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Учебное пособие: Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по страноведческой тематике для студентов 1 4 курсов отделения «Туризм»

Название: Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи на английском языке по страноведческой тематике для студентов 1 4 курсов отделения «Туризм»
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

И.И. Скнарина, Л.А. Недосека

Методические указания

по развитию навыков чтения и устной речи

на английском языке по страноведческой тематике

для студентов 1 - 4 курсов отделения «Туризм»

геолого-географического факультета

Южного федерального университета

( I часть)

Ростов-на-Дону

2007

Методические указания разработаны старшими преподавателями кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов Скнариной И.И., Недосека Л.А.

Рецензент - ст. преп. Белоусова М.М.

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка естественных факультетов, протокол № 10 от 18 мая 2007г.

Методическая записка

Настоящие «Методические указания» предназначены для аудиторной и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов 1-4 курсов отделения «Туризм» геолого-географического факультета ЮФУ и для тех, кто интересуется вопросами страноведения. Содержательная направленность материалов отражает образовательные и воспитательные цели: ознакомление студентов с географическими особенностями, культурой и традициями стран мира, развитием индустрии туризма в странах континента Северной Америки, Турции, России и Новой Зеландии. Данные методические указания направлены на развитие навыков ознакомительного и изучающего чтения по страноведческой тематике и говорения на английском языке.

Методические указания состоят из четырех разделов:

1 Туризм в России (и текст о Санкт-Петербурге).

2 Туризм в Северной Америке (Канада, Флорида, Мексика).

3 Туризм в Турции (информация о Турции и Стамбуле).

4 Острова (Новая Зеландия).

В каждый раздел входят основной текст, предтекстовые упражнения, которые помогают студентам сосредоточиться на определенной страноведческой теме. Задание «Say what these geographical names mean» направлено на развитие навыков поиска информации и работы с географической картой. Лексические, тренировочные грамматические и коммуникативные упражнения служат для развития навыка говорения на английском языке, побуждают студентов проявлять инициативу в высказывании своего мнения по обсуждаемым темам, учат, аргументировано отстаивать его. Методические указания так же способствуют накоплению тематического словарного запаса по данным страноведческим темам. Под рубрикой «Discussion » приводятся творческие задания, которые направлены на совершенствование речевых навыков. Это задание следует использовать для коллективного обсуждения и комментирования, так как оно ориентированно на обмен мнениями и высказывание личного отношения к полученной информации.

Каждый раздел включает текст под рубрикой «Supplementary reading», предоставляющий дополнительную информацию по изучаемой теме, и задание, которое направлено на развитие навыков реферирования.

Данные методические указания позволят сэкономить время учащимся, которым не придется искать необходимую информацию по страноведению в Интернете или в библиотеках, и преподавателям, которым предлагается использовать ряд заданий для контроля самостоятельной работы студентов.

SECTION I

Text 1 TOURISM IN RUSSIA

1 Answer the following questions before reading the text:

1) Do you think that Russia is a popular country with tourists? Why? Why not?

2) What kind of country is Russia?

3) What are the most interesting places in this country?

4) What places have you been to?

5) What places would you like to see? Why?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Caucasus Siberia

Urals Baltic Sea Swedes Yenisey

Teutons Baikal

3 Read the text to learn more about tourism in Russia

Russia has tremendous potential for both developing interior tourism and inviting foreign tourists. There is everything that provides such opportunities: vast territory, rich history and cultural legacy and in some regions- virginal nature. Russia stretches for 10 thousand kilometers from west to east and 3 thousand kilometers from arctic latitudes to sub-tropical regions in the south. The variety of landscapes provides the development of different types of tourism: sport and extreme tourism, mountain skiing tours, sea and river cruising, health recreation tours, children’s and youth tourism, ecological and business tourism. There are resorts at the Black sea in the south and at the Baltic Sea in the north, which make Russia a good place to enjoy beach recreation and health recreation at the seas. Mineral water springs of mountain resorts are very popular with many tourists. One can take ethnic tours to the areas populated by northern peoples or take part in tundra deer safari.

Any kind of mountain tourism (mountain climbing and hiking, rafting in “turbulent” mountain rivers, mountain skiing and biking) is possible to do in Russia. The full-flowing, wide and long rivers such as the Volga, Yenisei and Lena seem to have been created for cruising, fishing, rafting riding catamarans and boating. Seas located in the northwest of the country offer cruises for tourists. Numerous lakes are picturesque and pure. Water in these lakes is not merely seemingly pure: you can drink it from lakes of Karelia or from Lake Baikal.

Forests of Central Russia and the Caucasus, taiga of Siberia and the Far East are full of birds and animals. The fact attracts many hunting tourists. There are many areas of the untouched and virginal nature. That is the ecological tours are the best. As opposed to many European countries, when traveling across Russia one can see no people at all for a long time. Regularly, one does not meet any cars when driving along a forest highway in Siberia for several hours! However, it is very likely that one will see a bear among the trees several times. An experienced hunter will point out flamingos, pelicans and other rare birds as you enjoy transfer to the fishing resort situated in Astrakhan region in the delta of the Volga river. None of those who are fond of nature will be indifferent to the horse riding in the fabulous region of Altai.

In Russian history numerous peoples had left their traces through the years: Vikings, ancient Slavs, Mongols, Polovtsy, Scythians, Swedes, Greeks, Genoese and others. Our ancestors inherited their exteriors, religions, cultures, languages and traditions. It makes modern Russians interesting to each other, stimulating domestic tourism. Great princes, monarchs and emperors acquired and lost lands and peoples; travelers discovered northern territory, Siberia and the Far East and explored new lands, seas and oceans. Democratic and authoritarian rulers replaced each other, and they were building palaces and country estates, creating museums, demolishing churches and Buddha temples. They established concentration camps, set up cornfields, launched space ships, created new types of weapons and rebuilt churches. All these events and acts made modern Russia look the way it does at present. Anyone can see this modern image of Russia during an excursion or cultural tour.

Apart from natural, historical and cultural factors that contribute to the development of foreign tourism of Russia, there are some social factors as well. They are high exchange rate of foreign currency, freedom of travel across most of the country, including such promising tour regions as the Far East, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, the Urals, Northern Russia as well as Nizhniy Novgorod and Samara, the later two having been closed for foreign tourists in the recent past.

Foreign and domestic tourism in Russia is characterized by a variety of its types, such as ecological, sport, cognitive, business tourism, cruising, they are developing rapidly. Individual and youth tourism are also popular in Russia.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the questions:

1) What types of tourism are developed in Russia? Why?

2) What part of the country are ethnic tours popular in?

3) Where is cruising, fishing and rafting possible in Russia?

4) What attracts tourists in the forests of Central Russia?

5) Where can experienced hunters admire virginal nature?

6) What makes Russia interesting for foreigners and stimulates domestic tourism?

7) What special factors should be mentioned as well?

8) What new types of tourism are developing rapidly in Russia?

5 Give the words from the text to the definitions:

1) very big, huge-

2) health recreational places on the seacoast-

3) very beautiful, scenic-

4) to ruin-

5) money used in the country-

6) excursions around the city-

7) fast-

8) to promote-

6 Say whether these statements are true or false:

а) Russia is famous among international tourists only for cultural legacy.

b) There is no possibility for cruising in the country.

c) Forests of Central Russia can’t attract tourists.

d) Russian history is worth studying.

e) Tourists can see the modern image of the country during ethnic tours.

f) Some social factors have been the obstacles in the development of foreign tourism in

Russia.

7 Sum up the ideas about tourism in Russia and render due to the plan:

- I’ve read the text under the title “….”

- This text deals with…

- It should be mentioned that…

- In conclusion I’d like to say that…

- I think that the text …

Text 2 SAINT PETERSBURG

1 Answer the following questions before reading the text :

1) What large cities of Russia can you remember?

2) Have you ever been to St. Petersburg? Would you like to go there? Why?

3) Why do we usually call this city “a window to Europe”?

4) Who was the founder of the city?

5) What are the places of interest in St. Petersburg?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Hare Island Swiss

Dutch European

Neva

3 Read the text to learn more about St. Petersburg and its sights

St. Petersburg, the city symbolizing Russia’s European aspect, ranks with the great capitals of the world. The very name of the city suggests its international character. It consists of two meaningful words. The Russian version of the name combines elements of different languages: its first part derives from the Latin word “saint”, followed by the Apostle’s name, Peter, which means “rock” in Greek, and “burg”, a city in German or Dutch. It was founded on Hare Island by Peter the Great in 1703 and it was called so in his honour. The city is situated on the Neva River and has become the “window” to Europe. The Neva is a “cradle” of St. Petersburg, which not only predetermined its emergence as a port vital for Russia, but became the focal element in the spatial layout of the city never loosing its significance to the present day. It was along the banks of the Neva, stretching within the city for about 24 miles, that the most impressive architectural landmarks of the 18th and 19th centuries are located. St. Petersburg was built by the prominent European and Russian architects. St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia from 1712 till 1918.

St. Petersburg is an industrial, cultural and scientific center in Russia. There are about 80 museums, 20 theatres, exhibition halls, clubs, universities, many colleges, schools, libraries and parks. The Pushkin Drama Theatre, Gorky Drama Theatre, the Mariinsky Theatre of Opera and Ballet are the pearls of Russian arts. In the city there are a lot of parks and gardens where the residents and guests spend their free time.

The Peter and Paul Fortress was built to protect the Neva banks from Swedish invasion. Later D. Trezzini, the famous Swiss architect, reconstructed the fortress. It became a prison, it served as a burial place of the Russian Emperors and members of the royal family (there are 32 tombs), now it’s a museum and one of masterpieces of architecture. Russian tsars were buried in it.

The Summer Garden is the oldest and most fascinating park. Rare trees, bushes and species of flowers grow there. It’s decorated by beautiful marble statues of Italian sculptors and a cast iron grille. There is a bronze monument dedicated to the prominent Russian fabulist Ivan Krylov (by sculptor Klodt) in the Summer Garden. The 89 statues put on display in the garden nowadays reveal the depth of Peter’s concept, who wanted to make his gardens a sort of academy.

In St. Petersburg tourists usually start sightseeing from Palace Square, the largest and most beautiful. One can’t help admiring the ensemble in Palace Square: the Winter Palace (built by Rastrelli) was the residence of Russian tsars till the revolution.

The Hermitage, one of the oldest art museums in Russia, occupies the Winter Palace and four other buildings. There one can see masterpieces of the outstanding artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Rembrandt, Velazquez and other unique work of arts. Walking along the suites of state rooms in the Winter Palace and the Hermitage, you can enjoy really superb examples of interior decoration ranking with the world’s best achievements. Worthy of special mention are the Throne Room of Peter the Great designed by Montferrand; the 1812 War Gallery by Rossi; St. George Hall by Quarenghi; the Malachite Drawing Room, the Rotunda and the Alexander Room by Briulov and others. Making the tours of the rooms, you plunge into different ages and familiarize yourselves with cultures of various peoples inhabiting our planet.

The Russian museum is located in the Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Rossi. Marvelous paintings of the famous Russian artists: Tropinin, Repin, Bryulov, Fedotov, Surikov, Serov, the works of sculptors: Rastrelli, Shubin, Antokolsky are exhibited there.

The streets and squares in the city are very beautiful. Nevsky Prospect is the main street, where there are amazing buildings, shops, hotels and the remarkable Kazan Cathedral (by Voronikhin) with a colonnade and monuments to M. Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly. The overall length of the Prospect is 4.5 kilometers; its width varies from 25 to 60 meters. In 1738 it was named Nevskaya Perspective and in 1783 renamed Nevsky Prospect. Here in the prospect one can see the magnificent building of Admiralty (by Zakharov) and an ensemble of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Famous Russain writers, painters, composers and actors were buried in the Lavra.

