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Учебное пособие: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета

Название: Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

Высшего профессионального образования

«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Гогенко В.В., Пасько О.В.

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ И КОНТОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ

по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 1 курса исторического факультета

Выпуск 1

Ростов – на – Дону

2007

Учебно-методические указания разработаны преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов В.В. Гогенко, преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов О.В. Пасько.

Ответственный редактор доц. С.Л. Баркова

Компьютерный набор и верстка преп. В.В. Гогенко, преп. О.В. Пасько

Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ, протокол № 4 от 19 октября 2007г.


МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определенной Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

В выпуске 1 представлены варианты контрольного задания №1.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

Левая страница

Правая страница

Поля Английский текст

Русский текст Поля

Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет, отделение и фамилию студента. Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания; остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала.

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или неполностью, она возвращается без проверки.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №1

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1 Имя существительное . Множественное число. Артикли и предлоги как показатели имени существительного. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания -s. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык. Притяжательный падеж имен существительных.

2 Имя прилагательное . Степени сравнения имен прилагательных. Наречия.

3 Числительные: количественные, порядковые, употребление артикля с числительными.

4 Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные.

5 Видо - временные формы глагола :

формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future);

формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future);

формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future);

формы Perfect Continuous (Present)

в активном залоге. Спряжение глагола to be, to have в Indefinite (Present, Past и Future). Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма.

6 Простое распространенное предложение : порядок слов повествовательного, побудительного, вопросительного и отрицательного предложения. Безличное предложение с формальным подлежащим it. Оборот there +to be.

7 Основные случаи словообразования : суффиксы и префиксы существительных, прилагательных, глаголов; отрицательные префиксы.


Образец выполнения контрольного задания №1

Левая страница Правая страница

№1 Поставьте глагол to be в нужную форму (Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

1) Two heads … better than one.

1) Two heads are better than one.

Две головы лучше, чем одна.

Поля

2) The weather … sunny yesterday.

2) The weather was sunny yesterday. Погода была солнечной вчера.

№2 Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple, and Future Continuous), перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) I (see) him yesterday

1) I saw him yesterday.

Я Я виделся с ним вчера.

Поля

2) I just (read) the book.

2) 2) I have just read the book.

Я Я только что прочитал книгу.

№3 Выберите правильный вариант, перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите грамматическое время, которое вы выберите (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous; Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous; Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous).

Поля

1) She … for a seminar in the library now.

a) is preparing

b) prepares

c) has prepared

1) a)

Она сейчас готовится к семинару в библиотеке. – Present Continuous

Поля

2) Who … the window?

a) broke

b) is breaking

c) has broken

2) c)

Кто разбил окно? – Present Perfect

№4 a) Вставьте недостающие формы степеней сравнения прилагательных в таблицу: сравнительную (Comparative Degree ), превосходную (Superlative Degree ) или положительную (Positive Degree ) степени сравнения. Исправьте ошибки в образовании степеней сравнения и переведите прилагательные на русский язык:

Поля

1) Few 2) 3)the most few

1) Few-fewer-the fewest

Поля

b) Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

Поля

2) He is not as tall as his father.

2) Он не такой высокий как его отец.

Поля

№5 Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число и переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) This is a box.

2) These are the boxes.

Это коробки.

Поля

№6 Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case). Перепишите преобразованные предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык:

Поля

1) The text book of my classmate.

1) My classmate’s text book.

Учебник моего одногрупника.

Поля

№7 Закончите предложение, выбрав нужную часть речи: прилагательное (Adjective ) или наречие (Adverb ). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

Поля

1) He was very (happy/happily)

1) He was very happy .

Он был очень счастлив.

Поля

Вариант №1

№1 Поставьте глагол to be в нужную форму (Present Simple, Past simple, Future Simple ). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 Now I …… free, but last week I ……. very busy.

2 Today some pupils ……. absent, but yesterday they ……. all present at the lesson.

3 Last month they ……. in the Hermitage. There …… an interesting exhibition.

4 …… you …… at home tomorrow?

5 Where …… you last night? I called you up several times, but there ……. no answer.

6 Ann …… a student now, but three months ago she …… a schoolgirl.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case ). Перепишите преобразованные предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 The ball of the boy.

2 This is the chair of my grandmother.

3 The skateboard of that man.

4 He was a friend of my cousin.

5 Give me the books of these students.

6 The songs of the children.

7 The umbrella of my grandmother.

8 It was the best holiday of my parents

№3 Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous), перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 His father (not to watch) TV at the moment. He (to sleep) because he (to be) tired.

