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Учебное пособие: Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения

Название: Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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1305 Министерство путей сообщения Российской Федерации

Департамент кадров и учебных заведений

САМАРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ

Кафедра иностранных языков

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ И КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1 КУРСА ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНЫХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ ЗАОЧНОЙ ФОРМЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ

Составитель: М.В. Жесткова

Самара 2003

УДК 4П(Англ)

Английский язык. Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения. – Самара: СамГАПС, 2003. - 58с.

Утверждено на заседании кафедры 16 декабря 2003., протокол № 4.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета академии.

Методические указания и контрольные работы предназначены для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения. Цель методических указаний заключается в том, чтобы выработать у студентов навыки адекватного перевода текстов по специальности широкого профиля и активного владения грамматической системой современного английского языка.

Методические указания состоят из двух контрольных работ, представленных в пяти вариантах, грамматического справочника, краткого англо-русского словаря и приложения, в которое вошли грамматические упражнения, ориентированные как на аудиторные занятия, так и на самостоятельную работу студентов.

Составитель: Марина Владимировна Жесткова

Рецензенты: кандидат филологических наук Сучкова С.А. (Самарский государственный педагогический университет)

кандидат филологических наук Никитина С.Я. (Самарская государственная академия путей сообщения)

Под редакцией зав. кафедрой иностранных языков профессора Халикова М.М.

Подписано в печать 30.12.03. Формат 60х90 1/16.

Бумага писчая. Печать офсетная. Усл. п. л. 3,6

Тираж 500 экз. Заказ № 198.

© Самарская государственная академия путей сообщения, 2003

РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ОФОРМЛЕНИЮ

КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ

1. Каждое контрольное задание в данных методических указаниях предлагается в пяти вариантах. Студент должен выполнить один из пяти вариантов в соответствии с последней цифрой шифра студенческого билета: если шифр заканчивается на 1 или 2, то студент выполняет вариант № 1; на 3 или 4 - № 2 ; на 5 или 6 - № 3 ; на 7 или 8 - № 4; на 9 или 0 - № 5.

2. Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке тетради напишите свою фамилию, имя, отчество (полностью); шифр студенческого билета; номер контрольной работы. В конце выполненной контрольной работы укажите список использованной литературы.

3. Будьте внимательны при переписывании английских предложений из методических указаний. Если вы не знаете русских эквивалентов английских имён собственных (например, географических названий и т.п.) или не уверены в правильном их написании по-русски, оставьте в контрольной работе английский вариант слова.

4. Контрольные работы должны быть написаны аккуратно, чётким подчерком. В тетради в клетку пишите через клетку. Оставляйте на страницах поля для объяснений и методических указаний рецензента. Перед выполнением каждого упражнения пишите задание к нему. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать следующим образом:

Поля

Левая страница

(английский текст)

Правая страница

(перевод)

Поля

Первая страница тетради при этом остаётся пустой.

5. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в установленные сроки.

6. Неправильно и небрежно оформленные работы и работы, вариант которых не соответствует шифру, возвращаются студенту без проверки.

СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Людвигова Е.В., Баженова С.М. Учебник английского языка для вузов заочного обучения . – М., 1982.

2. Новицкая Т.М., Кучин Н.Д. Учебник английского языка для заочных технических вузов . – М., 1974.

3. Новицкая Т.М., Кучин Н.Д. Практическая грамматика английского языка . – М., 1971, 1979 и более поздние издания.

4. Петрова А.В. Самоучитель английского языка. – М., 1985 и более поздние издания.

5. Полякова Т.Ю., Синявская Е.В. и др. Английский язык для инженеров. – М: Высш. шк., 1998.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольного задания №1, вам необходимо повторить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованным учебникам:

1. Имя существительное. Множественное число. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания –s .

2. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных.

3. Числительное.

4. Глагол. Спряжение глаголов to be и to have. Оборот there + to be. Формы Indefinite ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах.

5. Порядок слов в утвердительных и вопросительных предложениях.
ВАРИАНТ 1
I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. Our firm guarantees prompt and safe delivery of any freight “from door to door”. 2. You will find all the necessary information about the train movement in the railway-guide. 3. The total length of all railway lines in Russia is equal to three times the length of the Equator. 4. All railwaymen have the right of free travel by train once a year. 5. When we entered the car, we opened the window because it was very stuffy in the compartment.
II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The trains were detained en route by the snowstorm for a couple of hours. 2. In Europe double-deck passenger coaches are used in four-or five-car sets on suburban lines where traffic is very heavy. 3. Tomorrow the movement of trains at that section of the line will be restricted because of track repair work. 4. The inside body of the carriage is upholstered with materials that are easily washed. 5. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared, measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. Russia (to rankPresent Indefinite Active ) second in the world, after the USA, in the length of the railway network. 2. Tomas Bouch (to designPast Indefinite Active ) the Tay Bridge in 1878 and everybody (to speakPast Indefinite Active ) about it as one of the wonders of the world. 3. You (to meetFuture Indefinite Passive ) by an agent from the travel bureau at the airport. 4. Liquid goods (to transportPresent Indefinite Passive ) in tank cars. 5. The first Stephenson’s steam locomotive (to callPast Indefinite Passive ) “The Rocket”.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be .

1. There was something wrong with the engine of my car and I asked the mechanic to examine it. 2. In Metro there are special pumps and fans that suck in the air from the street, purify it and make it warm or cool on its way to the station. 3. There are no traffic-lights at this intersection that is why it is a very dangerous place. 4. Were there any telephone calls while I was out? 5. There is usually a considerable increase in passenger traffic in summer.

V . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания - s .

1. The construction of early bridges without basic knowledge of mathematics resulted in great tragedies because of the bridges’ collapses. 2. Newton’s law of motion was written in Latin, because only this language was used in science at that time. 3. The trains on five routes of Denver’s commuter network carry 1 million passengers a day but demand is at least three times that number. 4. On a large diagram in a dispatcher’s room small lights display the location of each train. 5. Our secretary’s office is equipped with the latest equipment.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. Broken stone is the most suitable material for ballast. 2. One of the longest continuous underground railway tunnels in the world is the 17,5 mile tunnel on the Northern line of the London Underground. 3. The first rails were made of cast iron but when traffic became heavier it was found that cast iron was too brittle and wore too quickly. 4. In the Grand Prix motor racing just a few seconds sometimes separate the fastest car from the slowest car in a race. 5. Traveling in an open-type coach is cheaper than in a sleeping car because sleeping cars are more convenient.

VII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. The double-track railways are (convenient) than the single-track railways if the traffic on these lines is very heavy. 2. Both roads lead to the city center, but the left-hand one is a bit (short) and (direct) than the right-hand road. 3. At the conference the engineers discussed (recent) developments in the field of electronics. 4. Railways cause (little) air contamination than other modes of transport. 5. The bridge crosses the river at its (narrow) point.

VIII . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The last train arrives at midnight. 2. Rails are made of steel . 3. The Japanese company developed the first pocket-size color TV set. 4. The distance from here to the railway station is 5 kilometers. 5. There were several vacant seats in the bus when I got into it. 6. On this dangerous section of track trains usually decrease their speed. 7. Open-top cars are used for the transportation of loose bulk materials.

IX . Перепишите и переведите текст.

THE TRANS-SIBERIAN MAINLINE

. “The Great Siberian Track ” is a well-known name in the history of the Russian State. It was given to the unique railway that connected the European part of the country with the Pacific Coast.

The history of railway construction in Russia started at the end of the 19th century. Railway mainlines were laid down from the Western borders of the country to St. Petersburg and Moscow, from the center to the Volga region and from Ural to Central Asia. In 1892 the railway network in Russia had a total length of 32,000 km. That very year Samara – Zlatoust railway was built which later became a liaison between railways in the European part of Russia and the Trans-Siberian Mainline.

On March 15, 1891 Alexander III issued an imperial prescript addressed to future Emperor Nicholas II which stated: “I command to start constructing a railway across all Siberia to connect the Siberian region with the European part of Russia. I also entrust you with ground-breaking* of the Great Siberian Track in Vladivostok.”

Two projects of the future mainline were proposed – “the southern version” and “the northern version”. “The northern version” suggested by the Minister of Railways K.N. Posyet won. According to his project the railway was shorter by 400 km and was passing by the Siberian high road** and populated areas.

The building of the Great Siberian Track began in 1893. Construction rates were very fast despite the fact that the railroad went through swamps, thick taiga, crossed major rivers and huge mountains. In less than 15 years more than 8,600 km of track were laid down. At first 10,000 workers were involved in the construction. Later their number went up to 100,000. Job and living conditions were extremely tough. The main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts.

The building of the gigantic mainline was a heroic deed accomplished by Russian construction workers due to their tenacious efforts and courage. Some of Trans-Siberian stations bear their names – Rukhlovo, Vyazemskaya, Baranovsky, Snarsky, Adrinovka , etc. The Minister of Railways Vitte wrote: “The Great Siberian Railway breathed life into boundless Siberian lands.”

Notes : * ground-breaking – начало строительства (дороги)

**high road – тракт

Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы : It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The Trans-Siberian Mainline connects the Asian part of Russia with the Pacific Coast. 2. Alexander III commanded to start constructing the Great Siberian Track. 3. The first rail of the future Trans-Siberian Railway was laid down in Vladivostok. 4. The project of the Trans Siberian Mainline was proposed by the Minister of Railways Vitte. 5. The length of this railway is more than 5,000 km. 6. Foreign workers and engineers took part in the construction. 7. The track went through swamps and taiga. 8. The latest machines and mechanisms were used for the railway construction. 9. The construction lasted 15 years. 10. The Great Siberian Railway breathed life into boundless Siberian lands.

ВАРИАНТ 2

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The first steam locomotives were not strong and they often broke down. 2. The automatic train control facilitates the work of a locomotive driver and provides more reliable movement of a train. 3. In England train passengers seldom converse with their fellow-travelers even on long journey – this is more a national custom than a matter of etiquette. 4. The train will cover the distance from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 3 hours if it moves at a speed of 250 km/h. 5. Heavy snowstorms disorganized the movement of trains in this region.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. About 60% of the Moscow – St. Petersburg railway line is equipped with an auto-block system, over one third is electrified and more than one fourth has two or three track lines. 2. At first coal gas was used as fuel for diesel engines. 3. The diesel locomotive is not connected to the contact wire, like the electric locomotive, so it is particularly suitable for shunting work. 4. Thanks to new cars with greater capacity the freight turnover will be increased. 5. Morse invented a code in which the letters of the alphabet were replaced by dots and dashes.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. A diesel engine (to belongPresent Indefinite Active ) to a class of internal combustion engines. 2. The equipment (to deliverFuture Indefinite Passive ) in containers from door-to-door. 3. Taiwan Railways (to buyPast Indefinite Active ) 225 trailers and 56 motor cars last year. 4. Four million passengers a year (to travelPresent Indefinite Active ) the Helsinki-Tallinn route. 5. Passengers (to askPast Indefinite Passive ) to show their tickets.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be .

1. There are 4 pairs of sliding doors on each side of a Metro car. 2. There isn’t enough time for us to catch the next train. 3. In the very first days of railways there were no signals and there was no need for them. 4. There are a lot of goods that can be transported by air. 5. The construction of the first tunnels required much time, effort and money because there were no special equipment for it and only manual labor was used.

V . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания - s .

1. The “Repin ” train departs from St. Petersburg’s Finlandsky terminal. 2. Few people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Byron ’s daughter. 3. Lloyd’s is one of the world’s largest insurance companies. In this company one can (можно) insure not only an airplane or a space satellite but also a football player’s legs or a pianist’s hands. 4. The railway station is an hour’s drive from my house.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. The concrete sleepers are more reliable than the wooden crossties, and they last longer. 2. As the rail joint is the weakest part of the permanent way, it is necessary to use longer rails. 3. The most outstanding miniature railway in the world is the track which encircles the Disney Park. 4. The efficiency of electric locomotives is 4 times higher than that of steam locomotives. 5. Heathrow , Britain’s largest international airport is linked with the capital by the Underground.

VII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. The cost of tickets in a sleeping car is (high) than the fare in an open-type coach because sleeping cars are (convenient) for traveling. 2. Although there are now (fast) and (modern) means of transport, railways still remain (safe) and (popular) form of transport. 3. One of (great) advantages of the electric car is that it doesn’t contaminate the environment. 4. One of (convenient) and (fast) means of freight transportation is a container. 5. Our (good) diesel locomotive develops a speed of 170 km per hour.

VIII . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The repair of railway track usually takes place in summer. 2. The train for London will depart from platform №2 in 5 minutes. 3. Liquid goods are carried in tank cars. 4. A large number of cars were parked near the private law firm. 5. This article is about a new high-speed railway. 6. Nowadays railways face competition from other means of transport primarily from motor carriers . 7. Last year fares more than doubled because of inflation .

IX . Перепишите и переведите текст.

ENGINES

Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called “the water wheel”. This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it and the current of a river turned it. These first engines were used for irrigating fields. Then a wind-powered engine was invented. It was a small wheel with long wide wooden blades attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Both of these engines, the water-and wind- operated, are very economical. They don’t need fuel to function, but they are dependent on the weather.

Many years passed and people invented a new engine operated by steam. In a steam engine there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam. The (чем) more coal is put in the furnace, the (тем) stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is, the faster a train or a boat is moving. The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example, steam ships and steam locomotives. The very first aeroplane built by A.F. Mozhaisky also had a steam engine. This engine played a very important part in the history of transport and industry development. However it had its disadvantages. It was too large, heavy and needed too much fuel.

The imperfections of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene.

The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel locomotives and motor ships. But in order to enable airplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was invented and it was given the name “jet engine”. The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt.

Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы : It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The steam engine is the most powerful one, and it is widely used nowadays. 2. Water wheels were used for irrigating fields. 3. Internal combustion engines are very economical and don’t need fuel to function. 4. The very first locomotive was powered by the steam engine. 5. Wind-powered engines played a very important part in the history of transport. 6. In an internal combustion engine there is a furnace and a boiler. 7. An internal combustion engine is smaller and lighter than a steam engine. 8. Internal combustion engines are used in airplanes. 9. Jet engines are made of a very resistant metal. 10. A jet engine doesn’t have a boiler.

ВАРИАНТ 3

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. This train will proceed to its destination without any stops. 2. The price of the ticket in the London Underground depends on the distance you travel. 3. The invention of a steam engine started the first industrial revolution. 4. The top speed of the first steam locomotive was 13 miles per hour. 5. Students of technical institutes have practical training at various enterprises, and it gives them an opportunity not only to watch production processes but also to take part in them.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. Since Paris is located in the center of the country, the passengers who spend a day in the capital can reach any town the same evening. 2. Our flight will be delayed because of a strike of air-traffic controllers. 3. The freight turnover was reduced because of a considerable increase of transportation cost. 4. New plastic and synthetic materials are widely used for the interior and exterior finishes of carriages. 5. The demand for tickets was so great that they were sold out as soon as the booking-office was opened.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. This railroad (to designPresent Indefinite Passive ) to handle only freight trains. 2. We (to leavePast Indefinite Active ) our car in the parking lot near the terminal. 3. The shuttle-train (to coverPresent Indefinite Active ) the distance from London to Paris in 3 hours 40 minutes. 4. Steel rails (to usePast Indefinite Passive ) in the USA for the first time in 1863. 5. You (to catchFuture Indefinite Active ) the train, if you (to hurryPresent Indefinite Active ) up.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be .