The majestic palaces, cathedrals, churches and other buildings decorate St. Petersburg: palaces of Stroganov, Vorontsov, Menshikov, Anichkov, the Triumphal Arch and St. Isaacs Cathedral, erected by Montferrand.

One cannot forget to mention the Smolny Institute and Smolny nunnery, masterpieces of Rastrelli. Girls from aristocratic families studied and lived in the institute.

A lot of bridges cross the Neva, the Fontanka, the Moika and the canals, but the Anichkov Bridge is the most beautiful one. It is 54.6 meters long and 38 meters wide. The bridge owes its name to a certain officer, Anichkov, who built it in wood during the reign of Peter the Great. The present-day structure was designed in 1841 by the engineer f. Gotman.

St. Petersburg inspired many of our great poets, writers, painters, sculptors, composers and actors. Much of the life and work of Lermontov, Griboyedov, Pushkin, Belinsky, Glinka, Tchaikovsky, and Raping was connected with the city.

Citizens, tourists and guests enjoy visiting the suburbs of St. Petersburg: Petergof, Pushkin, Pavlovsk, Lomonosov with wonderful palaces, parks and fountains

Welcome to St. Petersburg and its suburb to get acquainted with their amazing sights.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:

1) Where is St. Petersburg situated?

2) Why does the name of the city have international character?

3) What kind of city is St. Petersburg?

4) What is its architecture like?

5) Why has St. Petersburg always been “the cultural capital” of Russia?

6) What streets are popular with the citizens and guests of the city?

7) What outstanding people did St. Petersburg inspire in their work?

8) Are there many bridges in the city? Which is the most popular?

9) What places in St. Petersburg do usually tourists admire?

5 Give the words from the text to the definitions:

a) a district lying outside a city or town;

b) a splendid residence;

c) a creator of artworks from stone and clay;

d) a principal church;

e) to prepare the preliminary sketch or plan;

f) to feel pleasure in excellence or beauty;

g) a person telling fables;

h) famous, important.

6 Match the following parts:

1 St. Petersburg is one of

a) the Peter and Paul Cathedral.

2 It was built by

b) the prominent Russian fabulist Ivan Krylov.

3 The Peter and Paul Fortress

c) admiring the ensemble in Palace Square.

4 D. Trezzini erected

d) the most beautiful cities in the world.

5 The Summer Garden is

e) the oldest and the most fascinating park.

6 There is a bronze monument to

f) the prominent European and Russian architects.

7 The city is famous for

g) in the Mikhailovsky Palace, designed by Rossi.

8 One cannot help

h) was built to protect the Neva banks from Swedish invasion.

9 The Russian museum is located

i) its magnificent architecture of the 18-19 centuries.

7 Fill in the gaps, using the words from the text:

to decorate, remarkable, masterpieces, to familiarize, majestic, to mention, fascinating, famous ,to inspire, amazing, prominent.

1 The Summer Garden is the oldest and… park.

2 One cannot forget … Smolny Institute and the Smolny nunnery, …of Rastrelli.

3 The … palaces, cathedrals, churches and other buildings, built by … architects … St. Petersburg.

4 St. Petersburg … many of our great poets, writers and painters.

5 Nevsky prospect is the main street of the city, where there are… shops, hotels and the… Kazan Cathedral.

6 St. Petersburg was built by… European and Russian architects.

7 Visiting St. Petersburg you can … yourselves with cultures of various peoples.

8 Discussion

Split into groups of 3-4 and expand on the following statements:

1) St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

2) St. Petersburg is the city of great history.

3) St. Petersburg is the second capital of Russia.

4) The architecture of the city is a masterpiece of different architects.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (“Novgorod the Great”) stands out among the oldest towns of Russia commanding special attention. It is noteworthy not only for its own remarkable history, but for its contribution to the development of medieval Russia as a whole. The territory of Novgorod was the cradle of the early Rus nation. It was here in the 9th century that Rurik dynasty was granted sovereignty, and the members of this house ruled all Russian principalities for the next seven centuries. And it was from here at the beginning of the 10th century that Novgorodian warriors mounted their campaign against Constantinople. For 1000, years, right up until the beginning of the 18th century, Novgorod was a major international trading post between East and west. At the same time it was the oldest religious center in northern Rus, and made significant contributions to the expansion of Christianity and towards preserving the unity of Orthodox Faith.

Novgorod was first mentioned in the chronicles as a settlement founded in 859 AD by the East Slavs. The name “Novgorod” means “New Town” and implies the existence of an earlier town, but historians have not been able to clarify it. The most likely theory is that there was a pre-existing township about 2 kilometers south of the current town on the right bank of the river Volkhov, where after two decades of investigation, archeologists have unearthed settlement layers and storage vessels from the 9th century.

The left bank of the river is known as ‘St Sophia’s side’. This is the heart of Novgorod, where the Kremlin stands: the town’s political, cultural and religious hub throughout the centuries. In the 10th century the kremlin was a small wooden fortress; in 11th century it grew with the addition of Saint Sophia’s Cathedral, the first stone church in the north of Russia; in the 12th century it acquired the form we still see today. Its perimeter walls are between two and four meters thick and stretch for 1,385 meters to cover an area of twenty hectares. Only nine of the thirteen original towers have survived.

A 15-century building on the Bishop’s Court is the Church of St Sergius of Radonezh, built in 1463 by Archbishop Jonah. Novgorod reached its peak in the 15th century, as is reflected in many buildings and artworks dating from that period: the Bishop’s Palace, magnificent icons, and the belfry of St Sophia’s.

In the centre of the Kremlin square is an imposing bronze monument crowned with orb and cross. This sight of Novgorod is called ‘The Millennium of Russia’. It was unveiled in 1862, a year after the abolition of serfdom and one thousand years after the event that marks the birth of Russia: the invitation of Rurik, the leader of the Varangians to Novgorod in 862. It stands 15.7 meters high, 96 thousand tones and has 129 bronze figures, 109 of them crafted in high relief on a rotunda base. There were always a large number of churches, both stone and wooden, on the trading side of the river, their architecture reflecting the tastes of various boyars, ambassadors and merchants who commissioned them from the 12th until the end of the 15th century. The main market church was St Nicholas’s Cathedral, founded in 1113. Church of Transfiguration was constructed in 1374 and Church of the Nativity on the Red Field- in 1380, the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul was built in 1406. There are a lot of monasteries in the city: Yuryev (1031), Derevyanitsky (1335), Zverinets Monastery of Intercession and others.

Novgorod is famous for its remarkable historical interest; people refer to it as a “museum town”. No other old Russian town has managed to hold on to such a wealth of architecture and so many works of both fine and applied arts. Its incomparable past has secured a special place for Novgorod in the history of Russia. The town is known as an important European art center. Its architectural treasures, the legacy of many centuries are included in UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites.

SECTION II

Text 3 CANADA

1 Answer the following questions:

1) Have you ever been to Canada?

2) Where is Canada situated?

3) What is the capital of Canada?

4) What do you know of Canada?

5) What places of interest are there in Canada?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Asia Montreal

Quebec Ottawa

Toronto

Eskimos

3 Read the text “Canada” to learn more about this country

Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people; About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80 percent of the population lives within 320 km of the southern border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natural conditions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories.

Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 19S2 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. This symbolizes the country's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.

Canada's people are varied. About 57 percent of all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32 percent have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country. French Canadians, most of who live in the provinces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people - American Indians and

Eskimos - make up about 2 percent of the country's population. 77 percent of Canada's people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.

Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80 percent of Quebec's population is French Canadians. Many of them believe that their province should receive a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.

Canada's history is an exciting story of development of a vast wilderness into a great nation. Most experts believe that the first people who lived on this land came from Asia about 15000 years ago. They came over a land bridge that once connected Asia and North America. Their descendants are known today as Indians. The ancestors of the Eskimos came to Alaska after them probably about 6000 years ago.

In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian navigator in the service of England, found rich fishing grounds off Canada's south- east coast. His discovery led to the European exploration of-Canada. France set up a colony in eastern Canada in the early 1600’s. Great Britain gained control of the country in 1763, and thousands of British emigrants came to Canada. In 1867, the French and English-speaking-Canadians helped to create a united colony called the Dominion of Canada. Two groups worked together to settle the country and to develop its great mineral deposits and other natural resources.

Canada gained its independence from Britain in 1931. During the middle of 20th century, hard-working Canadians turned their country into an economic giant. Today Canada is a leading producer of wheat, oats, and barley. Canada also ranks among the world's top manufacturing countries, and it is a major producer of electric power.

Throughout its history, Canada has often been lack of unity among its people. French Canadians, most of them live in the province of Quebec, have struggled to preserve their own culture. They have long been angered by Canadian policies based on British traditions. Many of them support a movement to make Quebec a separate nation. People in Canada are nine other provinces also frequently favor local needs over national interests.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:

1) Is Canada a large country?

2) What is the population of the country?

3) What is the political set up of the country?

4) What people live in Canada?

5) What do you know of Canada’s history?

6) Who was the discoverer of Canada?

7) When did it happen?

8) When did Canada become a colony?

9) When did Canada get its independence from Britain?

10) What is Canada like nowadays?

5 Give correct word to the definition:

a) to be known - …

b) to get - …

c) business of any kind - …

d) a forefather - …

e) included in a city - …

f) a wild region - …

g) a traveler on water in a ship - …

h) seed used in making beer or ale - …

6 Say whether these statements are true or false:

a) Canada is the second largest country in the world.

b) China has a greater land area than Canada.

c) About 50 million people live in Canada.

d) Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories.

e) Canada was ruled by the USA completely until 1867.

f) In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian navigator found rich fishing grounds off Canada's

south-east coast.

g) Canada gained its independence from Britain in 1945.

h) Today Canada is a leading producer of wheat, oats, and barley.

i) Canada has often been lack of unity among its people.

7 Discussion . Expand on the statements:

1) Canada is a large country both in territory and population.

2) Canada is an independent nation.

3) Canada's history is an exciting story of development of a vast wilderness into a great

nation.

4) Canada's people are varied.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Read the text about Toronto and render it due to the plan:

- I’ve read the text under the title …

- This text is about …

- It reads that …

- It should be said, that …

- In conclusion I would like to mention …

- I think that the text ...

Toronto

The City of Toronto is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The city has a population of 2.48 million people. Toronto is at the heart of the Golden Horseshoe, a region in south-central Ontario with roughly 8 million people. Residents of Toronto are called Torontonians.

As Canada's economic hub and a major global city, Toronto has highly developed finance, telecommunications, transportation, media, software production and medical research industries. The city is home to the CN Tower and a majority of the country’s corporate head offices and transnational corporate offices. Toronto's population is cosmopolitan, which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Canada. Because of its low crime rates, clean environment and generally high standard of living, Toronto is consistently rated one of the world's most livable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit and the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.

When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Huron tribes, who by then had displaced the Iroquois tribes. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water". It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point led to widespread use of the name.

French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759. During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the unsettled lands north of Lake Ontario. In 1787, the British negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of New Credit, thereby securing more than a quarter million acres of land in the Toronto area.

In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day Parliament Street.

In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town’s capture and plunder by American forces. The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of Fort York and set fire on the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation.

York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. The Irish potato famine between 1846 and 1849 brought a large number of Irish diaspora into the city, most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant influence over Toronto society.

Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada first from 1849-1852, following unrest in Montreal and later 1856-1858 after which Quebec became capital until just a year prior to Confederation, since then it has been Ottawa.

The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th century, particularly Germans, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type slums, such as the "the Ward" which was between Bay Street, now the heart of the country finances and the Discovery District, considered one of the world's most advanced medical research zones.

By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada’s most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and other western Canadian cities. Within the decade, Toronto became home to a majority of corporate headquarters in Canada.

Text 4 FLORIDA

1 Answer the following questions before reading the text:

1) Have you ever been to the USA?

2) What states in the USA do you know?

3) What states would you like to visit in the USA?

4) What places of interest are there in the USA?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Gulf of Mexico Georgia

Tallahassee Pascua Florida

Bahamas Cypress

Yeti

3 Read the text to know more about Florida

Florida is a state located in the southeastern United States. Most of the state is a large peninsula with the Gulf of Mexico on its west and the Atlantic Ocean on its east. It has a warm and humid subtropical climate. It was named by Juan Ponce de León, who landed on the coast on April 2, 1513, during Pascua Florida (Spanish for “Flowery Easter,” referring to the Easter season). Florida's economy relies heavily on tourism. The capital is Tallahassee and the largest city is Jacksonville.

Florida is situated mostly on a large peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Straits of Florida. It extends to the northwest into a panhandle, extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is bordered in the north by the states of Georgia and Alabama, and in the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama. It is near the countries of the Caribbean, particularly the Bahamas and Cuba.

The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by its proximity to water. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, except for the southern tip which borders on tropical and the Florida Keys which have a true tropical climate. Cold fronts can occasionally bring high winds and cool to cold temperatures to the entire state during late fall and winter. The seasons in Florida are actually determined more by precipitation than by temperature with mild to cool, relatively dry winters and autumns and hot, wet springs and summers.

Florida's nickname is the “Sunshine State,” but severe weather is a common occurrence in the state. Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States, as it experiences more lightning strikes than anywhere else in the country. Florida has the highest average precipitation of any state, in large part because afternoon thunderstorms are common in most of the state from late spring until early autumn. A fair day may be interrupted with a storm, only to return to sunshine.

Tourism makes up the largest sector of the state economy. Warm weather and hundreds of miles of beach attract about 60 million visitors to the state every year. Amusement parks, especially in the Orlando area, make up a significant portion of tourism; the huge Walt Disney World Resort, Universal Orlando Resort, Busch Gardens, SeaWorld, and other major parks drives state tourism. The Florida Keys and Daytona Beach (famous as a spring break site) are also tourism centers.

Big Cypress National Preserve is a National Park in the state of Florida in the United States of America. It is adjacent to Everglades National Park. The Preserve protects over 720,000 acres (2,913 km²) of freshwater swamp essential to the health of the Everglades ecosystem. The Big Cypress Swamp has served as home or refuge to American Indian peoples including the Miccosukee Tribe, and the Seminole Tribe of Florida as well as early European settlers.

The Walt Disney World Resort (commonly known as Disney World or Disneyworld) is a complex of four separate theme parks, two themed water parks, many resorts, restaurants and other facilities located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

Magic Kingdom is the best-known park, organized around the central landmark, or as Walt Disney would say a weenie, of Cinderella's Castle. It is based on the original Disney park, Disneyland in Anaheim, California. It has various “lands” within it and is more oriented toward children, although many adults love the escapism as well. This is the first park opened in the Florida complex and also the most heavily attended. It teems with humanity of all ages and colors, so people who have problems with crowds - or who don't like screaming toddlers - may want to stay away.

Epcot is an "educational park." It is divided into two distinct areas, “Future World” and “World Showcase”. World Showcase is structured to showcase various international locations, especially in terms of food and/or trade goods. Don't miss the impossibly cheesy but fun Mexico ride along with the extravagant Maelstrom ride in the Norway pavilion. Future World is comprised of various “futuristic” attractions, many sponsored by various industrial concerns. The Test Track, a recent addition in which visitors go through the motions of tests for new cars, is a probably the most fun, and the most traditionally theme-park.

Disney-MGM Studios is a park with a 20th Century movie theme. This park has lots of shows and some Thrill rides, the main ones being a 13 story drop in The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror and a launching roller coaster, Rock 'n' Roller Coaster. The latest addition to the park is an automobile stunt show called “Lights, Motors, Action”.

Animal Kingdom is a mix between a zoo and a theme park. Naturalistic animal exhibitions are interspersed, and sometimes integrated, with typical Disney rides. Among these are a jeep safari past live animal enclosures, a raft ride through the deforstation of a tropical rainforest, a time travel ride which includes close encounters with dinosaurs and the newest ride, “Expedition Everest”, which is a roller coaster ride and includes an encounter with the Yeti. Animal Kingdom is more of a kid friendly theme park with many animals that would attract the attention of younger generations as well as Camp Minnie Mickey, a special space for youngsters where they can meet all of their favorite characters.

Typhoon Lagoon is a water park with a giant surf wave pool, numerous slides, a snorkeling lagoon, and a tropical beach theme. The snorkeling lagoon includes living sharks, so while not for the faint of heart, it's an unforgettable experience.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions :

1) Where is Florida situated?

2) How can you characterize Florida?

3) What is the climate of Florida like?

4) What is the largest sector of the state’s economy?

5) What are the most famous tourist attractions?

6) What have you learnt about Big Cypress National Preserve?

7) What parts does the Walt Disney World Resort consist of?

8) Where can children get acquainted with cartoon personages?

9) Which park shows a 20th Century movie theme?

10) Where can one meet wild animals?

5 Fill in the gaps:

1) It has a warm and … subtropical climate.

2) Florida is situated mostly on a large ….

3) The seasons in Florida are actually determined more by … than by temperature.

4) Florida's nickname is the “…”.

5) Big Cypress National Preserve is … to Everglades National Park.

6) The Preserve protects over 720,000 acres of … ….

7) In Magic Kingdom people who don't like … … - may want to stay away.

8) Naturalistic animal exhibitions are …, and sometimes …, with typical Disney rides.

9) Time travel ride which includes close … with dinosaurs and the newest ride,

“Expedition Everest”, which is a … …. ride and includes an … with the Yeti.

10) Typhoon Lagoon is a water park with a … surf wave …, numerous …, a … lagoon,

and a tropical beach theme.

6 Say whether these statements are true or false:

a) Typhoon Lagoon is a modern movie park.

b) Animal Kingdom is a mix of a zoo and a theme park.

c) The latest addition to the Disney-MGM Studios Park is an automobile stunt show called “Lights, Motors, Go”.

d) Magic Kingdom is the best-known park, organized around the central landmark Cinderella’s Castle.

e) Florida is a state located in the southwestern United States.

f) In the south Florida is bordered on the states of Georgia and Alabama.

g) Central Florida is known as the lightning capital of the United States.

7 Discussion. Expand on the statements:

1) The climate of Florida shows a wonderful variety of character.

2) Tourism makes up the largest sector of Florida’s economy.

3) The aim of the Big Cypress National Preserve is to conserve freshwater swamp.

4) The most famous of Florida’s resorts is the Walt Disney World Resort.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Read the text “Florida’s best beaches” and render it due to the plan:

- I’ve read the text under the title …

- This text is about …

- It tells us about …

- It should be said, that …

- Summarizing up I would like to mention …

- I think that the text ...

Florida ’s best beaches

With 1,100 miles of beaches, it's no wonder Florida has one to suit every visitor.

Best Tropical Beach: Bahia Honda State Park (305-872-3210, www.floridastateparks.org). In this paradise of a park, palms wave in the breeze over pristine, sandy beaches. Widely considered to have the Keys’ best beaches, Bahia Honda Key is a sheer tropical heaven, with mild, clear water and more than one lush and cozy beach from which to choose.

Best Beach for Surfing: Sebastian Inlet State Park (321-984-4852, www.floridastateparks. org) Sebastian Inlet, south of Melbourne Beach, is the capital of East Coast surfing. The waves along this three-mile stretch of beach divided by the Sebastian River are consistent, hollow and fast. If any surf is breaking on the East Coast of Florida, it will be at Sebastian Inlet.

Best Beach for Treasure Hunting: Vero Beach (772-567-3491, www.indianriverchamber.com) A Spanish fleet cracked open upon the reefs of Florida’s East Coast in 1715, spilling its treasure into the sea. Sea Grape Trail in Vero Beach has proved lucrative for treasure hunters combing its sands. Finding a gold doubloon is rare because they are often so encrusted by the sea that it's hard to recognize them.

Best Beach to See a Millionaire: Palm Beach (561-233-3000, www.palmbeachfl.com) Rent a Jaguar and drive to Palm Beach if you really want to see how “the Donald” lives. This 14-mile stretch has a well-deserved reputation as a playground for the rich and famous. But you don't have to be a millionaire to tan beside one here, second home to the likes of the Kennedy clan.

Best Beach to Find Sharks Teeth: Venice Beach (800-522-9799, www.sarasotafl.org) Venice Beach is the spot for finding fossilized shark's teeth from thousands of years ago. The beach concessionaire even rents out metal mesh scoops to aid in the process. Small teeth, the size of a Chihuahua’s, are easy to find while walking along the shoreline and larger teeth by snorkeling along a ridge just offshore.

Best Place to Feel Small: Canaveral National Seashore (321-267-1110, www.nps.gov/cana) The Canaveral National Seashore, 24 miles of undeveloped coast, is lined with dunes, beaches and a range of wildlife. It's not unusual to see a blue heron on the seashore while a bald eagle soars over the shoulder-high marsh grasses. Bordering Kennedy Space Center, the seashore may also allow you to glimpse an equally astounding flight.

Best Snorkeling Beach: Dry Tortugas (800-352-5397, www.fla-keys.com) For colorful fish and living coral reefs, pack your snorkeling gear and head to the Dry Tortugas National Park, about 70 miles west of Key West, reachable by ferry or seaplane, but well worth the trip. This cluster of seven islands, made of coral and sand, includes Garden Key, home to historic Fort Jefferson.

Best Beach for Romance: Lovers Key (800-237-6444, www.FortMyers-Sanibel.com) On Lovers Key, explore the mangrove wilds of the west coast Florida by kayak or foot in Lovers Key State Park. Lounge beside a waterfall in a lagoon-style pool at the Lovers Key Beach Club & Resort, a posh all-suite resort. At sunset, dine overlooking Estero Bay. Soak in the spa tub-for-two in your suite.

Best Beach to Watch a Sunset: Naples Municipal Beach & Fishing Pier (800-688-3600, www. paradisecoast. com) Naples Municipal Beach & Fishing Pier (built in 1888 as a freight and passenger dock) shines as an all-time sunset favorite. When the sun begins to set low on the western horizon, beachgoers, fisherman, locals and tourists fill the narrow pier in anticipation of the daily show as the sun melts into the Gulf.

Best Beach for Kids: Siesta Public Beach (800-522-9799, www.sarasotafl.org) When it comes to family beach spots, nothing tops Siesta Public Beach in Sarasota - gradual slopes, shallow waters, lifeguards, a playground, gentle waves, fine white sand and translucent waters. It continually makes several of America’s Top 10 lists of best beaches based on sand, water quality and facilities.

Text 5 MEXICO

1 Answer the questions before reading the text : 1) Have you ever been to Mexico? Would you lilke to? Why? Why not? 2) Do you think it’s a large country? Why? 3) What is Mexico famous for? 4) Where is it located?