2 I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday.

3 We (to grow) tomatoes next summer.

4 Max (not to be) here. He (to wash) his car.

5 If he still (to have) a cold and (not to feel) better, he (not to go) to a disco.

6 What you (to do) at 5 o’clock yesterday? – I (to play) piano.

7 The girl (to cook) dinner when the lights (to go) out.

8 I (to play) chess tomorrow.

9 When my friend (to come) to St. Petersburg, we shall go to the Russian Museum.

10 Her neighbor usually (to get up) at 7 o’clock in the morning. But it’s 8 o’clock already and he (to sleep) still.

№4 Закончите предложение, выбрав нужную часть речи: прилагательное ( Adjective ) или наречие ( Adverb ) . Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 Two people were …… injured in the accident. (serious / seriously)

2 Rose is …… upset about losing her job. (terrible / terribly)

3 There was a …… change in the weather. (sudden / suddenly)

4 Everybody at the party was …… dressed. (colorful / colorfully)

5 Liz fell and hurt herself quite ……. .(bad / badly)

№5 Выберите правильный вариант, перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык: Укажите грамматическое время, которое вы выберите (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous; Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous; Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous ).

1 My father …… in his room.

1

a) was working

b) is working

c) will working

d) would be working

2 The children …… when we came.

2

a) were eating

b) ate

c) are eating

d) eat

3 I ……. tomorrow from 6 till 10.

3

a) am working

b) will work

c) work

d) will be working

4 The girl ……. a big dog now.

4

a) see

b)is seeing

c) sees

d) will be seeing

5 A girl ……. to school tomorrow.

5

a) go

b) went

c) will go

d) goes

6 Picasso …… pictures.

6

a) was painting

b) had painted

c) painted

d) has painted

7 At three o’clock this morning, Eleanor …….

7

a) studied

b) was studying

c) had studied

d) has been studying

8 Simon met his wife while she …… at his hospital.

8

a) work

b) works

c) has worked

d) was working

9 John ……. in the same house since 1962 and is going to live there.

9

a) has lived

b) lived

c) was living

d) is living

10 We …… our reports yet.

10

a) had written

b) haven’t written

c) wrote

d) write

№6 а) Вставьте недостающие формы степеней сравнения прилагательных в таблицу: сравнительную (Comparative Degree ), превосходную (Superlative Degree ) или положительную (Positive Degree )степени сравнения. Исправьте ошибки в образовании степеней сравнения и переведите прилагательные на русский язык:

long

the most long

heavy

heavyer

more interesting

biger

bigest

famous

the most famous

deep

deepper

difficult

difficulter

the best

elder

the eldest

less

b) Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1 English is as difficult as German.

2 He worked harder and harder as the end of the term came nearer.

3 The sooner the faster.

4 The new cinema in our district is much bigger than the old one.

5 The hotel is not as cheap as we expected.

6 He is one of the most dangerous criminals in the world.

№7 Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 This is a spy.

2 That is not a queen.

3 It’s a sheep.

4 Is that a man?

5 That blouse was made of silk.

6 This boy has a good coat.

7 It was a difficult question to answer.

8 Put this knife on that table.

9 I heard her voice.

10 This story will be a good one.

№8 Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 1,2,4,7 абзацы.

Salt Lake City, Utah

1) Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S., state of Utah. The city was founded in 1847 by a group of Mormon pioneers led by their prophet, Brigham Young, who fled hostility and violence in the Midwest. Mining booms and the construction of the first transcontinental railroad initially brought economic growth. In the 21st century the city has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourism industry (skiing and biking), become the industrial banking center of the U.S, and served as host to the 2002 Winter Olympics.

2) The first Europeans to settle in the valley were the Latter-day Saints on July 24, 1847. They had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States seeking an isolated area to practice their religion, away from the hostility they had faced in the East. They found the large valley empty of any human settlement. Only four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the site for the Salt Lake Temple.

3) Constructed on Temple Square, in\on the center of …… city, the temple took 40 years to complete, being started in\at 1853 and dedicated on April 6, 1893. ……temple has become iconic of the city and is the centerpiece of the city. The Mormon pioneers organized …… new state and …… United States Congress established the Utah Territory. Great Salt Lake City became its capital in 1858. The city is located in\on the northeast corner of the Salt Lake Valley. The Jordan River flows through\across the city and is drainage of Utah Lake that empties into the Great Salt Lake. …… highest mountaintop visible from\out of Salt Lake City is Twin Peaks, which reaches 11,489 feet (3502 m).

4) As Salt Lake City is the headquarters for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), there are many historic and actual LDS sites around the city. The largest is Temple Square, which includes the Salt Lake Temple and visitors’ centers that are open to the public, free of charge. Temple Square also includes the historic Tabernacle, home of the world-famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir. The Family History Library, the largest genealogical library in the world, is located just west of Temple Square. It is run by the LDS Church and is open to the public and free of charge.

