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Учебное пособие: Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование» для студентов 1-2 курсов естественных факультетов университетов Ростов-на-Дону 2005

Название: Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование» для студентов 1-2 курсов естественных факультетов университетов Ростов-на-Дону 2005
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Российской Федерации

___________

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Кафедра английского языка естественных факультетов

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи

на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование»

для студентов 1-2 курсов

естественных факультетов университетов

Ростов-на-Дону

2005

Составители: проф. Сафроненко О.И., ст. преп. Беляева Н.А.,

ст. преп. Кузнецова Л.В., ст. преп. Мыльникова С.Б.

Рецензент: ст. преп. Резникова С.Ю.

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов ГОУ ВПО «РГУ», протокол № 2 от 21 октября 2005 г.

Методическая записка

Настоящие методические указания предназначаются для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов 1-2 курсов.

Основная цель указаний - расширение страноведческих знаний студентов по теме «Системы высшего образования в России, Великобритании и США» и совершенствование навыков изучающего и ознакомительного чтения с выходом в устную речь. Методические указания также способствуют накоплению тематического словарного запаса в пределах данной темы.

Данные методические указания состоят из трех основных разделов по следующим темам:

· Система высшего образования в России;

· Система высшего образования в США;

· Система высшего образования в Великобритании.

В каждый раздел входит текст, предназначенный для изучающего чтения, ряд заданий и тренировочных упражнений для работы в аудитории. Под рубрикой «Supplementary Reading» предлагаются дополнительные тексты по теме раздела для самостоятельного чтения. Под рубрикой «Discussion Points» приводятся творческие задания, которые побуждают студентов прокомментировать прочитанные тексты, высказать свое отношение и обменяться мнением по полученной информации.

Методические указания также содержат ссылку на сайт формата Webquest, посвященный величайшим ученым и их открытиям в различных областях человеческого знания. Данный сайт можно использовать как информационно-аналитический сборник, включающий аутентичные материалы широкого спектра, что обеспечивает каждому студенту возможность личностного выбора тематики и индивидуального графика подготовки к занятиям по избранной теме.

При наличии хорошей компьютерной базы данный сайт можно использовать как ролевой проект для изучения вклада ученных в развитие науки и оценки их научных достижений, что способствует развитию аналитических, поисковых и исследовательских навыков студентов, а также навыков речевой деятельности на английском языке.

Text 1. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the general purposes of higher education?

2. Do you know if any changes have been made in the system of higher education in Russia?

3. What are the most prestigious universities in Russia?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

nomenclature

[n« Ûmenkl«tS«]

intermediate

[,Int« Ûmi:dI«t]

pursue

[p« Ûsju:]

commence

[k« Ûmens]

matriculation

[m« ,trIkju ÛleISn]

oriented

[ ۍ:rI«ntId]

3. Reading

3.1 Read the text to know more about the higher education in Russia.

Higher education in the Russian Federation

There are four types of institutions of higher education in Russia at the present time:

1. Universities : responsible for education and research in a variety of disciplines;

2. Academies : responsible for education and research. They differ from universities only in that they restrict themselves to a single discipline;

3. Institutes : multi-discipline oriented. They can be independent structural units, or part of a university or academy;

4. Private institutions : present in increasing numbers. They offer degrees in non-engineering fields such as business, culture, sociology and religion, etc.

Currently, there is a new degree structure which follows a three-level pattern and uses U.S./British nomenclature. The Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education and the successful passing of university matriculation exams are required for admission to all levels.

Level I generally lasts 2 years of study, upon completion of which students are awarded a “certificate of incomplete higher education”. Students holding a Level I qualification may either continue their studies or, if they choose not to, leave the institution with the intermediate diploma.

Level II represents the completion of “basic academic education”. Students are awarded a Bachelor’s degree upon a completion of four-year programmes in the humanities, economics and natural sciences, as well as some practical professional training.

Level III represents an educational level, common to both the Master’s degree and the Specialist diploma.

Specialist : This is a professional training programme designed for the students who choose to pursue the practical applications of their specialization. It can be earned in one of two ways:

a) upon completion of at least one year of study after the Bachelor’s degree;

b) upon completion of five years of study after the certificate of secondary complete general education. The degree grants professional qualification in engineering, teaching, economics and etc.

Master’s : This is an academic degree designed for students who wish to pursue a career in academy and research. The length of study is at least two years.

The top level of higher education is a graduate work which entails a three-year programme of study and research leading to a Candidate degree, then original research which finally leads to a Doctoral degree.

With more than 880 higher education institutions, the Russian Federation higher education system offers a broad range of study and research programmes designed to meet possible academic need on the part of students and these include:

- intermediate diploma courses;

- full Bachelor’s degree programmes (BA or BSc);

- full Master’s degree programmes (MA or MSc);

- Master’s degree programmes for graduates already holding a Bachelor’s degree;

- special full-time courses for visiting students who commenced and/or will complete their degree at a foreign higher education institution;

- doctoral programmes (PhD and DSc);

- continuing education and training programmes;

- research study programmes;

- retraining programmes;

- Specialist’s diploma programmes.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

3.2 What new facts about the Russian system of higher education have you learnt from this text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main types of higher educational establishments in Russia?

2. How many levels are there in the system of higher education in Russia? What are they responsible for?

3. What are the main requirements for the admission to the educational establishments of all levels?

4. In which case are students awarded a “certificate of incomplete higher education” or a Bachelor’s degree?

5. What does level III represent?

6. How can the Specialist diploma be earned?

7. What is the difference between Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees?

8. What are the highest degree titles in Russia?

9. What are the most common study and research programmes offered in the institutions of higher education in Russia?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The system of higher education in Russia is represented by two main types of institutions.

2. There are only few private educational establishments in Russia.

3. A new degree structure is represented by a three-level pattern.

4. Entry requirements for admission to educational institutions of all levels in Russia are different.

5. Specialist diploma is conferred after 4 years of university training.

6. The top level that can be reached in higher education is a Doctoral degree.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

учреждения высшего образования; ограничиваться отдельной дисциплиной; независимые (самостоятельные) структурные единицы; растущее число; трехуровневая модель; аттестат о полном общем среднем образовании; диплом о неполном высшем образовании; программа профессиональной подготовки; желать продолжить карьеру в … области; предусматривать трехгодичную программу обучения и исследовательской работы.

5.2 Сomplete the sentences:

1. There are … types of institutions of higher education in Russia at the present time.

2. A new degree structure follows a … pattern.

3. Upon completion of level I students are awarded …

4. Students are awarded … degree upon completion of four-year programme.

5. Level III represents an educational level common to both the Master’s degree and …

6. Specialist training programme is for the students who wish to pursue the … application of their specialization.

7. Master’s academic degree is designed for students who wish to pursue a carreer in …

8. The top level of higher education is …

Text 2. ROSTOV STATE UNIVERSITY

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the best Russian universities?