2 Say what these geographical names mean: Mexico Guatemala Ciudad Juárez Yucatán Peninsula[ Guadalupe

3 Read the text “Mexico” to learn more about this country

Mexico is a land of contrasts: from the vibrant colors woven into textiles to the stunning hues of its landscape, from mountain ranges that run right down to the ocean's edge to lush tropical jungles and high snow capped volcanoes. The original people of México had advanced knowledge of science, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. That past still permeates this land. It can be found in the traditions that have been passed down from generation to generation. It lives on the arts and music. And in the peculiar philosophy about life and death that make the Mexican people so unique and so charming. So whether one comes to explore the archaeological treasures, wander through the colonial cities, or simply relax on the beautiful beaches, rest assured, one will take home memories and some of the magic of México as well. México has a wealth of natural and cultural resources due to the diverse climatic conditions and to a historic tradition of more than 3,000 years. This makes the country an ideal destination for national tourists. The United Mexican States or simply Mexico is a country in North America, bounded on the north by the United States; on the south by Central America with Guatemala and Belize; on the west by the Pacific Ocean; and on the East by the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Mexico is a federal constitutional republic, made up of 31 States and a Federal District that contains the capital, Mexico City which is one of the largest cities on Earth.Covering almost 2 million square kilometres its territory is situated in the central and south portion of North America. It is the 6th largest country in the Americas by total area and 15th largest in the world. With a population of about 108 million, it is the 11th largest country and the most popular Spanish-speaking country in the world. Mexican territory includes the more remote Guadalupe Island and the Islas Revillagigedo in the Pacific Ocean. Mexico's total area covers 1,972,550 square kilometers, including approximately 6,000 square kilometers of islands in the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California. On its north, Mexico shares a 5000-kilometer border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 kilometer border with Guatemala and a 251-kilometer border with Belize.

Climate The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round. Areas south of the twentieth-fourth parallel with elevations up to 1,000 meters (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the Yucatán Peninsula), have a yearly median temperature between 24°C and 28°C. Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5°C difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Although low-lying areas north of the twentieth-fourth parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from 20°C to 24°C) because of more moderate conditions during the winter.

Economy According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks thirteenth in the world as regards GDP and has the fourth largest per-capita income in Latin America, ranking it among the highest in Latin America. Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995, the country has made an impressive economic recovery. Mexico has a mixed economy. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, natural gas distribution, airports and telecomunications. State oil extraction-company PEMEX, and electricity- generation CFE remain the only legal companies in those sectors, due to a constitutional ban to prevent national or international private funding.

Leisure and Sport

Dancing and singing are commonly part of family gatherings, bringing the old and young together, no matter what kind of music is being played, like mariachi, rancheras, cumbia, salsa, merengue or banda.Singing enjoys the same popularity and Mexicans will sing mostly in family and friend reunions. Also, a place, such as a restaurant, with live music and singing will be a preferred choice for Mexicans to eat. Most Mexicans live in urban areas, therefore they’re able to enjoy a great variety of options for leisure. World-class shopping centers are some of the favorites. Most of them, have multiplex cinemas, international and local restaurants, food courts, cafes, bars, bookstores and most of the international renowned clothing brands are found too. Middle class Mexicans tend to travel to lots of places around the world, while lower class Mexicans are prone to travel within their own country, making short weekend trips to a neighbouring city or town.

The favorite sport remains football (soccer) . Mexico has a very strong league and its “First Division” (Primera Division de Mexico) is extremely popular not only nationally but in all Latin-America.Baseball is also popular, especially in the Gulf of Mexico and the border states in the NW. The season runs from March to July with playoffs held in August. The Mexican professional league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol.The national sport of Mexico is Charreria. Ancient Mexicans played a ball game which still exists in Northwest Mexico (Sinaloa, the game is called Ulama), though it is not a popular sport any more.

Bullfighting is also a popular sport in the country. Almost all large cities have bullrings. La Monumental in Mexico city, has the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55,000 people.

Sport fishing, is popular in Baja California and the big Pacific coast resorts, while freshwater bass fishing is growing in popularity too. The gentler arts of diving and snorkelling are big around the Caribbean, with famous dive sites at Cozumel and on the reefs further south. The Pacific coast is becoming something of a centre for surfing, with few facilities as yet; all these sports attract tourism to Mexico.

Major cities The following is a list of the major metropolitan areas of Mexico in order of population (as reported in the 2005 census).

Rank

City

State

Population

Region

1

Mexico City

Federal District

19.23 million

Center South

2

Guadalajara

Jalisco

4.10 million

West

3

Monterrey

Nuevo Leon

3.66 million

North East

4

Puebla

Puebla

2.11 million

East

5

Toluca

Mexico

1.61 million

Center South

6

Tijuana

Baja California

1.48 million

North West

7

Leon

Guanajuato

1.43 million

Center

8

Ciudad Juarez

Chihuahua

1.31 million

North West

9

Torreon

Coahuila

1.11 million

North East

10

San Luis Potosí

San Luis Potosi

0.96 million

Center

11

Queretaro

Querétaro

0.92 million

Center

12

Merida

Yucatan

0.90 million

South East

13

Mexicali

Baja California

0.85 million

North West

14

Aguascalientes

Aguascalientes

0.81 million

Center

15

Tampico

Tamaulipas

0.80 million

North East

16

Cuernavaca

Morelos

0.79 million

Center

17

Acapulco

Guerrero

0.79 million

South

18

Chihuahua

Chihuahua

0.78 million

North East

19

Culiacan

Sinaloa

0.76 million

North West

4 Comprehension check. Answer the questions: 1) Why is Mexico so unique in the world? 2) How large is the country?

3) Where is it located? What is it surrounded by?

4) What is the climate in the country like?

5) Do you think that Mexico is a highly developed industrial countryWhy?

6) What music do Mexicans prefer? 7) What can you say about spare time activities of Mexican people? 8) What kind of sports are very popular in the country? 9) How many metropolises are there in Mexico? What are they?

5 Match the words from the text with their definitions:

1 hue

a) old-fashioned

2 lush

b) to stroll, to walk

3 remote

c) meeting of people

4 outmoded

d) to feel something

5 prone to

e) luxiriant

6 to wander

f) inclined to

7 to experience 8 reunion

j) distant, far away h) colour, shadow

6 Say whether these statements are true or false: a) Mexico is the 19th largest English-speaking country in the world. b) This country is situated in South America. c) Mexico is famous for beautiful glaciers and deserts. d) Winter and summer temperatures greatly vary from each other. e) Mexico is one of the leading industrial countries in the world. f) Mexicans enjoy shopping very much. g) Bullfighting is a spectacular show for international tourists. h) Mexico is a rather small country, having only 1 metropolis- Mexico City.

7 Discussion Divide into group of 3-4 and expand on the following statements: 1) Mexico is a very diverse country of the world. 2) The country has a very favourable geographical position. 3) Mexicans are very musical. 4) Mexico is not like any other country in North America.

Text 6 TOURISM IN MEXICO

1 Answer the following questions before reading the text : 1) What is Mexico famous for? 2) Is the country popular with international tourists? Why? Why not? 3) What places of Mexico would you offer to visit?

2 Say what these geographical names mean: El Palenque Yucatan Cancun Mujeres Tulum Meso-American Acapulco Zipolite Bahia Kino Veracruz

3 Read the text to learn more about tourism in Mexico

Tourism in Mexico is a very large industry. The most notable tourist attractions are the ancient Meso-American ruins, and popular beach resorts. The nation’s temperate climate and unique culture – a fusion of the European (particularly Spanish) and the Meso-American – also make Mexico a large draw. The peak tourists seasons in Mexico are during December and during the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and surges during Spring break at many of the beach resort sites which are popular with vacationing college students from the United States.

In 2002 Mexico received 19.7 million tourists.

The vast majority of tourists to Mexico come from the United States and Canada and, to a lesser degree, from Europe and Asia. There is also a burgeoning domestic tourism trade as a growing affluent middle class begins to vacation within their own country (and abroad as well). A small number of tourists also come from other Latin American nations.

Mexico City/Federal District (Mexico) – Capital of Mexico and popular with tourists as an ancient Meso-American city, a megalopolis conurbation, and the site of many popular tourist attractions such as the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon. The man-made tourist zones of La Zona Rosa, El Palenque and El Zocalo are also here. The city is also home to the Plaza de toros Mexico – the world’s largest bullring – and to the Mexican National Palace built on the site of Montezuma’s palace, and the huge Metropolitan Cathedral the largest in the western Hemisphere, built over the even Greatest Teocalli Temple of the Aztecs, unfortunately buried forever by the Spaniards. Mexico City features also one of the great museums in the world: the National Museum of Anthropology and History which is worth a visit to Mexico in itself.

The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sun bathers and other visitors. On the Yucatán peninsula, one of the most popular beach destinations is the resort town of Cancún, especially among university students out on spring break. Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres, and to the east is the Isla Holbox. A day trip to the south of Cancún is the historic port of Tulum. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins.

On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco, once the destination for the rich and famous. The beaches have become crowded and the shores are home to many multi-story hotels and vendors. Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below.Further south down the coast are the surfing beaches of Puerto Escondido, the snorkeling, harbor beach of Puerto Ángel, and the naturist beaches of Zipolite. To the north of Acapulco is the resort town of Ixtapa and the neighboring fishing town of Zihuatanejo. Beyond to the north are the wild and rugged surfing beaches of the Michoacán coast.Along the central and north Pacific coast, the biggest draws are beaches of Mazatlán city and the resort town of Puerto Vallarta. Less frequented is the sheltered cove of Bahía de Navidad, the beach towns of Bahía Kino, and the black sands of Cuyutlán. San Carlos, home of the Playa los Algodones (Cotton Beach), is a winter draw, especially for retirees.

At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas, a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing. Further north along the Sea of Cortés is the Bahía de La Concepción, another beach town known for its sports fishing. Closer to the U.S. border is the weekend draw of San Felipe, Baja California. The central and southern parts of Mexico was host to several pre-Hispanic civilizations, with the most prominent being the Aztec, Mayan, and the Olmec. There are numerous tourist destinations where these ruins can be viewed. The Yucatán peninsula was home to the Mayan people, and many of the indigenous people still speak the language. The area also contains many sites where ruins of the Maya civilization can be visited. The richest of these are located in the eastern half of the peninsula and are collectively known as La Ruta Puuc. The largest of the Ruta Puuc sites is Uxmal, which was abandoned in the 12th century.

A one hour drive to the northeast of Ruta Puuc are the surviving remains of the city of Mayapán. This settlement was controlled by Chichén Itzá to the east, now a large archaeological site with many interesting ruins. Other ruins on the peninsula include the aforementioned Tulum on the east coast, Cobá to the northwest of Tulum, and Calakmul in the nature reserve along the Guatemala border. However this list by no means exhausts the number of archaeological sites to be found in this area. To the west, the state of Chiapas includes the temples and ruins of Palenque, the glyphs of the city of Yaxchilán, the painted walls of nearby Bonampak, and the remains of the fortress of Toniná. In the city of Villahermosa to the north is the Parque-Museo La Venta, with a collection of Olmec sculptures.

Along the gulf coast area in the state of Veracruz are more archaeological sites, with the Olmec ceremonial center of Tres Zapotes, the ruins of the large Totonac city of Zempoala, and the ruins of El Tajin with the Pyramid of the Niches. The city of Xalapa contains the Museo de Antropología, a notable museum featuring a collection of massive Olmec head sculptures.

In the state of Oaxaca along the Pacific coast are the ruins of Mitla, known as the “City of Death” and of Monte Albán, the remains of the once extensive Zapotec capital and religious center.Moving to the north, the central region about Mexico City contains several archaeological sites. To the southwest are the massive ruins of Teotihuacán, including the Pyramid of the Sun and the Temple of Quetzalcóatl. To the southeast near the city of Cholula is the Great Pyramid, visible from the city center. Just to the north of Cholula are the well-preserved ruins of the city of Cacaxtla. Last but not least is the Toltec capital of Tula, to the north of Mexico City. In the capital itself is the largest museum in Mexico, the Museo Nacional de Antropología.

Finally, less visited than the major sites are the mysterious ruins of La Quemada, located south of Zacatecas, Zacatecas. In the northern half of Mexico.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the questions:

1) Do you think that tourism in Mexico is a highly developed industry? Why?

2) What are the peak seasons for tourists in the country?

3) What countries do the most tourists come from?

4) Why is Mexico City popular with tourists?

5) Where can guests sunbathe in the country?

6) What cities can tourists do sports in?

7) What are the biggest draws in Mexico for people who are interested in history and

culture?

8) Where exactly can tourists see the pyramids?

5 Match the following words:

1 notable

a) торговец

2 fusion

b) туземный

3 surge

c) плавание под водой с маской

4 conurbation

d) выдающийся

5 vendor

e) изрезанный

6 snorkeling

f) слияние

7 rugged

g) большая волна

8 indigenous

h) большой город и его пригород

6 Say whether the sentences are true or false:

a) Mexico ranks the last place among the famous tourist destinations in the world.

b) The most notable tourists’ attractions in the country are natural parks and

museums.

c) The peak tourists’ seasons are autumn and the early spring.

d) There are only few popular beaches in Mexico.

e) The city of Mazatlan is noted for its sports fishing.

f) The ruins of Mayan civilization can be seen in the state of Veracruz.

g) There are no archeological sites in the country.

7 Discuss the tourism in Mexico in groups of 3-4 and expand on the statements : 1) Mexico is a fusion of the European and Meso-American cultures.

2) Mexico is popular with tourists from different countries of the world.

3) There are many resort towns with popular beaches in the country.

4) Tourists can see many archeological sites in Mexico.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Scan the text about tourism industry in Mexico and render it due to the plan:

- I’ve read the text under the title “…”

- The text reads that…

- It should be pointed out that…

- In conclusion I’d like to mention that…

- I think that….

The Tourism Industry in Mexico

In 1994, 7.2 million foreign tourists visited Mexico. This number increases to 17.1 million if one counts the foreign visitors that crossed the border zone. Approximately 20 million tourists visited Mexico in 1995. Of these, 80 percent come from the United States. In March, 2004, international travel to Mexico generated more than US 1 billion dollars in revenues in the one month, according to statistics released by Mexico’s Tourism Secretariat. This US 1.05 billion dollars figure pushed the country's first-quarter international tourism revenues to US 2.94 billion dollars, representing a 14 percent increase over first-quarter 2003 figures, Mexico’s Tourism Secretariat reported. In January 2004 the figure was US 914 million dollars, and in February 2004 US 972 million dollars.

Mexico’s Tourism Secretariat figures revealed that more than 5.2 million international tourists visited Mexico during the first quarter of 2004, 14.6 percent more than during the same period last year. According to Mexico’s Tourism Secretariat, an additional 2.1 million tourists arrived on cruise ships during the first quarter of 2004, up 0.2 percent from the same period in 2003; they spent 127 million dollars during the period, up 5.3 percent from the first three months of 2003. Also breaking records was the average spending of international tourists while in Mexico, which Mexico’s Tourism Secretariat reported at an all-time high of US 724 dollars in the first quarter of 2004, up from US 690 dollars during the same period in 2003.

According to Banco de Mexico, the tourism industry’s trade balance during the first three months of 2004 posted a US 1.373 billion dollars surplus, up 18 percent from the same period in 2003.

Tourism is the third most important economic activity in Mexico, representing 8.3 percent of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The country currently ranks 8th in the number of international visitors and 10th in international tourism revenues, according to the World Tourism Organization (WTO).

Spanish colonial history

· Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes Famous for its world renowned festival San Marcos Fair during which it attracts 7 million tourists. This colonial City has gained prestige and status as a national destination for its colonial beauty, and absolute cleanliness. There are many amazing squares and gardens, surrounded by numerous buildings, from baroque churches to porfirian mansions.

· Campeche, Campeche The only walled city in Mexico is a World Heritage Site.

· Cuernavaca, Morelos Historic marvelous architecture, many times hidden behind tall walls, fortresses and monasteries, some UNESCO sites

· Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato Historical City for the Mexican Independence War originated here.

· Guanajuato, Guanajuato – also the Museo de las Momias a wonderful colonial treasure. The whole city is a World Heritage Site.

· Mérida, Yucatán Dubbed the white city, with mayan tradition has many colonial Mansions of impressive beauty

· Morelia, Michoacán Excellent Colonial architecture can be admired in this City

· Oaxaca, Oaxaca Colonial Architecture and Indigenous tradition are mixed here

· Puebla, Puebla The city of colorful tiles and Grand architecture, its historic center is a World Heritage Site

· Querétaro The state capital has a beautiful baroque downtown, declared a World Heritage Site. Other popular destinations include the third tallest monolith in the world (Peña de Bernal), a city famous for its thermal springs in the middle of a wine and cheese making area (Tequisquiapan), and astonishing natural and cultural beauties in the biosphere reserve of Sierra Gorda.

· San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Rich in ancient times from its mines, this colonial city was the capital of Mexico twice.

· San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato – one of Mexico’s older towns. Many historic churches and the open-air Plaza Allende. An exceptional beauty Gothic Cathedral is located here.

· Taxco, Guerrero – Silver jewelry, A very famous baroque church is located here, its interior is the most admired since the baroque ornamentations are all covered in gold.

· Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala Four centuries without change are present in this city, famous for its Arabic mudejar open air chapel, next to the cathedral

· Valle de Bravo, Mexico

· Veracruz, Veracruz Paradise

· Zacatecas, Zacatecas – city center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is famous for the astonishing facade of its cathedral; it is baroque in style, and exuberant in its ornamentation. The city is a delight for the national tourism.

SECTION III

Text 7 TURKEY

1 Answer the questions before reading the text :

1) Have you ever been to Turkey? What do you know about this country?

2) What is Turkey famous for?

3) Where is it situated?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Tigris

Aegean Euphrates

Aphrodite Taurus

Bosporus Mediterranean

Byzantine Macedonian

3 Read the text about Turkey to learn more facts about its history, population and tourist attractions

Turkey’s land mass is 814,578 sq. km. The European and Asian sides are divided by the Istanbul Bogazi (Bosporus), the Sea of Marmara, and the Canakkale Bogazi (Dardanelles). Anatolia is a high plateau region rising progressively towards the east, broken by the valleys of about 15 rivers, including the Dicle (Tigris) and the Firat (Euphrates). There are numerous lakes and some, such as Lake Van, are as large as inland seas. In the north, the Eastern Black Sea Mountain chain runs parallel to the Black Sea; in the south, the Taurus Mountains sweep down almost to the narrow, fertile coastal plain along the coast. Turkey enjoys a variety of climates, changing from the temperate climate of the Back Sea region, to the continental climate of the interior, then, to the Mediterranean climate of the Aegean and Mediterranean costal regions. The coastline of Turkey’s four seas is more then 8,333 km long.

According to a 2005 census, Turkey has about 69 million inhabitants, 41 percent of whom live in the countryside. The major cities are: Istanbul (7.4 mln); Ankara, the capital (3.2mln); Izmir (2.7 mln); Adana (1.9 mln); Antalya (1.1 mln) and Bursa (1.6mln). Turks originated from northeastern Asia, specifically the Altai Mountains and Mongolia. Continued migrations enduring for centuries account for the mixing of Turkish and local populations in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan. Evidence of Turkish presence can be felt in the Middle East, in central and Mediterranean Europe, and in North Africa.

Turkey has been called "the cradle of civilizations" and by traveling through this historic land, tourists will discover exactly what is meant by this phrase. The world's first town, a Neolithic city Catalhoyuk, dates back to 6,500 B.C. From the days of Catalhoyuk up to the present, Turkey boasts a rich culture that through the centuries has made a lasting impression on modern civilization and it makes Turkey a paradise of information and cultural wealth. Hattis, Hittitess, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Lydians, Ionians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans have all made important contributions to Turkish history, and ancient sites and ruins scattered throughout the country give proof of each civilization’s unique distinction.
Turkey also has a very fascinating recent history. Upon the decline of the Ottoman Empire, a young man named Mustafa Kemal, who was a soldier by occupation but in character, a great visionary, took the defeat of World War I and turned it into a shining victory by liberating Turkey of all foreign invaders. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. He led his country into peace and stability, with tremendous economic growth and complete modernization. Through decades of change and growth, Turkey till boasts this success, living by its adopted motto of “Peace at Home, Peace in the World”. You are discovering what we already know: Turkey is a treasure chest of ancient history. Open it and discover the events and people who have shaped this varied land. Turkey was home to an astounding number of ancient cultures and the cradle of 10 of the world’s greatest civilizations. From Assyrian to Byzantine cultures, each group has left relics that can be found in many corners of the country. Where else can you find so many scientists, philosophers, gods, authors, religious and political leaders?

Here are some of them: the god of the art, Apollo; the goddess of fertility and abundance, Artemis; the goddess of love, Aphrodite; Mevlana, the philosopher who said “Come again, whatever you are”; Cleopatra, who chose the Mediterranean coast for her honeymoon; Virgin Mary, St. Mary Magdalane and St. John, saints who found peace in this land; Yunus Emre, the poet of the love still alive in our hearts; Father Christmas, who still visits childrens’ dreams; Alexander the Great, who could not resist the temptation of Anatolia; Thales, the mathematician who predicted the eclipse of the Sun; Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, famous for his laws; King Midas, who wanted to turn everything into gold; Fatih Sultan Mehmet, who conquered Istanbul, one of the most beautiful cities in the world; and those who created the poetry of this city, Orhan Veli, Piyer Loti, Yahya Kemal and Lamartina; the famous admiral Pirie Reis, who prepared the first correct maps of America and Atlantic Ocean; Nasreddin Hoca, famous for his witticisms; Barbarous, hero of the seas; and the charismatic leader who founded the contemporary Turkish Republic, Atatürk...

Adding to this historic panorama are elegant mosques and Ottoman palaces, intriguing bazaars, outstanding cuisine and scenic coastlines dotted with resorts and yachting marinas.

Travelling around Turkey means passing from one scene, legend or world to another. Crossing the endless sunflower fields of Thrace, you will find yourself in the magical vistas of Istanbul. While travelling along the Aegean or the Mediterranean coasts, you will see how the blue sea embraces the fresh green of the forests. Stop by Ephesus, the most fabled city in Asia Minor, you can see one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the remains of the Temple of Artemis. On the Black Sea coast, you will discover many different tones of color and will be fascinated by the intensity of emerald-like greenery. In Central Anatolia, visit the Goreme Valley, an eerie corner of the Earth resembling the lunar landscape.

The varied geographical characteristics of Turkey facilitate many sports and holiday activities. Our country offers you many ideal bays for wind surfing and endless beaches for sand surfing. You can discover a lot by diving into mysterious deep waters. Are you interested in hunting, ornithology in flora or carves? In Turkey, you will find ideal chances for investigating all of these. Do you like hiking; camping at plateaus, parachute diving or balloon excursion? Come to Turkey! Are your hobbies tennis, skiing, climbing or grass skating? Fishing? Having your fun in local festivals is a particular pleasure. And a special pleasure if you win a prize in the contests. But what you really win is coming to Turkey.

Shopping is the indispensable pleasure of any vacation. Its appeal increases because of special handicrafts which vary from one region to another in Turkey. The bazaars, carpet and kilim workshops, and copper working shops are very colourful shopping places where Turkish handicrafts are produced. World famous Turkish carpets and kilims are matchless with respect to quality and beauty. World famous Turkish leather and textile products decorate the shop windows with latest fashion in the larger cities and tourist centers.

Turkey is an element of stability in an otherwise turbulent part of the world. As a modern, secular democracy with free market economy, Turkey will continue to expand its role as a commercial, political and cultural link between the Middle East, the Caucasus, the Balkans and the West. You will learn more when you come to Turkey...

4 Comprehension check. Answer the questions:

1) What are the geographical features of Turkey like?

2) Can you say that it’s a big country in population? What are the biggest cities?

3) Why has Turkey been called “a cradle of civilizations”?

4) How can you describe the history of Turkey?

5) What outstanding figures is the country associated with?

6) What sights will you admire traveling along the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean seacoasts?

7) Why are tourists attracted to Turkey for a holiday?

8) Why is shopping so special in the country?

9) What is Turkey like?

10) Would you like to go to Turkey? Why? Why not?

5 Give English equivalents to the following:

Умеренный климат, перепись населения, объяснять что-либо, колыбель цивилизаций, древняя культура, провидец, огромный экономический рост, отпечатки, изобилие и плодородие, затмение солнца, остроумные шутки, искушение, кухня, мечеть, останки храма, загадочный уголок, способствовать чему-либо, таинственное глубоководье, возможности для исследования, походы, неотъемлемое удовольствие, предметы ручной работы, вечная демократия.

6 Match the adjectives from the text with the following nouns:

1 ancient

a) climate

2 elegant

b) beaches

3 varied

c) pleasure

4 temperate

d) city

5 indispensable

e) bazaars

6 endless

f) cuisine

7 fabled

g) corner

8 intriguing

h) mosques

9 outstanding

i) land

10 eerie

j) history, cultures, sites.

7 Discussion. Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions:

1) Would you like to go to Turkey? Why? When?

2) What places would you offer your customers to see in this country?

3) Why has Turkey become a major tourist destination among Europeans?

4) What holiday activities are possible in Turkey?

8 Look through the text again. Expand on the statements:

- Turkey is one of the ancient countries in the world.

- You can find much interesting and unusual in fabled cities of the country.

- Turkey is famous for sports and holiday activities.

- Shopping is indispensable pleasure in Turkey.

Text 8 ISTANBUL

1 Answer the questions before reading the text:

1) What cities of Turkey do you know?

2) Which of them are the most popular with tourists?

3) Do you think that Istanbul is an old city? Why? Why not?

2 Say what these geographical names mean : Islamic

Chinese Christian

Basilica

Justinian

3 Read the text to learn more about famous landmarks of Istanbul.

AYASOFYA

The Basilica of Hagia Sophia was constructed by Roman Emperor Justinian in 537 AD. This was the largest church in the Christian world for a thousand years. Its immense dome rises nearly 200 feet above the ground and its diameter spans more than 100 feet. The mosaics covering the walls are among the most important works of art that have survived to this day of the Byzantine era. Large round buildings had been successfully covered by domes before, but Hagia Sophia had a rectangular floor plan, and covering a large rectangular structure by a huge central dome was being tried for the first time in history. The dome collapsed and was repaired many times. The Ottomans converted the basilica to a mosque in the 15th century after the conquest of Istanbul. Recognizing its historic and universal importance, the Turkish Government turned it into a museum in 1935.

SULTANAHME MOSQUE

Sultanahmet Mosque is the most famous monument in both the Turkish and the Islamic worlds. It was built in the classic Turkish architectural style in 1609-1616 by the architect Mehmet. The building is more familiarly known as the Blue Mosque because of its magnificent interior paneling of more than 20,000 blue and white Iznik tiles. The inside is a single immense space into which the light pours from 260 windows. The dome 141 feet high is supported by four enormous circular pillars 16 feet in diameter and are known as elephant feet. As it is located across Hagia Sophia, the mosque was designed to be as large and as magnificent as this Byzantine structure.

TOPKAPI PALACE

Topkapi Palace is certainly the most important historical site to be visited in Istanbul. It is one of the most frequently visited museums of Europe and is the most visited one in Turkey. The Palace served as the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 400 years between the 15th and 19th centuries. Its principal parts were finished in 1478, then altered and enlarged by new additions in the reign of each succeeding sultan. The Palace was abandoned in 1855 when Sultan Abdülmecit I, 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, moved to the new Palace of Dolmabahçe. In 1924, it was turned into a museum upon the orders of Atatürk. Palace is a complex of buildings spread out over one of the seven hills of Istanbul. It consists of courtyards serving different purposes which are separated from each other by monumental gates. Pavilions, each used for different purpose, surround these courtyards. The total area of the Palace is twice the area of Vatican and half of Monaco in size. Besides being the official residence of the Sultan, the Topkapi Palace served as the headquarters of the government. It also housed the state treasury and the archives. The mints, as well as the highest educational institution were located on the Palace grounds.

On exhibitions are the imperial collections of crystal, silver and Chinese porcelain; imperial handmade costumes worn by the sultans and their families, the famous jewels of the treasury; the richest collection of clocks in the world; the sacred relics of Islam including the swords of Mohammed, his bow and his mantle; priceless collection of miniatures and many other priceless objects. One of the largest diamonds in the world, the Spoon seller Diamond, is displayed in a special showcase in the hall. The rooms are exquisitely decorated and tiled.

DOLMABAHÇE PALACE

Dolmabahçe Palace, built in the mid-19th century by Sultan Abdülmecit 1, stretches for 600 meters along the European shore of the Bosporus. The palace has survived intact with its original decorations, furniture, silk carpets, curtains and everything else. It is said that 14 tons of gold and 40 tons of silver were used for the decoration of the palace.The palace contains 285 rooms, 43 salons and six baths. Its walls and ceilings are covered with paintings by the famous artists of that age. Rare handmade art objects from Europe and the Far East decorate every room in the palace. The ballroom is the largest of its kind in the world. A 4.5 ton giant-sized crystal chandelier with 750 bulbs hangs from the 120 feet high dome. The floors are parquet, of exceptional quality and are laid with high-quality silk carpets, hand-woven in the Imperial Factory of Hereke.Atatürk used to stay in this palace when he visited Istanbul. He died here in 1938. All the clocks in the palace were stopped at 9:05 am, the time of his death, in memory of this great Turk. The Palace which is a museum today is open on certain days of the week, and it is one of those historic places in Istanbul that must be visited.

KARIYE MUSEUM (The Chora Church )

The Kariye Museum is, after Hagia Sophia, the most important Byzantine monument in Istanbul. The existing building was built towards the end of the 11th century and dedicated to Christ the Savior. After the Turkish conquest, the church remained deserted for a time, and was turned into a mosque in 1511 by addition of a minaret. It became a museum in 1948 and its frescoes were cleaned and restored by the American Institute of Byzantine Research. The walls are decorated with superb 14th century mosaics, illustrating scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin Mary. These are the finest masterpieces of Christian religious art to be found anywhere in the world. Paintings, rocks and architectural designs seen in the background make the pictures three-dimensional. The scenes are made with special care for them to look daily, lively and ordinary. The scenes are enriched with explicating stories near them.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the questions:

1) What is Anyasofya like?

2) What is Sultanahmet mosque famous for?

3) Why is Topkapi palace a historic site in Istanbul?

4) How is Damabahce Palace decorated?

5) What is the most ancient building to see in the city?

6) Where can tourists see Chinese porcelain, handmade costumes of sultans and

famous jewelry?

7) When was the building of Kariye museum built?

8) What palace in Istanbul was decorated by 40 tons of silver and 40 tons of gold?

9) What palace did Ataturk die in?

10) Where can the finest masterpieces of Christian religious art be found?

5 Match the words with their definitions:

1 immense

A) a place where money is made;

2 to span

B) to change;

3 mint

C) something explains something

4 intact

D) very big and huge;

5 to alter

E) luxurious, beautiful;

6 superb

F) to spread;

7 explicating

G) untouched;

6 Complete the following sentences:

1) Afasofya was the largest…

2) It had a rectangular…

3) Sultanahmet mosque was built…

4) The dome is tall, it is…

5) One of the most frequently visited museums is…

6) It has always been popular, because…

7) Dolmabahce palace has survived intact with…

8) In Kariye Museum you can find…

7 Discussion. Expand on the statements:

1) Istanbul is a city of ancient architecture.

2) There are many beautiful palaces in Istanbul.

3) Istanbul is a mixture of Christianity and Islam.

4) Istanbul is one of the biggest cities in Turkey.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

ELSEWHERE IN TURKEY

Read the text about the famous sites of Turkey and render it due to the plan: - I’ve read the text under the title “…” - The text is connected with… - It reads that… - It should be said that… - In conclusion I want to mention that… - I found the text…

TROY

Ancient city of Troy is located 30 km south west of Çanakkale province in the Marmara Region of Turkey. This is one of the most important historical cities of Anatolia. Archeological excavations have revealed nine separate periods of settlement at this site, including ruins of city walls, house foundations, a temple and a theater. The earliest settlement dates from five thousand years ago and the last coincided with the late Roman period. Famous Trojan wars, depicted in Homer’s epic Iliad took place here at about 1200 BC. A symbolic wooden horse at this site commemorates this legendary war. EPHESUS

The ruins of Ephesus are one of the world’s greatest archaeological sites. It is located 75 km south of Izmir. In Hellenistic times, Ephesus became the most densely populated city in Anatolia with a population of more than 200 000. The city reached the peak of its glory under the Roman rule and became a very important centre of trade and commerce. A majority of the monuments that exist now date to that period. It was also the leading political and intellectual centre, with the second school of philosophy in the Aegean. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Ephesus also emerged as one of the main centers of early Christianity. St. Paul remained in the city for three years during his third missionary journey (53-57).The Apostle John also came to Ephesus to live and was finally buried here. Ephesus was one of the Seven Churches mentioned in his book of Revelation.Tradition has it that St.John brought Virgin Mary to Ephesus after Christ’s crucifixion and that she lived and died in a small wooden house located about three miles away in the forested mountain above Ephesus at the age of 101. In the year 431 the Third Ecumenical Council was held in the Basilica of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus. In the following century, Emperor Justinian(527-565) built a massive church at the spot where St John was believed to have been buried. It became an important site of pilgrimage throughout the Middle Ages.

The city ruins include the agora, theater, gymnasium, stadium, Church of the Virgin Mary, Temple of Serapis, Temple of Hadrian, Fountain of Trajan, Scholasticia Baths, Temple of Domitian and terrace houses that once belonged to rich Ephesians, as well as the Celsus Library. The Cathedral of St. John is on the Ayasuluk hill above the city.

The Celsus Library is the most impressive building of them all. According to inscriptions in Latin and Greek on the wings of the front steps, the Library was erected in AD 110 by the Consul G.J.Aquila for his father, G.J.Celsus Polemaeanus, formerly Roman Consul and governor of the Asian province. The library was completed in AD 135 by his heirs. Its façade was two-tiered; the interior consisted of a single large hall, measuring 10x16 m, comprising the Celsus library itself. The burial chamber under the floor contains the marble sarcophagus of Celsus in an excellent state of preservation.

The reading room destroyed in a fire in the second half of the 3rd century, but the façade did not suffer damage. For a time, the library was left filled with the resulting debris. About AD 400, the area in front of the building was converted into a pool. The façade served a decorative purpose, with its beautiful silhouette mirrored in the water. The monumental façade as it stands today is the result of restoration work begun in the 1970s, completed and the whole opened to the public in 1978. APHRODISIAS

The impressive remains of this once-splendid city are situated on a high plateau, within Aydin Province. As its name suggests, Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite, a goddess of nature, love and fertility and was the site of one of her most famous sanctuaries.

Although the history of Aphrodisias stretches farther back in time, it rose to prominence in the first century BC and enjoyed a long period of prosperity. Besides being a significant religious site, it was also a cultural and intellectual center to which students and scholars flocked from all over the ancient Hellenistic world. With an excellent marble supply, perhaps the finest available anywhere, the city became the center of a school of sculpture that flourished for a period of six hundred years. Many of its marvelous works of art are now housed in the local museum.
The Temple of Aphrodite was the focal point of the city in antiquity, as it still is today with its fourteen standing columns. The stadium, located in the northern end of the city, is probably the best preserved structure of this type in the Mediterranean. It could accommodate as many as 30,000 people. The theater, Odeon (concert-hall), Bishop’s Palace, Baths of Hadrian are among other ruins.
East of the temple, one of the most attractive landmarks of Aphrodisias is a decorative gateway (in the picture) datable to the middle of the second century. It consisted of four rows of four columns and its main access was from the east, with a front row of spirally-fluted Corinthian columns facing a main north-south street. Its sixteen columns have been repaired and re-erected and upper portions partly replaced. PERGAMON

Pergamon (or Pergamum), once a great center of culture, survives as one of Turkey’s finest archeological sites. It is located 100 km north of Izmir. The city experienced its golden age until the end of the 3rd century AD during Hellenistic and Roman times. In the Acropolis, above the modern town, are the remains of the library, a steep and impressive theatre, the temples of Trajan and Dionysos, the monumental Altar of Zeus, the sanctuary of Demeter, a gymnasium and the Agora. The Asclepion, located to the southwest of the lower city, was a medical center dedicated to the god of health, Asclepios. Patients were treated with water and mud baths, with massages and with medicinal herbs. The center also had a small theater, a library, a sacred fountain, temples as well as two meeting rooms and lavatories for women and for men.
The site of Pergamon was first excavated by the German archaeologists between 1878 and 1886. It was during this time that the magnificent reliefs of the Altar of Zeus were discovered and carried to Berlin and now displayed in Berlin Museum.
Ancient authors tell us that the Pergamon library at one time contained 200 000 volumes. Mark Anthony carted them off to Egypt as a gift for Cleopatra, to replace the ones that had been lost when the Alexandrian library was burned during Caesar’s campaign. In the middle of the library’s main reading room is the podium on which there stood at one time the 3.5 meter high statue of Athena that is now in the Berlin Museum.

CAPPADOCIA

The ancient region of Cappadocia lies in Central Anatolia between the cities of Nevsehir, Kayseri and Nigde. Three million years ago, violent eruptions of the nearby volcanoes covered the surrounding plateau with a deep layer of solidified mud, ash and lava. The winds, rivers and rains have eroded this soft volcanic rock into hundreds of strangely shaped pillars, cones and fairy chimneys, creating a vast outdoor museum of stone sculptures in an incredible variety of shapes, layering, textures and colors.

Since the most ancient of times, men have been carving dwellings in this soft rock; the early Christians made countless cave churches, chapels and monasteries. There are more than 200 churches in Capadocia scattered through the valleys, with their impressive frescoes and art works. The most amazing speciality of Cappadocia is the underground cities which are still being discovered. The ones in Kaymakli and in Derinkuyu are the most famous ones. These cities with 8-9 floors underground have been completely carved in volcanic tuff and were used by Christians as places to retreat to and live in until danger from their enemies had passed. The narrow tunnels which could be blocked by millstones at times of escape, the ventilation systems, and the hidden rooms of these cities show a perfect planning and construction. But the absence of inscriptions and decorations of any kind makes it difficult for the art historians to determine the dates of construction.The horses and the stud farms of Cappadocia have been famous throughout history. The word Cappadocia comes from the word “Catpaducia” meaning “the land of beautiful horses”.

MEVLEVI CONVENT AND MUSEUM

Founder of the Mevlevi Order known in the West as the Whirling Dervishes, Muhammed Celaleddin lived in Konya from 1228 until his death in 1273. He was given the name Mevlana (Our High Master) by his followers. The nearly 6500 m2 land, on which the convent lies, used to be a rose garden belonging to Seljuk Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat. He gave the area to Mevlana’s father, Bahaddin Veled. as a gift. Bahaddin Veled was buried here in accordance with his will. From that day on, this place became a popular visiting spot. The building of the tomb began in 1274, only after the burial of Mevlana beside his father. In 1396, the tomb was covered by a cone shaped dome decorated by exquisite turquoise tiles. The building has gone through many modifications during different periods in history and it has turned into a collection of buildings, an institution. In 1926, the Mevlana Convent opened as a museum. The artifacts presented to the convent throughout the centuries are on display. The most interesting section of the museum is under the green dome where the sarcophagi of Mevlana and his son, Sultan Veled, stand. The museum contains 65 sarcophagi of the members of Mevlana’s family and his followers. On display are hand-written copies of the sayings and books about Mevlana and Mevlevi order, musical instruments, metal glass and wooden objects, carpets and kilims. In the former dervish cells, the garments of the order are exhibited.

PAMUKKALE

This sight of spectacular beauty is located in the inner Aegean region. The terraces over 300 feet in height composed of layers of the accumulated limestone sediment have been gradually formed in the course of the ages. For thousands of years a deep underground spring on the hills above has been pouring out streams of hot, mineral-saturated water. As the water has flowed down the mountainside, the water’s rich mineral content has coated them in a smooth layer of white calcareous rock. Since these white slopes resemble castles when observed from the plain, the area is called Pamukkale which means cotton castle in Turkish. Several Roman emperors came to bathe in these thermal pools. The area is still one of the leading hot springs in Turkey.

SECTION IV

Text 9 NEW ZEALAND

1 Answer the following questions:

1) Have you ever been to New Zealand?

2) Where is New Zealand situated?

3) What is the capital of New Zealand?

4) What do you know of New Zealand?

5) What places of interest are there in New Zealand?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Tasman the Alps

The Maoris Great Berta

Egmont Christchurch

Waikato

Polynesian

3 Read the text to know more about New Zealand

New Zealand is an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It is situated southeast of Australia; the distance between Australia and New Zealand is 2000 kilometers. It consists of two large islands: North Island, South Island, two small ones: Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands and several island groups. New Zealand is an island country; it is washed by the Tasman Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The country occupies 103,736 square miles; population is about 3,3 million people.

The majority of the population is of British origin, but there are also small groups of the Chinese, Indians, Greeks, and Poles. The Maoris, a Polynesian people are the aborigines of New Zealand, The number of Maoris is about 8 percent now, and they speak their national language and have their own national culture.

English is an official language of the country.

New Zealand has a wet, subtropical climate. The average temperature in January is +19 °C; in July is +12 °C. New Zealand's climate is pleasant in all seasons; there is no much difference between winter and summer. There are a lot of sunny days, but much rain falls on the west coast.

South Island is larger than North Island and the Cook Strait lies between islands. South Island is much more mountainous, without recent volcanic activity. The Southern Alps running along South Island contain 17 peaks of 3000 meters, the highest top is Mount Cook, and it is 3764 meters high. The central part of island is a high volcanic plateau, where the most of the population live. You can find on the island many volcanoes (the Egmont is one of the largest), geysers (the Great Berta is of 15 meters high), boiling pools and ribbon lakes. The nature of South Island is very beautiful with its Alps and lakes, with one of the most attractive and highest waterfalls in the world. The Sunderland Falls is 600 meters high.

There are many lakes in South Island. The main rivers of the country are the Waikato, the Rangitata, and the Clutha. The rivers are mostly swift flowing; shallow and only few are navigable.

New Zealand has evergreen plants such as pine, fern, moss; eucalyptus. Forests of exotic pines occupy four thousand hectares. This is the largest area of planted forests in the world. A pine in New Zealand grows five times faster than in the USA. The country has 10 national parks.

The fauna is not very rich. There are few native animals in the country. Many were resettled, some of which are the rabbit, the deer, the wild bore, the fox, the hedgehog, the wild cat, and the rat. The whales may be seen in various parts of the coast. The bird life of New Zealand is rather rich. You can see a lot of birds of bright colors: the duck, the black swan (nearly 10 thousand on one lake), the dove, the caca (New Zealand parrot), the albatross (sea gull), and others. The most interesting bird of the country is the kiwi, which you can see only in this country. This bird has no tail, no wings, it can't fly. This bird becomes the emblem of the country. In many countries New Zealanders are known as Kiwis.

The capital of the country is Wellington (350 th.). It is a great port and also financial, commercial and transport center of the country. The other main ports are Auckland and Christchurch.

New Zealand is rich in natural resources, but few have been extensively exploited. The country is rich in coal, natural gas, timber, iron ores, uranium, oil, gold and aluminum. The most significant feature of New Zealand's industry in recent years is the development of heavy industry. Oil refinery and aluminum plant, steel mill are in operation now Woodworking, pulp and paper industries are highly developed too. The country has a lot of power stations. New Zealand's climate with rainfalls all the year round is very favorable for dairying, ship-farming and cattle-farming. Extensive export trade is carried the meat, fish, fruit, honey. New Zealand is the second exporter of wool after Australia. Tourism now is the important sector of country's economy. New Zealand is famous for its fishing, snow sports, mountaineering, sailing, and hiking.

New Zealand is a capitalist self-governing state and a member of the Сommonwealth. Formally the head of the country is the Queen of England, represented by the Governor General appointed for a period of 5 years. The country has no Constitution. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of Representatives. The 92 members of the Parliament are elected by the population for a period of three years. The Prime Minister is the head of the Parliament. The main political parties are the Labour Party, the National Party of New Zealand.

The flag of New Zealand has two main features: the red, white and blue Union Jack in the upper left quarter and four-star Southern Cross in the right half. On the blue state flag the stars are red outlined in white.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:

1) New Zealand is situated in the southern hemisphere, isn't it?

2) What climate has New Zealand?

3) Who are the inhabitants of New Zealand?

4 )What do you know about flora of this country?

5) What is the highest mountain in New Zealand?

6) What are the planted pine forests of New Zealand famous for?

7) Does the pine grow faster, in New Zealand or in the USA?

8) What natural resources is the country rich in?

9) Who is represented the Queen of England in New Zealand?

5 Give correct word to the definition:

- a medium - …

- the amount of water falling - …

- to have - …

- a broad, flat area - …

- not very deep - …

- always green - …

- to use for profit - …

- important - …

- walking for a long distance - …

6 Say whether these statements are true or false:

a) New Zealand is an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of

Nations.

b) New Zealand is situated southwest of Australia.

c) New Zealand consists of five large islands.

d) The population of New Zealand is about 3.3 million people.

e) New Zealand has a wet, subtropical climate.

f) The capital of the country is Wellington.

g) New Zealand is hardly rich in natural resources.

i) Formally the head of the country is the Queen of England.

j) The Prime Minister is the head of the Congress.

7 Discussion. Expand on the statements:

1) The majority of the population in New Zealand is of British origin.

2) New Zealand has a mild climate.

3) The nature of New Zealand is very beautiful.

4) New Zealand is rich in mineral resources.

5) New Zealand is a capitalist self-governing state and a member of the Сommonwealth.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Read the text “The Politics of New Zealand” and render it due to the plan

- I’ve read the text under the title …

- This text is about …

- It tells us about …

- It should be said, that …

- Summarizing I would like to mention …

- I think that the text ...

The Politics of New Zealand

New Zealand's Founding Document

Signed in 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi is an agreement between the British Crown and Maori. It established British law in New Zealand, while at the same time guaranteeing Maori authority over their land and culture. The Treaty is considered New Zealand's founding document.

After Captain Cook's exploration of New Zealand in the late 18th century, an increasing number of settlers came to New Zealand. By 1839, there were an estimated 2000 Pakeha (Europeans) living in New Zealand. In 1833, after increasing lawlessness amongst traders and settlers, the British government appointed James Busby as British Resident to protect British trading interests and counter the growing lawlessness.

In 1835, the French were looking to trade and settle in New Zealand and had started to buy land. In response to this, the British Crown signed a Declaration of Independence with 34 northern Maori Chiefs. This declared New Zealand an independent state under British rule. It also stated that 'no claim could be made on New Zealand without Maori agreement.

Despite Busby's presence, lawlessness, and the number of dubious land sales to Pakeha, increased. The British Government decided there was a need for some effective rule in New Zealand. In 1840, they sent Captain William Hobson there as Lieutenant-Governor. His mission was to acquire the Sovereignty of New Zealand, by way of a treaty with the native Maori Chiefs.

A Treaty of Waitangi was drawn up and translated. After a day of debate, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed on February 6, 1840, at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. Forty-three Northland Chiefs signed the treaty on that day. Over 500 Maori Chiefs signed it as it was taken around the country during the next eight months.

The grounds and building where the treaty was signed have been preserved. Today, the Waitangi Historic Reserve is a popular tourist attraction. There is a large Maori meeting house, the colonial mission house, an historic flagstaff, as well as a very long waka taua (Maori war canoe).

The English and Maori versions of the treaty both contain three articles. However, as the Treaty was written and translated by people with little or no legal experience, the Maori translation differs widely in interpretation from the English version.

The first article covers sovereignty. The English version states that Maori give up their “kawanatanga” (governorship or sovereignty) to the British Crown. However, while the English version describes a complete transference of power to the Crown, the Maori version implies a sharing of power.

The second article concerns “tino rangatiratanga” or chieftainship. The Maori version promises much broader rights for Maori in regard to possession of their existing “taonga” (treasures). The English version gives Maori control over their lands, forests, fisheries, and other properties. But the Maori version, with its use of the word “taonga”, implies possession and protection of things such as language and culture. The third Article promises Maori the rights of all British subjects, while protecting traditional and customary rights.

Text 10 WELLINGTON

1 Answer the following questions before reading the text:

1) Have you ever been to Wellington?

2) Where is Wellington situated?

3) Is Wellington a capital city? What country?

4) What do you know of New Zealand?

5) What places of interest are there in New Zealand?

2 Say what these geographical names mean:

Kapiti Coast

Wairarapa

Te Papa Tongarewa

Kaikoura Ranges

Mokopuna

3 Read the text to know more about Wellington:

Wellington is the capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area and the most populous national capital in Oceania. It is in the Wellington region at the southern tip of the North Island, near the geographical centre of the country.

Like many cities, Wellington's urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority. Greater Wellington or the Wellington Region means the entire urban area, plus the rural parts of the cities and the Kapiti Coast, and across the Rimutaka Range to the Wairarapa.

Wellington was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor at the Battle of Waterloo. The Duke's title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. Wellington is New Zealand's political centre, housing Parliament and the head offices of all government ministries and departments.

Wellington's compact city centre supports an arts scene, café, culture and nightlife much larger than most cities of a similar size. It is a centre of New Zealand's film and theatre industry. Te Papa Tongarewa (the Museum of New Zealand), the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, the Royal New Zealand Ballet and the biennial International Festival of the Arts are all sited there.

Wellington has the 12th best quality of living in the world, according to a 2006 study by consulting company Mercer. Of cities with English as the primary language, Wellington ranked fourth.

In 1865 Wellington became the capital of New Zealand, replacing Auckland, where William Hobson had established his capital in 1841. Parliament first sat in Wellington on 7 July 1862, but the city did not become the official capital for some time. In November 1863 the Premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution before Parliament (in Auckland) that "... it has become necessary that the seat of government ... should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait." Apparently there was concern that the southern regions, where the gold fields were located, would form a separate colony. Commissioners from Australia pronounced the opinion that Wellington was suitable because of its harbour and central location. Parliament officially sat in Wellington for the first time on 26 July 1865. The population of Wellington was then 4,900.

Wellington is the seat of New Zealand's highest court, the Supreme Court of New Zealand. The historic former High Court building is to be refurbished for the court's use.

Wellington stands at the south-western tip of the North Island on Cook Strait, the passage that separates the North and South Islands. On a clear day the snowcapped Kaikoura Ranges are visible to the south across the strait. To the north stretch the golden beaches of the Kapiti Coast. On the east the Rimutaka Range divides Wellington from the broad plains of the Wairarapa, a wine region of national acclaim.

Wellington Harbour has three islands: Matiu/Somes Island, Makaro/Ward Island and Mokopuna. Only Matiu/Somes Island is large enough for settlement. It has been used as a quarantine station for people and animals and as an internment camp during the First and Second World Wars. It is now a conservation island, providing refuge for endangered species, much like Kapiti Island further up the coast. There is access during daylight hours by the Dominion Post Ferry.

The population of Wellington, including the outlying areas, is approaching 400,000. In the 2001 census, 18.5 percent of people were under 15, compared with 22.7 percent for New Zealand. About 8.6 percent of people were aged 65 and over, compared with 12.1 percent for New Zealand. 85.6 percent of people in Wellington city said they are of European ethnic origin. Around 4.1 percent are Māori, with the remainder being of Pacific Islander, Asian or other ethnicity.

Wellington is the arts and culture capital of New Zealand, and is the centre of the nation's film industry. Peter Jackson, Richard Taylor, and a growing team of creative professionals have managed to turn the eastern suburb of Miramar into one of the world's finest film-making infrastructures. Directors like Jane Campion and Vincent Ward have managed to reach the world's screens with their independent spirit. Emerging Kiwi film-makers, like Taika Waititi, Charlie Bleakley, Costa Botes and Jennifer Bush-Daumec, are extending the Wellington-based lineage and cinematic scope.

Wellington is home to Te Papa Tongarewa (the Museum of New Zealand), The Museum of Wellington City and Sea, The Katherine Mansfield Birthplace Museum, Colonial Cottage, The New Zealand Cricket Museum, The Cable Car Museum, The Reserve Bank Museum, the national opera company, New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, City Gallery, Chamber Music New Zealand, Royal New Zealand Ballet, St James' Theatre, Downstage Theatre, Bats Theatre and Arts Foundation of New Zealand.

As a capital city, Wellington is home to diplomatic missions with cultural officers ready to interface with these aspects of the City's life. In the early part of the 21st century, Wellington has confirmed its place as a vibrant centre of arts, culture, and creativity in the South Pacific.

4 Comprehension check. Answer the following questions:

1) Where is Wellington situated?

2) Why was it named Wellington?

3) What is Wellington like?

4) When did it become the capital of New Zealand?

5) What have you learnt about Wellington Harbour?

6) What is the population of Wellington?

7) Why is Wellington the arts and culture capital of New Zealand?

8) What do you know about Wellington film industry?

9) What popular museums are there in Wellington?

10) What has Wellington confirmed in the beginning of the 21st century?

5 Fill in the gaps:

1) Wellington's … … extends beyond the boundaries of a single local authority.

2) Commissioners from Australia … the opinion that Wellington was suitable because of its … and central location.

3) On a clear day the … Kaikoura Ranges are … to the south across the strait.

4) It has been used as a … … for people and animals and as an … … during the First and Second World Wars.

5) Directors like Jane Campion and Vincent Ward have … to reach the world's … with their … ….

6) Wellington has … its place as a … … of arts, culture, and creativity in the South Pacific.

6 Say whether these statements true or false:

a) The population of Wellington, including the outlying areas, is approaching

400,000.

b) Wellington has the 12th best quality of living in the world.

c) In 1965 Wellington became the capital of New Zealand.

d) Wellington is the capital of New Zealand, the country's third largest urban area and

the most populous national capital in Oceania.

e) All the islands of Wellington Harbour are large enough for settlement.

f) 70 percent of people in Wellington city say they are of European ethnic origin.

g) Wellington is New Zealand's political centre, housing Congress and the head

offices of all government ministries and departments.

h) Wellington stands at the south-western tip of the North Island on Cook Strait.

i) Wellington is the centre of the nation's space industry.

7 Discussion. Expand on the statements:

1) The majority of the population in Wellington is of European origin.

2) Wellington's compact city centre supports an arts scene, café, culture and nightlife

greater than most cities of a similar size.

3) Wellington is the political centre of New Zealand.

4) Wellington is the arts and culture capital of New Zealand.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Read the text “History and Geography of Wellington” and render it due to the plan:

- I’ve read the text under the title …

- This text is about …

- It reads that …

- It should be said, that …

- Summarizing everything I would like to mention …

- I think that the text ...

History and Geography of Wellington

Legend recounts that Kupe discovered and explored the district in about the tenth century.

European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory , on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. The settlers constructed their first homes at Petone (which they called Britannia for a time) on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River. When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans without regard for a more hilly terrain. Wellington has some extremely steep streets running straight up the sides of hills.

In Maori, Wellington goes by three names. Te Whanganui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means “the great harbour of Tara”; Poneke , which is often discouraged because of a belief that it is nothing more than a transliteration of the harbour’s former nickname in English, Port Nick , short for Port Nicholson ; Te Upoko-o-te-Ika-a-Maui , meaning The Head of the Fish of Maui (often shortened to Te Upoko-o-te-Ika ), a more traditional name, as favoured by Victoria University of Wellington.

Wellington suffered serious damage in a series of earthquakes in 1848 and from another earthquake in 1855. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on a fault line to the north and east of Wellington. It ranks as probably the most powerful earthquake in recorded New Zealand history, with an estimated magnitude of at least 8.2 on the Richter scale. It caused vertical movements of two to three metres over a large area, including raising an area of land out of the harbour and turning it into a tidal swamp. Much of this land was subsequently reclaimed and is now part of Wellington's central business district. For this reason the street named Lambton Quay now runs 100 to 200 metres from the harbour. Plaques set into the footpath along Lambton Quay mark the shoreline in 1840 and thus indicate the extent of the uplift and of subsequent reclamation.

The area has high seismic activity even by New Zealand standards, with a major fault line running through the centre of the city, and several others nearby. Several hundred more minor fault lines have been identified within the urban area. The inhabitants, particularly those in high-rise buildings, typically notice several earthquakes every year. For many years after the 1855 earthquake, the majority of buildings constructed in Wellington were made entirely from wood. The 1996-restored Government Buildings, near Parliament and the Railway Station, are the largest wooden office building in the Southern Hemisphere. While masonry and structural steel have subsequently been used in building construction, especially for office buildings, timber framing remains the primary structural component of almost all residential construction. Residents also place their hopes of survival in good building regulations, which gradually became more stringent in the course of the 20th century.

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