5) Near the mouth of Emigration Canyon lies This Is The Place Heritage Park, which recreates typical 19th century LDS pioneer life. Hogle Zoo is located across\through the street from …… park. …… City’s largest public park, Liberty Park features …… lake with\since an island in …… middle and the Tracy Aviary. The park is home to a large number of birds, both wild and in the aviary. The Bonneville Shoreline Trail is …… popular hiking and biking nature trail which spans ninety …… miles through the foothills of the Wasatch Front.

6) Tourism to the city has increased as\like …… result of the 2002 Winter Olympics held in Salt Lake. The former Olympic venues are …… very popular attractions for many visitors. The Utah Olympic Park features the Olympic ski jumps, too \as well as bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton runs. Today, the Olympic Park is used for year-round training and competitions. The Utah Olympic Oval was …… home to …… speed skating events and is now open for\to the public.

7) Salt Lake City is also home to a few major shopping centers. Trolley Square is an indoor and outdoor mall with many independent art boutiques, restaurants, and national retailers. The Gateway District, an outdoor shopping mall, is the city’s newest major shopping center and has many national restaurants, clothing retailers, a movie theater, the Clark Planetarium, the Discovery Gateway, a music venue called The Depot, and the Olympic Legacy Plaza.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1) What religion is connected with the name of Salt Lake City?

2) What is the center of the city?

3) Why is Salt Lake City so attractive for visitors?

4) What places in the city are interesting for visitors?

№10 Заполните пропуски словами из рамки:

prophet temple saint aviary heritage church hostility settlement

1) A ………… is a building for public worship in certain religions.

2) A ………… is a small village in an area with few people.

3) A ………… is the organization of Christian believers.

4) A ………… is a person officially recognized after death as specially holy and worthy of formal honor in the Christian church.

5) An ………… is a large cage for keeping birds in.

6) ………… is something which is passed down over many years within a family or nation.

7) A ………... is a man who believes that he is directed by God to make known and explain God’s will and/or to lead or teach a religion.

№11 Прочитайте 3,5,6 абзацы текста. Заполните пропуски артиклями a , the , где необходимо, и выберите из выделенных предлогов правильный вариант и перепишите переделанные абзацы текста в тетрадь.


Вариант №2

№1 Поставьте глагол to be в нужную форму (Present Simple, Past simple, Future Simple ). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 How old …… Bob when he went to school?

2 Last year we …… given a lot of written homework in English, but this year we …… given few exercises to be done in writing.

3 Tomorrow at noon I …… at home, you can call me and I will answer all your questions.

4 There …… a very interesting film on at our club last night.

5 …… this your watch? – Yes it …….

6 …… there …… a lecture tomorrow?

№2 Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case ). Перепишите преобразованные предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 The room of my friend.

2 I like the handwriting of this boy.

3 The questions of my son.

4 The children of my brother are at home.

5 The wife of my brother.

6 I heard the voices of the boys.

7 The table of our teacher.

8 Bring me the things of your children.

№3 Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple, and Future Continuous), перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 My uncle (not to like) coffee.

2 What he (to read) now? I cannot (to see) the name of the book.

3 Before you (to cross) the park, you will come to a supermarket.

4 What will you be doing when he (to come) to your place?

5 How you (to fell) now?

6 Where your cousin (to work)? – He (to work) at a hospital.

7 What she (to talk) about right now?

8 Michael (to know) German rather well. He (to want) to know English, too, but he (to have) little time for it now.

9 We (to go) to the country the day after tomorrow.

10 My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother about the house. She (to help) mother about the house.

№4 Закончите предложение, выбрав нужную часть речи: прилагательное ( Adjective ) или наречие ( Adverb ) . Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 Linda likes wearing ……. .clothes.(colorful / colorfully)

2 The driver of the car had …… injuries. (serious / seriously)

3 I think you behaved very …… . (selfish / selfishly)

4 Joe says he didn’t do well at school because he felt …… (bad / badly)

5 Don’t go up that ladder. It doesn’t look …… (safe / safely)

№5 Выберите правильный вариант, перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык: Укажите грамматическое время, которое вы выберите (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous; Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous; Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous ).

1 After John …… his clothes, he began to study.

1

a) had washed

b) washed

c) was washing

d) washes

2 George …… this movie three times.

2

a) sees

b) have seen

c) has seen

d) is seeing

3 I …… in Moscow before I moved to St. Petersburg.

3

a) lived

b) live

c) had lived

d) has been living

4 …… “Gone with the Wind” before?

4

a) Did you see

b) Have you seen

c) Would you see

d) Has you seen

5 ……. a car when they were living in Cheltenham?

