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Учебное пособие: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4

Название: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 4
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

Высшего профессионального образования

«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Гогенко В.В., Пасько О.В.

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ И КОНТОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ

по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета

Выпуск 4

Ростов – на – Дону

2007

Учебно-методические указания разработаны преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов В.В. Гогенко, преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов О.В. Пасько.

Ответственный редактор канд. пед. наук, доц. А.С. Акопова

Компьютерный набор и верстка преп. В.В. Гогенко, преп. О.В. Пасько

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ, протокол № 5 от 9 ноября 2007г.


МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определенной Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

В выпуске 4 представлены варианты контрольного задания №4.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

Левая страница

Правая страница

Поля Английский текст

Русский текст Поля

Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет, отделение и фамилию студента. Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания; остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала.

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или неполностью, она возвращается без проверки.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №4

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №4, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1 Неличные формы глагола: Причастный оборот (зависимый/независимый);

Инфинитивные обороты -сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) и сложное дополнение (Complex Object);

Герундиальный комплекс.

2 Определительные придаточные: определительные местоимения who, which, where, that.

3 Прилагательные и наречия: местоположение в предложении, разница в употреблении.

4 Словообразование: глаголы, существительные, прилагательные (приставки, суффиксы).

Образец выполнения контрольного задания №4

Левая страница Правая страница

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) I know that my friend is a just man.

1) I know him to be a just man.

Я знаю, что он справедливый человек.

Поля

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject ). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) People consider climate there to be very healthful.

1) The climate there is considered to be very healthful.

Климат там считается очень благоприятным для здоровья.

Поля

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

Поля

1) I object to his borrowing money from you.

1) Я против того чтобы он занимал деньги у тебя

Поля

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject )

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object )

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction )

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) He is said to know all about it.

1) Говорят, он знает все об этом. (Complex Subject)

Поля

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

Поля

1) I don’t know the man which is talking to Ann.

1) I don’t know the man who is talking to Ann.

Я не знаю мужчину, который разговаривает с Анной.

Поля

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

1) This is an article describing the battle in Flanders.

1) Это статья, описывающая битву при Фландерс.

(Зависимый причастный оборот)

Поля

№7 Перепишите предложения подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

1) The discussion ended with our coming to an agreement.

1) Дискуссия закончилась тем, что мы пришли к соглашению.

Поля

Вариант 1

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 I did not expect that my brother will forget to send her flowers.

2 People expect that 21st century will bring peace on the Earth.

3 I heard him. He shut the door of his study.

4 The doctor touched the boy’s leg. The boy felt it.

5 We had not expected that she would reply, but she did.

6 He hated it when people argued about trifles.

7 They heard how the woman uttered a little exclamation.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject ). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

1 It was reported that Bauman Moscow State Technical University was founded in 1830.

2 It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier.

3 It appeared that two Caucasian hosts had worn high fleece caps on most occasions.

4 They expected that Cossacks provided their own uniforms.

5 It is known that Moscow is one of the most important scientific centers in Russia.

6 It is known that many books are published in our country every year.

7 It is said that the Moscow Underground is the finest in the world.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

1 Architect Vladimir Shukhov was responsible for building several of Moscow’s landmarks during early Soviet Russia.

2 Some Greeks had been Mediterranean pirates and were now tycoons; many lived by cheating Russian farmers and bringing Russian customs officials.

3 Duma was established in Taganrog for managing local development, trade, healthcare and public education.

4 The advisor was surprised at his student having written the course work so soon.

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject )

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object )

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction )

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 Clyde seemed to have been thinking of no one else but Sondra since their last meeting.

2 The questions being settled, we went home.

3 She appeared to be a good housekeeper.

4 Little Paul sat, with his chin resting on his hand.

5 She is extremely likely to succeed.

6 He is believed to be writing a new play.

7 I dislike you to talk like that.

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 I don’t like stories who have unhappy endings.

2 Barbara works for a company where makes furniture.

3 The woman which lives next door is a teacher of history.

4 Did you hear which they said?

5 What’s the name of the man who car you borrowed?

6 He told me about his new job, whom he enjoys very much.

7 I don’t like people which are cruel with animals.

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык:

1 With research involving more and more people, the profession of a scientist has become one of the most popular now days.

2 When crossing the street, be careful at the crossroads.

3 Social scientists and physical scientists, each group representing a diversity of specialized disciplines, were brought together to review some implications of the interaction between science and society.

4 Having filled his pockets with apples the boy was about to run away when he saw the owner of the garden with a stick in his hand.

5 Judging by the colour of the sun it should be windy tomorrow.

6 Rising from the bleak expanse of Salisbury Plain, stands out one of the most intriguing puzzles of history - Stonehenge - the circle of stones cleverly shaped and fitted together to form a carefully planned whole.

7 It had taken more than 1000 years in development and then was suddenly terminated, learning scores of puzzles for us.

№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.

1 Your going there won't help much.

2 Hurried reading results in the learner forgetting half of what he reads.

3 Excuse my interrupting you.

4 There cannot be any objections to your seeing her personally.

5 She was startled by the outer door being opened.

№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 1, 2, 5, 6 абзацы текста:

Battle of Thermopylae

1) In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held back the Persians for three days in one of history's most famous last stands. A small force led by King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes I of Persia could pass.

2) After three days of battle, a local resident named Ephialtes is believed to have betrayed the Greeks by revealing a mountain path that led behind the Greek lines. Dismissing the rest of the army, King Leonidas stayed behind with 300 Spartans and 700 Theban volunteers and slaves. The Persians succeeded in taking the pass but sustained heavy losses, extremely disproportionate to those of the Greeks. The fierce resistance of the Spartan-led army offered Athens the invaluable time to prepare for a decisive naval battle that would come to determine the outcome of the war.

3) The subsequent Greek victory at the Battle of Salamis left much of the Persian Empire's navy destroyed and Xerxes was forced to retreat back to Asia, leaving his army in Greece under Mardonius, who was to meet the Greeks in battle one last time. The Spartans assembled at full strength and led a pan-Greek army that defeated the Persians decisively at the Battle of Plataea, ending the Greco-Persian War and with it the expansion of the Persian Empire into Europe.

4) The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers, and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. However, ancient writers first used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the superior power of a patriotic army of free men defending native soil.

5) There is also a large political significance of the Battle of Thermopylae, in that it was the first occasion in which the independent Greek city-states formed a significant alliance. The Battle of Thermopylae also possibly signified the beginning of the end for the Persian empire–drawing strength from the outcome of the battle, the Greeks as a national body began assaulting the Persian Empire.

6) King Darius I of Persia initially sent heralds to all Greek cities offering blandishments if they would submit to Persian authority. Many of the 700 Greek states submitted, including Argos. The Athenians declined to adhere to their initial agreement, undertaken in 507 BC. The Persian army first encountered a joint force of 10,000 Athenian and Spartan hoplites led by Euanetus and Themistocles in the Vale of Tempe. Upon hearing this, Xerxes sent the army through the Sarantaporo strait, which was unguarded, and sidestepped them. The hoplites, warned by Alexander I of Macedon, vacated the pass.

7) The allied Greeks judged that the next strategic choke point where the Persian force could be stopped was Thermopylae. They decided to defend it and send a fleet to Artemision, a naval choke point, as Xerxes' army was being supplied and supported by sea. Using the fleet, Xerxes' army might have crossed Maliacos bay and outflanked the Greek army again. In essence, the Oracle's warning was that either Sparta would be conquered and left in ruins or one of her two hereditary kings, descendant of Heracles, must sacrifice his life to defend her. Leonidas took charge of his personal fighting unit, the 300 Spartans (and the 900 servants of the 300 soldiers), and headed to Thermopylae.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What was the political significance of the Battle of Thermopylae?

2) What for did the king Darius I of Persia send heralds to all Greek cities?

3) What kind of prophecy did the Oracle make?

4) What is King Leonidas of Sparta famous for?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) добровольцы, (2) остальная часть армии, (3) ожесточенное сопротивление

(4) предавать, (5) распускать, (6) одержать решительную победу,

(7) потомственные короли, (8) нести огромные потери, (9) значимый союз

(10) последствия битвы

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:

глагол

существительное

прилагательное

to agree

possibility

to signify

significance

significant

hereditary

defense

to destroy

free

multiplier

to supply

valuable

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) ancestor, (2) to flourish, (3) to fail, (4) weakness, (5) doubtful, (6) slave

(7) little, (8) foreign, (9) modern, (10) to gather

Вариант 2

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 I expect that she would behave quite differently.

2 I know that your uncle is an excellent mathematician.

3 I saw him. He pointed to a picture on the wall.

4 She bent and picked something from the floor. The policeman saw it.

5 I expect that you will join our excursion.

6 They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than he had expected they would be.

7 The wounded hunter felt that the bear touched him, but he didn’t move.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject ). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

1 It appeared that Caucasian had worn high fleece caps on most occasions.

2 It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy.

3 It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver.

4 It happened that I was present at the opening session.

5 It turned out that the world-famous Moscow’s museums and galleries with their collections are some of the largest and most important in the world.

6 It is considered that these devices are very effective.

7 It was said that people had invented samovars in Central Asia.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

1 The project for planning and building works in the city was established in 1968, basing on the instructions provided by Peter the Great.

2 Lisitsyn and his two sons were laboring in their free from making arms and ammunition on a rather unusual device.

3 Nearly all samovars have a four-legged square-shaped foundation. This keeps the samovar from damaging the furniture with its heat.

4 Charcoal-burning samovars are less common, and guests should be warned about the risk of scalding themselves.

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject )

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object )

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction )

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 The project abandoned, the leadership in this field passed to another institute.

2 I saw him do it several times.

3 Twenty minutes later he came out of number seven, pale, with his lips tightly compressed and an odd expression on his face.

4 The family suspected it and wanted to get him see a doctor.

5 He happens to work at the same problem.

6 Would you like me to do it?

7 This scientist is known to be keeping in touch with the latest developments in his field of research.

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 What was the name of the man whom phoned you?

2 I gave her money what I had.

3 The people work in the office are very nice.

4 The book is about a girl where runs away from home.

5 .Why do you blame me for everything who goes wrong?

6 They give their children everything which they want.

7 The place whose we spend our holiday was really beautiful.

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык.

1 After many nations accreted the faith of Christ, many synods assembled throughout the world. Such there were throughout England, consisting of bishops and other competent councilors.

2 While waiting for you, I was looking through newspapers and magazines.

3 She often took care of my little sister giving me a possibility to play with other boys.

4 The questions of collective scientific discoveries have already been suggested that a solution of some urgent problems can be best achieved that way.

5 America was transformed in the two centuries from the first English settlement at Jamestown in 1607 to the beginning of the 19th century. From a series of isolated colonial settlements hugging to the Atlantic coast, America evolved into a new nation, born in revolution, and guided by a Constitution embodying the principles of democratic self-government.

6 Never having experienced such difficulties she was at a loss.

7 In relations with the Soviet Union, President Reagan's declared policy was one of peace through strength. Rooted in the Cold war tradition, he was determined to stand firm in dealing with the country he termed "the evil empire".

№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.

1 Do you mind my waiting there?

2 I had no idea of your being there.

3 That was how the affair ended with Mr. Tupman being put to bed and the doctor being sent for.

4 He was disturbed by the children’s coming in.

5 She had overlooked the possibility of her father’s getting to know about the affair from the newspapers sooner than she could inform him.

№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 2, 3, 5 абзацы текста:

History of silk

1) The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever revealing the secret process whereby it was made. During the later epoch, the Chinese lost their secret as the Koreans, the Japanese, and later the Indians succeeded in discovering how to make silk.

2) In China, silk worm farming was originally restricted to women, and many women were employed in the silk-making industry. Even though some saw the development of a luxury product as useless, silk provoked such a craze among high society that the rules in the Li Ji were used to regulate and limit its use to the members of the imperial family. Peasants did not have the right to wear silk until the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). For approximately a millennium, the right to wear silk was reserved for the emperor and the highest dignitaries. Later, it gradually extended to other classes of Chinese society. Silk began to be used for decorative means and also in less luxurious ways: musical instruments, fishing, and bow-making.

3) Paper was certainly one of the greatest discoveries of China. Since the 3rd century BC, paper was made in all sizes with various materials. Silk workers had been making paper since the 2nd century BC. Silk, bamboo, linen, wheat and rice straw were all used differently, and paper made with silk became the first type of luxury paper Researchers. The material was certainly more expensive, but also more practical than bamboo. Treaties on many subjects (meteorology, medicine, astrology, divinity), and even maps written on silk have been discovered.

4) During the Han Dynasty, silk became progressively more valuable in its own right, and no longer simply a material. It was used to pay government officials and compensate citizens who were particularly worthy. The length of the silk cloth became a monetary standard in China. The wealth that silk brought to China stirred up envy in neighboring peoples. Silk was a common offering by the emperor to these tribes in exchange for peace. For more than one millennium, silk remained the principle diplomatic gift of the emperor of China to his neighbors or to his vassals.

The use of silk became so important that "silk" (纟) soon constituted one of the principal radicals of the Chinese alphabet.

5) Broadly speaking, the use of silk was regulated by a very precise code in China. For example, the Tang Dynasty imposed upon bureaucrats the use of a particular color according to their different functions in society. Under the Ming, silk began to be used in a series of accessories: handkerchiefs, wallets, belts, or even an embroidered piece of fabric displaying dozens of animals, real or mythical. These fashion accessories remained associated with a particular position: there was a specific bonnet for warriors, for judges, for nobles, and others for religious use.

6) A number of discoveries showed that silk was rapidly becoming a luxury material appreciated in foreign countries. Its role in commerce dates well before the opening of the silk road by the Chinese. The Silk Road toward the west was opened by the Chinese in the 2nd century A.D. The main road left from Beijing, going either to the north or south of the Taklamakan desert, one of the most arid in the world, before crossing the Pamir Mountains. The caravans that employed this method to exchange silk with other merchants were generally quite large, including from 100 to 500 people as well as camels and yaks carrying around 140 kg of merchandise.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) Who worked in the silk-making industry?

2) Who could wear silk in China?

3) What was silk used for during the Han Dynasty?

4) When and where was the Silk Road opened?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) сумели, преуспели, (2) роскошный, (3) крестьяне, (4) в общих чертах

(5) для декоративных целей, (6) денежный стандарт, (7) вышитый кусочек ткани, (8) открытия, (9) навязать, (10) постепенно распространился

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:

глагол

существительное

прилагательное

valuable

government

to value

various

to differ

difference

different

development

to provoke

decorative

success

to reserve

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) failed, (2) more, (3) native, (4) to finish, (5) cheap, (6) war, (7) civil, (8) found

(9) slowly, (10) workers

Вариант 3

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 I expect that he will understand your problem and help you to solve it.

2 He knows that my mother is a very kind woman.

3 Jane saw her neighbor. He opened the door of his flat and went in.

4 I should like to see how he would say it to my face.

5 I hate it when people speak so cynically.

6 He heard that somebody called his name.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject ). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

1 It was proved that the beginning of the 17th century was a hard time for Russia.

2 It is reported that the flood has caused much damage to the crops.

3 It is believed that the original Roman calendar was a lunar calendar.

4 It turned out that .the look of the city changed drastically during the Soviet times.

5 It seemed that the discussion was coming to the end.

6 It is considered that his invention is very important.

7 It is reported that the excavations are not finished yet.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

1 The Russian general was supposedly trying to stop the massacre and even went as far as to order the destruction of the bridge to Warsaw over the river Vistula river with the purpose of preventing the spread of violence to Warsaw from its suburb.

2 After entering Moscow, the Grand Armee, unhappy with military conditions and no sign of victory, began looting what little remained within Moscow.

3 Gaining these two hills cost the Japanese 1280 killed and wounded.

4 The Japanese Imperial Headquarters fully understood the necessity of destroying Russian ships.

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject )

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object )

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction )

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 With the prices going higher and higher and wages frozen, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the British housewife to make both ends meet.

2 Have you ever seen him dance?

3 One can watch more and more people move into history from other areas of research.

4 They seem to have taken advantage of the favorable conditions.

5 The pleasant day passing, we started home.

6 The main object of the interview was to assess the candidate and suitability, special consideration being given to the factors of general intelligence, previous education, training and experience.

7 My brother wanted me to bring this rare book.

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 This school is only for children who first language is not English.

2 Ben’s father that used to be a teacher now works for a TV company.

3 Where’s the nearest shop who sells newspapers?

4 The driver which caused the accident was fined 500$.

5 A mystery is something who cannot be explained.

6 I won’t be able to do much, but I’ll do the best whose I can.

7 Unfortunately we couldn’t go to the wedding whom we were invited to.

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык.

1 The project abandoned, the leadership in this field passed to another institute.

2 When being a student, he used to study at the library.

3 Herodotus, "the father of history", traveled extensively, visiting all the places of the greatest interest.

4 His work is not only a narration of the deeds of real men and a description of foreign places; it is also the expression of a whole man, representing all the world seen through the eyes of one man.

5 By this time having got used to the atmosphere of the big city, he no longer felt a stranger.

6 Having got what he wanted he took off his hat and left.

7 No country's history has been more closely found to immigration than that of the United States. During the first 15 years of the 20th century alone, over 13 million people came to the United States, many passing through Ellis Island, the federal immigration center that opened in New York harbor in 1892.

№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.

1 His saying this made all the difference.

2 Much depends on your taking the job.

3 Henry was put in charge of the party, but the doctor objected to that, saying he was physically unfit for such a job.

4 There was no question of anybody not having enough work to do.

5 You are responsible for the work being done in time.

№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 1, 4, 7 абзацы текста:

Nineveh

1) Nineveh was an important city in ancient Assyria. This "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in modern-day Mosul, Iraq. Ancient Nineveh's mound-ruins, Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris River. Situated at the confluence of the Tigris and Khosr, Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all the region's ancient cities.

2) It was Sennacherib who made Nineveh a truly magnificent city (c. 700 BC). He laid out fresh streets and squares and built within it the famous "palace without a rival". It comprised at least 80 rooms, of which many were lined with sculpture. A large number of tablets were found in the palace. At this time the total area of Nineveh comprised about 1,800 acres. The enclosed area had more than 100,000 inhabitants, placing it among the largest settlements worldwide.

3) Before the excavations in the 1800s, historical knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank. Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it.

4) Today, Nineveh's location is marked by two large mounds, Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus or "Prophet Jonah", and the remains of the city walls. The Neo-Assyrian levels of Kouyunjik have been extensively explored. The other mound, Nabī Yūnus , has not been extensively explored because there is a Muslim shrine dedicated to that prophet on the site. However, Iraqi excavations on Nabī Yūnus in 1990 exposed a number of large Neo-Assyrian sculptures that appeared to be the entrance to a palace. In the 19th century, the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon II, which were largely explored for sculptures and other precious relics.

5) The ruins of Nineveh are surrounded by the remains of a massive stone and mud brick wall dating from about 700 B.C.E. About 12 km. in length, the wall system consisted of an ashlars stone retaining wall about 6 m. high surmounted by a mud brick wall about 10 m. high and 15 m. thick. The city wall was fitted with fifteen monumental gateways. Five of the gateways have been explored to some extent by archaeologists.

6) The ruin mound of Kuyunjik rises about 20 m above the surrounding plain of the ancient city. Its upper layers have been extensively excavated and several Neo-Assyrian palaces and temples have been found there. In 1990, the only Assyrian remains visible were those of the entry court and first few chambers of the Palace of Sennacherib.

7) In the Bible, Nineveh is first mentioned in Genesis 10:11: "Ashur left that land, and built Nineveh." Though the Books of Kings and Books of Chronicles talk a great deal about the Assyrian empire, Nineveh itself is not again noticed till the days of Jonah. Nineveh was the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire. Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold. Its end was strange, sudden, and tragic. According to the Bible, it was God's doing, his judgment on Assyria's pride. In fulfillment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place".

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What made Nineveh one of the greatest cities in the east?

2) What is Nineveh like today?

3) What is Sennacherib famous for?

4) Who destroyed Nineveh according to the Bible?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) жители, обитатели, (2) расплывчатые воспоминания, (3) по-настоящему великолепный город, (4) остатки городской стены, (5) пророчество,

(6) оказалось, (7) процветающий, (8) древние руины курганов, (9) к (их) великому удивлению, (10) драгоценные останки

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:

глагол

существительное

прилагательное

visible

to locate

location

local

to oppose

surprise

surrounding

to appreciate

desolation

occupation

prophetic

to extend

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) exit, (2) modern, (3) tiny, (4) died, (5) declining, (6) destroyed, (7) lower,

(8) the smallest, (9) unknown, (10) thin

Вариант 4

№1 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное дополнение (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений или переделывая два предложения в одно. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 We know that Olga had requested a bishop and priests from Rome.

2 She expected that her brother will bring her a book.

3 The boy noticed a bird. It flew on to the bush near the window.

4 Napoleon ordered to blow up the Kremlin.

5 I heard that he entered the faculty of history.

6 I don’t like that you repeat this nonsense.

7 I felt that somebody touched me lightly on the shoulder.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя инфинитивную конструкцию сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject ). Переведите переделанные предложения на русский язык:

1 It appeared that the system was based on phases of the Moon.

2 It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year.

3 It was reported that five ships were missing after the battle.

4 It turned out that the language of the article was quite easy.

5 It seems that you don’t approve of the idea.

6 It is said that he is one of the most famous historians.

7 It was said that one of the most popular nightlife areas was around Tverskaya Street.

№3 Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, подчеркните герундий и укажите его форму:

1 One such campaign claimed the life of the foremost Slavic druzhina leader, Svyatoslav I, who was renowned for having crushed the power of the Khazars on the Volga.

2 The tsar celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously Saint Basil’s Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow.

3 He believed that Japan was so weak to evict Russia military, so he proposed giving Russia control over Manchuria in exchange for Japanese control of northern Korea.

4 The Japanese attempted to block the entrance to port Arthur by sinking several cement filled steamers in the deep water channel to the port.

№4 Перепишите и расположите по порядку:

a) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject )

b) предложения с инфинитивной конструкцией сложное дополнение (Complex Object )

c) предложения с независимой причастной конструкцией (Absolute Participial Construction )

Подчеркните конструкции и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 We know him to have established a school of his own.

2 It being still uncertain when and how the runes were invented, the runic script offers many problems to solve.

3 We knew nothing of the research work to be carried out next month.

4 This river is said suitable for navigation.

5 Then, with her heart beating fast, she went up and rang the bell.

6 The fire is supposed to start at night, but nobody noticed it.

7 The moonlit road was empty, with the cool wind blowing in their faces.

№5 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее (ошибка в использовании относительных местоимений). Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 We live in the world what is changing all the time.

2 What was the name of the horse who won the race?

3 I don’t agree with whose you’ve just said.

4 What’ the best thing who has never happened to you?

5 The woman with which he fell in love left him after a month.

6 The sun whom is one of millions of stars in the universe provides us with heat and light.

7 Liz, that car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.

№6 Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите в них зависимый и независимый причастный оборот и переведите их на русский язык.

1 Yet never were problems confronting the country so acute, with the electorate in fact divided on policy issues to a greater degree than for years past.

2 Dispossessed of their lands, the tribal people of America had lost their way of life.

3 Estimates of the number of Native Americans living in what is now the United States at the onset of European colonization range from two to 18 million, with most historians tending toward the lower figure.

4 While reading a book I came across several interesting expressions.

5 Not knowing where to go he turned to a passer by.

6 Leaders of the radical wing of the Republican Party planned to put Black southerners on an equal footing with Whites, but with White southern leaders resenting these efforts, antagonism and separate systems in the south: one for Negroes and one for Whites.

7 Having arrived two days before the conference he had a lot of time to see Edinburgh.

№7 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них герундиальный комплекс и переведите на русский язык.

1 We insisted on Peter's joining our team.

2 You did not mind my asking, did you?

3 Your reading so carelessly prevents your enjoying this poetry.

4 All that happened after their leaving the place.

5 There is still much to be done before our going home.

№8 Прочитайте и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, 4 абзацы текста:

Paper

1) Paper is thin material used for writing upon, printing upon or packaging, produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. While the fibers used are usually natural in origin, a wide variety of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, may be incorporated into paper as a way of imparting desirable physical properties. The most common source of these kinds of fibers is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, largely softwoods and hardwoods, such as spruce and aspen respectively. Other vegetable fiber materials including those of cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used.

2) The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus was produced as early as 3000 BC in Egypt, and sold to ancient Greece and Rome. The establishment of the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC put a drain on the supply of papyrus.

3) Paper is considered to be one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China , as the first standard papermaking process was developed in China during the early 2nd century. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties of ancient China, documents were ordinarily written on bone or bamboo, making them very heavy and awkward to transport. The light material of silk was sometimes used, but was normally too expensive to consider.

4) While the Han Dynasty Chinese court official Cai Lun is widely regarded to have first invented the modern method of papermaking from wood pulp in 105 AD. Archeologically however, true paper without writing has been excavated in China dating to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han from the 2nd century BC, used for purposes of wrapping or padding protection for delicate bronze mirrors. Although paper used for writing became widespread by the 3rd century, paper continued to be used for wrapping and other purposes.

5) Toilet paper was used in China by at least the 6th century AD. Toilet paper continued to be a valued necessity in China, since it was during the Hongwu Emperor's reign in AD 1393 that the Bureau of Imperial Supplies manufactured 720,000 sheets of toilet paper for the entire court produced of the cheap rice-straw paper. For the emperor's family alone, 15,000 special sheets of paper were made, in light yellow tint and even perfumed.

6) During the Tang Dynasty paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavor of tea. During the same period, it was written that tea was served from baskets with multi-colored paper cups and paper napkins of different size and shape. During the Chinese Song Dynasty not only did the government produce the world's first known paper-printed money, or banknote, but paper money bestowed as gifts to deserving government officials were wrapped in special paper envelopes.

6 In America, archaeological evidence indicates that paper was invented by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. It was in widespread use among Mesoamerican cultures until the Spanish conquest. In small quantities, traditional Maya papermaking techniques are still practiced today. The paper was thin and translucent, not like modern western paper, and thus only written on one side. Books were invented in India, of Palm leaves where we derive the name leaf for a sheet of a book. The first paper mill in Europe was in Spain in1120. Paper is recorded as being manufactured in both Italy and Germany by 1400, just about the time when the woodcut printmaking technique was transferred from fabric to paper.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What materials were used for writing before paper?

2) What was paper used in China?

3) What for was paper used during the Tang and Song Dynasties?

4) What other peoples made paper?

№10 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и составьте свои предложения с ними:

(1) был изобретен, (2) широко распространенный, (3) слишком дорогой,

(4) продолжает использоваться, (5) бумажные салфетки, (6) самый распространенный источник, (7) тяжелый и громоздкий, (8) бумажные деньги,

(9) процесс изготовления бумаги, (10) соответственно

№11 Заполните таблицу существительными, глаголами и прилагательными, где возможно:

глагол

существительное

прилагательное

to produce

various

desire

inventive

to preserve

to differ

difference

different

protection

to desire

practice

to consider

№12 Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:

(1) modern, (2) expensive, (3) bought, (4) light, (5) qualities, (6) the last, (7) the same,

(8) metal, (9) handy, (10) together

Тексты для дополнительного чтения.

History of Japanese Marriage

During the age of aristocracy, "Muko-iri" was the common marriage system in Japan. A bridegroom would nightly visit his bride at her home. Only after the birth of a child or the loss of his parents would be the bride is accepted as the wife in the man's home. Among common people labour power was and essential factor to maintain a family. A bridegroom would live with his bride's family to offer his labour for a certain length of time. The practice remains today in the system of adoption by which a man becomes a member of another family by marriage.

With the rise of "Bushi" warriors, the system of women marrying into men's families called "Yome-iri" was gradually adopted and widely accepted in the 14th century and on. Under the feudal system marriages were often used as political and diplomatic approaches to maintaining peace and unity among feudal lords. Thus the personal will of men and women for marriage was ignored in the face of family interests and the social intercourse of unmarried persons was denied. Marriages came to be arranged by and for families and the role of "Nakodo" go-between became very important in Japan. Now this "Yome-iri" system is quite common in Japan and you can find the traditional procedure in the contemporary marriage.

Throughout history, Japanese marital systems had gone through many changes along with changes in Japanese social systems and conditions. The most important and historical change in the Japanese marital system was brought about through the rise of "bushi" warriors in the 13th and 14th centuries. The change from the age of aristocracy to the age of the shoguns led to a change from the old practice of "muko-iri" to the new practice of "yome-iri". That is, instead of the groom joining the bride's family ("muko-iri"), the bride would join the groom's family ("yome-iri") after the birth of a child or the loss of a parent.

Under the feudal system, Japanese marriages were often used as political and diplomatic means to maintain peace and unity among feudal lords. The young men and women of the day did not have a say in choosing their partners in marriage. Rather, a matchmaker would arrange marriages on behalf of both families. Thus, the role of a "nakodo" (a matchmaker) was established in Japan.

It is interesting to note that a young man had more say in choosing his own bride during the age of aristocracy. A young man would typically visit the young lady of his choice at her home. If the young woman's parents approve of their union, the young man would be invited to a ceremony termed "tokoro-arawashi" and offered "mochi" rice cakes. This ceremony was deemed to be the most important function in ancient weddings among aristocrats.

Similarly among the common people, a young man would visit the parents of the lady and asked her parents for her hands in marriage. Labour played an essential role in life of the common people. Labour practices vary from places. In certain areas of Japan, such as the Tohoku area in the north, a groom would live with his bride's family to offer his labour for a certain length of time. While in other parts of the country such as the Izu Islands, a wife would work for the family of her husband while her husband would offer his labour to her family. It is worth noting that such labour arrangement is still being practised to this day in marriages where the man is adopted into the family of the bride upon marriage. A third and more common family labour arrangement was for the groom and the bride to offer their labour to their respective families. In such a case, the husband would visit his wife nightly to maintain their union in marriage.

Match

A match is a consumable tool for lighting a fire under controlled circumstances on demand. Matches are readily available, being sold in tobacconists and other shops. Matches are rarely sold singly; they are sold in multiples, packaged in match boxes or matchbooks. A match is typically a wooden stick (usually sold in match boxes) or stiff paper stick (usually sold in matchbooks) coated at one end (the match head) with a material often containing the element phosphorus, which will ignite from the heat of friction if rubbed ("struck") against a suitable surface. There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface; and strike-anywhere matches, for which any sufficiently rough surface can be used.

The first "friction match" was invented by English chemist John Walker in 1827. Early work had been done by Robert Boyle in the 1680s with phosphorus and sulfur, but his efforts had not produced useful results. Walker discovered a mixture of antimony (III) sulfide, potassium chlorate, gum, and starch could be ignited by striking against any rough surface. Walker called the matches congreves , but the process was patented by Samuel Jones and the matches were sold as lucifers . The early matches had a number of problems - the flame was unsteady and the initial reaction was disconcertingly violent; additionally, the odor produced by the burning match was unpleasant. It is described as a firework odor. Despite these problems, the new matches were responsible for a marked increase in the number of smokers. Lucifers reportedly could ignite explosively, sometimes throwing sparks at a considerable distance.

In 1830, Frenchman Charles Sauria added white phosphorus to remove the odor. These new matches had to be kept in an airtight box but were popular. Unfortunately, those involved in the manufacture of the new matches were afflicted with phossy-jaw and other bone disorders, and there was enough white phosphorus in one pack to kill a person. There was a vociferous campaign to ban these matches once the dangers became known.

The noiseless match was invented in 1836 by the Hungarian János Irinyi, who was a student of chemistry. The early matches, including the Noiseless match , were dangerous to both the users and the people making them. This was due to the use of white phosphorus. The search for a replacement for white phosphorus led to what was known as the safety match. However, this term is now confusing as it covers both the modern safety match and the modern strike anywhere match.

Both of these types of matches were more expensive to make than white phosphorus-based matches, and customers continued to buy white-phosphorus based matches. Laws prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches generally had to be passed before these safer types of matches came into widespread usage.

The safety match was invented in 1844 by the Swede Gustaf Erik Pasch and was improved by John Edvard Lundström a decade later. Their safety is due to the separation of the combustible ingredients between the match head and a special striking surface, and the replacement of white phosphorus with red phosphorus. The striking surface is composed of powdered glass and red phosphorus, and the match head is composed of antimony (III) sulfide and potassium chlorate. The act of striking converts some of the red phosphorus to white by friction heat. The small amount of white phosphorus then ignites, and this starts the combustion of the match head.

Pirates of the Mediterranean

Before Pirates of the Caribbean, pirates patrolling the ancient waters of the Mediterranean took full advantage of the powerful trade routes of Greece, Egypt, and Rome. As soon as sea faring vessels made their way through the waters of the Mediterranean on newly established routes for trade and travel, the wealth and prosperity of ancient civilizations such as the Greeks, Egyptians, and Phoenicians began to blossom. With valuable goods, especially precious metals, being traded back and forth between kingdoms on a regular basis, the high seas were fertile grounds for pirates looking for control of these powerful trade routes.

One of the earliest indications of ancient piracy comes from an inscription on an Egyptian clay tablet from the 14th century B.C., detailing how pirates often attacked the waters off the coast of Egypt. Other evidence shows that pirates were not only renegades working solo or in gangs, but they were also wealthy individuals looking for a piece of the prosperous trade pie. In addition, pirates took the form of tyrannical rulers. Take the case of Polycrates. This tyrant seized the Greek island of Samos around 540 B.C. He was an oppressive and greedy despot, and was known to have used ships from Samos' own fleet in order to plunder other ships in the surrounding waters.

Ancient pirates didn't leave their dirty work in the Mediterranean waters, however. In addition to attacking and stealing from merchant ships, they were also known to attack cities with vulnerable ports as well. This sort of piracy and pillaging would continue well into Roman times, coming have a great affect on commerce in the Republic.

One might think that piracy would not be tolerated by such a powerhouse as Rome, especially with its powerful naval fleet and large port at Ostia. However, piracy was often not only endured, but it was even quietly encouraged by some unsavory Senators who appreciated the steady supply of slaves that came from plundered ships and ports. In addition, the highly profitable grain industry was in a constant state of upheaval thanks to the pirates, thus raising prices in Rome, and padding the noble pockets.

As a result of Rome's complacency where pirates were concerned, (that, and having overthrown the powerful kingdom of Carthage, annihilating their strong fleet of ships that fiercely protected the North African waters from pirates), piracy ran amok. Since Rome was less than willing to protect or support its provinces from pirates, the weaker cities around the Mediterranean were often forced to ally with pirate gangs, paying them tribute in exchange for keeping their cities and ports intact. This helped keep the pirates in business, allowing them to grow more powerful, sort of like a pirate mafia controlling their areas or "turf".

Viking Weapons and Warfare

The Vikings are known as great warriors. This reputation is based on what we known about their weapons and battle tactics – as Barry Ager explains. The Vikings were daring masters of the sea. Their swift wooden long ships, equipped with both sails and oars, enabled them to mount piratical raids on the coastal monasteries and settlements of the British Isles, Western Europe and beyond. The shallow draught of these ships meant that they were able to reach far inland by river and stream, striking and moving on before local forces could muster.

Well preserved remains of Viking ships, like those found at Oseberg and Gokstad in Norway and Skuldelev in Denmark, show they were clinker-built of overlapping planks and measured between about 17.5m and 36m in length. They were steered not by a rudder, but by a single oar mounted on the starboard side. A few late examples are said to have had iron-clad bows and sterns. An average speed of 10 to 11 knots could have been achieved, or perhaps rather more in short bursts. Crews of 25 to 60 men would have been common, seated on benches on open decks, although the largest ships could have carried as many as 100 or more. Packhorses and provisions would also be included if needed.

Fearsome figureheads would be raised at stem and stern as a sign of warlike intent, underlined by rows of shields mounted along the sides for defense or show. These could be removed while at sea. Raids in single ships were quite frequent and, before around 850, fleets rarely comprised more than 100 ships. Much larger fleets of 200 and upwards were recorded later, but it is difficult to know how accurate the reports were.

Actual sea-battles were rare, and even then were fought close to shore. Ships were roped together in lines to face an enemy fleet and showers of arrows and missiles would have been exchanged. Each side then resorted to hand-to-hand fighting as they attempted to board their opponents' ships. The warriors in the prow were specially selected for this task. The aim was not to destroy enemy craft, but to capture them if possible, as they represented a considerable investment in time, resources and labor.

The Viking Age saw major changes in the economy of Scandinavia. At the beginning of the Viking Age, few people in Scandinavia had any knowledge of coinage. Some foreign coins entered the region as a result of trading contacts both with Western Europe and the Islamic world to the east. However, except in major trading centers such as Hedeby and Ribe, in Denmark, the idea of coinage as such was unfamiliar. Coins were valued only for their weight in silver or gold, and circulated alongside many other forms of precious metal.

This is what is known as a bullion economy, in which the weight and the purity of the precious metal are what is important, not what form the metal takes. Far and away the most common metal in the economy was silver, although gold was also used. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots, as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments. Large pieces of jewellery were often chopped up into smaller pieces known as 'hack-silver' to make up the exact weight of silver required. Imported coins and fragments of coins were also used for the same purpose. Traders carried small scales which could measure weight very accurately, so it was possible to have a very precise system of trade and exchange even without a regular coinage.

Precious metals were also a symbol of wealth and power. Like many peoples throughout history, the Vikings demonstrated their wealth and status by wearing beautiful jewellery, or by having expensively ornamented weapons, which were their equivalents of the Armani suit or the Rolex watch of today. In many cases, imported coins were melted down as the raw material for arm-rings, neck-rings or brooches. In other cases, coins were even mounted as jewellery. The show of wealth was more important than the idea of a coin-based economy.

Использованная литература.

1. Березина О.А., Шпилюк Е.М. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Упражнения по грамматике-СПб: Издательство «Союз», 2002.

2. Бонди Е. А. Английский язык для студентов-историков. Москва, 2003.

3. Голицынский Ю. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. С.-П., 2005.

4. Лариса Романова. Практическая грамматика английского языка. Айрис Пресс, Рольф, Москва, 2001.

5. Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Практический курс. Часть 1, 2. Минск, 2004.

6. Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Упражнения по грамматике. Минск, 2004.

7. Michael Duckworth, Kathy Gude. Countdown, Oxford, 1999.

8. Raymond Murphy. English grammar in use. Cambridge, 2004.

9. Bob Obee, Virginia Evans. Express Publishing, 2003.

10. Wikipedia. Free Encyclopedia.

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