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Учебное пособие: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 5

Название: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 5
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Гогенко В.В., Пасько О.В.

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ И КОНТОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ

по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета

Выпуск 5

Ростов – на – Дону

2008

Учебно-методические указания разработаны преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов В.В. Гогенко, преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов О.В. Пасько.

Ответственный редактор доц. С. Л. Баркова

Компьютерный набор и верстка преп. В.В. Гогенко, преп. О.В. Пасько

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ, протокол № 9 от 15 февраля 2008г.


МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определенной Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

В выпуске 5 представлены варианты контрольного задания №5.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента.

Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

Левая страница

Правая страница

Поля Английский текст

Русский текст Поля

Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет, отделение и фамилию студента. Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания; остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала.

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или неполностью, она возвращается без проверки.


КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №5

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №5, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1 Условные предложения: Три типа условных предложений: реальный (Real conditionals), нереальный (Unreal conditionals), абсолютно нереальный(Absolutely unreal conditionals).

2 I wish : Предложения, содержащие конструкцию I wish. Времена, употребляющиеся после этой конструкции, способы перевода.

3 Конструкция “ have / get / make something done ”: Способы перевода на русский язык.


Образец выполнения контрольного задания №5

Левая страница Правая страница

№1 Раскройте скобки в предложениях, употребляя правильное время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

If you (to give) me the pen, I’ll write you my address.

Если ты дашь мне ручку, я напишу тебе адрес.

If you give me the pen, I’ll write you my address.

Поля

№2 Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите и подчеркните в каждом из них ошибку (слово, которого не должно быть в предложении), и переведите их на русский язык.

Поля

Let's get something for to eat before we go to the cinema.

Давайте что-нибудь съедим перед тем как пойти в кино.

Поля

№3 Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках, перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите на русский язык:

Поля

She had her hair (to style/styled/style) yesterday.

She had his hair styled yesterday.

Ей вчера сделали прическу.

Поля

№4 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

I wish I (didn’t know/hadn’t known) you.

I wish I didn’t know you.

Жаль, что я вас знаю.

Поля

№5 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильное слово из таблицы. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

It’s a surprise, so don’t (say/tell/speak/talk) a word.

It’s a surprise, so don’t say a word.

Это сюрприз, поэтому не говори ни слова.

Поля

№6 Соотнесите части условных предложений. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

If I were you I would ask his advice

Будь я на твоем месте, я бы спросил его совета

Поля

№7 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее. Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

Поля

What would you do if you are me?

What would you do if you were me?

Что бы вы сделали на моем месте?

Поля

Вариант 1

№1 Раскройте скобки в предложениях, употребляя правильное время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration.

2 You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much.

3 If you were on a hijacked plane, you (attack) the hijackers?

4 If he (invite), he would have come to the party last night.

5 If I had known that you couldn’t eat meat I (not buy) it.

6 If they (to know) it before, they would have taken measures.

7 If you didn’t waste so much time, you (not miss) the train.

№2 Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите и подчеркните в каждом из них ошибку (слово, которого не должно быть в предложении), и переведите их на русский язык.

1 Helen did a so good job in her exams last week.

2 Tracy worked hard all morning to finish her research paper up on time.

3 The train to Reading is faster than by the bus.

4 Tell him the news when you will see him.

5 I told Mark he could join with us on our trip this weekend.

6 I went for shopping with my sister yesterday.

7 I’d like to order another of salad, please.

8 I must go straight to home after my English lesson.

9 I asked my boss for half of an hour off work.

10 My telephone number is very easy to remember it.

№3 Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках, перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите на русский язык:

1 Get your children (to feel/ feel/ felt ) responsible for their studies.

2 She had her husband (to entertain/ entertain/ entertained ) the guests while she was making tea.

3 He got them (to pay/ paid/ pay ) for the damage.

4 She had her carpets (clean/ to clean/ cleaned ).

5 He couldn’t get the dog (risen/ to rise/ rise ).

6 She bought a nice dress but she had to get the sleeves (to short/ short/ shorten ).

7 The opposition got the government (decrease/ to decrease/ decreased ) prices.

8 He got the chairman (made/ to make/ make ) an announcement.

№4 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 She wished at that moment she (had not send/did not send) for him.

2 It seemed as though he (knew/had known) it long ago.

3 She was breathing heavily as if she (had run/ran).

4 He said with deep regret: “I wish I (had been/were) with you”.

5 He looked as if he (wanted/had wanted) to say something but he (had been/was) afraid to begin his speech.

6 She says she wishes I (had been/were) a thousand miles away.

7 She looked at him as if she (had seen/saw) a ghost.

8 They behaved as if nothing (happened/had happened).

№5 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильное слово из таблицы. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

no no one none neither nor nobody nothing

1 ……… can tell if there is life on other planets or not.

2 The new building will be ……… spacious ……… attractive.

3 The top floor offices will have plenty of windows but those on the ground floor will have ……….

4 In 50 year’s time there will be ……… cars allowed in the city centers at all.

5 ……… knows what private housing will be like in the future.

6 ……… has been decided about the future of the city centre.

№6 Соотнесите части условных предложений. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 If he had followed my advise …

2 If you studied hard …

3 Her life might have been saved if …

4 Unless it is a nice day …

5 He would lend it to you if …

6 I’ll show you my report if …

7 You look pale. If I were you …

a) you would pass your exam.

b) the ambulance had arrived two hours earlier.

c) we would stay at home

d) he wouldn’t have found himself in such a situation

e) you want

f) would go to the doctor

g) asked him to do that

№7 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее. Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 If I am you I would do him a favor.

2 If he will see her, he will be very angry.

3 If the child wants, will buy him a toy.

4 She would be happy, if he had married her.

5 I wish he didn’t see me yesterday.

6 They would have been happy if they went abroad a month ago.

7 I wish I would come to your birthday.

№8 a) Прочитайте текст и замените в нем выделенные курсивом выражения приведенными ниже фразами:

(1) flared into open warfare; (2) nomadic tribes; (3) was threatened by;

(4) to get rid of; (5) who refused to submit to his rule; (6) the heathen temples;

(7) legitimate sons; (8) rebelled against; (9) armed struggle;

(10) may have resembled; (11) a harsh system of slavery;

(12) proved to be the best

b) Вставьте следующие предлоги и наречия в пропуски в тексте.

(1) probably; (2) than; (3) altogether; (4) between; (5) each; (6) from;

(7) unfortunately; (8) also; (9) away; (10) however; (11) even; (12) against

(13) according to

№9 Перепишитете переделанный текст в тетрадь и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, 6 абзацы текста.

From Paganism to Christianity

1) Prince Vladimir ruled Russia in 980-1015 and was popularly known as Vladimir the Red Sun. He was the son of Svyatoslav and Princess Olga's housekeeper Malusha. Kiev was Russia's capital at the time, and the Kievan throne was contested by Svyatoslav's законнорожденными сыновьями Yaropolk and Oleg. In 970 Vladimir was sent to Novgorod as Svyatoslav's vice-regent. When Svyatoslav died in 972, and the conflict …….. Yaropolk and Oleg вспыхнул в открытое противостояние , Vladimir's geographical location in the north enabled him to appeal to the Vikings who had played an active part in Russian politics for more ……. a century.

2) This was a time when Russia угрожали the Pechenegs, кочевые племена ……. the east. Vladimir proved to be the ruler who united the Slav tribes in the struggle …… the nomadic invaders. His first action in Kiev was избавиться от the Vikings whose support he had enjoyed . ……, however, he did not get rid of them …… but sent them ……. to different towns and ……. to the Byzantine Empire. A gifted military leader, Vladimir headed a series of campaigns against tribes in the outlying areas кто отказывался подчиняться его правилам in the first half of the 980s.

3) In 986, ……. popular legend, the Kievan court was visited by several delegations from different countries, …….. of which offered Russia its religion for adoption. Russia, which worshipped its own heathen gods at the time, could choose between Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism and Greek Orthodoxy. As the chronicles alleged, a Greek missionary had sown the seeds of Christianity in Vladimir's soul. On the advice of boyars and elders, Vladimir sent envoys to different countries to test each religion, and Greek Orthodoxy оказалось лучшим . Apparently, the Russian visitors were impressed by the splendor of the service ritual in Constantinople and the beautiful singing.

4) The final adoption of Christianity by Russia is associated with Vladimir's military successes in the south. It is not quite clear why the expedition against Chersonesus in the Crimea led to Vladimir's baptism. Vladimir's political aims in the south were furthered by his marriage to the Byzantine Emperor's sister Anne. The ceremony occurred in Chersonesus in 988 and was followed by the wedding in 989. Upon returning to Kiev, Vladimir destroyed языческие храмы and idols and baptized the Kievans. He successfully resisted the Pechenegs and built a network of forts and colonies to prevent the savages from lying waste the Russian lands.

5) It is probable that, as in other countries, the new religion encountered resistance. The chronicles, ……., keep silent about the conflicts involved in the introduction of the new faith, and вооруженная борьба against Christianity is mentioned only in the case of Novgorod. There is some evidence that the religion spread slowly under Vladimir.

6) Vladimir had eleven sons and created an efficient administrative system, replacing the former tribal princes by his sons. However, this proved to be his undoing: Vladimir’s son Yaroslav who ruled Novgorod восстал против his father’s authority and Vladimir was forced to prepare a military expedition to subdue the insurgent son, but died at the start, his heart …….. broken by his son’s perfidy.

7) Vladimir's Ancient Russia возможно была похожа на early feudal states in Western Europe. And perhaps Russia's backwardness and Oriental flavor were direct results of the Mongol conquest and century-long rule by the Mongol khans. On the other hand, there are those who believe that feudalism never really existed in Russia, that in effect Russia was a pre-feudal state with жестокой системой рабства ……. in Vladimir's age.

№10 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What relations connected Vladimir with the Vikings?

2) Was Vladimir the only child in his family?

3) Why did Vladimir choose Christianity?

4) Did Russian people accept the new religion with pleasure?

№11 Выпишите выделенные жирным шрифтом глаголы и укажите их форму (личная\неличная), время, залог.

Вариант 2

№1 Раскройте скобки в предложениях, употребляя правильное время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 What (happen) if I press this button?

2 If you (understand) the rule, you would have written the paper successfully.

3 If you (do) your morning exercises every day, your health would be much better.

4 I would make her a proposal, if I (be) you.

5 If it (snow), the children will play snowballs.

6 I shouldn’t take your umbrella, if I (know) that it was the only one you had.

7 I’ll probably get lost unless he (come) with me.

№2 Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите и подчеркните в каждом из них ошибку (слово, которого не должно быть в предложении), и переведите их на русский язык.

1 By the way, I really like of your new hairstyle.

2 A badly written article can affect on the image of an entire magazine.

3 If you feel that her decision it was unfair, then you should complain.

4 If you need to anything else, let me know.

5 I’m trying to save up enough money for to buy a new car.

6 There are lots of well-known artists and musicians who living in New York.

7 I don’t think so that he will come.

8 The meat which was so awful that we couldn’t eat it.

9 I don’t think Emma’s dress really suits for her.

10 Please turn off the lights when you leave from the room.

№3 Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках, перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите на русский язык:

1 She had the porter (to carry/ carry/ carried ) her luggage.

2 Peter the Great got his noblemen (to have/ have/ had ) their beards (to shave/ shaven/ shave ).

3 She had to get the tyre (change/ to change/ changed ).

4 The manager had his employees (to work/ worked/ work ) till seven.

5 She got him (to buy/ bought/ buy ) an expensive gold bracelet for her.

6 Let him (do/ to do/ done ) the task himself.

7 He had a fireplace (to install/ installed/ install ) in the corner of the sitting room.

8 They were made (go/ to go/ gone ) to the police station.

№4 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 I wish she (had not looked/did not look) so sad.

2 The professor wishes I (had studied/studied) harder.

3 We wished he (had not come/did not come) so late yesterday.

4 I wish you (had seen/saw) the play. It was a great success.

5 I wish they (had introduced/introduced) their friends to me at the party.

6 She wishes her father (hadn’t known/didn’t know) it.

7 He wished they (hadn’t noticed/didn’t notice) his embarrassment.

8 It seemed as if he never (heard/had heard) of it before.

№5 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильное слово из таблицы. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

trip voyage tour excursion journey travel

1 The ……… to work usually takes me about twenty minutes.

2 My father’s gone on a business ……… to Paris, but he’ll be back tomorrow.

3 We went on an interesting ……… of the museum with an excellent guide.

4 My uncle is a salesman, so he has to ……… lot for his work.

5 Do you feel like going on the ……… to Brighton on Saturday?

6 The astronauts are training for their ……… to the moon.

№6 Соотнесите части условных предложений. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 I could have walked more quickly if …

a) I’ll keep silence.

2 Unless they ask me about that accident …

b) I wouldn’t accept it.

3 Your job sounds awful. If I were you …

c) I cleaned it two times a week.

4 My room would be all right if …

d) I hadn’t had high heeled shoes.

5 They would have paid more if …

e) I’ll take an apple.

6 In case I feel hungry …

f) She doesn’t work so hard.

7 She won’t be so tired today if …

g) you hadn’t been so annoying.

№7 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее. Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 I shall write you a letter, if you will have given me your address.

2 I wish you don’t disturb me.

3 If they are in your shoes, they wouldn’t do such a stupid thing.

4 I wish you would have helped me.

5 If it isn’t too cold, I don’t put on my coat.

6 He could have asked you about your life, if you weren’t so cruel.

7 If I has more free time, I would spend it with my family.

№8 a) Прочитайте текст и замените в нем выделенные курсивом выражения приведенными ниже фразами:

(1) rapid expansion; (2) to apply to; (3) countless; (4) in cases of treason and conspiracy; (5) sought to invade; (6) piracy and mercenary; (7) rapidly overtook;

(8) the most recognizable; (9) and likely; (10) made its first appearance;

(11) an oath of loyalty; (12) declined

b) Вставьте следующие предлоги и наречия в пропуски в тексте.

(1) against (2); (2) through; (3) back; (4) apart from; (5) soon; (6) both; (7) each other;

(8) especially; (9) during; (10) either; (11) therefore; (12) although

№9 Перепишите переделанный текст и письменно переведите 2,3,4,5 абзацы текста:

Varangians

1) The Varangians were Scandinavians who migrated eastwards and southwards …… what is now Russia and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in trade, пиратской и наемной activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.

2) The term Varangians впервые появился not in Scandinavia or Russia but in Byzantium where it was introduced to designate a function. In Russia it was extended обратиться к Scandinavian warriors journeying to and from Constantinople. In the Byzantine sources Varangians are first mentioned in 1034.

3) Having settled in Ladoga in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people, и вероятно played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate. The Varangians are first mentioned by the Primary Chronicle as having exacted tribute from the Slavic and Finnic tribes in 859. It was the time of быстрого распространения of the Vikings in Northern Europe. In 862, the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled …… the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas …… to Scandinavia, but ……. started to conflict with ……. The disorder prompted the tribes to invite back the Varangian Rus "to come and rule them" and bring peace to the region.

4) Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians settled around the town of Holmgard (Novgorod). In the 9th century, the Rus operated the Volga trade route, which connected Northern Russia with the Middle East. As the Volga route пришел в упадок by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks быстро вернули it in popularity. …… Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnezdovo and Gotland were major centers for Varangian trade. Western historians tend to agree with the Primary Chronicle that these Scandinavians founded Kievan Rus in the 880s and gave their name to the land.

5) The Varangians fought in Sicily …… the Normans under Robert Guiscard, who unsuccessfully пытались захватить the lower Balkans as well. The duties and purpose of the Varangian Guard were similar - if not identical - to the services provided by the Kievan druzhina , the Norwegian hird , and the Scandinavian and

Anglo-Saxon housecarls . The Varangians served as the personal bodyguard of the emperor, swearing клятва верности to him; they had ceremonial duties as retainers and acclaimers and performed some police duties, …… в случаях измены и заговора .

6) Of the role of the guard, then composed of the English and Danes, it is said that "the fighting was very violent and there was hand to hand fight with axes and swords, the assailants mounted the walls and prisoners were taken on ……. sides". …… the Guard was apparently disbanded after the city's capture in 1204, there are some indications that it was revived ……. by the Empire of Nicaea or by the Palaeologid emperors themselves, though it is not likely that they lasted long after Michael VIII.

7) Other than their fierce loyalty, самыми узнаваемыми attributes of the Varangian guard …… the 11th century were their large axes and their penchant for drinking . There are бесчисленные stories of the Varangian guard either drinking in excess or being drunk . In 1103 during a visit to Constantinople, King Eric the Good of Denmark "exhorted members of the guard to lead a more sober life and not give themselves up to drunkenness." It is not surprising, ……, to find a 12th century description of them as "the Emperor's wine-bags."

№10 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What is the origin of the word the Varangians?

2) When and where were the Varangians first mentioned?

3) What countries did they fight for?

4) What were the main features of the Varangian guard?

№11 Выпишите выделенные жирным шрифтом глаголы и укажите их форму (личная\неличная), время, залог.

Вариант 3

№1 Раскройте скобки в предложениях, употребляя правильное время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 If you go to Paris where you (stay)?

2 The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick.

3 If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn’t have answered the wrong question.

4 If you (be) redundant what would you do?

5 If her alarm clock had rung she (be) on time for work this morning.

6 If he read fifty pages a day his vocabulary (increase) greatly.

7 If I were you I (ask) her to go to the cinema.

№2 Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите и подчеркните в каждом из них ошибку (слово, которого не должно быть в предложении), и переведите их на русский язык.

1 Where would you like to go for eat lunch?

2 This film is just like as the one we saw last week.

3 I’m afraid I haven’t got much of money to lend you.

4 I’m very much tired, so I’m going to go to bed.

5 I like to read books rather than watch on television.

6 You must to do as you have been instructed.

7 I am like my job so much that I can’t think of anywhere else I’d like to work.

8 If her photograph it gets chosen she’ll win £100.

9 She wrote an article that it was published in the local newspaper.

10 My friends asked if I would like to go on a bicycle trip with all them.

№3 Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках, перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите на русский язык:

1 She got her baggage (to carry/ carried/ carry ) in.

2 The rebellions had the president (leave/ to leave/ left ) the country.

3 Din has his things (to wash/ washed/ wash ) in the laundry.

4 He took a lot of photos during his holiday and got them (develop/ to develop/ developed) .

5 Her remark made everybody (feel/ felt/ to feel ) uncomfortable.

6 The teacher got the pupils (learned/ to learn/ learn ) the poem by heart.

7 It was so difficult for me to get him (to believe/ believed/ believe ) us again.

8 He changed his mind to have his house (paint/ to paint/ painted ) green.

№4 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 They talked as if they (knew/had known) each other for ever so many years as if it (wasn’t/hadn’t been) the first time they met.

2 He nodded slowly as if he (agreed/had agreed) to her suggestion but she knew he would never do it.

3 Her eyes were swollen and had shadows as if she (didn’t sleep/hadn’t slept).

4 They stared at each other in silence, and it was as if they (listened/had listened) for distant footsteps.

5 He speaks French as if he (had been/were) a Frenchman.

6 Nothing had changed in the room but it seemed as though somebody (had been/were ) there.

7 She looked very tired as if she (worked/had worked) all day long.

8 I wish I (had passed/passed) my driving test last Monday.

№5 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильное слово из таблицы. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Не забудьте поставить глаголы в нужное время:

to try on to put on to wear to get dressed

1 Hurry up, get out of your bed and ……… or you’ll be late for school.

2 I must get some new clothes. I have nothing nice to ……….

3 When I ……… the jeans in the shop, I thought they looked good.

4 I’d like to have a shower and ……… a clean shirt before we go out.

5 I thought the dress you ……… at the party was lovely.

6 Here, let me help you ……… your coat.

№6 Соотнесите части условных предложений. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 If I had more money …

2 If you don’t boil the water before you drink it…

3 It could have been true if …

4 This house is very old. If I were you …

5 I should have ordered more salad if …

6 If you had any sense …

7 Your dress needs ironing. If I were you …

a) you’ll feel sick.

b) I wouldn’t wear it.

c) I hadn’t been on a diet.

d) you wouldn’t behave like that.

e) I would iron it.

f) I hadn’t known you, but I don’t believe you.

g) I would buy a big house

№7 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее. Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 I wish you are free now.

2 If I will get up early, I will go jogging.

3 I buy a yacht, if I had one million dollars.

4 I will be glad, if he called me now.

5 If my brother is in trouble, I would help him.

6 I wish you had had a good mood now.

7 I wish she showed me this project two days ago.

№8 a) Прочитайте текст и замените в нем выделенные курсивом выражения приведенными ниже фразами:

(1) against government officials; (2) plot; (3) a powerful image; (4) appointed;

(5) a secret department; (6) to investigate; (7) incapable of; (8) to imprison;

(9) rumors and slanders; (10) main responsibilities; (11) the suppression;

(12) serfdom

b) Вставьте следующие предлоги и наречия в пропуски в тексте.

(1) until; (2) also; (3) both; (4) although; (5) the following; (6) early; (7) because of;

(8) as well as; (9)often; (10) in the beginning; (11) thus; (12) however; (13) than

№9 Перепишитете переделанный текст в тетрадь и письменно переведите 2,3,4,5 абзацы текста:

Special Corps of Gendarmes

1) The Special Corps of Gendarmes was the uniformed security police of the Russian Empire in the 1800s and ...... 1900s. Its главными обязанностями were law enforcement and state security. The responsibilities of the Gendarmes ....... included execution of court orders, chasing fugitives, riot control, and detainment of unusual criminals.

2) Following the 1825 revolt, the new tsar, Nicholas I, created the office of the Chief of Gendarmes in July 1826 and назначил General Count Alexander Benkendorf to it; all of the Gendarmes were subordinate to the Chief. Benkendorf was also appointed Executive Director of the newly-created Third Section of the Imperial Chancellery, ....... the office of the Head of the Third Section was not formally merged with Chief of Gendarmes ....... 1839.

3) In 1836, the Gendarmerie of the Internal Guards was transformed into the Special Corps of Gendarmes, under the Chief of Gendarmes. The Corps was divided into seven territorial Districts, six of them located in Russia and one in the Kingdom of Poland, each having a Directorate. The Army's Gendarmerie regiment joined the Corps in 1842. The Gendarmes were using Cavalry ranks of the Russian military ranks system introduced in 1826. In 1871 the Gendarmes acquired the right расследовать ....... political and criminal cases, as the judicial investigators were dismissed .

4) The Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery was тайное подразделение set up in Imperial Russia. The Third Section was organized into ....... departments:

  • I - supreme police (political crimes and enemies of the regime)
  • II - counterfeiting, religious sects, murders, penitentiary, крепостное право
  • III - aliens
  • IV - incidents, staff matters
  • V (1842) - censorship of theatre plays (performed by the 1st department since 1828)

5) Count Alexander Benkendorf was the first Head of the Section from 1826. He was the person who tried to warn Alexander I of the Decembrist plot ; ....... Nicholas I saw him as perfect head of the secret force. Benkendorf hoped the department would be something of a 'moral physician' to the people, an organization they trusted and respected. ......., the Gendarmes, ....... called 'blue archangels' ...... their blue and white uniforms, fulfilled this hope - they proved themselves far more efficient at maintaining law and order ....... the ordinary police.

6) ......, over time its reputation deteriorated as it became progressively easier заключать в тюрьму than investigate . The Third Section and Gendarmes became associated primarily with подавлением of any liberal ideas ...... strict censorship on printed press and theatre plays. It was keen to repress 'dangerous' western liberal ideas, such as constitutional monarchy or even republicanism. In the end, the powerful image of the Section and the Gendarmes was largely undermined when they failed to suppress the rising revolutionary movement and acts of terrorism против правительственных чиновников .

7) Only the most competent of the Army's officers in noble ranks could join the Corps of Gendarmes. Although the Corps maintained могущественный образ , its large network of informers and agents often supplied nothing more than слухи и клевету ;

the Gendarmes were obviously неспособны infiltrating real revolutionary organizations. In August 1880, both the Third Section and the Special Corps of

Gendarmes were transferred to the authority of the Minister of Internal Affairs by proposal of Count Loris-Melikov. Many Gendarme officers were transferred to then-created Department of Police.

№10 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) What tsar created the Corps of Gendarmes?

2) Where were the territorial districts of the Corps located?

3) What kind of organization did Benkendorf hoped the department to be?

4) What was the reason of the Corps` decline?

№11 Выпишите выделенные жирным шрифтом глаголы и укажите их форму (личная\неличная), время, залог.

Вариант 4

№1 Раскройте скобки в предложениях, употребляя правильное время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which one you (choose)?

2 If I (have) this rare manuscript I should gladly lend it to you.

3 The dish would have been much more tasty if she (be) a better cook.

4 If a dog (bite) in her leg she would go straight to hospital.

5 I couldn’t have spoken on the phone if I (live) two hundred years ago.

6 What you (do) if you were free now?

7 If my aunt (win) a million pounds she would spend it as fast as possible.

№2 Перепишите следующие предложения, найдите и подчеркните в каждом из них ошибку (слово, которого не должно быть в предложении), и переведите их на русский язык.

1 For as such a good cook, he doesn’t make very good desserts.

2 He doesn’t understand that why it’s important to be at work on time.

3 She’s been teaching at that college for many of years.

4 I have tomorrow day off work, so I can go to the beach with you!

5 There are several of beautiful places in the area.

6 Many of the travel agencies in town they offer very cheap flights at this time of year.

7 The car he drives is the same like as the one we have got.

8 It isn’t a good idea to walk through the park on your own self after midnight.

9 I’m not sure what is to do for my brother’s birthday.

10 My mother told to me that I must help her with the housework.

№3 Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках, перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите на русский язык:

1 She couldn’t get the child (to go/ gone/ go ) to bed.

2 Speak to him, please; try to get him (refused/ to refuse/ refuse ) this offer.

3 They must have the problem (settle/ settled/ to settle ).

4 She had the secretary (to make/ make/ made ) another copy.

5 Nick got Mary (given/ to give/ give ) him a lift to the school.

6 They had him (contribute/ contributed/ to contribute ) to expenses.

7 She had a desire to have her life (go/ gone/ to go ) on as though nothing had happened.

8 The party was dull, and we decided to tell stories to make the time (to pass/ past/ pass ).

№4 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный вариант. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 He behaved as if he (didn’t do/hadn’t done ) anything.

2 I wish I (consulted/had consulted ) the teacher when I first felt that history was too difficult for me.

3 She looked as though she (didn’t understand/hadn’t understood ) what she was talking about.

4 I wish I (didn’t drink/hadn’t drunk ) so much coffee in the evening: I couldn’t sleep half the night.

5 He was running as if he (didn’t feel/hadn’t felt ) any pain.

6 I wish you (went/had gone ) to the lecture with me, it was very informative.

7 I wish you (had been/were) more careful in future.

8 They looked at the boy as if he (made/had made ) something wrong.

№5 Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильное слово из таблицы. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Не забудьте поставить глаголы в нужное время:

to beat to win to gain to lose to miss to fail

1 Anderson ……… the last two matches of the season because he was injured.

2 When you have ……….. some more experience, you will be able to play in the team.

3 The runner was disqualified after ……….. a drugs test.

4 Our team played well all season, but unfortunately we were ……….. in the final.

5 She played very badly and as a result she ……… the match.

6 I’m sure Oxford will ………. the boat race this year – they’re much better than Cambridge.

№6 Соотнесите части условных предложений. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 I might have helped you if …

2 Unless you find the solution to the problem …

3 If I had had a car …

4 If you had asked his permission …

5 Your flat needs cleaning. If I were you …

6 She would give him a lift if …

7 If he rings while I’m out …

a) you had asked me.

b) you’ll never be able to sleep.

c) tell him I’ll be back in an hour.

d) he had car.

e) I would have given you a lift.

f) he wouldn’t have allowed you to do that.

g) I would do it at least once a week.

№7 Найдите ошибку в предложениях и исправьте ее. Перепишите исправленный вариант и переведите его на русский язык:

1 If you had followed my advice, you were not in such a stupid situation.

2 I wish she had stopped talking all the time.

3 If he had phoned me now, I would be the happiest girl in the world.

4 I would do the same if I will be you.

5 If he had reminded me, I will not forget to buy a loaf of bread.

6 We wish we would be at the seaside now.

7 I would go abroad, if I have had an opportunity.

№8 a) Прочитайте текст и замените в нем выделенные курсивом выражения приведенными ниже фразами:

(1) rightful heir; (2) famine and plague; (3) mass starvations;

(4) his successor; (5) to obey; (6) brutally massacred; (7) predecessor;

(8) to convert; (9) a new impostor; (10) a conspiracy; (11) short reign;

(12) showed itself incapable of

b) Вставьте следующие предлоги и наречия в пропуски в тексте.

(1) neither; (2) below; (3) after; (4) later; (5) before; (6) against; (7) because;

(8) both; (9) still; (10) however; (11) forward; (12) outside; (13) although

№9 Перепишите переделанный текст в тетрадь и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, 6 абзацы текста:

Time of Troubles

1) The Time of Troubles was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Muscovy Tsar Feodor Ivanovich of the Rurik Dynasty in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ...... Feodor's death without issue, his brother-in-law and closest adviser, boyar Boris Godunov, was elected его приемником by a Great National Assembly (Zemsky Sobor ).

2) Godunov's короткое правление (1598–1605) was not as successful as his administration under the weak Feodor. Extremely poor harvests were encountered in 1601-1603, with nighttime temperatures in all summer months often ...... freezing, wrecking crops. Widespread hunger led to массовому голоду ; the government distributed money and foodstuffs for poor people in Moscow, but that only lead to refugees flocking to the capital and increasing the economic disorganization. The oligarchic faction, headed by the Romanovs, considered it a disgrace подчиняться a mere boyar; conspiracies were frequent; the rural districts were desolated by голодом и чумой ; great bands of armed brigands roamed the country committing all manner of atrocities; the Cossacks on the frontier were restless; and the government показало себя неспособным maintaining order.

3) Rumors were heard that the late tsar's younger brother Dmitri, supposed to be dead , was ....... alive and in hiding. In 1603 a man calling himself Dmitri - first of the so-called False Dmitris - appeared in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was regarded as the законным наследником by a large section of the population and gathered support ...... in Muscovy and ....... its borders.

4) A few months ...... he crossed the frontier with a small force of Poles, Lithuanians, Russian exiles, German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don. ...... the Commonwealth had not officially declared war on Muscovy, some powerful magnates decided to support False Dmitri with their own forces and money, expecting rich rewards afterwards. The reign of Dmitri was short. ...... a year had passed заговор was formed ....... him by an ambitious Rurikid prince called Vasily Shuisky, and he was murdered together with many of his supporters who were жестоко расправились .

5) The chief conspirator, Shuisky, seized power and was elected tsar by an assembly composed of his faction, but ....... the Muscovite boyars, nor the Commonwealth magnates, nor the pillaging Cossacks, nor the German mercenaries were satisfied with the change, and soon новый самозванец , likewise calling himself Dmitri, son and heir of Ivan the Terrible, came ...... as the rightful heir. Like his предшественник , he enjoyed the protection and support of the Polish-Lithuanian magnates.

6) False Dmitrii II wasn't able to gain the throne, however, ....... the Polish commander, hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski put forward a rival candidate in the person of Sigismund's son, Władysław. To this latter some people in Moscow swore allegiance

on condition of his maintaining Orthodoxy and granting certain privileges to them. The Polish king, ......, opposed the compromise, deciding to take the throne for himself and обратить Russia to Roman Catholicism.

7) At the same time it was displeasing to the Swedes. Russia was now in a very critical condition. The throne was vacant; the great nobles (boyars) quarreled among themselves; Orthodox Patriarch Hermogenes was imprisoned ; Catholic Poles occupied the Moscow Kremlin and Smolensk; the Protestant Swedes occupied Novgorod; and enormous bands of brigands swarmed everywhere.

№10 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) Who supported the first of the False-Dmitri?

2) Who murdered the first False-Dmitri?

3) What dynasties claimed for the Russian throne?

4) Who was the second False-Dmitri?

№11 Выпишите выделенные жирным шрифтом глаголы и укажите их форму (личная\неличная), время, залог.

Дополнительные тексты.

Space Race

The Space Race was a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union, which lasted roughly from 1957 to 1975. It involved the efforts to explore outer space with artificial satellites, to send humans into space, and to land people on the Moon.

Though its roots lie in early rocket technology and in the international tensions following World War II, the Space Race effectively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 on 4 October 1957. The Space Race became an important part of the cultural, technological, and ideological rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War .

Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky theorized in the 1880s on multi-stage, liquid fuel rockets which might reach space and established the basics of rocket science. Tsiolkovsky also wrote the first theoretical description of a man-made satellite. In 1926, American Robert H. Goddard designed a practical liquid fuel rocket.

In the mid-1920s, German scientists began experimenting with rockets powered by liquid propellants that were capable of reaching relatively high altitudes and distances. Wernher von Braun developed long-range artillery fire weapons for Nazi Germany's use in World War II.

As World War II drew to a close, U.S., UK and Soviet military and scientific crews raced to capture technology and trained personnel from the German rocket program installation at Peenemünde. The United Kingdom and the Soviet Union had some success, but the United States arguably benefited most, taking a large number of German rocket scientists - many of them members of the Nazi Party, including von Braun.

On 4 October 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1 , the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, thus beginning the Space Race. In the Soviet Union, a country recovering from a devastating war, the launch of Sputnik and the following program of space exploration were met with great interest from the public. It was important and encouraging to for Soviet citizens to see the proof of technical prowess in the new era.

Nearly four months after the launch of Sputnik 1 , the United States launched its first satellite, Explorer I . In the meantime, several embarrassing launch failures had occurred at Cape Canaveral. Sputnik helped to determine the density of the upper atmosphere, and Explorer I flight data led to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt by James Van Allen.

The Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space when he entered orbit in the Soviet Union's Vostok 1 on 12 April 1961, a day now celebrated as a holiday in Russia and in many other countries. He orbited the Earth for 108 minutes. 23 days later, on mission Freedom 7, Alan Shepard first entered sub-orbital space for the United States. Soviet Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space on 16 June 1963 in Vostok 6 . The first flight with more than one crew member was the Soviet Union's Voskhod 1 , a modified version of the Vostok craft, took off on 12 October 1964 carrying Komarov, Feoktistov and Yegorov. This flight also marked the first occasion on which a crew did not wear spacesuits.

Aleksei Leonov, from Voskhod 2 , launched by the Soviet Union on 18 March 1965, carried out the first spacewalk. Following the Soviet success in placing the first satellite into orbit, the Americans focused their efforts on sending a probe to the Moon. American Neil Armstrong became the first person to set foot on the lunar surface on 21 July 1969, after landing the previous day.

Seven Years' War

The great event of Elizabeth's later years was the Seven Years' War. Elizabeth regarded the treaty of Westminster (January 16, 1756) as utterly subversive of the previous conventions between Great Britain and Russia. And by no means unwarrantable fear of the king of Prussia, who was to be reduced within proper limits, so that he might be no longer a danger to the empire, induced Elizabeth to accede to the treaty of Versailles, in other words the Franco-Austrian league against Prussia, and on the May 17, 1757 the Russian army, 85,000 strong, advanced against Königsberg.

Neither the serious illness of the empress, which began with a fainting-fit at Tsarskoe Selo, nor the fall of Bestuzhev, nor the cabals and intrigues of the various foreign powers at St Petersburg, interfered with the progress of the war, and the crushing defeat of Kunersdorf at last brought Frederick to the verge of ruin. From that day forth he despaired of success, though he was saved for the moment by the jealousies of the Russian and Austrian commanders, which ruined the military plans of the allies.

On the other hand, it is not too much to say that, from the end of 1759 to the end of 1761, the unshakable firmness of the Russian empress was the one constraining political force which held together the heterogeneous, incessantly jarring elements of the anti-Prussian combination. From the Russian point of view, Elizabeth's greatness as a stateswoman consists in her steady appreciation of Russian interests, and her determination to promote them at all hazards. She insisted throughout that the King of Prussia must be rendered harmless to his neighbors for the future, and that the only way to bring this about was to reduce him to the rank of a Prince-elector. Frederick himself was quite alive to his danger.

On May 21, 1760 a fresh convention was signed between Russia and Austria, a secret clause of which, never communicated to the court of Versailles, guaranteed East Prussia to Russia, as an indemnity for war expenses. The failure of the campaign of 1760, wielded by the inept Count Buturlin, induced the court of Versailles, on the evening of January 22, 1761, to present to the court of St Petersburg a dispatch to the effect that the king of France by reason of the condition of his dominions absolutely desired peace. The Russian empress’s reply was delivered to the two ambassadors on February 12. It was inspired by the most uncompromising hostility towards the King of Prussia. Elizabeth would not consent to any pacific overtures until the original object of the league had been accomplished.

Simultaneously, Elizabeth caused to be conveyed to Louis XV a confidential letter in which she proposed the signature of a new treaty of alliance of a more comprehensive and explicit nature than the preceding treaties between the two powers, without the knowledge of Austria. Elizabeth's object in this mysterious negotiation seems to have been to reconcile France and Great Britain, in return for which signal service France was to throw all her forces into the German war. This project, which lacked neither ability nor audacity, foundered upon Louis XV's invincible jealousy of the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe and his fear of offending the Porte.

Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd. Although the war was multi-sided and included foreign forces from several countries, the main hostilities took place between Bolshevik forces, known as the Red Army, and loosely-allied anti-Bolshevik forces, known as the White Army. Other forces included the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army and the anarchist Black Army, as well as various other nationalist and regional movements. These forces sometimes fought against both Reds and Whites, sometimes sided with one of the two, and some even switched sides. In Soviet historiography the end of the Civil War is dated to October 25, 1922 when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok, previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government.

The most intense fighting took place from 1918 to 1920. Following the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia and the turbulent Russian Revolution throughout 1917, the Russian Provisional Government was established. In October another revolution occurred in which the Red Guard, armed groups of workers and deserting soldiers directed by the Bolshevik Party, seized control of Saint Petersburg and began an immediate armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In January 1918, Lenin had the Constituent Assembly violently dissolved, proclaiming the Soviets as the new government of Russia.

The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people prior to the Revolution. His political enemies attributed this decision to Vladimir Lenin's sponsorship by the foreign office of William II, German Emperor, offered by the latter in hopes that with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I, although no concrete evidence was ever found. A cease fire was immediately announced and peace talks began. As a condition for peace, the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire, greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives.

In view of this, the Germans began an all out advance on the Eastern Front, encountering no resistance. Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks, because the Russian army was demobilized and the newly formed Red Guard were incapable of stopping the advance. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution.

A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including land-owners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists, voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Their military forces, bolstered by foreign influence and led by General Yudenich, Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army"), and they controlled significant parts of the former Russian empire for most of the war.

Gulag

Gulag was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. The word "Gulag" has also come to signify not only the administration of the concentration camps but also the system of Soviet slave labor itself, in all its forms and varieties: labor camps, punishment camps, criminal and political camps, women's camps, children's camps, transit camps., Even more broadly, "Gulag" has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the "meat-grinder": the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths.

From 1918 camp-type detention facilities were set up, as a reformed analogy of the earlier system of penal labor, operated in Siberia in Imperial Russia. The two main types were "Vechecka Special-purpose Camps" and forced labor camps. They were installed for various categories of people deemed dangerous for the state: for common criminals, for prisoners of the Russian Civil War, for officials accused of corruption, sabotage and embezzlement, various political enemies and dissidents, as well as former aristocrats, businessmen and large land owners.

In the early 1930s, a drastic tightening of Soviet penal policy caused a significant growth of the prison camp population. During the period of the Great Purge (1937–38), mass arrests caused another upsurge in inmate numbers. During these years, hundreds of thousands of individuals were arrested and sentenced to long prison terms on the grounds of one of the multiple passages of the notorious Article 58 of the Criminal Codes of the Union republics, which defined punishment for various forms of "counterrevolutionary activities."

During World War II, Gulag populations declined sharply, owing to the mass releases of hundreds of thousands of prisoners who were conscripted and sent directly to the front lines and a steep rise in mortality in 1942–43.

When the war ended in May 1945, as many as two million former Russian citizens were forcefully repatriated into the USSR. On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the USSR. One interpretation of this agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Soviets. British and U.S. civilian authorities ordered their military forces in Europe to deport to the Soviet Union up to two million former residents of the USSR, including persons who had left Russia and established different citizenship years before.

The state continued to maintain the camp system for a while after Stalin's death in March 1953, although the period saw the grip of the camp authorities weaken and a number of conflicts and uprisings occur. The release of political prisoners started in 1954 and became widespread, and also coupled with mass rehabilitations, after Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalinism in his Secret Speech at the 20th Congress of the CPSU in February 1956.

Altogether, according to recent estimates on the basis of archival documents, about 18–20 million people had been prisoners in camps and colonies throughout the period of Stalinism at one point or another. By the end of the 1950s, virtually all "corrective labor camps" were dissolved. Colonies, however, continued to exist. Officially the GULAG was liquidated by the MVD order 20 of January 25, 1960.

Использованная литература.

Березина О.А., Шпилюк Е.М. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Упражнения по грамматике- СПб: Издательство «Союз», 2002.

Бонди Е. А. Английский язык для студентов-историков. Москва, 2003.

Голицынский Ю. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. С.-П., 2005.

Лариса Романова. Практическая грамматика английского языка. Айрис Пресс, Рольф, Москва, 2001.

Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Практический курс. Часть 1, 2. Минск, 2004.

Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Упражнения по грамматике. Минск, 2004.

Michael Duckworth, Kathy Gude. Countdown, Oxford, 1999.

Raymond Murphy. English grammar in use. Cambridge, 2004.

Bob Obee, Virginia Evans. Express Publishing, 2003.

Wikipedia. Free Encyclopedia.

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