5

a) Were they having b) Did they have

c) Have they

d) Have they had

6 Alex …… here for six months.

6

a) has been working

b) had been working

c) works

d) had worked

7 We can’t go out now. It’s …… hard.

7

a) rains

b) is raining

c) rained

d) was raining

8 Peggy …… the glass when she was having lunch.

8

a) broke

b) was breaking

c) has broken

d) breaks

9 At 9 o’clock tomorrow …… the sink.

9

a) I’ll be fixing

b) I’ll fix

c) I fix

d) I am fixing

10 Who …… into the house last week?

10

a) breaks

b) broke

c) does break

d) did break

№6 а) Вставьте недостающие формы степеней сравнения прилагательных в таблицу: сравнительную (Comparative Degree ), превосходную (Superlative Degree ) или положительную (Positive Degree )степени сравнения. Исправьте ошибки в образовании степеней сравнения и переведите прилагательные на русский язык:

the least

fat

fater

kind

the kindest

more anxious

worse

the worst

good

more clever

the most clever

fashionable

the more fashionable

short

shortter

happy

b) Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1 It is not as warm as it was yesterday.

2 My dog is as friendly as your dog.

3 The tram system isn’t as reliable as it used to be.

4 Better late than never.

5 Which is the hottest month of the year?

6 He is as tired as you.

№7 Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 That is a fly.

2 That is not a bus.

3 It’s a deer.

4 Is this a woman?

5 This was an excellent painting.

6 My uncle has a large flat.

7 This strawberry is still green.

8 He keeps his toy in a box.

9 The child is sitting on the bench.

10 She will be a good wife.

№8 Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 2, 3, 4, 5 абзацы.

Bath, Somerset

1) Bath is a city in Somerset, …… England, most famous for\by its historic baths fed by three …… hot springs. The city is founded around ……. only naturally occurring hot springs in …… United Kingdom. It was first documented as …… Roman spa. The waters from its spring were believed to be …… cure for many afflictions. Since\From Elizabethan up\to Georgian times it was …… resort city for the wealthy. As a result of its popularity during\for the latter period …… city contains many fine examples of …… Georgian architecture, most notably the Royal Crescent. The heart of the Georgian city was the Pump Room.

2) The archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman Baths' main spring was treated as a shrine by the Celts, and dedicated to the goddess Sulis. The Romans probably occupied Bath shortly after their invasion of Britain in 43 AD. They knew it as Aquae Sulis (literally "the waters of Sul"), identifying the goddess with Minerva. In Roman times the worship of Sulis Minerva continued and messages to her scratched onto metal have been recovered from the Sacred Spring by archaeologists. These are known as curse tablets. These curse tablets were written in Latin, and usually laid curses on other people, whom they feel had done them wrong.

3) During the Roman period increasingly grand temples and bathing complexes were built, including the Great Bath. Rediscovered gradually from the 18th century onward, they have become one of the city's main attractions. The city was given defensive walls, probably in the 3d century. From the later 4th century on, the Western Roman Empire and its urban life declined. However, while the great suite of baths at Bath fell into disrepair, some use of the hot springs continued.

4) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions Bath falling to the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. The Anglo-Saxons called the town Baðum , meaning "at the baths," and this was the source of the present name. The old town within the walls was also largely rebuilt. The architects John Wood the elder and his son John Wood the younger laid out the new quarters in streets and squares, the identical facades of which gave an impression of palatial scale and classical decorum. Bath is connected to Bristol and the sea by the River Avon, navigable via locks by small boats.

5) Sally Lunn's buns have long been baked in Bath. They were first mentioned by that name in verses printed in a local newspaper, the Bath Chronicle , in 1772. At that time they were eaten hot at public breakfasts in the city's Spring Gardens. They can be eaten with sweet or savory toppings.

6) Bath's principal industry is tourism, with visits mainly falling into the categories of …… heritage tourism and cultural tourism. …… All significant stages of the history of England are represented within\without the city, from …… Roman Baths to Bath Abbey and the Royal Crescent, to Thermae Bath Spa in the 2000s. While many tourists come to\in Bath to see the city at\in general, some are attracted by\to particular aspects of the city, such as the Jane Austen landmarks or the Roman Baths.

7) Of Bath's notable buildings, Bath Abbey is one of …… most striking. Originally …… Norman church on earlier foundations, it was rebuilt in the early 16th century. The dominant style of architecture in Bath is Georgian. …… best known off\of Bath's terraces is the Royal Crescent, built between 1767 and 1774 and designed with\by the younger John Wood.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1) What is the historical center of the old part of the city?

2) What goddess did the Romans identify the city with?

3) Why do many people visit Bath today?

4) What places can people see in the city?