1. We missed the last train and tried to get tickets for the morning train but there were no tickets available in the booking-office. 2. In the USA there is a special discount for those passengers who buy round-trip tickets. 3. There are road works in the center streets of the city that is why long jams are expected. 4. There was no bridge in this place and we took a boat to cross the river. 5. There are nine four-berth compartments for passengers, a compartment for the attendants, two toilet rooms and 2 vestibules in the sleeping car.

V . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания - s .

1. The first Stephenson’s steam locomotive is demonstrated now in the London museum. 2. There is a train radio telephone in each driver’s cap and a dispatcher can communicate with the driver in the case of emergency. 3. Almost 500 million vehicles fill the world’s roads nowadays. 4. The driver of the bus is responsible for his passengers’ safety. 5. Heathrow , London’s major airport was opened in 1929 as a small base for airplane tests.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. In Australia the traffic is heavier during the winter months, when many tourists travel in passenger trains. 2. It is much more convenient to travel by express train because it doesn’t stop at small stations, and it takes you less time to get to your destination. 3. The world’s longest road tunnel links France and Italy beneath Europe’s highest peak Mont Blanc. 4. Statistically it is safer to travel by air than to drive a car. 5. The maximum train speed on the West Coast railway line (Great Britain) is 77 miles per hour but there are many sections where the speed is much lower because of tight curves and steep gradients.

VII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. Russia possesses (heavy) helicopters MI-26 in the world which lift and transport cargos up to 20 tons. 2. This road is (bad) I have ever traveled over. 3. The environment contamination remains one of (important) problems in the modern world. 4. The first steam locomotive “The Rocket ” was much (small) and (light) than modern locomotives. 5. The Pan -American Highway is (long) road in the world.

VIII . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The incandescent lamp was invented by Edison . 2. Railway track will be strengthened on this section of the mainline because it is planned to increase the volume of freight traffic here . 3. Road accidents are more frequent in rainy weather. 4. In some countries the locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes in the other. 5. Steel sleepers first appeared in Europe in 1868 , mainly because of the shortage of durable wood in some countries. 6. In our Metro trains run every 8 minutes . 7. Civil engineering means the construction of roads, railways, bridges, tunnels, canals, etc.

IX. Перепишите и переведите текст .

FROM THE HISTORY OF THE LONDON UNDERGROUND

The underground railways as a kind of city transport appeared in the second half of the 19th century. The first underground system was proposed by Charles Pearson in 1843. Twenty years later the first line of the London Underground was opened for traffic. Its length was almost four miles. On that first historic day 30.000 Londoners made the first underground railway travel in the world.

In the early days the trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal, filling the tunnels with smoke. It is said that the train staff and porters asked for a permission to grow beards and moustaches – as an early form of smog mask. The tunnels of the first underground were made as small as possible in order to reduce the construction costs. The coaches themselves were small and narrow.

According to Pearson ’s project all lines were laid down close to the ground surface. The deep tunneling came later, in 1890. Constructing the tunnel through miles of clay, sand and gravel is no easy task, and it was James Henry Greathead who developed the method which made the construction of most London tunnels possible. One of the longest continuous tunnels in the world is the 17½ mile tunnel on the Northern line. The first escalator was also installed in the London Underground in 1911.

During the World War II the London Underground served as a shelter for thousands of Londoners. Many British Museum treasures spent the war in the tunnels of the underground. The railways were prepared for any emergency that might occur. They had duplicate control systems, repair groups, duplicate power supply and so on. To minimize the danger of flooding the underground near the Thames , isolating doors were built in the tunnels. All the trains were equipped with special reduced lighting for using on open sections of track.

Nowadays the London Underground is the most popular means of city transport. Its length is about 300 km and it has 273 stations.

Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы : It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The underground railways appeared in the 20th century. 2. The London Underground is the oldest Metro in the world. 3. The first line was constructed according to Pearson ’s project. 4. In the 19th century all the trains were driven by electric locomotives. 5. The first line of the London Underground was laid down deep under the ground. 6. The method of deep tunneling was developed by James Greathead . 7. The first escalator in the world was installed in the Moscow Metro. 8. During the World War II the London Underground didn’t operate. 9. Different measures were taken to minimize the danger of flooding the tunnels near the Thames . 10. At present the length of the London Underground is over 400 km.

ВАРИАНТ 4

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. At this railway station the stops of the trains last only five minutes. 2. Such engineers as Frolov, Yartzev, Polsunov made great contribution to the development of railway transport in Russia. 3. If you help me, I shall repair the engine in an hour. 4. In spite of the dense fog the train was not late. 5. The project of the Helsinki – St. Petersburg railway reconstruction envisages track modernization and installation of the safety systems and remote control systems.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. In 1994 Paris became closer to Londoners than Glasgow because the Channel Tunnel was opened for traffic. 2. Box cars are used for the transportation of goods which require protection against rain. 3. The switch is the mechanism which is used to move the trains from one track to another. 4. The first passenger cars were lighted by candles; later candles were replaced by oil and gas lamps. Nowadays electricity is used for lighting and heating the passenger carriages. 5. After the reconstruction of the railway, the speed of trains will be increased and the carrying capacity of the line will be raised.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The accident (to resultPast Indefinite Active ) in a traffic jam. 2. The renewal of signaling equipment of all the railroads (to financeFuture Indefinite Passive ) by the government. 3. In Great Britain a first-class ticket (to costPresent Indefinite Active ) 50% more than a second-class ticket. 4. Wooden sleepers (to treatPresent Indefinite Passive ) with creosote. 5. The first self-propelled vehicle in Russia (to makePast Indefinite Passive ) by Kulibin in the 18th century.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be .

1. There was some engine trouble, and the driver asked the passengers to get off the bus. 2. There is so much traffic on this street during rush hours that it is faster to ride a bike. 3. At the railway station there are announcement boards that inform passengers when and to what track the train will arrive. 4. The bus pulled up at the stop but to the disappointment of the people there was no room for everybody in it. 5. In April 1998 there was a 300 km traffic jam on the N4 motorway (the main road from London to Wales) at the end of the Easter holidays.

V . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания - s .

1. Nowadays London’s transport moves only 4 km faster than in 1912. 2. He wanted to get the watchman’s job because he could not get any other. 3. The scientific and technological achievements brought great changes in people’s life and work. 4. For the passengers’ convenience the compartments of a sleeping car are equipped with mirrored sliding doors, loudspeakers, collapsible tables, ceiling lamps and wall lamps. 5. The passengers were informed of the flight’s delay.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. Railway transport is one of the cheapest ways of carrying freight over long distances. 2. The continuous rails provide a smoother movement of trains at higher speeds. 3. If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by air. 4. For many centuries before the invention of the steam engine, transportation by water was much easier and cheaper than that by land.

VII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. The railway line that has no long tunnels and bridges is (cheap) line. 2. Although the gas-turbine engine is (small) and (light) than the diesel engine, it has (great) power. 3. Petrol is (expensive) than it was 2 years ago. 4. The railway became (important) means of transportation thanks to the invention of the steam locomotive. 5. The fare in the London Underground depends on the distance but (low) is 50 pence.

VIII . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. Werner von Siemens produced the first experimental electric locomotive . 2. The first escalator was installed in the London Underground in 1911 . 3. This plant manufactures engines for motor cars . 4. There are 12 bridges and viaducts on this railway line. 5. The new model of the car will be tested on the mountain roads. 6. High-class trains like “Russia” , “Irtysh”, “Siberia” and some others have high reputation and popularity. 7. The air in the Underground is changed every quarter of an hour .

IX . Перепишите и переведите текст.

THE OLDEST RAILWAY IN RUSSIA

The St. Petersburg - Moscow Mainline is the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia. The project of this railway was proposed by P.P. Melnikov. According to his project “chugunka” was planned as a double-track line, 664 km long, with the 5 feet gauge (now the standard), steam-powered. The speed of passenger and freight trains was supposed to be 34,4 km and 16 km respectively.

The construction began in 1843 and lasted 8 years. From the very beginning the builders faced many hardships because of severe climatic and difficult geological conditions. Hundreds of kilometers of track were laid down through forests and marshes, many rivers were crossed. The line is virtually straight and level. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts were built to make the line as straight as possible. There is a legend that the route of the railway was chosen by the Tzar Nikolay I , who drew a straight line between the two cities on the map and ordered this line to be the route of the railway. But the fact is that the construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work, a great part of which was done by P.P. Melnikov himself.

All the component parts of the track, bridges and viaducts were produced at Russian plants by using only domestic materials, including timber for sleepers and cast iron for rails.

One has to give credit* to the first railway builders, who laid the track in extremely difficult conditions. Nobody took care of the workers and nobody paid attention to their working conditions. People lived in “shalashes” or dug-outs; ate often tainted food; worked from dawn till sunset, often in water up to their knees and their main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts. The cruel exploitation of the workers was exposed by Nekrasov in his famous poem “The Railway”.

The railroad was officially opened for traffic on November 1, 1851. The first train departed from St. Petersburg at 11.15 and arrived in Moscow 21 hours 45 minutes later. There were 17 passengers in the first-class cars, 63 – in the second-class cars and 112 – in the third-class cars. The speed of the first trains was 40 km/h but two years later it was increased up to 60 km/h. It was the world’s record in the speed of passenger trains.

Notes: * one has to give credit – нужно отдать должное

Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right . It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the oldest railway in Russia. 2. P.P. Melnikov made the project of the St. Petersburg – Moscow mainline. 3. It was a single-track line. 4. This line had many curves and gradients. 5. The construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work. 6. All the materials for the construction were imported from Britain. 7. Rails were made of cast iron. 8. The railway was opened for traffic in 1851. 9. The first train departed from Moscow at midnight. 10. The train consisted of first-class cars only.

ВАРИАНТ 5

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. They missed the last commuter train because of the traffic jam. 2. The mechanic is busy now but he promised to examine the engine of your car. 3. If we drive at such a speed all the time, we shall arrive at the village before the dark. 4. A dispatcher controls the movement of trains over a definite section of track. 5. Moscow is a major transport junction. Over 300 long-distance and 2000 suburban trains depart from 10 Moscow terminals daily.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. All first carriages had three essential drawbacks: they were built of wood; they were heated by stoves, and they had an open platform at each end that was especially dangerous in the case of an accident. 2. The air in the London Underground is changed every quarter of an hour and the temperature is maintained at 69-79 degrees Fahrenheit all year round. 3. The invention of the steam engine aroused great interest; it was much spoken and written about. 4. All wagons are fitted with automatic coupling. 5. Most specialists consider that the trains of the future will be operated by automatic drivers.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. Before 1947 the British Railways (to ownPast Indefinite Passive ) by four private companies. 2. It (to takePresent Indefinite Active ) only 35 minutes to travel by train from Britain to France. 3. The windows of his car (to makePresent Indefinite Passive ) of unbreakable glass. 4. In London we (to transferFuture Indefinite Active ) from the train to a bus. 5. The policeman (to stopPast Indefinite Active ) the traffic so that the ambulance could pass.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there + to be .

1. In Great Britain there is a left-hand traffic and a foreign driver must be very attentive. 2. There are several types of passenger cars such as: day coaches, open type cars, sleeping cars, mail cars, baggage cars. 3. How many stops will there be before the train reaches its destination. 4. There was a terrible rush (суматоха) at the station when I got there. 5. There are practically no curves and steep gradients on the Paris-Lyon high-speed route.

V . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания - s .

1. The management of the Oktyabrskaya Railway pays much attention to the improvement of passengers’ service at the terminals 2. The engine-driver’s cab is equipped with new signaling devices. 3. On the first railways there were no conductors and an engine-driver collected the passengers’ fares himself. 4. The engineers continue to work on the problem of increasing passenger trains’ speed. 5. After an hour’s break we resumed our work.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.

1. It is more convenient to carry these goods by lorry than by rail. 2. George Pullman invented the first sleeping car which was much simpler in design than the sleeping cars of today but it was much more suitable for long-distance travel than any other kind of cars in use at that time. 3. The underground railway is the quickest, safest, the most reliable and comfortable means of city transport. 4. The trip by high-speed ferry from Helsinki to Tallinn lasts an hour and a half, even faster than by plane. 5. Modern locomotives can haul the trains of 6.000 tons and heavier.

VII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. Airplanes are (fast) but (expensive) means of transportation. 2. The maintenance cost of a diesel locomotive is three times (great) than that of an electric locomotive. 3. The internal combustion engine is (powerful) than the steam engine because it uses (good)- quality fuel: petrol or kerosene. 4. Construction of the permanent way became (easy) and (quick) after the invention of special track-laying machines and other equipment. 5. Passengers traveling from Moscow to Vladivostok move the hands of their watches seven times because the Trans-Siberian Mainline, (long) railway on our planet, crosses seven time zones.

VIII . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The replacement of the old engine will take two hours. 2. At peak hours the Metro trains run with small intervals. 3. In the USA the use of electric power in transportation began in 1887. 4. There are 2 types of bus stops in Britain – the compulsory stop and the request stop. 5. This new train develops a very high speed since it is fitted with powerful engines. 6. Special railroads such as funiculars are used on steep grades in the Alps . 7. This powerful machine is operated by one person.

IX . Перепишите и переведите текст.

FROM THE HISTORY OF RAILWAYS IN GREAT BRITAIN

The history of railways in Great Britain began in the second part of the 18th century. The first railways were horse-powered and were used for transporting coal, timber and ore. Later on, horse-powered railways appeared in large cities and were used as passenger transport. But they did not last long.

In 1763 James Watt invented the stationary steam engine and George Stephenson was one of the first who put a steam engine on wheels. He made a design of a locomotive but couldn’t build it as he had no money. Some businessmen decided to construct a railway between Stockton and Darlington to see how Stephenson’ s locomotive worked. On the day when it was opened, a man on a horse went in front of the engine and shouted that the train was coming. Stephenson , who was running his locomotive, asked the horseman to go away. He put steam on and ran his locomotive at a speed of 12 miles an hour. It was the beginning of steam-powered railways.

In 1829 the Liverpool-Manchester Railway was built, and the railway company offered a prize of £500 for the best steam train. The prize was won by G. Stephenson with his famous train “The Rocket ”. This locomotive was faster and stronger than the first one; it could pull 13 tons and achieved an “unheard-of speed” of 29 miles (46 km) an hour.

At first lots people were afraid of the railways. But in 1842 the steam-powered railways were already in wide use in Britain. It should be said (следует сказать) that the gauge was not the same on all the railways. The famous English engineer Brunel considered that the (чем) broader the gauge, the (тем) easily would the trains run. Following his advice the Great Western Company had constructed the railway network with a gauge of 7 feet. That is why for many years there were 2 gauges in England: the 7 feet suggested by Brunel and 4 feet 8½ inches, offered by Stephenson. It was inconvenient because where there was a break of gauges, and time was wasted. Angry people wrote to the newspapers and demanded to change the broad gauge. And at last in the House of Commons* the broad gauge was described as a “national evil”. It was very difficult to alter the gauge as the engines, carriages, wagons were made for the broad gauge. “The Battle of the Gauges” lasted more than 30 years. Only in 1892 the Great Western Railways was converted to the standard gauge.

Notes: * the House of Commons – Палата Общин

Х. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы : It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1. The first horse-powered railways in Great Britain were used for transporting passengers in large cities. 2. The stationary steam engine was invented by James Watt . 3. The speed of the first Stephenson ’s locomotive was 29 miles an hour. 4. The first Stephenson ’s locomotive was tested on the Liverpool-Manchester Railway. 5. Stephenson received a prize of £500 for his locomotive “The Rocket”. 6. At first lots of people were afraid of the railways. 7. At the 19th century the gauge of all railways was 4 feet 8½ inches. 8. Brunel suggested constructing railways with narrow gauge. 9. “The Battle of Gauges” lasted more than 35 years. 10. Now most railways in Britain have the standard gauge.

*trains were delayed

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы №2, вам необходимо повторить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованным учебникам:

1. Личные формы глагола. Формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах.

2. Неличные формы глагола (Participle I, Participle II).

3. Модальные глаголы (can, may, must, should, need).

ВАРИАНТ 1

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous ( Present , Past , Future ) и группы Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The construction of this high-speed line is being actively supported by the government because the development of heavy industry in this region requires reliable and speedy railway traffic. 2. Automobiles were rushing in both directions and it was impossible to cross the street. 3. We have heard on the radio today that the railway fares will be increased. 4. Until recently the price difference between the first and second class tickets on the Spanish Railways had been amounted to 81%. This difference has been greatly reduced and now first class fare is only 30% more expensive than second class.

II . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The man (to finePresent Perfect Passive ) by a policeman for crossing the street in the wrong place. 2. Before the invention of steel all railway cars (to makePast Perfect Passive ) of wood. 3. We arrived at the railway station when the train (to approach – Present Continuous Active ) the platform. 4. There (to bePast Indefinite Active ) a car by the side of the road. It (to breakPast Perfect Active ) down and the driver (to tryPast Continuous Active ) to repair it. 5. The construction of the new circular road which (to linkFuture Indefinite Active ) several districts (to startPresent Perfect Active ) recently.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого ( Active or Passive ).

1. A new device (has tested; has been tested ) in the lab. 2. The Russian scientist A.S. Popov (worked; was worked ) much at the problem of radio communication. 3. I know that these engines (are producing; are being produced ) in Minsk. 4. The airplane (crosses; is crossed ) the Atlantic Ocean in about 10 hours. 5. At the corner of the street we (saw; was seen ) a car. The driver (was examining; was being examined ) the engine.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The Trans-Europe expresses are equipped with interurban telephones through which the traveler can contact office or home. 2. This equipment must be carried in box cars because it requires protection against weather. 3. Passengers may buy tickets on the day of departure or reserve them in advance. 4. You need not leave for the airport so early; I will give you a lift. 5. In Britain you should always take your turn in the queue at a bus stop if there is one. 6. There is a lot of snow therefore the trains might be late.

V . Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I . Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая , читающий ;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to build; 2) to replace; 3) to install; 4) to come; 5) to produce; 6) to propose; 7) to leave; 8) to fly; 9) to carry; 10) to arrive; 11) to show; 12) to get; 13) to follow; 14) to sell; 15) to improve.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Passengers leaving for London were requested to register and to weigh their luggage. 2. Having built the dam, they secured the village against flood. 3. He jumped on the step of the moving tram. 4. Having arrived 2 days before the conference, he had a lot of time to see London. 5. The volume of passenger transportation is increased in summertime because many people spend their holidays, traveling all over the country or abroad.

VII . Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a (to damage) car; 2) freight (to transport) by railways; 3) an engine of (to improve) design; 4) (to weigh) luggage; 5) a (to choose) profession; 6) a (to restore) bridge; 7) a locomotive (to drive) by steam; 8) figures (to mention) in the report; 9) the (to forget) promise; 10) the distance (to cover) by train.

VIII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Kerosene is a fuel used in jet engines. 2. I’m not sure that it is possible to repair this badly damaged car. 3. When drawn by electric locomotive, the trains may consist of more than 90 cars. 4. The first British petrol-driven car called “The Knight” moved at a speed of only 8 miles per hour. 5. A train equipped with a tilting mechanism can pass the curve at a high speed.

IX . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. Trucks are usually used for the transportation of heavy loads . 2. In summer many students of our Academy work at the railway as attendants. 3. The first automobile appeared on the roads at the end of the 19th century . 4. Lorries were moving slowly along the mountain road. 5. According to the terms of the contract the equipment will be paid for on delivery . 6. The passengers have been just invited to take the train. 7. The surface station of the Samara Metro is called Yungorodok ”.

X . Перепишите и переведите текст.

THE CHANNEL TUNNEL

The first design of the Channel Tunnel was proposed in 1751. Since that time dozens of proposals had been considered before the actual tunneling began. The work proceeded very quickly and was successfully completed in 6 years. The Tunnel was opened for traffic on May 7, 1994.

The Channel Tunnel actually consists of three tunnels: the two running tunnels* and the service tunnel**. Single-track railway lines are laid down in each of the running tunnels. Normally, one of them carries passenger and freight trains from Britain to France and the other carries trains in the opposite direction. If one of the running tunnels is closed down for maintenance, the other is used for train movement in both directions. A smaller third tunnel lies between the two train tunnels. It is called the service tunnel. There is a roadway inside it, so maintenance workers and emergency teams can reach any point of the Tunnel system in their road vehicles. The service tunnel is linked to the running tunnels at regular intervals by cross-passages***. In the case of emergency or a train breakdown the passengers will leave the train through one of the cross-passages into the service tunnel where road vehicles will evacuate them to a safer place.

The total length of the Tunnel is about 50 km (37 km of the line is constructed under the waters of the English Channel). The electric trains run every 3 minutes during peak hours, providing the carrying capacity of 4,000 vehicles per hour in both directions.

A typical passenger shuttle* consists of 26 wagons. A half of them are double-deck carriages for carrying cars of average size. 13 single-deck wagons are used for transporting buses and vans. Freight shuttles consist of 25 single-deck wagons. Each of them is capable of carrying a vehicle weighing up to 44 tons. Two electric locomotives are coupled in front and at the rear of each shuttle.

The time of crossing the Tunnel is 35 minutes, about an hour less than by ferry. Passengers and drivers remain in their vehicles. The gauge of the tunnel railway is standard that’s way the tunnel can be used for international passenger and freight trains.

Notes : *running tunnel – железнодорожный тоннель

**service tunnel – служебный (подъездной) тоннель

***cross-passage – поперечный переход

XI . Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Was the first design of the Channel Tunnel proposed in 1851?

2. Had only two projects been considered before the actual tunneling began?

3. Did the construction proceed very quickly?

4. Are double-track railway lines laid down in the running tunnels?

5. Is there a roadway inside the service tunnel?

6. Do the electric trains operate in the Channel Tunnel?

7. Does a typical passenger shuttle consist of 26 wagons?

8. Is the time of crossing the Channel Tunnel 30 minutes?

9. Has each shuttle two electric locomotives coupled in front and at the rear?

10. Can the Tunnel be used for international passenger and freight trains?

ВАРИАНТ 2

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous ( Present , Past , Future ) и группы Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The locomotive was moving at a high speed when the engine driver saw that the line had been damaged. 2. Boeing ’s new airplane is faster and more luxurious than any other vehicles which have ever been produced. 3. When we came to the station the train had already arrived, and the passengers were hurrying to occupy their seats in the carriages. 4. It has been calculated that East Japan Railway Company sells 1,000 ton of tickets annually. These tickets are now being collected and re-used in the manufacture of cardboard and toilet paper.

II . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The bridge, which (to buildPresent Continuous Passive ) now, (to useFuture Indefinite Passive ) for the movement of both road and railway traffic. 2. The first automatic drivers (to testPresent Perfect Passive ) on the underground lines. 3. The movement of trains (to stopPast Indefinite Passive ) on that section of the line because the workers (to replacePast Continuous Active ) the sleepers. 4. The train crew (to informPast Indefinite Passive ) that the departure time (to changePast Perfect Passive ). 5. Nowadays crossties (to makePresent Indefinite Passive ) of wood, concrete, steel, cast-iron; in some countries experiments (to goPresent Continuous Active ) on with plastic sleepers.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого ( Active or Passive ).

1. Powerful track-laying machines (have developed; have been developed ) for the building of railroads. 2. The road is closed because the road-works (are conducting; are being conducted ). 3. Oil (uses; is used ) for the production of petrol. 4. David thought that his father (had repaired; had been repaired ) his bicycle. 5. At the first railways sleepers (laid; were laid ) down along the track; nowadays they (lay; are laid ) down transversely.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе .

1. The dispatcher can communicate with the loco driver over long distances by means of a radiotelephone. 2. Electric train may be propelled either by electric locomotive or by motor cars. 3. Passengers should not walk across the railway lines; there is a footbridge at the end of the platform. 4. You need not go to the railway station to buy tickets because you can book them at the nearest travel agency. 5. A wagon must be cleaned before being used for another run.

V . Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I . Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая , читающий ;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to offer; 2) to attend; 3) to bring; 4) to discover; 5) to find; 6) to do; 7) to say; 8) to obtain; 9) to deliver; 10) to shut; 11) to ring; 12) to light; 13) to reduce; 14) to depart; 15) to implement.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе .

1. When passing the curve a tilting train need not decrease its speed. 2. All trains operating on the suburban lines are driven by electricity. 3. Having built the world’s first electric locomotive, Werner von Siemens demonstrated it at the Berlin Exhibition. 4. Each railway station has at least two tracks, those for the incoming and outcoming trains. 5. The number and the spacing of the sleepers depend on the weight of trains passing over the track.

VII . Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a locomotive (to power) by electricity; 2) a (to delay) flight; 3) a (to break) engine; 4) a report (to type) in duplicate; 5) a (to carry out) plan; 6) a (to suspend) bridge; 7) a contract (to sign) by 2 companies; 8) mistakes (to make) in calculations; 9) the (to develop ) countries; 10) railway tickets (to sell) yesterday.

VIII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The first steam locomotive built by G. Stephenson could draw a small train of loaded cars at a speed of 13 miles per hour. 2. When upgraded, the track will be used for high-speed movement. 3. The engine designed by Rudolf Diesel is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. 4. The new materials recommended for bridge construction were described in the article written by our professor. 5. A lot of scientists invited to the conference refused to take part in it.

IX . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The two-speed escalators are being installed at new Metro stations . 2. We arranged to meet at 8 p.m . in front of the Pushkin Monument. 3. The length of the bus route has been increased by 3 km. 4. The service life of steel sleepers lasts from 35 to 60 years . 5. Tilting trains pass the curves at a high speed. 6. Electricity was used for the first time for industrial purposes in the silver workshops in Paris . 7. The rails are called T-rails because of their shape .

X . Перепишите и переведите текст.

MOSCOW UNDERGROUND

For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow was discussed before the revolution. But the construction of the first section (from Sokolniki to Central Park) was initiated only in 1932, and lasted 3 years. It was called the record period of time by the world press. The Russian engineers carefully studied the existing underground systems abroad before working out their own project, which represents a significant improvement on the London system.

The engineering difficulties were great mainly because much of the soil was composed of running sand*. Fortunately most of the running sand lay close to the surface and it was found possible to use out-and-cover method** of construction under many of the streets. But in the center of the city where the line is 100 ft or more deep, the construction of tunnels was necessary.

The Moscow Underground consists of a circle line, which runs round the city center, several radial lines crossing the city and connecting with each other and the lines running to the countryside. Some constructional work is still going on. Now the length of the underground lines reaches about 300 km.

At present the Moscow Metro handles more than 5 million passengers each day. During peak hours trains run at a speed of 90 km per hour with the intervals of about 80 seconds. One train takes up to 1,500 passengers. For greater safety of travel all trains are inspected every 6-9 hours of running. Being in operation for about 13 hours daily each metro train covers the distance equal to that from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The trains servicing the Underground are supplied with low voltage direct current. The current is obtained from the third rail by special devices that are mounted beneath the motor coaches. Rolling stock is completely replaced approximately once every four years.

The Moscow Metro can compete with the underground railways in any of the European capitals in level of automation. At present experiments are being conducted with an “automatic driver”, i.e. with computer-controlled trains. The computer devices will help to relieve the nervous strain on the drivers and make it possible to increase the cruising speed*** of trains even more. These automatic devices have already been tested over the Circle Route by way of experiment.

Notes : *running sand – сыпучий песок, плывун

**cut-and-cover method – открытый метод (строительства)

***cruising speed – эксплуатационная скорость

XI . Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Was the possibility of constructing Metro in Moscow discussed before the revolution for the first time?

2. Did the building of the Moscow Underground begin in 1917?

3. Does the project of the Moscow Metro represent a significant improvement on the London system?

4. Were all lines constructed, using out-and-cover method?

5. Does the Moscow Metro consist of a circle line and 2 radial ones?

6. Is the construction of the Metro still going on?

7. Do Metro trains run with the intervals of about 8 minutes during peak hours?

8. Are all trains inspected for greater safety of travel every week?

9. Can the Moscow Metro compete with the underground lines of other countries in level of automation?

10. Will an “automatic driver” replace hard man’s labor in future?

ВАРИАНТ 3

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous ( Present , Past , Future ) и группы Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. Hurry up! I’m afraid by the time we get to the station the train will have already left. 2. The new American turbo-train has covered a 230-mile distance in 3 hours 15 minutes with 4 stops between Boston and New York. 3. By the time the train reached its destination Paul had made friends with many of his fellow-travelers. 4. For many years railway track has been laid and repaired by hard manual labor. Now this work is being done by means of up-to-date track machines and mechanisms.

II . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The car (to movePast Continuous Active ) very fast and the traffic cop (to stopPast Indefinite Active ) it for over-speeding. 2. Reinforced concrete and steel (to usePresent Continuous Passive ) widely now for the construction of modern bridges. 3. They (to givePast Indefinite Active ) him no explanation why the experiment (to stopPast Perfect Passive ). 4. With the introduction of Centralized Traffic Control system the safety of railway operation (to increasePresent Perfect Active ) greatly. 5. Newspaper correspondents (to arrivePast Indefinite Active ) at the aviation plant when the new passenger airplane (to testPast Continuous Passive ).

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого ( Active or Passive ).

1. After the reconstruction of this line track maintenance cost (will reduce; will be reduced ) considerably. 2. A taxi (called; was called ) 15 minutes ago; so we (are expecting; are being expected ) it any moment. 3. Bill (kept; was kept ) his word and arrived exactly at the time he (had promised; had been promised ). 4. Great attention (pays; is paid ) to ecological problems all over the world. 5. Be careful! The train (is approaching; is being approached ) the station!

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Drivers of express and fast trains must have a rest after 3 hours of work. 2. In New York a passenger may go by subway all day long for the same fare, if he only changes trains but do not go out of the station. 3. In Metro when the passengers get on the escalator, they should stand on the right so that people who hurry can run by on the left 4. The new automated control system will eliminate all types of accidents which can be caused by the driver’s error. 5. You need not hurry up; you may take a later suburban train.

V . Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I . Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read - a) reading – читая , читающий ;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to use; 2) to make; 3) to develop; 4) to forget; 5) to burn; 6) to transport; 7) to receive; 8) to feel; 9) to study; 10) to carry; 11) to go; 12) to try; 13) to think; 14) to cover; 15) to speak.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Having packed our baggage, we hired a taxi and hurried to the airport. 2. Electric diagrams showing the routes of trains are installed in the London Underground. 3. The high-speed train running between Hiroshima and Kokura was entered in the Guinness Book of Records for the highest average speed – 261,8 km/h. 4. Carriage wheels, when passing over rail joints, produce the familiar sound “click-etty-click”. 5. While unloading the car we found a few broken boxes.

VII . Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a train (to control) by automatic engine-driver; 2) the (to obtain) result; 3) a (to destroy) bridge; 4) machinery (to produce) at our plant; 5) a (to propose) project; 6) equipment (to install) in the laboratory; 7) a (to test) method; 8) a terminal (to upgrade) last year; 9) a railway (to build) for high-speed passenger traffic; 10) a (to repair) section of track.

VIII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The first steam engine invented by James Watt was installed in a machine at a large mine to pump out the water. 2. The mechanic said that he had replaced the broken part of the engine. 3. When heated by sun, the rails become longer. 4. This engine radically differs both in construction and operation from the engine designed 5 years ago. 5. The Disneyland train called “the Excursion” was built especially to carry visitors through the Grand Canyon Diorama.

IX . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The load weighs a hundred kilograms. 2. The windows in this car are made of unbreakable glass. 3. Each passenger must fasten the belt when the plane takes off or lands. 4. The Japanese company developed the first pocket-size color TV set. 5. Many bridges cross the river Thames in London. 6. In summer we are planning to go on a cruise along the coast of the Black Sea. 7. The accident has happened due to careless driving .

X . Перепишите и переведите текст.

EXPERIMENTAL BRIDGE

A bridge is a structure built to cross some natural or artificial obstacles such as rivers, streets, railways and so on. First bridges had to be built out of the material close at hand*. In tropical jungles suspension bridges were made of long bamboo poles. In the places where there were many forests it was wood.

Simple suspension bridges were made by means of ropes and are still used in some countries. Two parallel ropes were suspended from rocks or trees on each bank of the river with a platform of woven mats laid across them. When the Spaniards reached South America, they found that the Incas** of Peru used suspension bridges made of 6 strong cables, four of which supported a platform and two cables served as handrails***.

In Middle Ages people constructed wooden beam type bridges. They were usually built on stone piers or wooden piles. Bridges of this type are still used in Japan and India.

With the beginning of railway construction in the 19th century there was a great demand for bridges and the railway companies had capital for building them. The first railway bridges were built of stone or brick. Later there appeared concrete and metal bridges. The first iron bridge crossed the river Severn in Great Britain.

Nowadays some people are experimenting with different unusual materials. One of them is paper. Nobody considers paper to be a very strong material. But paper-makers have another opinion. In order to prove it they built a paper bridge across a narrow canyon in Nevada. The bridge had a span of 32 ft. The designers calculated that it could safety span 80 ft. It took engineers only two months to design the bridge, to test and construct it.

For testing the engineers chose a truck which weighed 12,000 lb. This truck drove quite safely across the paper bridge. The engineers are sure that the bridge can take six times the truckload of 12,000 lb.

The bridge itself weighed 9,000 lb. So the structure was light enough to be laid into place by a helicopter.

Notes : *material close at hand – подручный материал

**Incas – Инки

***handrails – поручни

XI . Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Were the first bridges made of steel?

2. Did people construct wooden beam type bridges in Middle Ages?

3. Was there a great demand for railway bridges in the 19th century?

4. Are people experimenting with different unusual materials for constructing bridges?

5. Do paper-makers consider paper to be a strong material?

6. Was a paper bridge built across the river?

7. Is paper a widely used material for the bridge construction?

8. Did it take engineers only 2 years to construct the bridge made of paper?

9. Did engineers choose a train for testing the paper bridge?

10. Can a paper bridge be laid into place by a helicopter?

ВАРИАНТ 4

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous ( Present , Past , Future ) и группы Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The station master said that no trains had arrived at the station during the night because of the heavy snowstorm in the mountains. 2. The business day was in high gear: the mail was being looked through, the documents were being typed, letters were being answered, talks were being hold. 3. The reason for the freight train derailment has not been found yet. 4. The program of railway reforms is being implemented now in Russia. Under this program suburban and regional passenger services will be financed from local budgets. At the same time the government has promised to fund inter-city passenger service.

II . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. When we (to comePast Indefinite Active ) to the railway station, all tickets (to sell outPast Perfect Passive ) already. 2. During the last 5 years traffic on Britain’s roads (to increasePresent Perfect Active ) by 27 per cent. 3. Evidently the car (to travelPast Continuous Active ) at a high speed so at this steep turn the crash (to bePast Indefinite Active ) inevitable. 4. Computers (to usePresent Continuous Passive ) more and more extensively in the world today. 5. Train fares (to increasePresent Perfect Passive ) several times during the past year.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого ( Active or Passive ).

1. A two-speed escalator (has developed; has been developed ) in this design bureau. 2. The wooden supports for rails (call; are called ) the sleepers. 3. A new railway underground line (is constructing; is being constructed ) in our city. One of Metro stations (will build; will be build ) near my house. 4. Permanent way (consists; is consisted ) of rails, sleepers and ballast. 5. The workers (were inspecting; were being inspected ) carefully the carriages before the train departure.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. If you are traveling by air, you mustn’t carry anything in your luggage that can be used as a weapon, such as a knife or a pair of scissors. 2. The driver of the vehicle may be fined by the police officer if he violates the traffic rules or drives under the influence of alcohol. 3. You should not ride a motorbike without a helmet. 4. We could hardly start the engine at –30° C. 5. What can you do while traveling by train? You can read a novel or do a crossword puzzle, you can just stare out of the window or talk to your fellow-traveler, you can sit back and listen to the clicking of the carriage over the rails.

V . Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I . Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая , читающий ;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to begin; 2) to heat; 3) to improve; 4) to fall; 5) to meet; 6) to suggest; 7) to run; 8) to calculate; 9) to write; 10) to weigh; 11) to link; 12) to implement; 13) to grow; 14) to choose; 15) to design.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Having used alloys instead of steel the designers reduced the cost of the device. 2. Trains arrivals and departures are announced on a loudspeaker, it is very convenient for people meeting somebody or seeing somebody off. 3. Chinese Railways lifted the maximum speed of passenger services to 140 km/h on seven key routes radiating from Beijing (Пекин). 4. Driving a car in the rush hours, you must be very attentive because traffic is very heavy. 5. The first Metro trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal, filling the tunnels with smoke.

VII . Образуйте Participle II o т глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) an engine (to invent) by R. Diesel; 2) the (to approve) plan; 3) a bag (to leave) in the bus; 4) (to receive) information; 5) a new supercomputer (to develop) by Japanese engineers; 6) (to burn) gas; 7) the (to insure) car; 8) (to increase) volume of traffic; 9) a (to force) landing; 10) a (to work out) project.

VIII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The things left behind by passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property Office. 2. When upgraded, the railway bridge will be used for the movement of heavy freight trains. 3. The first Siemens ’s electric loco built in 1879 was so small that the driver straddled it like a horse but it could haul a train with 30 passengers. 4. During the test run the steam locomotive produced by Peter Cooper raced against a coach pulled by a horse. 5. In some European countries tank wagons made of reinforced plastics are used for conveyance of wine and fruit juices.

IX . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The experiments were put off after the accident for an indefinite time. 2. Now all railways have a standard gauge. 3. The Railway International Journal publishes a lot of articles about the construction of high-speed railways all over the world . 4. We were waiting for the train arrival on the platform . 5. She left her driving license at home . 6. He has been offered ₤350 for his old car, but its price is much higher. 7. Passengers should be at the station at least thirty minutes before boarding the train if they need to buy tickets .

X . Перепишите и переведите текст .

UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS

The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city’s transport. Metro can solve the problems of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise.

But from the technical point of view the underground railway system is very expensive and complicated constructional work. This system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. Ground based lines are usually used at the terminations of the underground railways. Besides the underground and surface structures involve stations, tunnels, escalators, underpasses, ventilation and sanitary engineering as well as a power supply system.

The permanent way of underground railways differs from the usual railway track. The sleepers are only 0.9 m long. They are shorter than those of the railroad track which are 2.7 m long. The sleepers of the usual track are laid upon ballast made of broken stone or other materials. The crossties of the underground railway are laid directly on concrete base. It is more expensive but keeps air free from dust. If the ballast were made of slag, gravel, sand or even broken stone, the train would be followed by the dust clouds.

All Metro trains are powered by electricity. The current is obtained from the third rail. This contact rail is laid along the whole track and transmits the direct current of 825 volts to the train electromotor through the pantograph.

The Underground carrying capacity depends on the number of coaches which ranges from 2 to 8 per train and the frequency of train running which ranges from 80 seconds to 8 minutes.

Nowadays there are underground railways in 80 cities all over the world. The first Metro railways lines were constructed in London in 1863. It is the oldest but not the longest Underground. New York was the second city to build the subway. The first track was laid in 1868 and nowadays it is the longest metro in the world. The shortest metro line was constructed in Turkey. Its length is only 600 m but Istanbul is very proud of the metropolitan means of traffic.

XI . Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Is the underground railway the quickest means of transport?

2. Can Metro solve the problem of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities?

3. Does the underground railway system include only subsurface lines?

4. Are the sleepers of the underground railway laid on concrete base?

5. Do the Metro trains always consist of 4 coaches?

6. Are there underground railways in 80 cities all over the world?

7. Was London the second city to build the Metro?

8. Did New York construct its Underground in 1963?

9. Do you know where the shortest railway line in the world is?

10. Have metro lines been already constructed in all large cities all over the world?

ВАРИАНТ 5

I . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous ( Present , Past , Future ) и группы Perfect ( Present , Past , Future ) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. According to schedule, this train was due to arrive at 12.30, but because of track repair work, it is being delayed. 2. The passengers had been invited to get on the train and now they were exchanging farewells with those who had come to see them off. 3. China is planning to construct several thousand kilometers of high-speed lines for the transportation of 1,5 billion passengers and 2,1 billion tones of freight a year. Specific plans have been drawn up to upgrade the busiest main lines for semi-express train running at 160 km/h or express trains moving at 250 km/h. At the same time the possibility of the train speed increase up to 350 km/h is being investigated.

II . Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. She (to tellPast Indefinite Passive ) in the enquiry office that the schedule of this commuter train (to changePast Perfect Passive ). 2. Several newspapers (to reportPresent Perfect Active ) that the Russian and Finnish governments (to discussPresent Continuous Active ) a project for the reconstruction of the Helsinki-St. Petersburg railroad known in Finland as the Eastern Railway . 3. The new three wagon Tank Train (to testPresent Perfect Passive ) in severe winter conditions on the Alaska Railroad . 4. The construction of both the bridge and the dam (to completeFuture Perfect Passive ) by the beginning of the navigation season. 5. At present 2,500 km of high-speed lines (to constructPresent Continuous Passive ) in Europe and Asia.

III . Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого ( Active or Passive ).

1. The equipment (has packed; has been packed ) already into boxes and now it (is loading; is being loaded ) into the container. 2. Air-conditioning system always (maintains; is maintained ) the optimum temperature and humidity in the carriage. 3. A new high-speed railway line (is building; is being built ) in the Northwest of Russia now. 4. The flood (has caused; has been caused ) considerable damage to the railway track.

IV . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе .

1. Both direct and alternating current may be used on electrified railways. 2. Steel which is used for the production of rails must be of high quality. 3. If you have lost your credit card, you should declare about it immediately. 4. Two or more locos can be coupled together and operated by a single locomotive crew. 5. The double-track railways are more convenient than single-track railways because the trains need not wait for the other trains to pass.

V . Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I . Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая , читающий ;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to process; 2) to break; 3) to buy; 4) to pass; 5) to connect; 6) to know; 7) to require; 8) to fulfil; 9) to invent; 10) to take; 11) to tell; 12) to wait; 13) to damage; 14) to sign; 15) to report.

VI . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The Oktyabrskaya Railway offers additional discounts for passengers traveling to Finland with children under the age of 17. 2. Connecting two large industrial areas the Paris-Lyon route is one of the most important railway lines in France. 3. Having measured the distance between two points, we can calculate the time a car can cover it, if we know the car’s average speed. 4. In 1786, William Murdock , an English engineer, constructed a working model of a small steam locomotive. 5. The journey from London to Norwich (184 km) takes exactly 2 hours, including stops.

VII . Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) the (to carry out) experiment; 2) freight (to deliver) 2 hours ago; 3) a wagon (to use) for the transportation of liquid goods; 4) new electronic devices (to display) at the exhibition; 5) (to ensure) minimum of service; 6) an (to overcrowd) bus; 7) fuel (to use) in jet engines; 8) a new Metro station (to decorate) with marble and bronze; 9) (to take) measures; 10) a driver (to fine) for over-speeding.

VIII . Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The research didn’t give the expected results because of the mistake in the computation. 2. The total length of the bridge built across the Volga at Saratov is about 2 miles. 3. The diesel-electric locomotive has an internal combustion engine connected to the driving wheels by electric transmission. 4. Signals installed at frequent intervals along the whole mainline inform the engine-drivers of the position of other trains. 5. If compared with electric locomotives, diesel locomotives have a higher maintenance cost.

IX . Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The mechanic replaced some out-of-date parts of this machine. 2. All the necessary information is stored in the computer . 3. The train covers the distance from Moscow to Samara in 20 hours. 4. This equipment should be carried in a box car for it requires protection against weather . 5. Automobiles were rare in the 19th century. 6. For some period of time one underground railway line in London was working entirely without drivers. 7. The workers have already inspected all coaches of this train .

X . Перепишите и переведите текст.

LONDON UNDERGROUND

The London Underground (it is often called the Tube) is the oldest metro in the world. It has been used for passenger transporting since 1863. Nowadays the London Underground is the most popular means of city transport because it is relatively cheap, convenient, quick and safe. Its length is about 400 km. Every day the Tube carries over 2.5 million passengers. The total number of passengers carried by the Underground each year is enormous and it is constantly growing.

In the London Metro there are 11 underground lines, each of them has its own color. For example, the lines are called: Central (red), Circle (yellow), East London (orange), Metropolitan (dark brown), Northern (black), Victoria (light blue) and so on.

Only half of the trains go under the ground, new lines that connect London with its suburbs go over the ground. On such routes express trains are operated. They stop at a very few stations on their way that is very convenient for those people who live in the suburbs but work in the center of London.

There are 275 stations in the London Metro. Most of them are old and not attractive to the eye. The walls are simply white or gray plastered with all kinds of advertisements. Numerous stations which are rather deep under the ground are equipped with escalators. About 200 escalators can carry 10,000 passengers an hour at maximum speed. The longest one is at the station “Leicester Square” , its length is over 80 feet. On long escalators the speed is changeable. The “up” escalator runs at full speed when carrying passengers but when empty it moves at half speed. It is known that traffic is left-hand in Britain, but when passengers get on the escalator they stand on the right so that people who hurry can run by on the left, and it seems that everybody in the Underground always hurries.

Safety was always one of the main concerns of the London transport. In spite of the fact that trains often follow each other within 1-3 minutes, it is said that the London Underground is the safest form of transport in the world. The most up-to-date electronic equipment is used for controlling train movement: if changes are necessary, they are made automatically and with lightning speed. No accident can happen through human errors.

XI . Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Has the London Underground been used since 1860?

2. Does the London Underground carry over 2,5 million passengers a day?

3. Do all Metro trains go under the ground?

4. Are all stations equipped with escalators?

5. Was safety always one of the main concerns of London transport?

6. Can any accident happen through human error in the London Underground?

7. Is the number of passengers carried by the Underground constantly growing?

8. Do express trains stop at all the stations on their way?

9. Are there twelve Underground lines in London?

10. Have all underground lines their own color?

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

I . Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на видовременные формы сказуемых. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчёркнутым словам.

1. Our train will depart at 10 a.m. (When?) 2. The automatic driver was first tested on the Moscow Underground. (Where?) 3. We have many various electric devices in our houses. (Who?; What devices?) 4. The crew of the plane consists of four people. (How many?) 5. We were informed of our train delay. (Who?; What?) 6. Our automobile is equipped with radio communication and audio signaling. (What devices?) 7. He bought the plane tickets at the travel agency. (Where?) 8. Each compartment has upper and lower berths. (What?) 9. The length of the Great Trans-Siberian Railway is 8.000 km. (How many?) 10. Nowadays all rails are made of steel. (What?) 11. For many years engineers tried to find a new material for making sleepers. (How long?) 12. The main advantage of the steel sleeper is its durability and reliability. (What?) 13. The underground railways became very popular thanks to their cleanliness and higher speeds. (Why?) 14. The railways play decisive role in the transportation of freight. (What?) 15. The traffic is not very heavy in the early mornings . (When?) 16. This mechanism activates the emergency brake. (What?) 17. Electrical equipment will be produced in France. (Where?) 18. They learnt about the accident from the newspaper. (What?) 19. The driver told his passengers to fasten their safety belts. (What?) 20. At the large railway stations porters use electric baggage trucks. (Who ?; What ?). 21. Several passers-by stopped to look at the strange bicycle out of curiosity . (Why?).

II . Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную форму. Предложения прочитайте и переведите.

1. The USA (to rank - Present Indefinite Active ) first in the world in the volume of freight traffic. 2. It (to take – Present Indefinite Active ) passengers 7 hours to get from Moscow to St. Petersburg if they (to goPresent Indefinite Active ) by overnight “Red Arrow” passenger train. 3. A large number of cars (to parkPast Indefinite Passive ) near the terminal. 4. Hundreds of jobs (to create – Future Indefinite Passive ) after the building of this plant. 5. The speed of Metro trains (to reachPresent Indefinite Active ) 90 km/h. 6. I (to preferPresent Indefinite Active ) to buy tickets in advance. 7. Special equipment (to usePresent Indefinite Passive ) for repairing locomotives. 8. Yartsev (to suggestPast Indefinite Active ) using cast iron rails instead of wooden ones in 1788. 9. This railway company (to transportFuture Indefinite Active ) freight only. 10. The distance between rails (to callPresent Indefinite Passive ) the gauge. 11 The track repair work (to delay – Past Indefinite Active ) the arrival of the trains. 12. The first steam locomotive in Russia (to testPast Indefinite Passive ) in Nizhni Tagil. 13 This (to bePresent Indefinite Active ) an excellent computer which (to giveFuture Indefinite Active ) many years of service. 14. The train (to comePast Indefinite Active ) to the station on schedule. 15. In the compartment passengers (to putPresent Indefinite Active ) their suitcases into a special box under the lower berth. 16. Wood (to replacePast Indefinite Passive ) by steel as a material for constructing passenger cars. 17. In the past messages from Europe to America (to sendPast Indefinite Passive ) by ship. 18. Sleepers (to holdPresent Indefinite Active ) the 2 rails at the exact distance. 19 The bridge (to joinPresent Indefinite Active) the island to the mainland. 20. All passenger coaches (to equipPresent Indefinite Passive ) with electric heating system. 21. I (to workPresent Indefinite Active ) for a construction company which (to have Present Indefinite Active ) a lot of contracts in other countries.

III . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на оборот there + to be .

1. There are many accidents on this section of the road when it is icy. 2. There was not enough room in the car for the whole family. 3. There is nothing better than a sea trip if you need a good rest. 4. In Britain there are three types of trains: fast intercity trains, local stopping trains and commuter trains. 5. There were so many interesting excursions that he didn’t know which to choose. 6. There will be an extra commuter train tomorrow. 7. In some countries there are special paths for bicycles which make cycling a safe form of transport. 8. There was a jam on the road because of the accident. 9. There are 2 lower berths, 2 dropping upper berths and a collapsible table in each compartment of the sleeping car. 10. There will be no trains today because the railroad workers are on strike. 11. There are 5 minutes left before the train leaves. 12. The company closed down because there wasn’t much demand for its product. 13. There were many cars in the parking lot near the theatre. 14. There are two types of electric trains: those hauled by electric locomotives and multiple-unit trains. 15. There is a large garage on Seventh Street that provides work for eleven men. There is one man who meets the customers. There are two other men who take care of batteries. There is another man who washes cars. There are 3 other men who sell gas and oil. There is another man who repairs wheels. There are two men who work with engines and there is one man who sells tires. There is no better place for automobile service. 15. There was no room in the car for all our luggage.

IV . Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания, обращая внимание на притяжательный падеж существительных.

1) our manager’s report; 2) the workers’ meeting; 3) these passengers’ baggage; 4) our chief’s office; 5) her cousin’s garage; 6) David’s new car; 7) Polsunov’s invention; 8) the company’s staff; 9) the commission’s decision; 10) an hour’s break; 11) tomorrow’s conference; 12) this student’s report; 13) the conductors’ compartment; 14) the Minister of Railway’s speech; 15) three week’s cruise; 16) computer’s error; 17) four hour’s flight; 18) three minutes’ telephone conversation; 19) a driver’s cab; 20) this train’s schedule. 21) the Cherepanovs’ first steam locomotive; 22) India’s export; 23) my friend’s birthday.

V . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на окончание -s .

1. My father’s company imports electrical goods. 2. Yesterday’s radio program was very interesting. 3. Transport plays a very important part in the development of any country’s economy . 4. We only had a five minute’s talk . 5. This author’s books are always in great demand. 6. This professor’s lectures are attended by all students. 7. All newspapers reported about President’s arrival to Britain. 8. Have you read the today’s newspaper? 9. The rector answered all the students’ questions at the yesterday’s meeting. 10. There were many passengers at the airport on New Year’s Eve as many flights were delayed because of the snowstorm. 11. Newton’s contribution to physics was immense. 12. The director’s office is at the end of the corridor, the last door. 13. Several Ann’s friends came to the terminal to see her off. 14. There was no mention of Popov’s invention in the book. 15. Because of the Earth’s rotation, there are days and nights on our planet. 16. The company’s president arrived at the airport ten minutes before the flight. 17. Tom’s arrival was quite unexpected. 18. There were a lot of people at our firm’s presentation. 19. The letter arrived on the day of Henry’s departure. 20. I dialed Linda’s telephone number twice but nobody answered. 21. The company’s profit was $ 3 million.

VI . Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени от следующих прилагательных и наречий.

reliable (надёжный ); fast (быстрый ); heavy (тяжёлый, интенсивный ); difficult (трудный ); convenient (удобный ); slow (медленный ); considerable (значительный); safe (безопасный ); attentive (внимательный ); soft (мягкий ); modern (современный ); important (важный ); bad (плохой ); high (высокий ); loud (громкий ); quick (быстрый ); useful (полезный ); rapid (быстрый ); safe (безопасный ); little (маленький ); expensive (дорогой ); cheap (дешёвый ); low (низкий ); good (хороший ); necessary (необходимый ); narrow (узкий ); easy (лёгкий ); advanced (передовой ); busy (оживлённый ); floppy (гибкий ); comfortable (комфортабельный ); early (рано ); constant (постоянный ); close (близкий ); backward (отсталый ); hard (твёрдый ); main (главный ); powerful (мощный ); wide (широкий ).

VII . Прочитайте предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.

1. I wish I lived (near) my work because it takes me much time to get there. 2. Take this bag; it is (light ) than yours. 3. Public transport is (expensive) in Europe. 4. The old engine was replaced by a new and (powerful) one. 5. The diamond is (hard) mineral in the world. 6. This office is equipped with (modern) equipment. 7. The car is (fast) than the bicycle. 8. The problem was (serious) than we expected. 9. The Kuibyshev Railway is 23 years (young ) than the Moscow and St. Petersburg railroad. 10. The Moscow-St. Petersburg railway is (old) railroad in this country. 11. I receive his letter (late) than usual. 12. The electric locomotive has (high) efficiency. 13. Traveling by train is (cheap) than by air. 14. This way is not always (short) because of traffic jams. 15. The (quick) and probably (reliable) way of traveling to Great Britain is by air. 16. Can you come (early ) next time? 17. Do you know (short) way to the station?

VIII . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях.

1. The efficiency of electric locomotives is much higher than that of steam locomotives. 2. Thanks to the invention of the radio it is possible to communicate with the remotest parts of the world. 3. At present some airplanes travel faster than sound. 4. Where is the nearest post office? 5. Thanks to computers we process information million times quicker. 6. The hardest work in mines is now performed by robots. 7. The double-track railways are more convenient, if the traffic on these lines is very heavy. 8. These boxes are too small for this equipment; we need bigger ones. 9. German cars are more expensive but they are better. 10. Computers make men’s labor easier 11. Many ships and aircrafts are piloted automatically for the greater part of the journey. 12. Petrol engines are lighter and smaller than diesel engines; they are cheaper, less noisy and go faster that is why they are used in cars and motorbikes. On the other hand diesel engines use less fuel; last longer than petrol engines, this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire.

IX . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на видовременные формы сказуемых.

1. 27 British scientists have gained Nobel awards since 1945. 2. “Don’t enter the compartment,” said one of the attendants. “It is being swept now.” 3. Robert said that he had been to England twice but so far he had not had time to visit London. 4. We suddenly discovered that we had lost our way. 5. The Czech Railways is investing heavily to upgrade the Prague-Breslau railway. 6. The ticket has been booked over the telephone, and it will be delivered to the office at two o’clock. 7. We made inquire and found out that you had been dismissed from your previous job. 8. Fares have been increased by 10 per cent. 9. It was snowing heavily and I couldn’t make out the number of the tram. When I had covered several tram stops, I realized that I got on the wrong tram. 10. The air in large cities is being contaminated by traffic and industry. 11. Before starting the car the driver had filled the tank with fuel and examined the engine. 12. The damaged ship was being towed into the harbor when the towline broke. 13. Not all the necessary things have been bought for our trip that is why the departure has been postponed. 14. He has just returned from a business trip to India. He has been all over the country. 15. I hope you will not have forgotten all this by tomorrow.

X. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную форму. Предложения прочитайте и переведите.

1. When I (to comePast Indefinite Active ) to Baku in 1962, the first Metro line (to buildPast Continuous Passive ) there. 2. Some changes (to make – Present Perfect Passive ) in the original design. 3. When the fire brigade (to arrivePast Indefinite Active ), the fire (to destroyPast Perfect Active ) already the building. 4. The overall control of the system (to doPresent Continuous Passive ) by computers. 5. Competition between transport modes (to intensifyPresent Continuous Active ) now. 6. He (to drivePast Continuous Active ) home when he (to hearPast Indefinite Active ) the news on the radio. 7. The consumption of electricity (to doublePresent Perfect Active ) every 10 years. 8. I (to tellPast Indefinite Passive ) that the documents for my business trip (to signPresent Perfect Passive ) already. 9. I (to takePresent Perfect Active ) somebody else’s suitcase by mistake. 10. This line (to upgradePresent Continuous Passive ) to carry heavier volumes of freight and passenger traffic. 11. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (to makePresent Perfect Active ) a loan of $US 120 to the Russian Ministry of Railways for the railway rehabilitation project. 12. Similar results (to achievePresent Perfect Passive ) by 2 scientists in the course of their work. 13. The problem of the old marshalling yard reconstruction (to discuss – Present Continuous Passive ) now. 14. A lot of people (to waitPast Continuous Active ) for the bus arrival at the stop. 15. I (to find – Past Indefinite Active ) the information about this invention on the Internet. 16. He (to spendPresent Indefinite Active ) all his spare time driving his new car. 17. She (to advisePast Indefinite Passive ) to find another job. 18. A totally new ticket-vending system (to installPresent Perfect Passive ) at our terminal. 19. The train (to approachPresent Continuous Active ) Moscow; let’s start packing. 20. Many people (to bePast Indefinite Active ) afraid of the railways when they first (to appearPast Indefinite Active ).

XI . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive ).

1. Tomas Edison began to work at the railway, when he (was selling; was being sold ) newspapers and snack. 2. You can’t take this tape-recorder because it (has not repaired; has not been repaired ) yet. 3. Tickets usually (sell; are sold ) long before the train departure. 4. I was late because of my watch. It (has stopped; has been stopped ). 5. I leased another car, while mine (was repairing; was being repaired ). 6. The Channel Tunnel (has used; has been used ) since 1994. It (connects; is connected ) Great Britain with the Continent. 7. Automatic ticket-selling machines (are developing; are being developed ) for the improvement of passenger service at the railway stations. 8. Fuelling stations (situate; are situated ) along the highway at frequent intervals. 9. The pipe (is leaking; is being leaked ) at the joint. 10. The electrical equipment (will supply; will be supplied ) by a Japanese firm. 11. The construction of the first steam locomotive in Russia (connects; is connected ) with the name of the Cherepanovs. 12. During peak hours the Metro trains (run; are run ) with small intervals. 13. The old engine (has replaced; has been replaced ) by a new and more powerful one. 14. The discussion (had not started; had not been started ) before the chief engineer came. 15 The old bridge over the river ( was reconstructing; was being reconst ructed ) for 6 months. 16. Radio (uses; is used ) for communication and remote control.

XII . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов must , can , may , need , should .

1. You may wait in the office till it stops raining. 2. The plan must be completely changed. 3. The cursor on the screen can be moved with the help of the mouse. 4. You should maintain your bicycle brakes. 5. You need not write this letter. I’ll phone them. 6. You may take any of these instruments, because I don’t need them now. 7. You mustn’t cross the street when the red light is on. 8. Luckily I could catch a taxi. 9. Drivers should not surpass the speed of 60 km within the city limits. 10. You need not go to the conference; you may send your deputy. 11. Can you show me the way to the station? 12. We needn’t be in a hurry – we have got plenty of time. 13. You must hurry up; we may be late. 14. Never put till tomorrow what you can do today. 15. He can’t drive a car but he should learn. 16. The internal combustion engines can operate on oil, kerosene or benzene. 17. In some trains of high comfort a passenger can order dinner or supper directly to his compartment. 18. These parts of the engine must be replaced. 19. You needn’t copy this text; I’ll give you a Xerox of this page. 20. Something was wrong with the car; he couldn’t start it. 21. If you park in no-parking zone, the traffic police can tow away your car. You can’t pick it up until you pay a fine.

XIII . Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания, обращая внимание на разные формы и функции Participle I .

a) 1. (When) discussing the project…; 2. scientists discussing the project; 3. Having discussed the project …; 4. The scientists were discussing the project for two hours.

b) 1. Having repaired the engine …; 2. a mechanic repairing engines; 3. (While) repairing the engine …; 4. A mechanic is repairing the engine now.

c) 1. workers constructing the railway; 2. Constructing the railway …; 3. Having constructed the railway …; 4. The workers will be constructing the railway for 2 years.

d) 1. Typing the report…; 2. Having typed the report …; 3. A secretary is typing your report now. 4. a secretary typing your report.

e) 1. When testing a new device …; 2. Having tested a new device …; 3. The engineers are testing a new device now. 4. the engineers testing a new device.

XIV . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в разных функциях.

1. When constructing the railway, it is cheaper to use local materials. 2. People living near airports suffer from the noise of powerful jet airliners taking off and landing . 3. We spent an hour or two, talking to our friends. 4. Having seen the green light, we crossed the street. 5. Freight trains consisting of more than 80 cars are hauled by 2 locomotives. 6. Waiting for the train arrival, I looked through the magazines lying on the table. 7. Having received the telegram she immediately left for Glasgow. 8. At the stop we saw a lot of people waiting for the bus. 9. The leading role of the railway transport in Russia is explained by the specific territorial, climatic and geographical conditions. 10. Ships are equipped with radar sets helping them to orient at sea. 11. A new road connecting the plant with the railway station is being built now. 12. They stopped their experiments having obtained the necessary results. 13. The main disadvantages of steel sleepers are their high price and the noise caused by trains passing over them. 14. Having left our suitcases in the Left-Luggage Room we went to have a snack. 15. The workers were moving from car to car, carefully inspecting them. 16. The road joining the two villages is very narrow. 17. The bright flowers growing along the railroad track attracted the attention of all the passengers. 18. In 1840 the USA had 2,800 miles of railroad tracks consisting mainly of short lines. 19. The trains operating on the underground lines are provided with low voltage direct current. 20. While waiting for the ship to leave, I met an old friend of mine.

XV . Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в разных функциях.

1.The TV set bought a few days ago has broken down. 2. When translated , the article will be typed. 3. The received information was very interesting. 4. Pieces of broken glass were seen everywhere. 5. The equipment produced by our plant is of high quality. 6. This powerful machine is operated by one person. 7. There are several types of rails used on our railways now, such as R 60, R 75. 8. When upgraded, the track will be used for high-speed traffic. 9. In Japan the communication between some islands is provided through underwater tubes laid on the sea bottom. 10. The first metals used by primitive men were gold, silver and copper. 11. We were informed of the test runs carried on the new line. 12. A lot of scientists invited to the conference refused to take part in it. 13. Before opened, the railway lines are carefully inspected and tested. 14. When thoroughly tested, ballastless track will probably find wide application not only in tunnels. 15. The sign of the London Underground is a red circle crossed with a blue stripe. 16. The first bus developed by Shillibear appeared in London in 1861. 17. The telephone lines broken in the last night’s storm are being repaired now. 18. The motor coaches are supplied with electric motors placed under the floor of the coach. 19. The wagons with insulated walls, roofs and floors are known as the refrigerator cars. 20. A new electronic instrument will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank.

XVI . Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчёркнутым словам.

1. They traveled 2,000 miles on a bus. (How many ?) 2. Most people go to work by subway in New York . (Who? Where?) 3. The car has just stopped because there isn’t any more gas in the tank . (Why?) 4. Arthur always drives at a high speed. (What?) 5. Discounts are valid for both one-way and return tickets. (What?) 6. The train will be leaving in a few minutes. (How many?) 7. All flights have been canceled because of the fog . (Why?) 8. They are going to travel around the world . (Who? Where?) 9. Stephen went into debt to buy that car . (Why?) 10. The cars may be parked here after 5 p.m . (When?) 11. Metro trains run at 8 minutes headways. (What?) 12. We have much luggage to carry. (Who?) 13. They got stuck in a traffic jam on the way to the airport . (Where ?) 14. John and Mary are in the next carriage . (Who ? Where?) 15. Each one of your suitcases will be checked when you go through the customs . (When?) 16. This distance can be covered by train in an hour. (How fast?) 17. Damages due to the computer’s error were assessed at $1,000 . (How many ?) 18. Teenagers can get a driving license at the age of 14 . (What age?) 19. Passengers should keep their tickets till the end of the trip . (How long ?) 20. Fares are collected by a driver himself . (Whom ?)

XVII . Переведите тексты на русский язык и ответьте на общие вопросы.

A) The Stourbridge Lion

One day in 1830 people came from miles around the small Pennsylvania town to see the first run of the steam locomotive, the Stourbridge Lion. The engineer refused to let anyone ride with him – perhaps because the engine had not been tested before. As the signal to start was given, there was a moment of suspense. Then, slowly, the wheels began to turn. Cheers went up as engineer Allen opened the throttle wide and began his historic trip. All along the route, men were waving their hats, small boys were shouting, and women were looking in amazement as the Lion thundered past at the fantastic speed of ten miles an hour. Who would have believed that anything so big could move so fast without a horse to pull it!

Questions :

1. Did many people come to see the first run of the steam locomotive?

2. Was the new steam locomotive called “the Rocket”?

3. Had the steam locomotive been tested before that historic run?

4. Were there any passengers on this train?

5. Did the engineer let his mate ride with him?

6. Was there a moment of suspense as the signal to start was given?

7. Were small boys waving their hats?

8. Did the Lion move at a speed of ten miles an hour?

9. Was the steam locomotive pulled by a horse?

10. Did this event take place in Denver?

B) The Bluebell Railway

The Bluebell Railway is a private railroad. About 500 men and women work on the railway in their free time. They don’t get any money – the railway is their hobby. The have old steam engines and carriages – one of them is 120 years old. Passengers can have lunch or dinner in the lovely old restaurant carriage.

The Bluebell Railway goes from Sheffield Park to Horsted Keynes and back again. That is about 14 kilometers. The journey there and back takes an hour. The tickets cost three pounds for a single and six pounds for a return. The trains move at a speed of about thirty km per hour. Over two hundred and fifty thousand passengers travel on the Bluebell Railway every year.

Questions :

1. Is the Bluebell Railway a private railway?

2. Do 500 men and women work on the railway?

3. Do the railwaymen work for money?

4. Have they only steam engines and carriages?

5. Is the oldest engine 120 years old?

6. Can passengers have lunch in the new restaurant carriage?

7. Does the Bluebell Railway go from London to the airport?

8. Is the length of the railway 40 km?

9. Does the journey by the steam train take two hours?

10. Do single tickets cost 3 pounds?

11. May passengers buy return tickets?

12. Do two hundred passengers travel on the Bluebell Railway every year?

КРАТКИЙ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК

§ 1. Глагол to be

Глагол to be в Present, Past и Future Indefinite имеет следующие формы:

Present

Past

Future

I am

he, she, it is

we, you, they are

I, he, she, it was

we, you, they were

I, we shall be

he, she, it, you, they will be

I am busy now. Я сейчас занят.

The Institute is far from the metro station. Институт находится далеко от станции метро.

They are first year students. Они студенты первого курса.

He was in London last year. В прошлом году он был в Лондоне.

All the students were present at the lecture. Все студенты присутствовали на лекции.

I shall be at home in the evening. Вечером я буду дома.

В вопросительном предложении глагол to be ставится перед подлежащим.

Is he busy now? Он сейчас занят?

Are they first year students? Они студенты первого курса?

Where were you last year? Где вы были в прошлом году?

When will he be at home? Когда он будет дома?

Отрицательная форма глагола to be образуется с помощью отрицания not :

The Institute is not far from the metro station. Институт находится недалеко от станции метро.

Yesterday he was not present at the lecture. Вчера его не было на лекции.

On Sunday I shall not be in town. В воскресенье меня не будет в городе.

Примечания :

1) I am = I’m; you are = you’re; I shall be = I’ll be; they will be = they’ll be.

2) I am not = I’m not; he is not = he isn’t; you are not = you aren’t; she was not = she wasn’t; they were not = they weren’t; I shall not be = I shan’t be; he will not be = he won’t be.

§ 2. Глагол to have

Глагол to have в Present, Past и Future Indefinite имеет следующие формы:

Present

Past

Future

I, we, you, they have

he, she, it has

I, he, she, it, we, you, they had

I, we shall have

he, she, it, you, they will have

В разговорной речи глагол to have очень часто заменяется формой have got ( has got ).

I have (got) a lot of work now. У меня сейчас много работы.

He has (got) an extra ticket. . У него есть лишний билет.

They had a lecture on philosophy yesterday. Вчера у них была лекция по философии.

We shall have five exams. У нас будет 5 экзаменов.

Вопросительная форма глагола to have в Present Indefinite образуется двумя способами:

1) путём постановки глагола to have ( have , has ) перед подлежащим:

Has he got a map of London? У него есть карта Лондона?

What map has he got ? Какая карта есть у него?

Have you got any questions to the lecturer? У вас есть вопросы к лектору?

What questions have you got ? Какие у вас вопросы?

2) с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do ( do ; does ) :

Does he have a telephone? У него есть телефон?

What telephone does he have ? Какой у него телефон?

Do you have a railway dictionary? У вас есть железнодорожный словарь?

What dictionary do you have ? Какой словарь у вас есть?

Вопросительная форма глагола to have в Past Indefinite образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do ( did ):

Did you have a good time at the weekend? Вы хорошо провели время в выходные?

Вопросительная форма глагола to have в Future Indefinite образуется путём постановки вспомогательного глагола shall ( will ) перед подлежащим:

Will you have any free time tomorrow? Завтра у тебя будет свободное время?

When will you have any free time? Когда у тебя будет свободное время?

Отрицательная форма глагола to have в Present и Past Indefinite образуется двумя способами:

1) с помощью отрицательного местоимения no (или отрицательной группы not any ):

I have no car. У меня нет машины.

He has not any car. У него нет машины.

They had no choice. У них не было выбора

2) с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do ( do , does , did ) и отрицания not :

We do not have a telephone directory. У нас нет телефонного справочника.

He does not have a train ticket. У него нет билета на поезд.

I did not have much work to do yesterday. Вчера у меня было немного работы.

Примечания :

1) I have = I’ve .

2) I have not = I haven’t; she has not = she hasn’t; we had not = we hadn’t; they will not have = they won’t have; I shall not have = I shan’t have; you do not have = you don’t have; he does not have = he doesn’t have; they did not have = they didn’t have.

§ 3. Оборот there + to be

Оборот there + to be используется для выражения наличия или отсутствия какого-либо лица или предмета в определённом месте и переводится на русский язык при помощи слов: есть, имеется, находится, существует или близкими по значению. Перевод предложений с оборотом there + to be нужно начинать с обстоятельства места, если оно указано, или со сказуемого, если обстоятельство отсутствует.

There was an accident on the road . На дороге произошла авария.

There are many types of cars. Существует много типов вагонов.

В этом обороте слово there утратило какое-либо значение и стало формальным, т.е. оно не переводится. Глагол to be употребляется в соответствующем времени и числе, которое согласуется с последующим существительным. (There is a car …; There are cars …; There was a car …; There were cars …; There will be a car…).

В вопросительной форме глагол to be ставится на первое место (перед there ). В отрицательной форме после глагола to be ставится отрицательное местоимение no ( или отрицательные группы not any , not many и т.п.).

1) Are there usually two conductors in В пассажирском вагоне обычно бывает

the carriage? два проводника?

How many conductors are there usually in Сколько проводников обычно бывает в the carriage? пассажирском вагоне?

There are no conductors in the freight car. В товарном вагоне нет проводников.

2) Were there two vacant seats in the bus? В автобусе было два свободных места?

How many vacant seats were there in the bus? Сколько свободных мест было в

автобусе?

There were no vacant seats in the bus. В автобусе не было свободных мест.

3) Will there be 6 stations on this metro line? На этой линии метро будет 6 станций?

How many stations will there be on this Сколько станций будет на этой линии metro line? метро?

There will be not many stations on this На этой линии метро будет не много

metro line. станций.

§ 4. Основные формы глагола

Глагол в английском языке имеет 4 основные формы. По способу образования 2 и 3 форм глаголы делятся на правильные (стандартные) и неправильные (нестандартные).

Таблица основных форм глагола

I форма

Infinitive

II форма

Past Indefinite

III форма

Past Participle

IV форма

Present Participle

to live

(правильный)

lived

lived

living

to begin

(неправильный)

began

begun

beginning

§ 5. Времена групп Indefinite , Continuous , Perfect

в действительном и страдательном залогах

Группа времён Indefinite представляет действие как факт и служит для выражения отдельных или повторных действий в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.

A ) The Present Indefinite Tense часто уточняется обстоятельствами типа always всегда , often часто , seldom редко , sometimes иногда , usually обычно , every day ( month , year ) каждый день (месяц, год), as a rule как правило . Например: I always go to work by Metro. – Я всегда езжу на работу на метро.

B ) The Past Indefinite Tense часто уточняется обстоятельствами типа yesterday вчера, ago тому назад , last week ( month , year ) на прошлой неделе (месяце, году), the other days на днях или конкретной датой, а также используется в вопросительных предложениях, начинающихся со слов when ? когда? what time ? в какое время? Например: The first Metro station in our city was put into operation 10 years ago . – Первая станция метро в нашем городе была открыта 10 лет назад . When did you arrive home? – Когда вы добрались домой?

C ) The Future Indefinite Tense может уточняться обстоятельствами типа tomorrow завтра , tonight сегодня вечером, the day after tomorrow послезавтра, next week ( month , year ) на следующей неделе (месяце, году), soon скоро, in days ( hours ) через…дней (часов) , или конкретной датой. Например: I shall come home in 2 hours. – Я приду домой через 2 часа.

Группа времён Continuous представляет действие как процесс и служит для выражения продолжающегося, незаконченного действия, происходящего в какой-либо момент в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем времени.

A ) The Present Continuous Tense выражает действие, совершающееся в момент речи. Часто уточняется словами now сейчас , at present в настоящее время . Например: He is carrying out an experiment now . – Он сейчас проводит эксперимент.

B) The Past Continuous Tense выражает незаконченное действие: а) совершавшееся в определённый момент в прошлом, который может обозначаться либо точным указанием времени ( at…o’clock; at that moment ; from…till; all day long; throughout 2003; the whole evening) или другим однократным действием, выраженным глаголом в Past Indefinite. Например: The car was being repaired all day long – Машину ремонтировали весь день . When I came he was repairing his bicycle. – Когда я пришёл , он ремонтировал свой велосипед; б) совершавшееся одновременно с другим действием. Например: While he was having lunch, his car was being cleaned and fueled. – Пока он обедал , его машину мыли и заправляли .

C ) The Future Continuous Tense выражает незаконченное действие, которое будет совершаться в определённое время в будущем, которое может быть обозначено обстоятельствами типа at o clock , at that time или придаточным предложением. Например: She will be working till you come . – Она будет работать до вашего прихода . Tomorrow at this time I shall be going by train. – Завтра в это время я буду ехать на поезде.

Формы Perfect выражают действие, совершённое к определённому моменту в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем.

A ) The Present Perfect Tense выражает действие, завершившееся к моменту речи. Этот момент: а) может быть совсем не обозначен. Например: The car has been repaired. – Машину отремонтировали; б) может быть выражен обстоятельствами типа already уже , recently недавно , ever когда-либо , never никогда, just только что , not yet ещё не , today сегодня, this week ( month , year ) на этой неделе (месяце, году), for ages целую вечность . Например: I have never been to London. – Я никогда не был в Лондоне.

The Present Perfect Tense так же может выражать действие, которое началось в прошлом и не закончилось к данному моменту. Часто в этом случае употребляется предлог since с. Например: She has not been to Moscow since 1990. – Она не была в Москве с 1990 года.

B ) The Past Perfect Tense выражает действие, завершённое до какого-либо момента или действия в прошлом, который может быть обозначен обстоятельством с предлогом by к , либо придаточным предложением с глаголом в Past Indefinite. Например: By the 1st of September all the road works had been finished. – К первому сентябрю все дорожные работы были завершены. When we came to the station , the train had already left. – Когда мы пришли на станцию , поезд уже ушёл.

C ) The Future Perfect Tense выражает действие, которое будет завершено до определённого момента, или действия в будущем. Этот момент уточняется обстоятельством с предлогом by к или придаточным предложением с глаголом в Present Indefinite. Например: When you come I shall have finished translating the text. – Когда ты придёшь , я закончу переводить текст. By the end of the year the railway will have been opened for traffic. – К концу года железная дорога будут открыта для движения.

Таблица времён в действительном залоге ( Tenses in Active Voice )

Present

Past

Future

Indefinite

V 1

he, she, it V 1 + -s

V 2

shall

+V 1

will

Continuous

am

is +V 4

are

was

+V 4

were

shall be

+V 4

will be

Perfect

have

+V 3

has

had + V 3

shall have

+V 3

will have

Спряжение глагола to ask в действительном залоге

Present

Past

Future

Indefinite

I, we, you, they ask

he, she, it asks

I, he, she, it we, you, they asked

I, we shall ask

he, she, you, they will ask

Continuous

I am asking

he, she, it is asking

we, you, they are asking

I, he, she, it was asking

we, you, they were asking

I, we shall be asking

he, she, you, they will be asking

Perfect

I, we, you, they have asked

he, she, it has asked

I, he, she, it, we, you, they had asked

I, we shall have asked

he, she, it, you, they

will have asked

Таблица времён в страдательном залоге ( Tenses in Passive Voice )

to be+V 3

Present

Past

Future

Indefinite

am

is + V 3

are

was

+ V 3

were

shall

+ be V 3

will

Continuous

am

is + being V 3

are

was

+ being V 3

were

________

Perfect

have

+ been V 3

has

had been + V 3

shall

+ have been V 3

will

Спряжение глагола to ask в страдательном залоге

Present

Past

Future

Indefinite

I am asked

he, she, it is asked

we, you, they are asked

I, he, she, it was asked

we, you, they were asked

I, we shall be asked

he, she, it, we, you, they

will be asked

Continuous

I am being asked

he, she, it is being asked

we, you, they are being asked

I, he, she was being asked

we, you, they

were being asked

__________

Perfect

I, we, you, they

have been asked

he, she, it has been asked

I, he, she, it, we, you, they

had been asked

I, we shall have been asked

he, she, it, we, you, they

will have been asked

Примечания:

1) Подлежащее в английском предложении с глаголом в страдательном залоге переводится на русский язык в винительном или дательном падежах.

He was asked to buy tickets. Его попросили купить билеты.

He was asked many questions. Ему задали много вопросов.

2) За сказуемым в страдательном залоге в английском предложении может следовать предлог. При переводе на русский язык этот предлог ставится перед подлежащим.

This accident is much spoken about. Об этом несчастном случае много говорят.

§ 6. Модальные глаголы

Present

Past

Future

must

должен

All drivers must follow the traffic rules – Все водители должны соблюдать правила дорожного движения

___________

__________

can

мочь, уметь

He can drive a car – Он умеет водить машину

could

смог, мог, сумел

He could not start his car – Он не смог завести машину.

__________

may

мочь, иметь разрешение

You may use my mobile telephone. – Ты можешь воспользоваться моим мобильным телефоном.

might

смог, сумел, разрешили

He said that the train might be late. – Он сказал, что поезд может опоздать. I was told that I might come in – Мне сказали, что я могу (мне разрешили ) войти.

__________

should

следует, должен, нужно

He should be more attentive. – Ему следует быть внимательнее

__________

__________

need (not)

можете не, не нужно; нужно ли?

You need not come here tomorrow. – Можете не приходить сюда завтра. You needn’t buy any tickets; the admission is free. – Билеты не нужно покупать; вход - свободный

__________

__________

§ 7. Порядок слов в утвердительных предложениях

В отличие от русского языка, где свободный порядок слов, в английском языке строго фиксированный порядок слов. Схема порядка слов в предложении следующая:

П – С – Д (П – подлежащее, С – сказуемое, Д – дополнение). Обстоятельства места и времени могут стоять перед подлежащим и после дополнения.

James Watt invented the stationary steam James Watt изобрёл стационарный

engine in 1763. паровой двигатель в 1973 году.

In Russia the first steam locomotive was В России первый паровоз был создан

built by the Cherepanoves. Черепановыми.

§ 8. Порядок слов в вопросительных предложениях

В английском языке существует несколько типов вопросов. Мы рассмотрим общие и специальные.

а) Общий вопрос – это вопрос, который задаётся ко всему предложению и требует краткого ответа “да” или “нет”. На первое место в таких вопросах ставится вспомогательный глагол . Схема порядка слов в общем вопросе следующая:

С – П – С – Д (первое С – вспомогательный глагол).

Если сказуемое простое , то нужно употреблять вспомогательный глагол to do (do –если сказуемое в I форме без окончания s ; does – если сказуемое в I форме с окончанием s ; did – если сказуемое во II форме) , при этом основной глагол во всех случаях ставится в I форму без окончания s .

They speak English. Do they speak English?

She goes to school. Does she go to school?

He bought a car. Did he buy a car?

Если сказуемое составное , то вспомогательный (или модальный) глагол, который входит в состав сказуемого, нужно перенести на первое место в предложении, при этом форма основного глагола не изменяется.

He has already left . Has he already left ?

They were going home. Were they going home?

She can speak English. Can she speak English?

Paul will come at 6 o’clock. Will Paul come at 6 o’clock?

б) Специальный вопрос – это вопрос, который задаётся к одному члену предложения и требует полного ответа. Специальный вопрос начинается с вопросительного слова, затем идёт вспомогательный глагол, подлежащее, основной глагол.

Вопросительные слова: who кто; whom кого, кому, кем; whose чей, чья, чьё; what что, какой; which который (из двух или нескольких); where где, куда; when когда; how как; how long как долго; how often как часто; how many , how much сколько; why почему, зачем.

The train arrived at 5 p.m. When did the train arrive ?

A dispatcher controls the train movement What does a dispatcher control ?

over a section of the track.

In summer he is planning to go to London. Where is he planning to go in summer?

Примечания:

1) Если вопрос задаётся к определению и начинается с вопросительного слова what ? какой? how many ( much )? сколько? whose ? чей? то между вопросительным словом и вспомогательным глаголом нужно ставить существительное.

She studies at the Railway Academy. What Academy does she study at?

They walked 10 km. How many kilometers did they walk?

2) Если вопрос задаётся к подлежащему и начинается с вопросительного слова who ? кто? what ? что? то сказуемое, идущее сразу за вопросительным словом, всегда используется в форме 3 лица, единственного числа.

They like to read books. Who likes to read books?

We are reading a book. Who is reading a book?

They have gone . Who has gone ?

The articles were translated . What was translated ?

I shall repair the engine. Who will repair the engine?

Порядок слов в вопросительных предложениях с простым сказуемым

Утвердительное предложение

1.They

2. He

3. She

work

works

worked

at the railway.

at the railway.

at the railway.

Общий вопрос

1. Do

2. Does

3. Did

they

he

she

work

work

work

at the railway?

at the railway?

at the railway?

Специальный вопрос

1.Where

2.Where

3.Where

do

does

did

they

he

she

work?

work?

work?

Специальный вопрос к определению

1.What railway

2.What railway

3.What railway

do

does

did

they

he

she

work

work

work

at?

at?

at?

Вопрос к подлежащему

1.Who

2.Who

3.Who

________

_______

works

works

worked

at the railway?

at the railway?

at the railway?

Порядок слов в вопросительных предложениях с составным сказуемым

Утвердительное предложение

1. They

2. His friends

3. She

are building

have left

may use

a large house.

for London.

my mobile phone

Общий вопрос

1.Are

2.Have

3.May

they

his friends

she

building

left

use

a large house?

for London?

your phone?

Специальный вопрос

1.What

2.Where

3.What

are

have

may

they

his friends

she

building?

left

use?

for?

Специальный вопрос к определению

1.What house

2.What city

3.Whose phone

are

have

may

they

his friends

she

building?

left

use?

for?

Вопрос к подлежащему

1.Who

2.Who

3.Who

is

has

may

______

building

left

use

a large house?

for London?

your phone?

Примечание:

Порядок слов в вопросительных предложениях с оборотом there +to be и со сказуемым to be или to have см в §1, §2, §3.

§ 9. Притяжательный падеж имени существительного

( The Possessive Case )

Существительное в притяжательном падеже является определением к последующему существительному и отвечает на вопрос whose ? чей?

Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется при помощи апострофа и окончания - s (my friends letter – письмо моего друга).

Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе образуется с помощью только апострофа (my friends letter – письмо моих друзей).

В притяжательном падеже употребляются:

а) существительные, обозначающие одушевлённые предметы:

this professor ’s lecture лекция этого профессора

our secretary ’s office офис нашего секретаря

b) существительные, обозначающие названия стран, городов:

Russia ’s gold reserve золотой запас России

c) существительные, обозначающие меры времени, расстояния, веса:

three hours flight трёхчасовой полёт

five kilometers ’ distance расстояние в 5 километров

two hours ’ work двухчасовая работа

d) существительные world, earth, planet, sun, moon, city, ship, train, company, commission и т. п.:

the ship ’s arrival прибытие корабля

the sun ’s influence влияние солнца

e) наречия времени today, yesterday, tomorrow:

yesterday ’s meeting вчерашнее собрание

§ 10. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

Положительная степень

Сравнительная степень

Превосходная степень

1.Односложные прилагательные и наречия

high - высокий

near - близко

2. Двусложные прилагательные и наречия, которые заканчиваются на –y

happy счастливый

high er – выше, более высокий

near er - ближе

happi er – счастливее, более счастливый

the high est – высочайший, самый высокий

the near est - ближе всех

the happi est самый счастливый

Многосложные прилагательные и наречия

interesting - интересный

more interesting интереснее, более интересный

less interesting – менее интересный

the most interesting самый интересный, интереснейший

the least interesting самый не интересный

Исключения:

good , well хороший, хорошо

bad, badly – плохой, плохо

many, much – много

little – мало

better лучше

worse хуже

more больше

less меньше

the best самый лучший, лучше всего

the worst самый плохой, хуже всего

the most самый большой, больше всего

the least самый маленький, меньше всего

Примечание:

Такие прилагательные как simple простой , clever умный , narrow узкий , shallow мелкий образуют степени сравнения двумя способами. Например: narrower уже , the narrowest самый узкий или more narrow уже , the most narrow самый узкий .

§ 11. Причастие ( The Participle )

Причастие является неличной формой глагола. В английском языке существует два вида причастий: Participle I и Participle II.

Participle I (причастие настоящего времени) может иметь простую форму, которая образуется путём прибавления окончания ing к основе глагола ( to readreading , to askasking , to drive – driving ) и сложные формы, которые образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be или to have и III формы основного глагола (to readhaving read , to ask being asked , to stop – having stopped ).

Participle II (причастие прошедшего времени) имеет только простую форму. Participle II правильных глаголов образуется путём прибавления окончания - ed к основе глагола (to train trained , to work – worked , to ask asked ). Participle II неправильных глаголов см. в таблице нестандартных глаголов (III колонка) (to give – given, to write written, to build – built ).

Participle I

Participle I (non-perfect) выполняет в предложении следующие функции:

1) часть составного глагольного сказуемого в Continuous .

He is waiting for you near the booking office. Он ждёт вас у кассы.

2) определение . Participle I в функции определения находится до или после определяемого слова и переводится на русский язык действительным причастием настоящего времени, оканчивающимся на –ущий, -ющий, -ащий, -ящий (делающий, бегущий, соединяющий ) или действительным причастием прошедшего времени, оканчивающимся на –вший (когда глагол-сказуемое стоит в прошедшем времени) (делавший, бежавший, соединявший ).

The man waiting for you has come from Человек, ожидающий вас, приехал из

London. Лондона.

The engineer delivering the report gave Инженер, делавший доклад, привёл

many interesting examples. много интересных примеров.

3) обстоятельство . Participle I в функции обстоятельства находится в начале предложения или в середине предложения после запятой, и переводится на русский язык деепричастием несовершённого вида, оканчивающимся на –а, -я (делая, рассказывая, рисуя, проезжая ).

He saw many interesting things, while Путешествуя по стране. он видел много

traveling about the country. интересного.

Waiting for the train arrival I looked Ожидая прибытия поезда, я

through the magazines. просматривал журналы.

Примечания:

1. Participle I не всегда имеет эквивалентное деепричастие в русском языке; в таких случаях оно переводится придаточным предложением. Например: writing a letter когда писал письмо.

2. Часто перед Participle I в функции обстоятельства ставится союз while или when . Такие предложения можно перевести 3 способами:

While translating the article the student 1) Переводя статью, студент пользовался. consulted the dictionary. словарём

2) Когда студент переводил статью, он

пользовался словарём.

3) При переводе статьи студент пользовался словарём.

Participle I (perfect) выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым. Оно обычно находится в начале предложения и переводится на русский язык деепричастием совершённого вида (сделав, рассказав, прибежав). В предложении Participle I (perfect) выполняет функцию обстоятельства.

Having finished the test he put down Закончив испытание, он записал

the results. результаты.

Participle II

Participle II может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:

1) часть составного глагольного сказуемого.

The railway will be opened for traffic Железная дорога будет открыта для

next month. движения в следующем месяце.

2) определение . Participle II в функции определения находится до или после определяемого слова и переводится на русский язык страдательным причастием настоящего или прошедшего времени, оканчивающимся на –емый (-имый), -нный, -тый (сделанный, используемый, вымытый).

The proposed plan is very interesting. Предлагаемый (предложенный ) план очень интересен.

They agreed to the design worked out Они согласились с проектом,

by our engineer. разработанным нашим инженером

3) обстоятельство . Participle II в функции обстоятельства находится в начале предложения, часто после союзов when , if , though , и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением или существительным с предлогом.

Though overstressed , the machine Несмотря на перегрузку, машина

kept on running. продолжала работать.

When burned, coal produces heat. При горении угля выделяется тепло.

ТАБЛИЦА НЕСТАНДАРТНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ

Infinitive

Past Simple

Participle II

Перевод

be

was, were

been

быть

become

became

become

становиться, делаться

begin

began

begun

начинать

break

broke

broken

ломать, нарушать

bring

brought

brought

приносить, привозить

build

built

built

строить

burn

burnt

burnt

гореть, жечь

buy

bought

bought

покупать

catch

caught

caught

ловить, схватить

choose

chose

chosen

выбирать

come

came

come

приходить

cost

cost

cost

стоить

cut

cut

cut

резать

do

did

done

делать

draw

drew

drawn

тянуть, везти

drive

drove

driven

везти, ехать; приводить в движение

find

found

found

находить, обнаруживать

fly

flew

flown

летать

forget

forget

forgotten

забывать

get

got

got

получать, доставать, становиться

give

gave

given

давать, предоставлять

go

went

gone

идти, ехать

grow

grew

grown

расти, увеличиваться

have

had

had

иметь

hear

heard

heard

слышать

hold

held

held

держать

keep

kept

kept

держать, хранить

know

knew

known

знать

lay

laid

laid

класть, положить

learn

learnt

learnt

узнавать, учить

leave

left

left

оставлять, уходить, уезжать

lie

lay

lain

лежать

light

lit

lit

освещать, зажигать

make

made

made

делать, заставлять

mean

meant

meant

значить, означать; иметь в виду

meet

met

met

встречать

pay

paid

paid

платить

put

put

put

класть, ставить

read

read

read

читать

ride

rode

ridden

ездить

run

run

run

бегать, управлять

say

said

said

говорить, сказать

see

saw

seen

видеть

sell

sold

sold

продавать

send

sent

sent

посылать

set

set

set

ставить, помещать, устанавливать

show

showed

shown

показывать

shut

shut

shut

закрывать

sit

sat

sat

cидеть

sleep

slept

slept

cпать

speak

spoke

spoken

говорить, разговаривать

spend

spent

spent

тратить, проводить (время)

spread

spread

spread

растягивать, распространять (ся)

stand

stood

stood

стоять; поставить; держаться

take

took

taken

брать, принимать

tell

told

told

сказать, сообщать, рассказывать

think

thought

thought

думать, полагать

wear

wore

worn

носить, изнашиваться

write

wrote

written

писать, сочинять

КРАТКИЙ АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ

A

accident – авария, несчастный случай, катастрофа

according to – coгласно ч/л, соответственно ч/л

activate – приводить в действие

approach – приближаться, подход

rail approaches – подъездные пути

arrive – прибывать

to be due to arrive – должен прибыть

arrival – прибытие

attendant – дежурный, оператор

B

berth – спальное место, полка

lower berth – нижняя полка

upper berth – верхняя полка

reclining berth – откидная полка

body – кузов

board – 1) сесть в вагон или в поезд; 2) табличка, табло, пульт

on board – в вагоне

brake – тормозить, тормоз

air brake – воздушный тормоз, пневматический тормоз

braking – торможение

emergency breaking – аварийное (экстренное) торможение

break – ломать

breakdown – поломка, авария

bridge – мост

arch bridge – арочный мост

beam bridge – балочный мост

road bridge – автомобильный мост

suspension bridge – висячий мост

broken stone – щебёнка

busy – оживлённый, интенсивный (о движении) ; загруженный; занятый

by-product – побочный продукт

С

capacity – грузоподъёмность, вместимость, мощность

carrying capacity – пропускная способность

seating capacity – вместимость (пассажирского вагона)

car – вагон; машина

box car – крытый вагон

double-deck car – двухэтажный вагон

gondola car – полувагон

hopper car – вагон-хоппер (вагон с опрокидывающемся кузовом)

rear car – хвостовой вагон

sleeping car – спальный вагон

tank car – цистерна

cargo – груз

carriage – вагон

upholstered carriage – мягкий вагон

carry – перевозить, транспортировать

carry out – осуществлять, выполнять

cast iron – чугун

change – изменять, заменять; пересаживаться

change trains – делать пересадку

coach – вагон

day coach – общий вагон

motor coach – моторовагон

open-type coach – плацкартный вагон

collapsible – откидной, складной

concrete – бетон

reinforced concrete – железобетон

reinforced plastic – армированный пластик

control – управление; управлять

automatic train control – автоматическое управление поездом

centralized traffic control – диспетчерская централизация

remote control – дистанционное управление

convey – транспортировать, перевозить, доставлять

conveyance – перевозка, доставка, подвоз

couple – сцеплять

coupler (coupling) – сцепка

cover – проходить, преодолевать (расстояние)

creosote – креозот

to treat with creosote – обрабатывать (пропитывать) креозотом

crew – бригада, экипаж

locomotive crew – локомотивная бригада

train crew – поездная бригада

crosstie – шпала

current – ток

alternating current – переменный ток

direct current – постоянный ток

low voltage current – ток низкого напряжения

curve – кривой участок пути, поворот пути

customer – клиент, заказчик

customs – таможня

D

decrease – уменьшать, сокращать

deliver – доставлять

delivery – доставка

depart – отправляться

departure – отправление

derailment – сход с рельсов, крушение

design – проектировать, конструировать; проект, конструкция

seat of modern design – кресло современной конструкции

destination – место назначения

device – устройство

safety device – предохранительный механизм

door – дверь

sliding door – раздвижная дверь

drive – вести, ехать; приводить в движение

driver – водитель

automatic (robot) driver – автомашинист

engine (locomotive) driver – машинист

duplicate – запасной

E

ecologically friendly – экологически безопасный

efficiency – КПД

emu (electrical multiple unit) – электрическая многосекционная единица (электричка)

engine – двигатель, локомотив

internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

jet engine – реактивный двигатель

steam engine – паровой двигатель

equip – оборудовать

equipment – оборудование

life expired equipment – устаревшее оборудование

exhaust – выпускать; выхлоп, выпуск; выхлопная труба

F

fare – плата за проезд

fellow-traveler – попутчик

ferry – паром

freight – груз; грузовой

frequency – частота

traffic frequency – частота движения

ft (foot; feet) – фут(ы)

fuel – заправлять (топливом, горючим) ; топливо

funicular – фуникулёр

G

gang – бригада

surveying gang – изыскательская партия

gauge – ширина колеи

get – добираться, получать

get on – садиться (на поезд )

get off – выходить (из поезда)

goods – груз(ы)

liquid goods – наливные грузы

grade – уклон, подъём

steep grade – крутой уклон (подъём)

gradient – уклон, подъём

H

handle (traffic) – осуществлять (перевозку)

haul – тянуть, тащить; транспортировать; доставлять; буксировать

haulage – тяга; транспорт

hauler – транспортное средство

heat – отапливать, нагревать

heating – отопление, нагревание

heavy – тяжёлый; интенсивный; сильный; мощный

I

impact-resistant – противоударный, прочный на удар

J

jet – реактивный

joint – стык

rail joint – рельсовый стык

journey – поездка, рейс

journey time – время в пути

junction – узловая станция, железнодорожный узел

L

labor – труд

manual labor – ручной труд

lb – фунт

length – длина, протяжённость

light – свет; светлый, лёгкий

traffic lights – светофор

line – линия

circle line – кольцевая линия

elevated line – линия, расположенная на эстакаде

heavy traffic line – линия с большой частотой движения

main (trunk) line – магистраль

ground-based line – наземная линия

secondary line – ж.д. линия второстепенного значения

subsurface line – подземная линия

load – груз, нагрузка; грузить

bulk loose load – сыпучий груз

bulky load – тяжёлый (большой) груз

loading – погрузка; загрузка

locomotive = loco (n) – локомотив

diesel locomotive – тепловоз

diesel electric locomotive – дизель электровоз

electric locomotive – электровоз

shunting locomotive – маневровый локомотив

steam locomotive – паровоз

M

machine – машина

track machine – строительно-дорожная машина

track-laying machine – путеукладчик

ticket-vending (selling) machine – автомат для продажи билетов

mainline – магистраль

maintain – поддерживать; эксплуатировать, содержать в исправном техническом состоянии

maintenance – эксплуатация, содержание в исправном техническом состоянии

master – мастер

station master (ан.) – начальник станции

means (of transport ) – средство (транспорта)

by means of – при помощи, посредством

mechanism – механизм

tilting mechanism – противоопрокидывающий механизм

О

office – офис

enquiry office – справочное бюро

lost property office – камера хранения

operate – работать, действовать, эксплуатировать; приводить в движение

operation – работа, действие, эксплуатация

automatic train operation – автоведение поезда

to put into operation – пускать в эксплуатацию

shunting operation – маневровая работа

operational – эксплуатационный, рабочий

P

passage – проход, переход

pier – устой моста

pile – свая

power – приводить в движение; сила, мощность, энергия

horse-powered – приводимый в движение лошадьми

steam-powered – приводимый в движение паром

propel – приводить в движение

self-propelled – самоходный

provide – обеспечивать, предусматривать

pull – тянуть, тащить

pull up – останавливаться

pull out – отходить (от станции – о поезде)

R

rail – рельс

contact (third) rail – контактный (третий) рельс

continuous (long) welded rails – бесстыковые рельсы

railway (railroad) – железная дорога

double-track railway – двухпутная железная дорога

single-track railway – однопутная железная дорога

rank – занимать место

rate – тариф; темп, скорость

reach – достигать, добираться

rear – хвост поезда

reclining – откидной, складной

reduce – понижать, сокращать

refuel – дозаправлять, заправлять (топливом)

refurbish – модернизировать, обновлять, реставрировать

refurbishment – модернизация, обновление, реставрация

result in – приводить к ч/л

ride – ехать; поездка

rider – пассажир

ridership – количество пассажиров

road – дорога

circular road – окружная дорога

roadbed – земляное полотно ж.д.

rope – канат, трос

route – маршрут

en route – в пути

run – двигаться; пробег

S

seat – кресло, сиденье, место

aircraft-type seat – кресло самолётного типа

reclining seat – откидное кресло

upholstered seat – мягкое сиденье, сиденье с обивкой

section – участок (пути)

see off – провожать

service – служба, эксплуатация; обслуживание, услуги; перевозки, движение

service life – срок службы

heavy railway service – интенсивное ж.д. движение

schedule – расписание

scheduling – составление расписания

on (according to) schedule – по расписанию

shunt – маневрировать, сортировать

shunter – маневровый локомотив

shuttle – челночный поезд

sleeper – шпала

smooth – плавный, ровный, гладкий

span – пролёт моста; соединять берега (о мосте)

to span the river with a bridge – построить мост через реку

stability – устойчивость

stock – запас; подвижной состав

rolling stock – подвижной состав

tractive stock – тяговый подвижной состав

streamlined – обтекаемой формы

structure – сооружение, строение, устройство; структура

supersonic – сверхзвуковой

supply – снабжать, обеспечивать, поставлять; поставка, снабжение, подача

fuel supply – подача топлива

power supply – энергоснабжение

surface – поверхность

surface station – наземная станция

subsurface – подземный

survey – производить изыскания

switch – стрелочный перевод

system – система

power supply system – система энергоснабжения

public address system – система громкой связи

remote control system – система дистанционного управления

T

team – бригада

emergency team – спасательная команда

maintenance team – ремонтная бригада

terminal, terminus, termination – вокзал, конечная станция

ticket – билет

one-way ticket – билет в одном направлении

round-trip ticket – билет «туда и обратно»

time – время

journey time – время в пути

track – железнодорожный путь (полотно)

jointless (long welded, continuous welded) track– бесстыковой путь

to lay down railway track – укладывать железнодорожный путь

traffic – движение; перевозки

heavy traffic – интенсивное движение

traffic jam – пробка, затор (на дороге)

trailer – прицепной вагон

train – поезд

to board the train – сесть на поезд

to catch a train – успеть на поезд

heavy train – тяжёловесный поезд

long-distance train – поезд дальнего следования

to miss a train – опоздать на поезд

multiple-unit train – электричка

shuttle train – челночный поезд

suburban (commuter) train – пригородный поезд

tilting train – скоростной поезд с противоопрокидывающим устройством

through train – прямой поезд

transfer – пересаживаться на другой поезд; пересадка

transport(ation) – транспорт, перевозка

means (mode) of transport – средство транспорта

road transport – автомобильный транспорт

treat – обрабатывать

trouble – неполадка, неисправность; повреждение

tunnel – тоннель

Channel Tunnel – тоннель под проливом Ла Манш

turnover – оборот

freight turnover – грузооборот

passenger turnover – пассажирооборот

U

unbreakable – небьющийся

underpass – тоннель; подземный переход

upgrade – реконструировать, модернизировать

upgrading – реконструкция, модернизация

up-to-date – современный

V

van – товарный вагон

luggage van – багажный вагон

vehicle – транспортное средство

road vehicle – автотранспорт

viaduct – виадук

voltage – напряжение

W

wagon - товарный вагон

tank wagon - цистерна

way – путь, дорога

permanent way – верхнее строение пути

wear – изнашиваться

wear and tear – износ

worn out – изношенный

wheel – колесо

driving wheel – ведущее колесо

wire – провод

overhead wire – воздушный провод

work – работать; работа

to work out – разрабатывать

loading and unloading works – погрузочно-разгрузочные работы

surveying work – изыскательская работа

Y

yard – станция, порт

marshalling (classification, shunting) yard – сортировочная станция

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Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya16:53:36 01 сентября 2019
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.16:53:36 01 сентября 2019
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.16:53:35 01 сентября 2019
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.16:53:34 01 сентября 2019
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.16:53:33 01 сентября 2019

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