2. What is the largest university in the South of Russia?

3. What do you know about the history of Rostov University?

4. Do you know if any of the university graduates have become the outstanding figures?

5. How many students study at Rostov State University?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

imperial

[Im @pI«rI«l]

philology

[fI @ll«dZI]

medicine

[ @medsIn]

mechanics

[mI @kQnIks]

chemistry

[ @kemIstrI]

psychology

[saI @ kl«dZI]

geology

[dZI @l«dZI]

journalism

[ÛdZ«:n«lIzm]

law

[l:]

advanced

[«d @vA:nst]

applied mathematics

[« ÛplaId ,mQTI ÛmQtIks]

staff

[stA:f]

dormitory

[ @d:mItrI]

Warsaw

[ @w:s:]

respective

[rIs @pektIv]

sociology

[s«VsI @l«dZI]

preliminary

[prI @lImIn«rI]

bachelor

[ @bQtS(«)l«]

3. Reading

3.1 Read the text to know more about Rostov State University.

Rostov State University

Rostov State University is the largest center of education, science and culture in the south of Russia.

The University of Warsaw, which was evacuated to Rostov during World War I laid the foundation for Rostov State University.

The official opening of the Imperial University of Warsaw took place in Rostov on November 27, 1915, and on December 1, the academic year began in four university faculties: history and philology, medicine, law, physics and mathematics. In 1931 three university faculties were reorganized into the Medical Institute, the Teacher-Training Institute and the Institute of Economics and Finance. The rest of the university received the name of Rostov State University and started the academic year based on faculties of Physics and Mathematics, Chemistry, Geology and Botany.

At present Rostov State University is a training, research and development unit, comprising 15 faculties: Physics, Mechanics and Mathematics, Chemistry, Faculty of High Technologies, Geology and Geography, Biology and Soil, History, Law, Economics, Psychology, Philosophy and Cultural Studies, Philology and Journalism, Sociology and Political Science, Faculty of Military Studies; the Department of Regional Studies and Open Faculty.

There are 7 research institutes that of Neurocybernetics, Biology, Physics, Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Physical and Organic Chemistry, Geochemistry of Atmosphere and the Northern Caucasus Research Institute for Economic and Social Problems, the “Piezopribor” Scientific and Technology Design Office, a Computer Centre, a University Library, the University Press, an agricultural research centre including an experimental farm, the Botanic Gardens, Nikel training field centre (the republic of Adygeya), Limanchick recreation and sport camp on the Black Sea coast, and other training and auxiliary divisions.

Rostov State University takes pride in the highly qualified and experienced university team: the academic and research staff of 1225 university lecturers and 700 researchers includes 2 Full Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Associates of the Russian Academy of Education, over 70 Full Members and Associates of branch Academies and International Academies, 196 professors and 626 Candidates, 18 State Prize Winners, and 17 Honoured Scientists of the Russian Federation.

The university is currently offering courses of studies in 12 programmes and 34 majors which include those which meet the demands of present day Russian society: Social Work, Sociology, Romance-Germanic Philology, Anticrisis Management, Bioecology, Geoecology, World Economics, Regional Studies, etc. Specialized Scientific Boards are fully accredited to award Candidate and Doctoral degrees in 30 specializations.

The gradual and complicated shift to a market economy requires an updating of the university curricula, education and training services. This has resulted in the introduction of new education technologies (problem education, modular education, discipline-oriented cycles, etc.) and a transfer to a multi-level system of delivering education and training.

There is also a “University-School” association within the framework of the university structure, operating since 1990. It is designed for both educational and training purposes and embraces university faculties, inter-faculty departments (delivering training and educational services to all the faculties), 2 secondary schools and 3 lycees affiliated with Rostov State Classical Lycee.

A total of over 100 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at Rostov State University. Many of them have become outstanding figures in their respective fields.

Rostov State University is traditionally known for its scholars’ contribution to research in various sciences. Their achievements are especially evident in the field of analysis and synthesis of certain organic compounds, electronic and spatial composition of molecular structures, development of new highly effective ferroelectric materials and their production technologies, non-distracting methods of control, theoretical and applied problems of mechanical engineering, fundamental and applied problems of brain cybernetics, problems of artificial intellect, automatized medical and biological systems.

International activities in Rostov State University are aimed at developing partnership relations with international institutions of higher education. The university offers courses of undergraduate studies for international students and programs for international trainees. Programs are also available for advanced postgraduate studies (for Candidate and Doctoral degrees). Rostov State University is also active in developing international research collaboration and academic exchange programs for students, researchers and academic staff.

The university has established close contacts with nearly 50 international institutions of higher education, as well as organizations representing more than 20 countries of the world, including the USA, Germany, Great Britain, France, Canada, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Israel, China, Bulgaria, Poland and others.

The university has 6 buildings and 8 dormitories. There are currently about 10.000 students at Rostov State University.

The course of studies at the university is split into 4-6 academic years for full-time and part-time students.

The academic year is divided into 2 semesters. At the end of each semester students take preliminary tests, semester or final exams. The students have to submit their graduation thesis papers at the end of the course of studies. In addition to this some faculties require students to write term papers in the course of the academic year.

The established curriculum includes special subjects, social and natural sciences and foreign languages. During the academic year the students are given lectures on certain compulsory and optional courses in different subjects. The students attend classes scheduled in the time-table.

After graduating from the university, the graduates receive Bachelor’s degrees if they complete a four-year programme and Master’s Degrees if they successfully complete a six-year programme, those who take a five-year course receive Diplomas of higher education. Upon completion of the required three-year courses, based on research and the writing of a dissertation, Candidate degrees and Doctorate are conferred.

3.2 What new facts about Rostov State University have you learnt from the text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

1. When was Rostov State University founded?

2. How many faculties are there at the university?

3. What do you know about research institutes?

4. What specializations are the students trained in?

5. How many buildings does the university have?

6. How many students are there at the university?

7. There are 95 departments at the university, aren’t there?

8. How long does the course of studies at the university last?

9. Is the academic year divided into 3 semesters as it is in the British universities?

10. What degrees are conferred after graduating from the university?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Warsaw University was evacuated to Rostov in 1917.

2. At first there were only five faculties at Rostov State University.

3. At present Rostov State University consists of 10 faculties.

4. The teaching staff of the university has high scientific and academic potential.

5. The university students are trained in 20 specializations.

6. Rostov State University is known for its scholars’ contribution to research in various sciences.

7. International activities in Rostov State Universities do not include post-graduate training of international students.

8. A total of 50 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at RSU.

9. Attendance of classes is compulsory and in accordance with the faculty time-table.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give equivalents of the following Russian words and word combinations:

быть основанным; эвакуировать; обеспечивать; исследовательский институт; преподавательский состав; научный потенциал; Академия наук; специализация; общежитие; выдающаяся личность; соответствующая область (науки); кафедра; курс обучения; учебный год; зачет; итоговый экзамен; получать степень бакалавра; степень магистра; диплом о высшем образовании; выпускник.

5.2 Match the parts of the sentences:

1. Rostov State University is the largest center of

a) in establishing Rostov Innovation and Technology centre.

2. Warsaw University was evacuated to Rostov in

b) outstanding figures in their respective fields.

3. The university students are trained

c) preliminary tests and semester exams.

4. The university also heads the program

d) Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees.

5. Many of the university graduates have become

e) 1915 ( during World War I )

6. There are currently about 10000 students

f) scheduled in the time-table.

7. At the end of each semester the students take

g) education, science and culture in the south of Russia.

8. The students attend classes

h) at Rostov State University.

9. After graduating from the university the graduates receive

i) in 26 specializations.

5.3 Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations from the text:

1. The official opening of the Imperial University … … in Rostov in November 1915.

2. At present Rostov State University is an … and … unit.

3. There are currently 1225 … at the university.

4. Rostov State University is known for its scholars … to research in various sciences.

5. Their successes are especially … in various fields.

6. The university has 6 … and 8 … .

7. 46 university departments … … by a professor or a Doctor of Science.

8. The students have to … their graduation paper at the end of the course of studies.

5.4 Complete the sentences:

1. Rostov State University is the largest center of …

2. The Imperial University of Warsaw was evacuated to …

3. In 1915 the academic year began in …

4. The teaching staff of Rostov State University has …

5. The university students are trained in …

6. Many of the university graduates have become …

7. The course of studies at the university is split into …

8. The academic year is divided into …

9. After graduating from the university, the graduates …

10. The university curriculum includes …

6. Supplementary reading

6.1 Read the text to know more about the history of Rostov State University.

From Warsaw to Rostov

The foundation and the growth of the university (1915-1930)

The Imperial University of Warsaw was founded in October, 1869 on the basis of Warsaw Principal School. There were originally four faculties: the Faculty of History and Philology, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics with departments of natural sciences and mathematics.

In the 19th century Warsaw University was staffed with outstanding scientists in Mechanics and Mathematics of the time.

During World War I, the German Army approached Warsaw in 1915. Thus the university was urgently evacuated to Moscow and the problem of its further location was discussed. The best conditions for the university location were offered by the city of Rostov-on-Don, which had no higher education establishments at that time. The only institute in the whole Don Cossacks region was the Polytechnic Institute at Novocherkassk founded in 1907.

The authorities and community of Rostov were enthusiastic about the university relocation. Works had begun with the urgent reconstruction of about 10 buildings given to the university. The university was solemnly opened on November 27. Classes in all four faculties began on December 1, 1915.

The relocation of the university played a great cultural and educational role in the life of Rostov region. The professors and tutors took an active part in different programs specifically concerned with improving the role of education. They were lecturing in Rostov, Novocherkassk, Taganrog. As a result of this activity, the Woman’s High Courses were reopened, the National University was founded. Science Societies of the university were renewed and a lot of citizens of Rostov were involved into their work. The “University News” newspaper had been regularly published since 1916.

At the beginning of 1917, it became clear that it was impossible for the university to return to Warsaw. By that time almost all the university equipment was created anew in Rostov.

In May, 1917 the Provisional Government of Russia reorganized the Imperial University of Warsaw into the Don University, which in 1929 was renamed the North Caucasus University. The major strategy of the university since its foundation has always been an integration of research university into science and education. In 1926 the first three research institutions were set up under the auspices of the university: the Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, the Institute of Local Economy and the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

In 1931 three university faculties were reorganized into the Medical Institute, the Teacher-Training Institute and the Institute of Economics and Finance. The rest of the University received the name Rostov State University and started the academic year at the constituent faculties of physics and mathematics, chemistry, geology and botany. By the end of the 1930s the faculty of geology and botany was subdivided into the faculty of geology and soil, and the faculty of geography. The university structure at the same time included the Botanical Gardens and the Research Institute of Biology.

The continuing development of Rostov State University was interrupted by World War II, as 66 university staff members and over 600 students joined the front lines during the first months of the war. In the summer of 1942 the University was transferred to Kirgizia (the city of Osh) but moved back to a devastated Rostov in 1944. it only took the University team 5 years to reach the pre-war level of education, training and research (and even to surpass it in some aspects).

The late 1960s and early 1970s witnessed the formation of the present-day university structure. In 1965 a new faculty of economics and philosophy was founded, while the faculty of history and philology split into the faculty of history and that of philology. In 1970 the Research Institute of Physics was founded, followed by the Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry and the Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics in 1971. The Research Institute of Neurocybernetics was started in 1972.

The last decade of the 20th century was a difficult period for the whole of the country politically, socially and economically. Rostov State University survived and went on gaining strength as a classical university.

6.2 Read the text to know more about the outstanding graduates of Rostov State University.

A total of over 110 thousand university graduates have completed their course of studies at Rostov State University. Many of them have become outstanding figures in their respective fields. Alumni include academician V.I. Minkin, the current director of the Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry; Academician G.G. Mateshov, director of the Research Institute of Marine Biology (Murmansk, Russia); Academician V.A. Babeshko, rector of Kuban State University (Krasnodar, Russia); writer A.S. Solzhenitsin; Chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court M.V. Baglay; member of the Russian Constitutional Court Prof. N.S. Bondar; the former Russian High Ambassador to Israel, A.E. Bovin; former chairman of the Central Editorial Committee of the Russian Federation and current Russian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, N.G. Ryabov; professor E.G. Fesenko, USSR State Prize Winner; politician S.M. Shakhray, an aid in the Russian President’s Administration; V.A. Starkov, editor-in-chief of the national weekly “Arguments and Facts”; D. Dibrov, popular NTV anchorman; writer Daniel Koretsky; first Deputy of the Home Affairs Minister, V.V. Kolesnikov; rector of Rostov State Teacher-Training University, A.A. Grekov, and others.

The division for postgraduate studies and training is very effective in training highly qualified staff. It offers advanced courses of postgraduate studies (leading to Candidates degrees and Doctoral degrees), delivers programs for trainees, for retraining and advanced studies, as well as for those writing a thesis to qualify for a Doctoral degree.

At Rostov State University there are 22 fully accredited Boards awarding advanced degrees (10 for Doctoral degrees, 12 for Candidates).

The Institute of Retraining and Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences for Academics was founded under Rostov State University by the decision of the Russian Government, and is the largest center of training, research and methods in South Russia, with 19 Doctors of Science and 10 Candidates working on the staff. The institute offers programs of professional studies in the following disciplines: history, philosophy, culture studies, economic theory, political science, sociology, psychology, social work and law. Integrated regional research projects are carried out at the Institute. It also offers programmes of postgraduate studies. The Department of Regional Studies trains analysts, consultants and aides specializing in the problems of the Caucasus area.

The academic research library is an important part of the University structure. It is the largest library in the south of Russia uniting the libraries of other universities in the North Caucasus. It is a member of the Russian Library Association and a member of the Regional Consortium of Libraries. The library has seven lending departments and six reading halls attended by over 800 thousand readers annually. The library facilities and its nearly 3-mln inventory provide an excellent opportunity for research and studies. It has a unique collection of rare volumes including west European editions dating from the 16th – 17th centuries, a collection of books of traditional Cyrillic type of the 17th century and Russian books of the 19th century.

6.3 Read the text to know more about research divisions of the university.

Both the academic and research divisions of the university are involved in fundamental and applied research in arts, sciences and social sciences, focusing on finding solutions to long-term problems.

The A.B. Kogan Research Institute of Neurocybernetics was founded in 1971. The institute comprises 4 departments and 10 laboratories, with 61 researchers on the staff including 7 Doctors and 34 Candidates of Science. The main research areas are: neurobiology (the study of the physiological, morphological and behavioral mechanisms of neuron systems operation); neuroinformatics (the development of principles and devices for managing and processing information in natural neuron systems); psychophysiology (the study of the nerve mechanisms of human and animal brain formation); biomedical engineering (the development of software-hardware complexes for medical-biological and psychophysiological purposes). The area of research ranges from molecular and cell level processes through the organization of neuron ensembles and brain subsystems to the integrated functions of the nervous system, as well as applications in medicine and equipment. The Research Institute of Neurocybernetics has set up a department of biophysics and biocybernetics in cooperation with the Faculty of Physics. Both undergraduates and graduates have equal opportunity to major at the department. The institute offers postgraduate programs in 3 majors.

The Research Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry was founded in 1971. There are 198 researchers on the staff including 20 Doctors of Science and 104 Candidates. The main areas of research are: synthesis and study of photochemically active species applied to the system of information recording and energy conversion; the study of synthesis, structure and reactivity of organic natural coordination compounds used to simulate biologically important processes and objects; purpose-specified synthesis, and integrated study of synthetic and modified natural physiologically active substances focused on the development of new specific drugs; search and study of effective organic photo-chromium and luminescent compounds.

The Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics was founded in 1971. There are 205 employees on the staff, including 12 Doctors of Science and 57 Candidates. The major area of research are: mechanics of deformable solids, strength and fracture; mathematical processes of continuum mechanics; mathematical modelling of environmental-economic systems; mathematical models of thin-walled structures; development of new construction materials utilizing industrial wastes and resource-saving technologies for erecting bearing structures; analysis, production processes and applications of piezoactive composite materials in ultrasonic devices; and the development of power-efficient gearings. Since 1971 the researchers of the institute have been awarded 2 National State Prizes, they have published 64 monographs and taken out 65 patents, including 18 in foreign countries. International projects within the framework of the INTAS, GLOBE, NATO, and CRDF programs have been completed and new projects are currently under way. Academician Iosif I. Vorovich, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Science, has been the director of the institute since its foundation.

The Research Institute of Physics was founded in 1970 through the reorganization of the research institute of physics and mathematics, which had functioned at Rostov State University since 1936. The institute staff of 314 includes 16 Doctors of Science and 83 Candidates. The main research areas are: X-ray and electronic spectroscopy; atomic and electronic structure of solids; physics of ferroelectric and ferropiezoelectric materials; non-linear physics; theoretical and experimental research into phase transitions in crystals; physical astronomy; cosmology; physics of circumferential space; chronobiology. The institute designs and manufactures piezoelectric transducers and gauges, equipment for ultrasonic medical diagnostics, active and passive UHF devices, metallic vapour lasers, and complex analytic equipment and instruments (Messbauer spectrometers, X-ray spectroscopic equipment, etc.).

The Research Institute of Biology was founded in 1936. There are 85 researchers on the staff, including 2 Doctors and 43 Candidates of Science. The major research areas are: study of molecular and genetic mechanisms controlling metabolism under normal, extreme and pathological conditions; development of genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods of estimating organism conditions; forecasting individuals response to the effect of extreme environment factors; techniques of somatic hybridization aimed at obtaining plastid-chlorophyll and stress-resistant mutations of higher plants and their improvement by selection; techniques of increased production and rational management of natural resources for a more efficient use in the national economy; the monitoring of soils fertility; and the monitoring of the Don river water shed, the Tzimlyansk Reservoir, and the Sea of Azov.

The Institute of Biosphere Geochemistry was founded in 1991. The staff of 38 includes 1 Doctor and 1 Candidate of Science. The main areas of research are: environmental protection and rational nature management; migration and concentration of chemical elements in natural and technogenic landscapes; forecasting and mineral resources prospecting by means of geochemical techniques; and the accumulation problems in various landscapes under various geochemical conditions. During the 9 years of its operation the researchers of the Institute have made two scientific discoveries. These were colloborated by the International Association of the Authors of Scientific Discoveries. 8 monographs and manuals have been published, and research is being done within the framework of both Russian and foreign grants (CRDF inclusive).

7. Discussion Points

7.1 What new information have you learnt about higher education in Russia? About Rostov State University?

7.2 Work in groups of 3 - 4. Find information about one of the departments at your faculty and prepare a poster presentation of it. Include the following topics:

- history of the faculty;

- prominent scientists and teachers working at the department, famous graduates;

- scientific research carried out by the department fellows.

7.2 Comment on the statements

1. Warsaw University served the basis for Rostov State University.

2. At present Rostov State University is an educational, scientific and production unit.

3. Rostov State University is a large scientific centre.

4. The teaching staff of the university has high scientific and academic potential.

5. The University offers good education opportunities.

6. The degree structure in the Russian system of higher education follows the US and the UK pattern.

SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. Do you think that studying abroad is a good idea? Why?

2. Would you like to study abroad?

3. Which institution of higher education would you choose to study at?

4. Do you have any friends who study abroad? Do they like it?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

collegiate [k« @li:dZIIt]

sophomore [ @sf«m:]

admission [«d @mIS(«)n]

senior [ @si:nj«]

criteria [kraI @tI«rI«]

survey [ @s«:veI]

scholastic [sk« @lQstIk]

average [ @Qv(«)rIdZ]

standardize [ÛstQnd«daIz]

determined [dI @t«:mInd]

essay [ÛeseI]

failure [ @feIlj«]

overwhelming [«Vv« @welmIN]

trustee [trÃs @ti:]

adequete [ÛQdIkwIt]

3. Reading

1.1 Read the text to know more about the system of higher education in the United States.

Higher Education in the United States

There is no national system of higher education in the United States. Basically, American higher education developed its own pattern by the adaptation of two traditions: the collegiate tradition of England and the university tradition of the continent.

In the USA there is no consistent distinction between the terms “college” and “university”. The general tendency, however, is to call a college a higher educational institution offering courses of instruction leading to the Bachelor’s degree; a university is a college or a group of colleges or departments offering courses of institution leading not only to the Bachelor’s degree but also to the Master’s and the Doctoral degrees.

There are two types of universities and colleges in the United States -private and public (state). High quality institutions are found equally among public and private universities. The principal difference is funding.

State universities fall into two categories: Research universities and Land Grant and Sea Grant universities. State Research Universities in addition to offering undergraduate education stress research as well as teaching. Land Grant and Sea Grant Universities provide a broad general education in many fields and emphasize the application of knowledge in such fields as agriculture and engineering.

The cost of going to the University in the USA is at least several thousand dollars a year and can exceed $ 20.000 a year at many private colleges and universities, and amounts to $2.000-10.000 at state schools. But it is an investment that will reward you all of your life.

Admission to colleges and universities is based on several criteria, including the results of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). It is an examination in school subjects that high school students must take before they can go to college or university. SAT results tell only the part of the story. Most schools will also ask for personal information; a transcript of high school grades; a Standardized Freshman Application Form; teachers’ recommendations; essays in various topics.

The admission process is complex, no single factor carries overwhelming weight and the final decision is based on many factors, both academic and non-academic. The three basic requirements for admission to educational institution in the US are: a strong academic background, adequate financial resources and a command of the English language.

A Bachelor’s degree program lasts four years. Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors. A freshman is a first-year student, a sophomore – a second-year student, a junior – a third-year student, and a senior – a forth-year student. A student working toward a Bachelor’s degree (BA or BS) is called an undergraduate; one working toward a Master’s (MA or MS) or Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD) is called a graduate student. Some students receive scholarships that pay all or part of their tuition. A person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.

The first two years are mainly devoted to general education. The program includes broad survey courses for general knowledge from which the student can go on to a specialized interest in the junior year. This interest is usually termed a “major” or a “field of concentration”. A second field of interest, in which one takes almost as many courses, is often called a “minor”.

The American academic year usually runs from the middle of August to the beginning of May or June. Most schools divide the academic year into 3 terms or 2 semesters (Fall and Spring semesters). Achievement is measured by grades which are given on papers and tests during the course of the semester and a final examination at the end of the term. The final grade is based on all the work done for the course.

A grade point average (GPA) is determined at the end of a term to show the student’s overall achievement. College grades, determined by each instructor on the basis of class work and examinations, are usually on a four-point scale, with letters to indicate the level of achievement. “A” is the highest mark, followed by “B”, “C”, “D”, “F”, the last one denotes a failure. This system is unlike that of most European countries.

Higher education institutions are governed usually by a board of regents or a board of trustees.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

3.2 What new facts about American Universities have you learnt from the text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the pattern of higher education in the USA?

2. What is the difference between a college and a university?

3. What difference can be found between private and public universities?

4. What are the entry requirements at institutions of higher education in the USA? Are they complex?

5. Does the cost of study vary among higher educational institutions?

6. What are the highest degree titles at American Universities?

7. What is the student’s major? Minor?

8. When does the American academic year start? How long does it last?

9. How is the student’s progress evaluated? What is a grade point average?

10. Who runs the educational institutions in the USA?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. American higher education system is unique.

2. Practically there is no difference between the terms “college” and “university”.

3. Both Land Grant and Sea Grant universities concentrate on research as well as teaching.

4. Studying at American educational institutions is free.

5. Only SAT results are required for admission.

6. The program for obtaining Bachelor’s degree lasts more than 4 years.

7. Examinations are usually held in writing.

8. The system of assessment is similar to that in most European countries.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

четкое различие; уделять внимание как обучению, так и исследовательской работе; государственные и частные университеты; зачисление; копия аттестата; стандартный бланк заявления; хорошая учебная подготовка; владение английским языком; программа обучения для получения степени бакалавра; ученая степень магистра; главная специализация; дополнительная (вторичная) специализация.

5.2 Match words in the left column with their definitions:

1. Degree

a) A person who has completed a four-year-course of study at a higher school, and now attends a college or University, but hasn’t yet received a degree.

2. Graduate

b) The subject or area of studies in which students concentrate.

3. Full-time student

c) One who is enrolled in an institution and is taking a full load of courses.

4. Major

d) A student who has completed a course of study either at the higher school or college level.

5. Junior

e) A third-year-student at a higher school.

6. Master’s degree

f) Diploma or title conferred by a college, university or professional school upon completion of a prescribed program of studies.

7. Sophomore

g) A second-year-student at a higher school, colleges, university.

8. Undergraduate

h) Degree conferred by an institution of higher learning after students complete academic requirements which usually include a minimum of one-year study beyond the Bachelor’s degree.

5.3 Complete the sentences:

1. The pattern of American Higher Education system was developed by …

2. There are two types of universities and colleges in the United States: …

3. Admission to the university is based on …

4. The academic year is divided into …

5. A Bachelor’s degree program lasts …

6. The first two years are devoted to …

7. Achievement is measured by …

8. Higher Educational institutions are governed by …

6. Supplementary reading

6.1. Read the text to know more about Private and State Colleges and Universities.

Private and State Colleges and Universities

Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing a literature ministry for colonial churches. It was a small institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon became more than a theological training school and established itself as a liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established in the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students entered at the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in nature.

Private colleges and universities were established in various states. The first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some state universities have large endowment funds which provide a substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student fees, gifts and endowments.

In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program, on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division (which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years, and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

6.2 Read the text to know more about higher educational institutions in the USA.

Higher Educational Institutions

It has become common for the college programme to be divided into broad fields, such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences and mathematics, and the fine arts. Many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields. Certain courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with some election permitted in the other fields.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which make up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional schools which may be part of a university or may be separated institutions which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

6.3 Read the text to know more about the honor code.

The Honor Code

Most colleges and universities in the United States have established “honor codes”, that is, statements of certain rules students are expected to follow in their academic work. These rules relate primarily to academic honesty and originality, as they are defined by U.S. educational institutions. As such, many foreign students have discovered that U.S. academic rules are more different than the ones they followed at home.

U.S. educational institutions take these rules very seriously, and ignorance of the rules is not usually accepted as an excuse. Nor is the fact that a particular academic practice that is accepted in your country, or that is part of your culture, will be an acceptable explanation for violating the rules at a U.S. college or university.

Cheating is a failure of honesty. In U.S. colleges and universities, cheating means getting unauthorized help on an assignment, quiz or examination. You must not receive from any other student – nor give to any other student any information, answers or help during an examination or any other kind of test. You must not use unauthorized sources for answers during an examination. You must not take notes or books to the examination if this is forbidden, and you must not refer to any book or notes while you are taking the test. You also must not obtain test questions before a test.

Generally, there are no elaborate systems - such as monitors - to prevent cheating during examinations. However, professors and fellow students are very sensitive to indications that a person may be cheating. Sometimes students who speak a foreign language are perceived by others to be cheating, even though they may simply be asking a fellow student in their native language, for a piece of paper or an eraser. You should be aware of this and try to avoid suspicion.

Another form of cheating is “plagiarism”. Plagiarism is a failure to do your own original work in written assignments. Instead, you use someone else’s words or ideas as though they were your own. Plagiarism is considered literary “theft” and is not tolerated in academic work.

Following the honor code is the responsibility of each student. Students found guilty of violating the honor code by cheating on exams or plagiarizing other writers are subject to severe penalties.

Important note: If you are found to be plagiarizing or cheating on an exam, even for the first time:

You will almost certainly receive an “F” (failing grade) for the assignment;

You will probably receive an “F” for the entire course; and

You may be expelled from your school.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

6.4 Read the text to know more about adult and continuing education.

Adult and Continuing Education

The concept of continuing (or lifelong) education is of great importance to Americans. Every year, over 20 million Americans (that is, about ten percent of all adults) further their education through participation in part-time instruction. Some estimates that as many as 45 million adult Americans are currently taking courses in universities, colleges, professional associations, government organizations or even churches and synagogues. Most participants in continuing or adult education have a practical goal: they want to update and upgrade their job skills. As a result of economic changes and the rapid advance of the “information age”, the necessity to acquire new occupation skills has increased. Adult education thus fills a need of many Americans who want to improve their chances in a changing job market. This is one explanation for the continuing growth of adult education classes over the past several years. Of course, not all people who take courses in adult education do this for job-related purposes. Many simply want to broaden their knowledge or learn something they would enjoy doing, such as print-making, dancing, or photography.

Continuing education courses are provided mainly by community or junior colleges and mostly take place in the evening. The types of courses range from hobby and recreational activities to highly specialized technical skills. Courses in business, health care and health science, engineering, and education are most popular. While some 50 per cent of all people in adult education were enrolled in programs sponsored by educational institutions, about 15 per cent were sponsored by business and industry. Over 80 per cent of all companies today conduct their own training programs. Many large corporations offer complete degree programs, and some even support their own technical and business colleges and universities. Recently close to 6 million students were enrolled in industry-sponsored degree programs. It is estimated that some 8 million Americans are involved in corporate education of some kind.

7. Discussion Points

7.1 What new information have you learnt about higher education in the USA? American colleges and universities?

7.2 In groups of three discuss the difference between the educational systems in Russia and the USA:

· How do American universities differ from universities in your country?

· What is the admission process in American university and in this country?

· The general pattern of learning at American university has its peculiarities. What do you like and dislike? How does it differ from that in your country?

· What degrees are conferred by universities in Russia and the USA?

· Do you like the idea of “the honor code” at American universities? Why/Why not?

7.3 Comment on the statements:

1. American universities really provide good education.

2. American universities are unique because they follow two traditions.

3. The process of admission is complex.

4. Some American universities have long and interesting history.

5. The Honor Code is an important factor of education process.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK

1. Before you start

1.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What do you know about higher education in Great Britain?

2. What British universities do you know?

3. Have you ever been to any university in Great Britain?

4. What are the oldest universities in Great Britain?

5. Do you know any peculiarities of studying at British universities?

2. Pronunciation

2.1 Read and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

polytechnic

[plI @teknIk]

specialized

[ @speS«laIzd]

requirements

[rI @kwaI«m«nts]

measure

[ @meZ«]

thesis

[ @Ti:sIs]

variety

[v« @rai«tI]

focus

[ @f«Vk«s]

campus

[ @kQmp«s]

accommodation

[«km« @deIS(«)n]

3. Reading

3.1 Read the text to know more about higher education in the UK

Higher Education in the United Kingdom

There are many academic institutions in the U.K. that make up the system of higher education.

The universities have traditionally been regarded as centres of academic learning, in contrast to polytechnics, which have focused on vocational (work-related) education. However, this distinction has gradually disappeared. Nowadays both types of institutions run similar courses to equally high academic standards.

You can also study at degree level at colleges of higher education. These institutions are generally smaller than universities, and tend to concentrate on more specialized fields of study, such as education, art and design, music and drama.

Each UK university and college has its own identity and traditions. There may be campus and non-campus universities. In a campus university the accommodation, libraries, lecture theaters and seminar rooms are concentrated in one area of the town or city. At a non-campus university or college, the departments and facilities are spread out across a wider area.

Entry to the institutions of higher education is by selection, usually based on examination grades, and is competitive in most subjects. The most common requirements for entry into establishments of higher education are General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and A-levels.

The general pattern of teaching and learning on full-time courses of higher education is a mixture of lectures, seminars and tutorials, essays, exercises and tests.

A lecture is given to a large group of students. It is a talk on a certain topic of study which lasts about an hour. The titles of lectures are usually available at the beginning of each term, so that students have a chance to find out about the subject before the lecture. Seminars usually consist of a group discussion of ideas and opinions about a particular field of study. Once or twice a term, students will have a tutorial. This means that they see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress.

Each university and department has its own method of assessment. Most universities and colleges still use some form of written examinations. These can last up to three hours. Students have to answer three or four questions in an essay form. In general, progress is measured through a combination of course work, dissertation and final examinations.

When they first arrive at college, first year university students are called “freshers”. Often freshers live in a Hall of Residence or near the college campus. They may move out into a rented room in their second or third year, or share a house with friends.

Traditionally, the academic year is split into three terms – autumn (late September/early October to mid December), spring (January to late March/early April) and summer (April to mid July). The year begins with Freshers’ Week – a week of music, entertainment and activities designed to introduce new students to student life.

The first degree titles are Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science (BS). First degree courses are called undergraduate courses. Many students wish to enhance their first degree with further study in a particular vocational or professional area. In Britain there are thousands of postgraduate courses.

A great number of courses are taught at Master degree level. The title of the degree may change depending on the subject studied. The most common are MA (Master of Arts), MS (Master of Science), MBA (Master of Business Administration) and others. These courses normally last for a full calendar year and include coursework (lectures, seminars, tutorials). The postgraduate student may be asked to complete a project or carry out research work in order to produce thesis or dissertation. If you wish to study for a doctorate, the master’s degree will be an entry requirement in most universities and colleges. Doctoral degrees are awarded for original research, followed by a presentation and defense of a thesis. People can take PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) degree in both arts and science subjects. A doctorate can take four years or more to complete.

For seven hundred years Oxford and Cambridge Universities dominated the British education. Oxford has 38 ordinary colleges for men, 1 for women. Each college has a dining-hall, a chapel and residential rooms. At the beginning of each term (there are three terms in the Oxford academic year) a list is published showing all the lectures being given during the term within each faculty. Every student can choose which lectures he will attend. Attendance at lectures is not compulsory.

Cambridge University has more than 30 colleges today. The oldest of them is Peterhouse which was founded in 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College which was opened in 1977. The University was exclusively for men until 1871 when the first woman’s college was opened. Almost all colleges are mixed now, they open their doors to both men and women.

Scotland had four universities, all founded before AD 1600 (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews). Wales only acquired a university in the twentieth century. The first English university after Oxford and Cambridge (sometimes referred to as Oxbridge) was Durham, founded in 1832. The University of London was founded a few years later in 1836. During the nineteenth century institutions of higher education were founded in most of the biggest industrial towns, like Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield (sometimes called the Redbrick Universities).

In 1967 the Open University was set up. As the university is truly “open”, there are no formal entry requirements. Students are accepted on a “first come, first served” basis. Most of the students work at home or in full-time jobs and can study only in their free time. The students are of all ages and come from very different backgrounds. Some, such as teachers, want to improve their qualifications. Others, like retired people or mothers whose families have grown up, are at the Open University because they now have time to do something they have always wanted to do.

So, the variety of educational opportunities in the UK is enormous.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

3.2 What new facts have you learnt from the text?

4. Comprehension check

4.1 Answer the following questions:

1. What used to be the difference between universities and polytechnics?

2. What differences can be seen between universities and colleges of higher education?

3. How can you define a campus/non-campus university?

4. What are the most common requirements to higher education?

5. What is a tutorial?

6. What are the forms and methods of assessment in most universities?

7. What parts is the academic year traditionally divided into?

8. What is the traditional beginning of the academic year?

9. How are the first degree courses called?

10. How can students enhance their first degree?

11. What kinds of study work do the courses for master's degree include?

12. What is a doctoral degree awarded for?

13. How many colleges does Oxford University include?

14. What kinds of colleges are there in Cambridge University?

15. What universities were there in Scotland in the 16th century?

16. When was the first university of London founded?

17. What institutions of higher education were opened in the 19th century?

18. When was the Open University set up?

19. Why is the university called "The Open University"?

4.2 Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. There is a certain distinction between universities and polytechnics.

2. Colleges of higher education train students in a specialized field of study.

3. Entry to universities is based on competition.

4. Students know the titles of the lectures at the beginning of the term.

5. Tutorial is a group discussion of ideas.

6. Assessment is based on course work, dissertation and final examinations.

7. Freshers tend to live in a rented room.

8. The UK academic year starts with entertaining week.

9. There are three degree titles in the UK universities.

10. PhD is awarded in philosophy.

11. Cambridge University used to be for men only.

12. The Open University has no entry requirements.

5. Vocabulary

5.1 Give English equivalents of the following Russian words and word combinations:

высшее образование; классическое/теоретическое обучение; профессионально направленное обучение; территория университетского городка; условия поступления, приема; научное исследование; методика оценки знаний; курсовая работа; дипломная работа, проект; научная степень; жилье, место для проживания; общежитие (университетское); подготовить проектную работу; выполнить какое-либо исследование; представление и защита диссертации, посещение лекций, повысить квалификацию.

5.2 Complete the sentences. Choose the right word from the list of words suggested below.

1. The variety of academic institutions in the UK makes up the system of…

2. The universities have always been centres of…, while polytechnics used to focus on…

3. GCSE and A-levels are the most common…into higher education.

4. In a… university all the buildings are situated in one area of the city.

5. Each university uses its own…

6. In the course of studies students write…

7. Usually first-year students live in a…

8. The most common first degree… are BA and BS.

9. A lot of students want to…their first degree.

10. The postgraduate student carries out…

method of assessment; requirements for entry; higher education; research work; Hall of residence; vocational education; campus; academic education; titles; enhance.

6. Supplementary reading

6.1 Read the text to know more about Cambridge.

Cambridge

Yet Cambridge was important long before the University existed. Here, at the meeting of dense forests to the south and trackless, marshy Fens to the north, was the lowest reliable fording place of the River Cam, or Granta. In the first century BC an Iron Age Belgic tribe built a settlement on what is now Castle Hill. Around AD40 the Romans took over the site and it became the crossing point for the Via Devana which linked Colchester with the legions in Lincoln and beyond. The Saxons followed, then the Normans under William the Conqueror, who raised a castle on a steep mound as a base for fighting the Saxon rebel, Hereward the Wake, deep in the Fens at Ely. The motte of William's castle still stands and Ely Cathedral is visible from the top on a clear day.

The first scholars didn't arrive in Cambridge until 1209 and another 75 years passed before Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, the first college. Clare (1326), Pembroke (1347), Gonville and Caius (1348), Trinity Hall (1350) and Corpus Christi (1352) were established in the first half of the fourteenth century. Ten more colleges were founded during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, including Christ's (1505), King's (1441), Queens' (1448), Jesus (1496), St. John's (1511), Trinity (1546), and Emmanuel (1584).

Henry VI took nearly a quarter of the medieval city for King's College; Henry VIII united two existing colleges to make Trinity grand enough to rival Christ Church in the “Other Place”. Women didn't have a proper college until Girton (founded in 1869) opened in 1873. There are now thirty one colleges; the latest is Robinson College founded in 1977 by a local millionaire.

The colleges contain the great architectural treasures of Cambridge. Founded not by remote bureaucrats, but by kings, queens (Queens' was founded by two queens), bishops, nobles, guilds and rich widows, they attracted powerful patrons and large endowments of land and money. Such wealth, plus natural discrimination, led the colleges to use the best architects – whether unknown Tudor masons, Sir Christopher Wren or Powell and Moya – to create beautiful buildings that reflect perfectly 700 years of British architectural heritage. It is a heritage symbolised by the soaring windows and fan vaults of King's College Chapel.

As the colleges grew so too did the University with its own fine buildings: the Old Schools (1350), the Senate House (1722-30), The Pitt Press (1833), and the University Library (1934). The Fitzwilliam Museum (started in 1834) is only the grandest and most renowned of several excellent University museums.

And the wheel of change continues to turn: Cambridge is no longer a sleepy university cum market town. It is a bustling city of over 109,000 people in the vanguard of the high-technology revolution. It is a city with many good shops (the extraordinary variety and quality of the bookshops is a debt undoubtedly owed to the University), international conferences, and exciting festivals each summer.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

6.2 Read the text to know more about the Open University.

The Open University

The university that calls itself "the Open University" suggests that all other universities are closed. And this is true, because they are closed to everyone who does not have the time, the opportunity or the qualifications to study there. For these people, who missed the chance of going to a conventional university, "the Open University" was set up in 1967.

Most of its students work at home or in full-time jobs and can study only in their free time. They need to study about ten hours a week. As the university is truly "open", there are no formal entry requirements (none of the usual "A" Level examinations are asked for), and students are accepted on a "first come, first served" basis. This is one of the most revolutionary aspects of the university.

Its students are therefore of all ages and come from very different backgrounds. Some, such as teachers, want to improve their qualifications. Others, like retired people or mothers whose families have grown up, are at the Open University because they now have time to do something they have always wanted to do.

Returning to "school" is difficult for most students, for they have forgotten - or never knew - how to study, to write essays, and to prepare for exams. In addition to all the reading and writing assignments, students have got a lot of watching and listening to do, for there are weekly O.U. lectures broadcast on BBC television and radio.

To keep people from just giving up or collapsing under all of this work, each student gets the help and support of his own tutor/counsellor, whom he meets regularly and can telephone in any crisis or difficulty. At the meeting, students get to know other students on the course and join with them into "self-help" groups. These groups meet in each other's homes to discuss the texts and assignments; here too they find support and stimulation.

As an "Open University" student, the nearest you get to ordinary university life is at the summer schools, which you must attend in the first year. You spend a week at a college or university, taking courses, having discussions, and working hard in an exciting atmosphere. They discover that they have begun to master the skills and discipline of university study.

By the time the exams come in October, you feel much more confident and optimistic about your return to student life. Your final mark is based on the exam and the written assignments done during the year. If you pass - and most people do - you have gone one credit towards the six that you need for a degree. At the usual rate of a course a year, it will take you six (or eight) years to get your degree.

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

6.3 Read the text to know more about Oxford University.

An Ancient University in the modern world

"The University and City of Oxford are seated on fine rising ground in the midst of a pleasant and fruitful valley… The city is adorned with so many towers, spires and pinnacles, and the sides of the neighbouring hills so sprinkled with trees and villas that scarce any place equals the prospect". Thus wrote John Aycliffe at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the visitor to Oxford who arrives by train today can see the same spires and pinnacles across a fruitful (and frequently flooded) valley.

The city is obviously small. It is possible to walk to the centre from the railway station down the High Street to the eighteenth-century bridge across the small river separating the old city from its newer suburbs in twenty-five minutes. During that walk the visitor passes many beautiful stone buildings - mediaeval, Renaissance, neo-classical-some with shops on the ground floor, others with doorways leading to ancient courtyards.

If the visitor is a stranger, he will probably ask someone to direct him to "the university". To this apparently simple question there seems to be no simple answer. Libraries, lecture rooms, museums, the botanical gardens: they are all parts of the university, but they are not exactly its "centre". But if the visitor asks for a particular college, he will be directed at once to a specific group of buildings. Those doorways and court-yards belong to "colleges" which have an actual, physical existence. The "university" is more elusive concept.

History and development

Nobody knows exactly when Oxford University "began". We know that lectures were being delivered in Oxford at the very beginning of the twelfth century. The students, mostly teenagers, lived wherever they could find lodgings. The learned men who taught them gathered together in small communities, and whenever they could raise the money they built homes for themselves on the monastic pattern. By the fifteenth century most students were living in colleges alongside their teachers, and so they continue to do today. The oldest college buildings still used as rooms for tutors and students are nearly seven hundred years old.

The structure of Oxford University (together with Cambridge) is unique in that it preserves the mediaeval university organization. In contrast, almost all other British universities are similar to Russian ones, with a central administration in the main building, various faculties, and within the faculties, various departments. Professors run the departments, deans rule the faculties, and at the top of the hierarchy is the Vice Chancellor, equivalent to Rector. He or she has some kind of council to help govern the university.

Oxford and Cambridge, however, are quite different. You must imagine a federation of autonomous republics with a common foreign policy (dealing with the government and other universities) and with a common budget (money from the government and from other national and international sources) and a set of common values (the teaching of undergraduates and graduates and the pursuit of scholarly research), which are at the same time fiercely independent "republics" with their own funds, their own students, their own projects and enthusiasms.

Despite its venerable age, Oxford is not a museum. Each building is occupied and alive. Even more important, both the university and its colleges are very democratic institutions. Every member of the university is also a member of a college. The 3,200 senior members of the university (that is, those engaged in teaching and research) vote for the Vice Chancellor, who is appointed for four years only and cannot be reelected; they also vote for the two governing councils, for the faculty committees, the library committees, and the administrators. At the same time, as "Fellows" of their own college, they appoint new fellows, select students from the many who apply to enter the university, organize the finances and take on many practical responsibilities.

Nobody is boss, but almost everybody helps to run the university as well as their own individual departments. And because the tutors do so much individual teaching, they, in general, work far longer hours than most of their colleagues in the rest of Europe, including Russia. No wonder they look exhausted at the end of the term, in spite of their comfortable and beautiful surroundings!

Student life

What is it like, being a student at Oxford? Like all British universities, Oxford is a state university, not a private one. Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examinations or the special Oxford entrance examinations. There are many applicants, and nobody can get a place by paying a fee. Successful candidates are admitted to a specified college of the university; that will be their home for the next three years (the normal period for an undergraduate degree); and for longer if they are admitted to study for a postgraduate degree. They will be mostly taught by tutors from their own college.

Teaching is pleasantly informal and personal: a typical undergraduate (apart from those in the natural sciences who spend all day in the laboratories) will spend an hour a week with his or her "tutor", perhaps in the company of one other student. Each of them will have written an essay for the tutor, which serves as the basis for discussion, argument, the exposition of ideas and academic methods. At the end of the hour the students go away with a new essay title and a list of books that might be helpful in preparing for the essay.

Other kinds of teaching such as lectures and seminars are normally optional: popular lectures can attract audiences from several faculties, while others may find themselves speaking to two or three loyal students, or maybe to no-one at all. So, in theory, if you are good at reading, thinking and writing quickly, you can spend five days out of seven being idle: sleeping, taking part in sports, in student clubs, in acting and singing, in arguing, drinking, having parties. In practice, most students at Oxford are enthusiastic about the academic life, and many of the more conscientious ones work for days at each essay, sometimes sitting up through the night with a wet towel round their heads.

At the end at three years, all students face a dreadful ordeal, "Finals", the final examinations. The victims are obliged to dress up for the occasion in black and white, an old-fashioned ritual that may help to calm the nerves. They crowd into the huge, bleak examination building and sit for three hours writing what they hope is beautiful prose on half-remembered or strangely forgotten subjects. In the afternoon they assemble for another three hours of writing. After four or five days of this torture they emerge, blinking into the sunlight, and stagger off for the biggest party of them all.

Postgraduates (often just called graduates) are mostly busy with research for their theses, and they spend days in their college libraries or in the richly endowed, four-hundred-year-old Bodleian library. The Bodleian is one of great national libraries, but until recently the cataloguing was somewhat primitive. Little slips of paper with the details of each volume were stuck on to the blank pages of very heavy leather-bound books in (approximate) alphabetical order. Fortunately, eighteenth-century glue was very powerful, and most of these handwritten slips, many of them 300 years old or more, are still safely in place.

Recently they have begun to computerize the catalogue, and though some older senior members are alarmed, postgraduates realize that it should soon be possible to trace the millions of books scattered around the hundred-year-old small and large libraries in our decentralized university. Is this progress? Or is it another insidious step to centralization of the autonomous republics? In principle, in Oxford, everyone is on both sides at once!

(Adapted from the Internet sites)

7. Discussion Points

7.1 What new information about higher education in Britain have you learnt?

7.2 In groups of 3-4 discuss the difference between the systems of higher education in Britain, Russia and the USA.

1. How do British Universities differ from the universities in Russia?

2. What are the entry requirements in higher education in British, American and Russian Universities?

3. What titles are awarded in British and Russian universities?

4. What is the method of assessment in British, American and Russian universities?

5. What is a pattern of teaching in British and Russian universities?

6. What are the most famous British and Russian universities?

7.3 Comment on the statements:

1. The variety of educational institutions in the UK is enormous.

2. The general pattern of teaching in British universities is a mixture of different types of classes.

3. One can get different degrees at the UK universities.

4. Oxford and Cambridge Universities are unique institutions of higher education.

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Работы, похожие на Учебное пособие: Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по теме «Высшее образование» для студентов 1-2 курсов естественных факультетов университетов Ростов-на-Дону 2005

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