№10 Заполните пропуски словами из рамки:

site temple heritage worship spring spa crescent

1) ………… is the act of showing great respect, admiration, especially to a god or goddess.

2) A ………… is a place where water comes up naturally from the ground.

3) A ………… is a place where something of special interest existed or happened.

4) A ………… is a building for public worship in certain religions.

5) ………… is something which is passed down over many years within a family or nation.

6) A ………… is the curved shape of the moon during its first and last quarters, when it forms less than half a circle.

7) A ………… is a place with a spring of mineral water where people come for cures of various diseases.

№11 Прочитайте 1, 6, 7 абзацы текста. Заполните пропуски артиклями a , the , где необходимо, и выберите из выделенных предлогов правильный вариант и перепишите переделанные абзацы текста в тетрадь.

Вариант №3

№1 Поставьте глагол to be в нужную форму (Present Simple, Past simple, Future Simple ). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 Ronald …… with family now. His sons …… so much excited. They have dot new toys from their father.

2 Everybody in the family …… very glad to see him at home again.

3 ……. your father in a restaurant yesterday?

4 There ……. an international students’ club at the university.

5 The house …… clean. There ……. dirty dishes on the kitchen table and in the sink.

6 There …… some students in the hall.

№2 Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case ). Перепишите преобразованные предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 The poems by Pushkin.

2 The voice of this girl.

3 The name of this girl is Jane.

4 The new club of the workers.

5 The letter of Pete.

6 The eyes of the cat were green.

7 The car of my parents.

8 I can hear the steps of my sister.

№3 Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous), перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 Jenny (to wait) for me when I (to arrive) yesterday.

2 Don’t put the dictionary away. I (to use) it.

3 This room (to smell). Open the window.

4 You (to have) time to write a letter? – No, I didn’t.

5 Rice (not to grow) in cold climates.

6 I (to walk) when I met Dave.

7 Can we (to meet) tomorrow? – Yes, but not in the afternoon. I (to work).

8 At 11.45 he (to drive) tomorrow.

9 An atheist (not to believe) in God.

10 If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report.

№4 Закончите предложение, выбрав нужную часть речи: прилагательное ( Adjective ) или наречие ( Adverb ) . Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 Our holiday was too short. The time passed very ……. (quick / quickly)

2 Steve doesn’t take risks when he’s driving. He is always …… (careful / carefully)

3 Sue works ……. . She never seems to stop. (continuous / continuously)

4 Jack and Rachel are very ……. married. (happy / happily)

5 Maria’s English is very ……. although she makes quite a lot of mistakes. (fluent / fluently)

№5 Выберите правильный вариант, перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык: Укажите грамматическое время, которое вы выберите (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous; Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous; Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous ).

1 If the bus ….... come soon, I’ll be late.

1

a) doesn’t

b) won’t

c) will

d) wasn’t

2 It’s only a short trip. I …… back in a week.

2

a) will

b) was

c) have been

d) will be

3 People ….. on the right in Britain.

3

a) have driven

b)are driving

c) had driven

d) drive

4 By the time I saw her again, she …… Tom.

4

a) marries

b) married

c) had already married

d) was marring

5 Dolphins and whales are mammals. They …… air.

5

a) are breathing

b) haven’t breathed

c) breathe

d) are not breathing

6 Charles …… just like his father.

6

a) looks

b) is looking

c) was looking

d) have looked

7 We …… for Peter since 5 o’clock.

7

a) wait

b) waited

c) were waiting

d) have been waiting

8 We will have learned the poem by the time they ……

8

a) will have come

b) will come

c) come

d) will be coming

9 We …… to you for two hours yesterday before they came.

9

a) listened

b) had been listening

c) were listening

d) have listened

10 By the time the policeman arrived the thief …….

10

a) had disappeared

b) has disappeared

c) was disappearing

d) disappeared

№6 а) Вставьте недостающие формы степеней сравнения прилагательных в таблицу: сравнительную (Comparative Degree ), превосходную (Superlative Degree ) или положительную (Positive Degree )степени сравнения. Исправьте ошибки в образовании степеней сравнения и переведите прилагательные на русский язык:

brave

the most brave

better

small

elder

the eldest

further

easy

the most easy

more delicious

greatter

the greattest

bad

less

b) Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1 She was not as attractive as her mother.

2 This is the smallest room in our house.

3 The more we work the less we spend time with our family.

4 We started earlier than you.

5 This winter is as warm as the winter last year.

6 Which is the most beautiful place in your country?

№7 Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 That is a nanny.

2 This is not a mouse.

3 It’s a fish.

4 Is this a child?

5 It was a difficult word to write.

6 This girl has a blue sweater.

7 His child studies well.

8 This shoe is too large for my foot.

9 Has he got a camera?

10 He will be a good policeman.

№8 Прочитайте текст, перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3,4 абзацы текста:

Veliky Novgorod

1) Veliky Novgorod is the foremost historic city of …… North-Western Russia, the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. Notwithstanding its name, Novgorod is among\between …… most ancient cities among the Eastern Slavs. Of all their princes, Novgorodians cherished most the memory of …… Yaroslav the Wise, who had sat as prince while his father, Vladimir the Great, was prince in …… Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated …… first written code of\with laws among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted …… city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to\at in …… later centuries as …… precedents in their relations to\with other princes.

2) In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich. This date is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city irrespective of the Novgorodians' wishes. The city state controlled most of Europe's North-East, from today's Estonia to the Ural Mountains, making it one of the largest states in medieval Europe.

3) One of the most important local figures in Novgorod was the Posadnik or mayor, an official elected by the public assembly (called the Veche) from among the city's boyarstvo or aristocracy. The tysyatsky, or "thousandman," originally the head of the town militia but later a commercial and judicial official, was also elected by the veche. The Archbishop of Novgorod was also important local officials and shared power with the boyars. They were elected by the veche or by the drawing of lots; after their election, they were sent to the metropolitan for consecration.

4) The city-state's exact political constitution remains uncertain. The boyars and the archbishop ruled the city collectively, although where one officials power ended and another's began is uncertain. The prince, although reduced in power beginning in about the mid-twelfth century, was represented by his namestnik or lieutenant, and still played important roles as a military commander, legislator, and jurist. Novgorod was never conquered by the Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Rus. The Mongol army turned back about 100 km from the city, not due to the city's strength, but probably because the Mongol commanders did not want to get bogged down in the marshlands surrounding the city.

5) The St Sophia Cathedral was built between 1045 and 1050. It is …… best preserved from\of 11th century churches, probably …… oldest structure still for\in use in Russia and …… first one to represent original features of …… Russian architecture. The Novgorod Kremlin, traditionally known as the Detinets , also contains …… oldest palace in Russia, which served as the main meeting hall of the archbishops; …… oldest Russian bell tower, and …… oldest Russian clock tower.

6) Outside the Kremlin walls, there are …… three large churches constructed during\for the reign of Mstislav the Great. St Nicholas Cathedral (1113-23), containing …… frescoes of Mstislav’s family, graces Yaroslav's Court. The Yuriev Monastery (one of …… oldest in Russia, 1030) contains …… tall, three-domed cathedral since\from 1119. …… similar three-domed cathedral, probably designed with\by …… same masters, stands in the Antoniev Monastery, built by\on the orders of Antonii, …… founder of /by that monastery.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) Who of Russian princes did the Novgorodians respect most of all?

2) What was the structure of the Novgorod government?

3) What role did princes, boyars and archbishops play in the political life of Novgorod?

4) What ancient architectural masterpieces are well preserved today?

№10 Заполните пропуски словами из рамки:

archbishop church architecture monastery veche metropolitan constitution

1) A …………….. is a building in which monks live.

2) A …………….. is chief city or the capital city of a country.

3) A …………….. is a building for public worship in certain religion.

4) A ……………... is a priest of very high rank in charge of the churches in a large area.

5) ………………. is the style or manner of building.

6) ………………. is the laws and principles according to which a country is governed.

7) A ……………. is the meeting of a group of people very often for a special purpose.

№11 Прочитайте 1,5,6 абзацы текста. Заполните пропуски артиклями a , the , где необходимо, и выберите из выделенных предлогов правильный вариант и перепишите переделанные абзацы текста в тетрадь.

Вариант №4

№1 Поставьте глагол to be в нужную форму (Present Simple, Past simple, Future Simple ). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1 There …… not any bread in the house. You should go and buy some.

2 Vera …… afraid of snakes. I …… sorry.

3 My aunt …… very depressed last Sunday, because the weather ……. terrible.

4 Where …… your books now? – They ……. in my bag.

5 …… you from Moscow? – No, I …… from Tomsk.

6 …… there any milk in the jug? Should I go and buy some?

№2 Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case ). Перепишите преобразованные предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 The life of this woman.

2 The work of these students is interesting.

3 The handbags of these women.

4 The flat of my sister is large.

5 The computer of my son is modern.

6 Have you seen the hat of my neighbor?

7 I love the books of my husband.

8 What is the name of that man?

№3 Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous), перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 When he (to watch) TV, the telephone (to ring).

2 I (to get hungry). Let’s go and eat.

3 When I (to be) young I (to want) to be a pilot.

4 In an hour the cinema (to be) full. Everyone (to watch) the film.

5 Last night I (to drop) a plate when I (to do) the washing.

6 Alan says he’s 80 years old, but nobody (to believe) him.

7 Nick (to think) of giving up his job.

8 Who this umbrella (to belong)?

9 I (to stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to bring) tickets.

10 Look! Kate (to go) to school.

№4 Закончите предложение, выбрав нужную часть речи: прилагательное ( Adjective ) или наречие ( Adverb ) . Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 I cooked this meal …… for you, so I hope you like it. (special / specially)

2 Everything was very quiet. There was …… silence. (complete / completely)

3 I tried on the shoes and they fitted me ……. . (perfect / perfectly)

4 Do you usually feel …… before examinations? (nervous / nervously)

5 I’d like to buy a car, but it’s ……. impossible for me at the moment. (financial / financially)

№5 Выберите правильный вариант, перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык: Укажите грамматическое время, которое вы выберите (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous; Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous; Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous ):

1 I …… the river three times before noon. (It’s morning now.)

1

a) have crossed

b) had crossed

c) shall have crossed

d) had been crossed

2 You can’t see Tom now, he …… a bath.

2

a) is having

b) has

c) have

d) has had

3 Many people …… he was the greatest figure skater of all time.

3

a) is believing

b) are believing

c) believe

d) believed

4 The manager ……. a few minutes ago.

4

a) left

b) leaves

c) had left

d) had been leaving

5 He phoned to say he …… his bag in my car.

5

a) forgot

b) has left

c) had left

d) has forgotten

6 Nobody knows when it last …… in Shri-Lanka.

6

a) has snowed

b) snowed

c) is snowing

d) will snow

7 …… there any news in your parent’s letter?

7

a) Are

b) Were

c) Have

d) Is

8 A typist is someone who …… letters and reports.

8

a) types

b) type

c) is typing

d) are typing

9 She is in the library and she ……. an article from English.

9

a) is translating

b) has been translating

c) has translated

d) translated

10 I …… to talk to you now.

10

a) wanted

b) am wanted

c) have wanted

d) want

№6 а) Вставьте недостающие формы степеней сравнения прилагательных в таблицу: сравнительную (Comparative Degree ), превосходную (Superlative Degree ) или положительную (Positive Degree )степени сравнения. Исправьте ошибки в образовании степеней сравнения и переведите прилагательные на русский язык:

dangerous

more young

lazy

lazyest

the least

warmer

the most warm

good

the goodest

intelligent

more popular

heaviest

worse

the worst

b) Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1 This girl was as good-looking as her sister.

2 The harder you work the more money you get.

3 Nick’s English is not so good as his friend’s.

4 Nevsky Prospect is much more beautiful than our street.

5 It is easier to swim in the sea than in the river.

6 He is as careful as his teacher.

№7 Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1 This is a baby.

2 This is not a mountain.

3 It’s a herring.

4 Is that a goose?

5 This phone in the post office was out of order.

6 That boy has a good sense of humour.

7 The wolf has been shot.

8 A potato is a vegetable and a cherry is a fruit.

9 The young man put his hand in his pocket.

10 She will be a businesswoman.

№8 Прочитайте текст, перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3,4,5 абзацы текста:

Alexandria

1) Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt, and its …… largest seaport. Alexandria extends about 20 miles (32 km) along\about the coast of …… Mediterranean Sea in …… north-central Egypt. In\At ancient times, Alexandria was one of …… most famous cities in\at …… world. It was founded around 331 BC by …… Alexander the Great, and remained …… Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years. Alexandria was known by\for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Library of Alexandria and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa.

2) The city of Alexandria was named after its founder, Alexander the Great, and as the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, quickly became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world - second only to Rome in size and wealth. However, it fell to the Arabs in 641 AD, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the Nile. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. The city was revived by Muhammad Ali as a part of his early industrialization program. The current city is Egypt's leading port, a commercial and transportation center, and the heart of a major industrial area.

3) The Library of Alexandria and its contents were destroyed in 642 during the Arab invasion. Some deny this and claim that the library was destroyed much earlier, in 3rd century, due to civil war in the time of the Roman Emperor Aurelian. The Lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes in the 14th century, and by 1700 the city was just a small town amidst the ruins.

4) Very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbor due to earthquake subsidence, and the rest has been rebuilt upon in modern times. "Pompey's Pillar" is the most well-known ancient monument still standing today. It is located on Alexandria's ancient acropolis a modest hill located adjacent to the city's Arab cemetery and was originally part of a temple colonnade.

5) Alexandria's catacombs, known as Kom al Sukkfa , are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase, and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols, burial niches and sarcophagi. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in the 1800s.

6) Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Encouragement and help have been given with\by the local Archaeological Society, and by/ with many individuals, notably Greeks proud of …… city which is one of the glories of their …… national history. Other catacombs and tombs have been opened into\in Kom el-Shuqafa (Roman) and Ras et-Tin (painted). The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets on\in …… north-east of ……city, but little else. Hogarth explored part of …… immense brick structure under the mound of Kom el-Dika , which may have been part of/with the Paneum, the Mausolea or …… Roman fortress.

7) The wealth underground is doubtlessly immense; but despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and …… neighborhood of “Pompey's Pillar”. …… native tomb-robbers, well-sinkers, dredgers and the like, however, come upon\on …… valuable objects since\from time to time, most of which find their way in\into private collections.

№9 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:

1) Why the city was named Alexandria?

2) What happened to the Alexandrian celebrities- the Lighthouse and the Library?

3) What attracts the Explorers of the antiquities of Alexandria?

4) What is Alexandria like today?

№10 Заполните пропуски словами из рамки:

glories monument library antiquities lighthouse labyrinth decline

1) A …………….. is a building or room which contains books that may be looked at or borrowed by the public.

2) A …………….. is a building with a powerful flashing light that guides ships and warns them of dangerous rocks.

3) ……………….. are special causes for pride.

4) A ……………. is an old building or what remains of it, considered worthy of preservation for its historic interest or beauty.

5) A ……………. is a network of narrow twisting passages or paths, through which it is difficult to find one’s way.

6) A ……………. is a period when a country or a city gets near the end of its existence.

7) ………………. are buildings, works of art, ruins, remaining from the ancient world.

№11 Прочитайте 1,6,7 абзацы текста. Заполните пропуски артиклями a , the , где необходимо, и выберите из выделенных предлогов правильный вариант и перепишите переделанные абзацы текста в тетрадь


Тексты для дополнительного чтения.

Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its 12-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracy, to an autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation.

The Roman Empire went into decline in the 5th century AD. The western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern empire, governed from Constantinople, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476. This is the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and for the onset of the Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages. Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece, a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today.

According to legend, Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus. The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded sometime in the 8th century BC. The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power.

The Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, according to later writers such as Livy, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed, and a system based on annually-elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. A constitution of the Roman Republic set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers.

In the mid-1st century BC, three men, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, formed a secret pact-the First Triumvirate-to control the Republic. After Caesar's conquest of Gaul, a stand-off between Caesar and the Senate led to civil war, with Pompey leading the Senate's forces. Caesar emerged victorious, and was made dictator for life. In 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by senators who opposed Caesar's assumption of absolute power and wanted to restore constitutional government, but in the aftermath a Second Triumvirate, consisting of Caesar's designated heir, Octavian, and his former supporters, Mark Antony and Lepidus, took power. However, this alliance soon descended into a struggle for dominance. Lepidus was exiled, and when Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra of Egypt at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, he became the undisputed ruler of Rome.

Cambridge

The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. It lies approximately 50 miles (80 km) north-northeast of London and is surrounded by a number of smaller towns and villages. It is also at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen.

Cambridge is best known for the University of Cambridge, which includes the renowned Cavendish Laboratory, King's College Chapel, and the Cambridge University Library. The Cambridge skyline is dominated by the last two, along with the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital in the far south of the city and St John's College Chapel tower in the north.

Settlements have existed around the area since before the Roman Empire. The earliest clear evidence of occupation, a collection of hunting weapons, is from the Late Bronze Age, starting around 1000 BC. There is further archaeological evidence through the Iron Age, a Belgic tribe having settled on Castle Hill in the 1st century BC.

The first major development of the area began with the Roman invasion of Britain in about AD 40. Castle Hill made Cambridge a useful place for a military outpost from which to defend the River Cam .

After the Romans had left, Saxons took over the land on and around Castle Hill. Their grave goods have been found in the area. During Anglo-Saxon times Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the otherwise hard-to-travel fenlands.

The arrival of the Vikings in Cambridge was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878. The Vikings' vigorous trading habits caused Cambridge to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the end of the Viking period the Saxons enjoyed a brief return to power, building St Bene’t’s church in 1025, which still stands in Bene't Street.

Over time the name of the town changed to Cambridge, while the river Cam was still known as the Granta — indeed the Upper River (the stretch between the Millpond in Cambridge and Grantchester) is correctly known as the Granta to this day. It was only later that the river became known as the Cam, by analogy with the name Cambridge.

In 1209, students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford fled to Cambridge and formed a university there. The oldest college that still exists, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284. One of the most impressive buildings in Cambridge, King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI. The project was completed in 1515 during the reign of King Henry VIII.

Cambridge University Press originated with a printing license issued in 1534. Hobson's Conduit, the first project to bring clean drinking water to the town centre, was built in 1610 (by the Hobson of Hobson's choice). