stairs are a succession of steps connecting two spaces located at different levels. They may be of wood, stone, reinforced concrete or metal.

A roof is the topmost part of a building. Roofs cover the building and protect it from exposure to the weather. They should tie in the walls and give strength and firmness to the whole structure. Roofs must be well framed, strong enough to resist winds, sustain snow loads and serve as insulation to prevent heat transmission.

Today every building should be beautiful in appearance, well proportioned and provided with all modern conveniences such as running water, gas, central heating, ventilation, air conditioning, waste disposal and telephone points.

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions

1. What parts of a building do you know?

2.What is the substructure (the superstructure)?

3.What parts does the substructure (the superstructure) include?

4.What is the first step in building a house?

5.What is the function of foundations (walls, floors, roofs)?

6.What materials are foundations (walls, floors, roofs) made of ?

7.What are stairs?

8.What is a door (a window)?

9.What should every building be provided with?

Exercise 2 Make up sentences with the given word- combinations..

To build a house, to dig the excavation, to protect by several coats of paint, monolithic concrete, to prevent the building from sinking down, to resist winds, to sustain snow loads, to prevent heat transmission, air conditioning.

Exercise 3 Put in the necessary words and word- combinations.

1. Any building consists of two parts: ... and ... . 2. ... is the lowest part of the structure upon which the superstructure ... . For different ... builders have developed ... . 3. ... of the structure depends on the ... . 4.For framework protection they ... it with several ... ... ... . 5.Walls dividing flats into rooms are called ... . 6. ... divide the building into storeys. 7.Walls and roofs protect the interior from ... ... ... ... .

8. ...are constructed to allow access.

9. Every building should be beautiful ... ... .

Exercise 4 . Translate into Russian.

1.If he were here, he would help us. 2.If you had left earlier yesterday, you would have arrived in time for dinner. 3.If it were not so late, I should stay. 4.If I had been you, I should have gone to the South last summer. 5.My article would have been ready last week provided I had had all necessary materials. 6.Were I in your place I should go there. 7.Had we seen them yesterday we should have told them about it. 8.Were they free tomorrow, they should go on an excursion. 9.Were she given this work, she would do her best to do it in time. 10.The holidays would be wonderful, were it not so cold. 11.Could they look through this article, we should discuss it. 12.Had he learnt all grammar rules, he would not have made so many mistakes in his dictation.

Exercise 5 Make up sentences according to the models:

Model a) I have time - I shall do the work.

If I had time, I should do the work.

1.I shall go - he invites me. 2.He will answer your letter - he knows your address. 3.I write to them - they will come. 4.She made a promise - she keeps it. 5.He has this book - he will give it to you. 6.It will rain tomorrow - we shall not go on our excursion.

Model b):

I did not translate the article yesterday because I had no dictionary .

If I had a dictionary ,I should have translated the article .

1.He was not in town therefore he was not present at our meeting .If ... . 2. It is

late and I have to go home .If ... .3. I have left the book at home: that is why I cannot read that passage to you.4. We lost our way because the night was dark. If... .5.There were too many unknown words in the text therefore i could not translate it without a dictionary. If ... .

Exercise 6. Open the brackets and translate the sentences into Russian

.

1.If I (am, were) you, I shouldn’t do that. 2.If I (know, knew) his language, I should speak to him. 3.We (should be glad, are glad), if the rain stopped. 4.If you (see, saw) him, he would tell you the news. 5.We should have arrived in time, if we (didn’t miss, hadn’t missed) the bus. 6.If he worked hard, he (makes, would make) progress. 7.She would take part in the discussion, if she (had, has) time. 8.If you (send, sent) a telegram now, he would get it in the afternoon. 9.If you had sent a telegram in time, he (would learn, would have learnt) the news. 10.If they had come yesterday, I (should be glad, should have been glad). 11.It is unusual he (left, should leave) his house so early. 12.If she (knows, knew) English well, she would translate this article without a dictionary. 13.You (would pass, would have passed) your examinations, if you had worked hard during the term. But you didn’t.

TEXT B. PILE FOUNDATIONS

Pile foundations are being used on a large scale in Russia. Their use makes it possible to achieve considerable reductions in the volume of concreting and to increase the use of prefabricated elements. Piles also speed up foundation work, reduce labour costs and increase reliability. Piles enable foundations to be built in all seasons, and eliminate the need for digging frozen ground. Subsidence with pile foundations is 80 per cent less than in conventional foundations. This is particular important in the construction of buildings with large wall panels, which are highly sensitive to uneven subsidence. Pile foundations are therefore being applied extensively in this type of building. The most common type of piles is a prefabricated, reinforced concrete pile, either solid or hollow.

Research is going on into the question of reducing the amount of piling required for a given building, the reinforcement required, while simultaneously increasing the cross section and load-bearing capacity. This refers to piles with prestressed reinforcement, and hollow piles. Piles of square section with a round cavity are being used, together with tubular piles.

The hollow square piles require less concrete, and are lighter, it makes them easier to drive. The tubular piles, up to 80 cm in diameter are more economical than solid piles. Furthermore, because of their large diameter and great load-bearing capacity, the number required can be reduced. This type of pile has been found most useful where it must pass through poor soil and enter relatively strong soils.

TEXT C. ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE

In discussing the materials in construction, we have also been considering many of the elements of architectural construction such as walls, columns (or posts), beams, openings (windows and doors), roof coverings, arches. Both the materials used and the elements of construction were clearly associated with the practical function of each building.

The wall.. As an architectural element the wall may vary in thickness, height, shape (curved, straight, elliptical), completeness, manner of construction, basic function, and ultimate esthetic purpose and effect. In some styles of architecture, the wall as a wall is more important than in others, either for decorative or for functional reasons. In the chapel, e. g., the false wall is an area to be covered with ornament and is otherwise relatively functionless. In the house, the wall is a partly limiting, partly liberating surface, without ornament of any kind.

In some styles of architecture the wall is more important as a «bearing» or carrying element, that is, for functional reasons. This is seen in Romanesque, Egyptian, Renaissance, and many other traditional styles where the walls are the building, carrying themselves as well as the floors.

Ornament , in the traditional sense, is almost completely absent from the modern building, which relies on the texture and color of its walls and similar elements for decorative embellishment.

Windows and Doors. Windows and doors constitute the two chief types of openings. Their purpose is to afford ready access of light, air and entry for occupants. Different climates and purposes naturally require different types of windows and doors. Even in traditional architecture it was evident that whereas it was desirable to admit light in northern buildings where there was relatively little sun, in southern buildings it was far more advisable to keep sun out.

Windows and doors whether traditional or modern, are also important elements in the decoration of the building and its design qualities.

Doors are also part of the a esthetics of a building. In some buildings their effect is far less than in others - deliberately so. In traditional architectural forms, doorways often have a ceremonial purpose associated with a religious or royal procession and therefore carry importance in the architectural scheme together with their symbolic meaning.

Exercise 7. Make up your own topic "Parts of a Building".

LESSON 9: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Text A. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Ex 1. Read and translate the text. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian equivalents to the words marked out in the text.

There are two branches of engineering: heating and ventilation . They are very closely connected. Both are concerned with providing a required atmospheric environment within a definite space.

Air-conditioning is related to heating and ventilation. The most widely used system of heating is the central heating system . The term “central heating” applied to the heating of domestic and other buildings indicates that the whole of a building is heated from a central source. In the central heating system the fuel is burned in one particular place. It may be the basement of a building or a specially designed room for the purpose. Then from there steam, hot water or warm air is transmitted to all the necessary places to be heated.

Heating system has the two most common systems: the hot water system and the steam system.

The hot water system consists of a boiler and a whole system of pipes, which are connected to all the radiators in the building. The pipes are usually made of steel, but they can be made of copper too. The cooled water is returned to the boiler where it is reheated.

The steam heating system consists of the single-pipe system and the two-pipe system. In the single-pipe system the steam is conveyed to the radiator through a pipe at the bottom of one of the end sections. In the radiator forms the condensation, which flows back through the same pipe.

In the two-pipe system a separate system of piping is provided. It carry away the condensation and in some cases the air from the radiator.

Of course, ventilation of buildings is a very important factor in modern structures. It receives proper attention in housebuilding, because every person in the building should have plenty of fresh air.

Words:

ventilation – вентиляция , heating – отопление

air-condition – кондиционирование воздуха radiator – радиатор

to apply – применять, to be heated – отапливаться

to be transmitted – передаваться uel – топливо,

to be burned – сжигаться, basement – подвал

a single-pipe system – система с одной трубой pipe – труба

steam – пар ,boiler – котельная,

to be connected – быть соединенным ,

to be reheated – быть повторно нагретым ,

copper – медь, to be conveyed – передаваться

domestic building – жилое здание

central heating system – система центрального отопления

Ex. II. Answer the questions:

1. What branches of engineering are very connected?

2. Is air-conditioning related only to heating?

3. Where does the central heating apply?

4. Where is the fuel burned?

5. Call the two most common systems of heating?

6. What does the hot water system consist of?

7. How many systems does it include?

8. What can you say about the single-pipe system?

9. What can you say about the two-pipe system?

10.Why is ventilation of buildings a very important factor in modern structures?

Ex. III. . Translate the dialogue into English using words and phrases from the text and tell it in pairs.

А: Можешь ли ты мне сказать, какая система отопления наиболее широко используется?

Б: Я не специалист в этой области, но я уверен, что это система центрального отопления.

А: Правда ли, что в системе центрального отопления топливо сжигается в специальном для этого месте?

Б: Да, ты абсолютно прав. Этим местом может быть подвал здания или специально созданная для данной цели комната.

А: Затем оттуда пар, горячая или теплая вода передается во все необходимые места, чтобы они отапливались.

Б: Ты прав. Это то, что мы называем системой центрального отопления.

Ex IV. Tell about heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

Text B:

Ex 5.Read and translate the text. Give the text a suitable title.

When designing a small home that is to be air-conditioned, many important factors must be considered to achieve economical installation and low operating costs. A system controlling the temperature, humidity and filtering of the air is adequate for home conditioning.

Units with very accurate controls, as used in industrial or large commercial installations, are not required for small residences.

A house to be efficiently and economically air-conditioned should be designed so that the heat gain is as low as possible. This is achieved by proper orientation, location of glass areas, and insulation and ventilation of roof. Natural elements such as trees, planting and water areas should be utilized to provide shade and cooling.

It is not necessary to have a sealed house or a square plan to air-condition efficiently. For the sake of economy and efficiency in the small home the center core plan is often advised. The central service core has the following advantages: 1. Economical structure. 2. Grouped plumbing. 3. Efficient ductwork. 4. Flexibility of plan around core to utilize orientation.

The air conditioning unit should be located in the center of the plan to minimize ductwork and insulation. Oversize units are as inefficient as undersize conditioning units. The proper unit that will operate steadily, rather than in surges of cooling periods, will provide better results, because between surges humidity builds up and destroys the comfort balance. Ideal interior humidity is 50%.

The cost and availability of electricity and water should be obtained to estimate operating costs of equipment. If supply of water is limited or expensive, conditioning systems with water saving devices are necessary.

Ex VI. a) Give synonyms to the following words:

to use home to be located

to design possible

b) Give antonyms to the following words:

important, expensive ,a small residence

Text C: “Designing a Heating System.”

In general, a heating system should be designed so that the water will circulate by gravity. In some installations, circumstances are such that a pump or accelerator must be used to achieve a satisfactory circulation. This should be avoided if possible.

When designing a heating system for a large building, it is usual – in the interests of economy and to ensure efficient heating – to first calculate how much heat will be needed to maintain the building at the desired temperature. Then the size of the boiler and the amount of pipe and radiator heating surface required to give out this heat will be estimated. For small systems, “rule-of-thumb” methods and past experience are generally a sufficient guide.

The overhead drop-feed system shows how the hot water from the boiler is carried as high as possible in the building, from where it falls in cooling, through the various branch pipes and radiators, back to the boiler. In this type of system, the maximum amount of “circulating head” or pressure, would be obtained.

Ex 7. Find out the beginning of the following sentences:

1) ... will circulate by gravity.

2) ... will be estimated.

3) ... are generally a sufficient guide.

4) ... would be obtained.

LESSON 10 LET EARTH BE SAVED

Ex. 1. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian equivalents to the words marked оut in the text " LET EARTH BE SAVED"

Text 1. LET EARTH BE SAVED

Look around you. Just think what the situation is like. People may be suffering from cholera, typhoid or dysentery. Or it could be that some­body you know has cancer, allergy or bronchitis. What is the reason for all this?

Doctors may list thousands of causes. But, if you go deep into the problem, you will understand that the atmosphere around us is severely polluted . Rather, we have destroyed the environment to such an extent that the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe and the land we live and grow our food on, are no longer safe. They are a source of danger to us, as much as we are dan­gerous to Nature around us.

In fact thousands of animals, birds and plants which lived for mil­lions of years, have now become ex­tinct.

Just consider for a moment! We will exhaust all available resources of oil in about two decades. Likewise, resources like coal, iron , gold and copper may not even last our life­time. So, by the time we die, we would have ensured that our children will never know what petrol or kero­sene is like. They will probably never see any of these and many more.

It could be argued that plastics could replace metals. But are plast­ics and synthetic materials bio-degradable ? When a leaf falls from a tree, it is eaten by insects or becomes manure for plants. Bad enough, plast­ics are not absorbed in the soil. Worse, they are harmful if they are allowed to remain so.

Similarly, consider a nuclear plant. We all know, that uranium [ju/ reini m] breaks down when struck with a neutron. Energy is the result. But what happens to the fission frag­ments and other products that are not used? You cannot throw them away as garbage is thrown away. A people in the neighbourhood are get fatal diseases. Such nuclear wastes have to be stored till such time they lose their potency . So the question of safely storing them arises. After all we would not like to be victims ourselves.

These are just superficial ques­tions about environment before us. By all our actions, we are destroying Earth. We have to help ourselves to prevent dreaded problems such as industrial pollution, shrinking rain forests, ever expanding deserts, ozone holes, over-population, acid rain, river and ocean pollution and many more.

How do we do this? People con­cerned the world over have been thinking on these lines for well over 40 years. Later, well-meaning people from all round the globe came to­gether to celebrate the "Internation­al Earth Day" on April 22 each year. And last year, people from over 134 countries participated in these celebrations. Many more countries participated this year.

The aim of "Earth Day" is to create an awareness among people to save the environment.

June 5 is World Environment Day. It marks the anniversary of the Stockholm Conference on Human En­vironment held in Sweden in 1972. At this historic conference, nations of the world gathered to share their concern over human progress at the expense of the environment. The meet­ing called upon the world communi­ty to work towards "development without destruction".

Two decades later the United Na­tions Conference on Environment and Development began in Brazil on Environment Day. As governments around the world are discussing re­gional and global environmental is­sues, it is a good time to educate and inform ourselves about our imme­diate environment and work towards improving it.

• Get to know your own neighbour­hood better.

• Bring the residents together to share their concerns about local en­vironmental problems and identify the most pressing ones.

• Organise a neighbourhood envi­ronment squad to tackle the prob­lems. No one is too old or too young to pitch in .

On this day let us solemnly reaf­firm our commitment to the Stock­holm Declaration to ensure, collec­tively and individually, that our small planet is passed over to future generations in a condition which guarantees a life with human dignity for all.

You can make a difference too, no matter how small your contribution may seem. Add these to your New Year resolutions:

• I will switch off the lights when I am last person to leave a room.

• I will walk or cycle whenever I can, rather than use a fuelconsuming vehicle .

• I will tightly close any tap I see dripping .

• I will not litter.

These resolutions are not at all difficult to keep, but they will make a difference — not just to you, but to the earth we all share

Ex. 2. Arrange in pairs of antonyms.

healthy, polluted, destroy, global, expanding, living, deep, en­rich, dangerous, shrinking, clean, sale, extinct, save, exhaust, superficial, harmful, region

Ex. 3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Discuss and give your reasons. Use the following expressions of agreement and disagreement; I couldn't agree more. Absolutely. Exactly. Well, actually, I'm not sure I agree with that. I disagree entirely. Rubbish.

1. Doctors may list thousands of causes for different diseases but if you look deep into the problem, in the long run they all result from the severely polluted environment.

2. The costs of growth and development are already too high and the future is bleak.

3. Providing that development is controlled, it can do no harm.

4. We need to rethink our whole way of life and live in small communities which only produce the food and goods they need.

5. It's ridiculous to expect people to give up the benefits of civil­isation and go back to the Dark Ages even if at the expense of the environment.

Ex. 4. Answer these questions (Use vocabulary from the text).

1. Which environmental problems does your town, village or city suffer from? Which are the most serious?

2. Do you think the situation in your country is better or worse than in other countries?

3. What can you do to help your local environment?

4. Can anything be done about global environmental problems? Can the world community solve them and on what conditions?

5. If you had a chance to go on a nature study holiday any­where in the world, would you go? Or would you be bored? Where would you go?

Words and phrases to remember.

environment: to destroy/to save/to improve ...; at the expense of ...; immediate ...; environmental (issues); to (severely) pol­lute; pollution: industrial .... ocean/air ...;

waste(s): bio-degradable ..., nuclear ...;

to become extinct; to exhaust (resources);

to tackle a problem; to go deep into a problem; to work to­wards; world-community; well-meaning people;

to bring smb together; to share (smb's) concern over; to call upon smb to+V

Vocabulary to the text " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS "

Interaction

Взаимодействие

Relationships

(взаимо)отношения

Acid

Кислота, кислый.

Кислотный

Rainforests

Тропические леса

waste (n)

1) .растрачивание, потери, ущерб:

2).отходы, отбросы (организма в том числе)

Deterioration

Ухудшение, порча

Destroy

Разрушать, уничтожать

Destruction

Разрушение, уничтожение

Nourish

Питать, кормить, вскармливать

Nourishing

Питательный, сытный

Nourishment

Питание, еда, пища

Create

Создавать, творить

Mean

Означать, значить

Pollute

Загрязнять

Pollution

Загрязнение

Survive

Выживать

Survival

Выживание

Restore

Возвращать, отдавать обратно, восстанавливать

Borrow

Брать взаймы

Conserve

Сохранять, охранять

Preserve

Поддерживать, оберегать

Text 2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

We are in an environmental crisis because human beings have broken out of the circle of life and are destroying the environment. To survive, we must learn how to restore the wealth we have borrowed from nature.

A. What does the environmental crisis mean? To understand this we must begin at the source of life itself: the earth's thin skin of air, water and soil, bathed by the radiant solar fire. Life appeared here several billion years ago and was nour­ished by the earth's matter. Living things formed a global network of various habi­tats, where everything is directly or indi­rectly dependent on everything. This is the ecosphere (biosphere), the home that life has built for itself on the planet.

B. In nature all processes are in con­stant balanced interaction. There is no waste in nature. Nothing is created, noth­ing is lost. Everything is recycled endlessly. The environmental crisis means that this perfect and delicate balance has begun to break down, and the relationship between life and its earthly surroundings have begun to collapse.

C. The environmental degradation continues to accelerate. The ozone layer, vital for survival, is thinning. Acid rain is destroying huge areas of forest and tens of thousands of lakes. We pollute our rivers, lakes and oceans, and the sky, forgetting that we need water and air to live and breathe. We destroy rainforests, picturesque landscapes, and slaughter the world's most beautiful animals.

As a result of our new technologies of land use we lose soil, which is the basis of civili­zation. And, worst of all, the earth is steadily warming with potentially dangerous effects.

That is why the environmentalists of the world call for fundamental changes NOW!

Ex. V. Entitle all passages of the text " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS "

Ex. VI. Decide where these sentences go in the text.

1. In the ecosphere everything goes on in cycles: an animal's waste becomes food for soil bacteria; bacteria's waste nourishes plants; animals eat plants.

2. Deserts are expanding so rapidly that they threaten to cover one third of the earth.

3. Man is a newcomer: homo sapient probably appeared first about four million years ago.

4. Man has converted ecological cycles of life into man-made linear events, and at the end of the line there is smog, toxic chemicals, mountains of rubbish.

5. One of the effects of the ozone layer thinning may be genetic mutation.

Ex. VII. How do we say the following in Russian?

Everything is dependent on everything; the earth's thin skin; nourished by the earth's matter; perfect and delicate balance; the relationships between life and its earthly sur­roundings; vital for survival; as a result of new technologies; dangerous effects; funda­mental changes; circle of life.

Ex. VIII Find in the text the word which means:

1. place from which something comes or is got;

2. natural home (soil type and climate) of animal or plant;

3. upper layer of earth in which plants grow;

4. the envelope surrounding the planet from the subsoil to the stratosphere, occupied by living organisms;

5. gradual loss or decrease as a result of use;

6. physical breakdown;

7. results or consequences of action;

8. physical substance in general as distinct from mind and spirit.

Ex.IX. Translate into English.

1. Без воды, воздуха и почвы жизнь не может продолжаться на Земле.

2. В естественной среде обитания все процессы находятся в сбалансированном взаимодействии. ...................................................................

3. Взаимоотношения между живыми организмами и окружающими земными условиями образуют круговорот жизни...............

4.Природа бесконечно перерабатывает свои ресурсы..................................

5. Современное производство нарушает хрупкое равновесие природных циклов…………………………………………………….

6. Загрязнение окружающей среды ведет к (result in) уничтожению самих источников жизни. ..............................................................................................

7. Для того чтобы выжить на земле, человек должен изменить технологии производства коренным образом........................................................................

8.Мы не должны превращать (turn … into) богатство Земли в опасные для

самой жизни отходы...................................

Ex. X. Read Text 3 and fill the gaps, using the words before each paragraph.

Text 3 "OUR PLANET IS IN DANGER!"

I.

Interconnected, с hopped, burn, enough, garbage, breathe, a mess, atmosphere, exhaust, far away from.

Save our planet before it's too late! Humans have been living on this planet for two million years, and in the last two hundred years humans have made …of the planet:… trees, killed animals, polluted air, land, water, etc. Because of that we now have a lot of problems. I'll name just a few of them: 1) the greenhouse effect; 2) killing forests and animals; 3) water, air and land pollution; 4) rubbish problems;

5) nuclear power, etc.

It's easy for us to see what we are doing to the air we breathe, water we drink, we ….throw out! What about the habitat we don't see? E. g., rainforests, deserts, grasslands, oceans. etc.? We don't see them, they are …..us. What does it have to do with us? It is difficult to understand, but everything on the planet is …..and when something goes wrong in some part of the world, everybody loses.

The earth has been getting hotter because we are producing too many greenhouse gases. These gases hold heat. Trees and plants help to take gases, such as carbon dioxide from the…..but we have now destroyed too many trees. There aren't …. trees and plants to do this job. We make carbon dioxide when we …. wood or drive cars. CFCs (other dangerous gases) are in refrigerators and spray cans. They are known for the damage they are doing to the ozone layer. .

Polluting gases fall as acid rains. Large forests and a lot of lakes have been ruined already. Smoking chimneys and car …..pipes are pumping tons of rubbish into the air all the time, and we ….it in. The air in big cities is very much polluted. People feel it without any test. Doctors say that only 2—3 per cent of healthy babies are born in big cities.

II

Acid, melting, protects, the warmest, a layer, since.

There is.... of gas called ozone. It covers the earth. It ....us from the dangerous rays of the sun. But if ozone comes close to earth, in ....rains, for example, it is also very dangerous itself and causes diseases. There are now holes in the ozone layer because there are too many "greenhouse" gases. Scientists say they are over the South Pole and over New York.

Because the Earth is getting hotter, the ice is..... Because the ice has been melting, the level of the sea is slowly rising. Scientists say that in the year 2050 some parts of Great Britain will be under the sea.

Other examples:

In 1972 Finland and Russia had the hottest heatwave for over 100 years.

In 1976 Europe had the worst drought for 100 years.

In 1989 Britain had the longest and the hottest summer ....people started to keep information about the weather.

In 1990 Sweden had ....February for 300 years.

A giant iceberg, the size of Hong Kong, is slowly melting. It is the world's largest iceberg., It broke away from Antarctic. It was 152 km long and 35 km wide. Now it is 10 km shorter because it is melting.

Ill

Rhinoceroses, alarming, disappearing, periwinkle, species, tusks extinction.

Since the last Dodo bird died in about 1681, thousands of other ....of animals and plants have become extinct or endangered.

The Blue Whale, the Panda, the California Big Tree are on the verge of ....now. Gone forever are dinosaurs, passenger pigeons, Cali­fornia grizzly bears. Elephants, jungle-cats and Asian... are being killed off for - their ivory ...., furs, or horns. Many animals have gone forever, as their habitats have been destroyed at an ... rate: 340 miles a day! These are the rainforests which are in Central and South America, Africa, Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, India and Madagaskar.

While rain forests are ...., so are animals and plants which live there. That means we are losing medicines which people can get from these plants and animals. For example, thanks to a little rosy .... found in Madagaskar, nearly all children recover from the blood disease, leukamea.

Make up and tell your own topic " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS " on the basis of the previous texts : " LET EARTH BE SAVED, " THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS ", "OUR PLANET IS IN DANGER!".

LESSON 11 Modern Architecture

Ex. l. Work with the vocabulary and find Russian equivalents to the words marked оut in the text "MODERN ARCHITECTURE"

Text A. Modern Architecture

Modern architecture is the term universally applied to the style of building, which evolved in a number of countries after the First World War as the International Style, or Functionalism, and which has culminated in the current designs of glass, concrete and steel based on module construction presently being erected all over the world.

In the early 20th century an instinctive desire of architects to break away from the confusions and contrivances of the 19th century, and their efforts to introduce a style which responded to new social needs and exploited new materials led to the changed appearance of buildings; simple rectangular outlines; avoidance of symmetry as a result of the insistence of a building's function determining its form rather than some picture in the architect's mind; absence of applied ornament; flat roofs and white walls, resulting from the use of reinforced concrete, now the favourite material; large windows, which new structural techniques permitted , but which were encouraged too by the spirit of the times, which believed in opening up the interiors of buildings to light and air.

The development of the International Style was reinforced by two events: a series of exhibitions at which architects from different countries saw and were influenced by each other's experiments, and the formation of an international organization through which ideas could be exchanged and mutual support enjoyed.

Exhibitions provided opportunities to explore an environment created wholly by modem buildings; they had been experienced only as single structures against an alien background.

The international organization was the Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Modeme, known as CIAM. Founded in Switzerland in 1928, the organization lasted until 1959 and concerned itself especially with planning and the social role of architecture. During the period of ClAM's greatest influence, in the 1930s, among its members were most of the great architects of the day, including Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier and Alvar Aalto. Athens Charter is a manifesto published by the CIAM in 1933, setting out data and requirements connected with the problem of the modem city under 5 main headings : Dwelling, Recreation, Work, Transportation, Historic Buildings. The pioneers of modem design wanted to build constructions that reflected the modem age.

Until the 1930s, Germany was the main centre of the new architecture because of the presence there of another unifying institution, the Bauhaus, a college of design, established at Weimar by Walter Gropius in 1919. The Bauhaus became synonymous with modern teaching methods in architecture and the applied arts, and with a functional aesthetic for the industrial age.

In the yea's after 1945 the emphasis was on town-planning and housing, and in most countries also on legislation to control building in the public interest, in which activities Britain set the lead . This was the era of new towns, vast housing estates and attempts to gear building programmes both to social needs and to industrialized systems and techniques.

In matters of architectural style, it became less a question of conflict between period revival and modern design than between buildings designed for effect and those that aimed at the creation of a modem vernacular and a humane and harmonious environment.

Vocabulary to the text "Modern Architecture"

Alien ['eilj n] a чужой, чуждый, несвойственный

Contrivance [k n'traivns] n выдумка, затея, изобретение

Desire [di'zai ] n (сильное) желание желать, хотеть

Event [i'vent] n событие, важное явление, случай

Exchange [iks't eind ] v обменивать(ся), променять

Explore [iks'pl :] v исследовать, изучать, выяснять

Gear [gi ] v v приводить в движение, направлять по плану

Humane [hju:'mein] a человечный, гуманный

Legislation [,led is'lei n] n законодательство, законы

Matter ['m t ] n сущность, вещество, материал, материя

Mutual ['mjurtju 1] a взаимный, обоюдный, совместный

Permit [p 'mit] v позволять, разрешать

Vernacular [v 'n kjul ] a национальный, народный, местный

Wholly ['houli] adv целиком, полностью, совсем, вполне

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions to the text:

1. What is the term of modern architecture applied to?

2. What led to the changed appearance of buildings in the early 20th century?

3. What events reinforced the development of the International Style?

4. What opportunities did exhibitions provide?

5. What organization was founded in Switzerland in 1928?

6. What was the goal of CIAM?

7. What architects greatly influenced the development of architecture during the period of CIAM?

8. What 5 main headings were mentioned in the Athens Charter published in 1933?

9. Who established the Bauhaus?

10.What country was the leader of modern architecture in the years after 1945?

Ex. 3. Fill in the necessary modal verbs and translate the sentences:

l. The building ... be oriented towards the south. 2. Light colours ... have been used inside. 3. The walls ... (n't) have been faced with rough-hewn granite,... they? 4. In which style ... we build? 5. Decoration ... have been kept to a minimum. 6. ... the value of construction work be discussed? 7. The work... be done quicker and at less cost.

Ex. 4. Entitle all passages of the text "Modern Architecture"

Ex.5. Extract all irregular verbs from the text " Modern Architecture " And give their Tense and Voice forms

Ex. 6. Give synonyms to the following words and word-combinations

Building; current; to erect; in the early 20th century, desire; contrivance; to use;

favourite; large; formation; structure; town.

Vocabulary to the text "The Age of Revivals"

Array [ 'rei] n масса, множество, совокупность

Assert [ 's :t] v заявлять, утверждать

Be concerned with заниматься (чем-л.), касаться

Choose [t u:z] (chose, chosen) v выбирать, отбирать

Conscientiously [ k n I'en sli] adv сознательно

Dignified ['dignifaid] a достойный

Fancy ['f nsi] n воображение

Glitter ['glit ] v сверкать, блистать

Leisure ['Ie ] n досуг

Miscellany [mi'sel ni] n смесь

Owe [OU] V быть обязанным

Rival ['raiv 1] a соперничающий, конкурирующий

Stirring ['st :ri ] n активность, беспокойство

Vie [vai] v соперничать

Text B THE AGE OF REVIVALS

The Industrial Revolution, which introduced new materials and techniques, made the 19th century the time of the vast expansion of cities or urbanization in Europe and America. Then more buildings were constructed than in all previous ages added together.

The role of the architect was merely confined to decorating the building facades. Throughout Europe nearly every past style was re-examined and reused, but as the century wore on styles of the past were no longer imitated exactly, but were looked on as a quarry from which architects could extract whatever elements struck their fancy. A succession of rival styles came, vied with each other and went, some conforming conscientiously to historic precedent, but many more mingling reminiscences of different periods and countries. This resulted in either beautiful or graceless eclecticism. Richness of form and picturesqueness of effect were the principal aim.

Styles began to be chosen not just for fashion but for their associative qualities:

Roman for justice, Gothic for learning and churches, Byzantine mainly for churches, the Italian Renaissance for palaces and ministries, Greek for government, Venetian for commerce. Oriental for leisure, Hansetic for housing, the Baroque for theatres and opera houses, Romanesque for public architecture. Colonial for bank buildings, churches and suburban homes. Nevertheless, the 19th century revival architecture was dominated by the Classic Revival, or Neo-Classicism, and the Gothic Revival, or Neo-Gothic.

A reaction against stylizations came nearer the end of the century. It, too, was concerned with decoration more than construction, and aimed at creating a style -especially a style of ornament - that owed nothing to the past. It emerged as Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, a little later as Jugendstil in Germany, and spread throughout Europe and reached the USA.

Behind this picturesque play-acting glittered the iron and glass architecture of the engineer-experimentalist, who created the impressive array of simple, dignified and refreshingly functional buildings, the viaducts, dockyards, textile mills and railway stations. There was Paxton's Crystal Palace (1851), one of the most revolutionary buildings in the history of world architecture, and the daring towers or skyscrapers of the Chicago School (1880-1900).

The "Japonism" of the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and Crafts movement, the preachings of William Morris against opulence and the tyranny of the machine, the stirrings of Art Nouveau and the folksy aspirations of the garden city movement can now be seen to have been the ancestors of modem architecture.

Test

1. Choose the correct endings to the following sentences

2.

1. The Industrial Revolution made the l9th century the time of...

a) breaking the laws of architecture;

b) usage construction more than decoration;

c) the vast expansion of cities in Europe and America.

2. Richness of form was ...

a) the principal aim;

b) the main disadvantage;

c) the great desire.

3. A reaction against stylizations came ...

a) at the beginning of the l9th century;

b) at the end of the l9th century;

c) in the middle of the l9th century.

2. Fill in the necessary words and word-combinations

1. The role of the architect... to decorating the building facades.

a) was merely confined;

b) was subjected;

c) was aimed.

2. Styles began to be ... not just for fashion but for their associative qualities. a) done; b) chosen; c) drawn.

3. There was ... one of the most revolutionary buildings in the history of world architecture.

a) St.Paul's Cathedral;

b) Westminster Palace;

c) Paxton's Crystal Palace.

Exercise VII. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the GERUND in various functions:

Learn the patterns : l. (Подлежащее) Flooding the interior with light was characteristic of the 18th century architecture. Интенсивное заполнение внутреннего пространства светом было характерно для зодчества ХVIII века. 2. (Именная часть сказуемого) The job of the engineer is making things, or if you like, imposing an idea or form on material. Задача инженера - создавать предметы или, если хотите, воплощать замысел или форму в материале. 3. (Дополнение). The house needs repairing (= being repaired). Дом требует ремонта. The planning authorities insisted on retaining some of the many trees. Градостроители настаивали на сохранении некоторой части деревьев..

4. (Определение) The most efficient method of moving the structure. Самый эффективный метод передвижения сооружения.

5. (Обстоятельство) Architects sharpen their skills by participating in competitions. Архитекторы оттачивают свое мастерство, участвуя в конкурсах.

l. The facade is unusual in having round towers. 2. A base is distinguished from a foundation or footing in being visible rather than buried. 3. This project passed through many stages before being realized. 4. From the 17th to the 19th centuries domes were an area for experimenting with new methods of construction. 5. The Pantheon is unique among the buildings of Imperial Rome in having survived intact. 6. Artology is distinguished from aesthetics in not being concerned with questions of beauty in nature. 7. Optimizing choices in the building community was the theme of a national symposium. 8. One of the ways of enhancing the beauty of architecture is by determining the quantity and quality of the architectural elements and their combinations.

Ex. VIII. Read text C and fill the gaps using the words before eash passage

1st passage

predict [pri'dikt] v- предсказывать

undergo[, nd 'gou] - испытывать, переносить, подвергаться (чему-л.)

2nd passage

explosion[iks'plou n] n - взрыв, вспышка

heretofore['hi tu'f :] adv - прежде, до этого

3rd passage

advancement d'va:nsm nt] n - продвижение, успех, прогресс

refinement[ri'fainm nt] n - очищение, обработка, отделка, усовершенствование

location[lou'kei n] n - определение места, размещение, участок

plug-in[pl g'in]a - вставной, блочный, съемный

4th passage

hamper['h mp ] v - препятствовать, мешать, затруднять

overuse[ 'ouv 'ju:z]v - использовать сверх предела

utilizingE'jurtilaizin] a - использованный, утилизированный

shape[ eip] n - форма, очертание, вид, образ

versatile['v :s tail] a - многосторонний, разносторонний, непостоянный

enable [i'neibi] v - давать возможность или право, делать годным

reference['refr ns] n - ссылка, справка, упоминание, намек, рекомендация

diversified[dai'v :sifaid] a - - разнообразный, различный

flexible['fleks bl] a - гибкий, податливый

5th passage

ponder['p nd ] v - обдумывать, взвешивать, размышлять

replace[ri'pleis] v - ставить на место, вернуть, восстановить

6th passage

anticipate[ n'tisipeit] v - ожидать, предвидеть, предчувствовать, опережать

7th passage

never-ending['nev r'endin] a - непрекращающийся, бесконечный

evidenceE'evid ns] n - очевидность, основание, доказательство

epoch['i:p k] n - эпоха, период

Text C TOWARDS THE FUTURE

No one can accurately... what the future of architecture will bring. The future will be related to the development of new materials, new construction methods, computer designing, and the sociological changes we ....

Size. The technological ... should enable us to build in sizes ... impossible. But who can say what will be possible?

Location. In the future we should be capable of building structures on locations that would now be unthought of. ... in transportation methods and ... in the engineering of structures will make even more ... possible. There are books and articles about ... cities and cities underground, in the sky, under the ocean, and about other cities of the future.

Shapes. For centuries we have been ... in our architectural development through the use and ... of the square and the cube as the basis for our structures. We are just entering into a fuller realization of the possibilities of... other... such as the triangle, the pyramid, the circle, and the sphere. The development of stronger, more ... materials and new construction techniques should ... us to construct buildings that are completely functional without... to any basic geometric form. Even the basic floor plans should be more ... with the development of new and more ... building materials. Frank LWright demonstrated for 60 years that interior space can be much richer and much more interesting than a box.

Dwelling. What our homes will look like in 10,20,30, or loo years is an interesting question to.... Perhaps there will be no houses, they will be ... by controlled environment. Indeed, houses as we know them may become museum pieces, or only illustrations of architectural history.

With more leisure time ... in the future, more emphasis will be placed on recreational activities within or about the home.

Architectural creation is a ... process. Modern architects should work so that many buildings of the 20th century would not become for future generations ... of an architectural dark....

Exercise IX. Make up and tell the topic "ARCHITECTURE" on the basis of the given 3 texts : "Modern Architecture", "The Age of Revivals", "Towards the Future".

LESSON 12 Computer Science

Ex 1. Find in the dictionary some means of the underlined words. Write out words and combinations of words from the text and find Russian equivalents for them : гибкий диск, печатная плата, память с произвольной выборкой, жесткий диск, набор инструкций, исполнять (команду), память для хранения программ, получить, добиться, (универсальная) вычислительная техника, постоянная память.

Ex 2. Make up sentences to the theme of the text below using words from the text.

Ex 3.Read and translate the text A.

TEXT A. СOMPUTER SIENCE

Computer science is a part of an applied mathematics. Computers are intended to improve the productivity of labour or scientists, designers, engineers, managers and other specialists. Through a computer they can receive quick and optimal solutions. The specialists use computer-aided-design (CAD) and computer-aided-manufacturing (CAM). CAD and CAM help to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing.

Computer can perform many functions: they can do mathematical and logical operations, mathematical operations including arithmetic and algebraic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division raising to a power differentiating and integrating. Logical operations include comparing, selecting, sorting and matching. Computers can be divided into simple and complex devices. Simple computers are calculators. A calculator can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Complex computers can do various logical operations and some of them even have artificial intelligence.

Complex computers can be divided into following main classes:

- supercomputers

- mainframes

- minicomputers (personal computers)

- microcomputers

A minicomputer is a computer manufactured on a single printed board which contains one or more chips. Most microcomputers are personal computers which have become so powerful through using CAD/CAM system. Microprocessors can obtain from memory and execute a limited set of instructions in order to perform addition or subtraction on a binary world and to input or output binary data.

Memory is a device for storing digital information. Memory should be small in size and large in capacity. It must take little power and work at the same speed as computer logic. All microcomputers use Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM) . Trough RAM the information can be put into or out of any single byte of memory. ROM is permanent memory for program storage . People know many types of memory units. Hard disks and floppy disks are widely used. Floppy disks (flexible plastic disks) are used in personal computers.

Thus in order to elaborate up-to-date and inexpensive programs as well as to defend them from viruses, it is important to know some programming languages: machine language (low-level programming language) and an assembly language and high-level languages such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, ADA, C, BASIC etc.

Modern personal computers are used for automation of individual labour places, information processing and training. Moreover, computers came in our life and to our houses and now we can solve our everyday problems with their help.

Words to the text:

a computer компьютер

a computer-aided-design (CAD) автоматизированное проектирование

a computer-aided-manufacturing (CAM) автоматизированное производство

а mainframe универсальная вычислительная

машина

a printed board печатная плата

а microprocessor микропроцессор

a set of instructions набор инструкций

memory память

Random Access Memory (RAM) память с произвольной выборкой

Read Only Memory (ROM) память для хранения программ

a program storage постоянная память

a hard disk жесткий диск

a floppy disk гибкий диск

to elaborate (to work out) programs разрабатывать программы

a software программное обеспечение

to input data вводить данные

to output data получать данные на выходе

a case корпус

hardware аппаратное обеспечение

a monitor монитор

a keyboard клавиатура

a mouse мышь

a printer принтер

Ex. 4. Give answers to these questions and write these answers in the order like one in the text.

1. What high-level programming languages do you know ?

2. What are the computers used for ?

3. What operations can simple devices perform?

4. What classes are computers divided into?

5. What are RAM and ROM?

6. What are CAD/CAM systems intended to do?

Ex. 5. Complete the following sentences according to the text .

1. Computers are intended to improve…

2. Thus in order to elaborate up-to-date and inexpensive programs…

3. Computer can perform many functions…

4. Modern personal computers are used…

5. Computers can be divided into…

TEXT B GATEWAY 2000

There are many hardware pieces such as the system board, power supply, keyboard, mouse, hard drive, monitor, video card with its drivers in a computer system.

The system unit contenting power supply, system board, etc has the main part called the case. The case is a metal box that protects the delicate electronics inside, keeps electromagnetic emissions inside so your TV, cordless phone and stereo don’t go haywire when you power up the computer and can also hold the monitor. Don’t remove the case cover unless you need to do something inside the unit, and always replace the cover when you are done.

You communicate with your computer with the keyboard. You type instruction and commands for the computer with it information to be processed and stored. Many of the keys on the keyboard are like those on a typewriter; letter keys, punctuation keys, shift keys, tab and the spacebar. Your keyboard also has many specialized keys.

The instruction manuals for most software applications contain a section describing the functions of each key or combination of keys.

The mouse works by sliding it around (ball down) on a flat surface. The desktop is fine, but a ready-made mouse pad is the best surface to roll the mouse on. Its surface is flat and usually somewhat textured. If the surface is too smooth or rough, the ball inside can slip. As you glide the mouse, the ball inside moves in the direction of your movement. You will see the arrow on your screen moving in unison. The arrow is called a pointer, and the most important part is the very tip of its point. That’s the only part the computer pays attention to. To use the mouse, slide it on the mousepad until the pointer’s point is on something like a button or an icon.

Click – position the mouse pointer over an element, press and release the left mouse button one time.

Double-click – same as above except press the mouse button twice in a quick succession without moving the mouse between clicks. Usually you double-click on an icon to start the program.

Drag – position the mouse pointer over an element, press and hold the left mouse button, and drag the mouse across the screen. The pointer moves dragging the element. At the desired location, release the mouse button. The pointer lets go of whatever it was dragging.

Your computer is not complete without the monitor, a TV-like device that usually sits on top of the computer. The monitor displays text characters and graphics. It allows you to see the results of the work going on inside your system unit. The sharpness of the picture depends on the number and size of pixels (tiny dots). The more pixels, the sharper the image. This is called resolution.

There are three types of drives. The floppy drive provides a way to pass files to and from the hard drive or to and from another computer. Unlike the floppy drive, the hard disk drive is inside the computer case and you cannot see it. The smallest hard drives Gateway 2000 offers hold more information than 100 floppies! The size of a hard drive is measured in megabytes or MB for short. The CD-ROM drive is installed in the Gateway 2000. It can play music CDs as well as read software program CDs and the new Kodak photo CDs. A CD disk holds over 600MB of data. CD-ROM is just another hard drive, except that, although you can read from it, you can’t save anything to it. All of them have its drivers.

Ex. VI. Reread the text and write a short summery of it in English.

DIALOGUE BUYING A COMPUTER

Customer : Good morning.

Shop assistant : Good morning, sir. May I help you?

C . I want to buy a new computer and monitor.

S . Do you have anything special in mind?

C . Yes. I am a translator and must translate a lot. I need that my еyes don’t get tired.

S . I see. You can buy a computer “Pentium 4” and a monitor “CTX”. This computer system is right for you.

C . How much is it?

S. $ 800. It is a new model.

C. Tell me, please, can I buy it on credit?

S . Of course. You can get a charge card . Apply directly to the shop for these cards.

C . How much is the interest?

S. The interest can be as high as 15%. This means that you are paying much more than the cost of your purchase.

C . And what does the computer system consist of?

S. Computer system consists of the system board, power supply, keyboard, mouse, hard drive, monitor, video card with its drivers and printer.

C . Thank you for the information. I must go to the shop for credit cards.

S. You are very welcome.

C . Good bye!

S. Good bye!

Ex. VII. Read and translate this dialogue.

Ex. VIII. Learn this dialogues in parts.

Ex. IX. Make up your topic "Computer Science" and tell it.

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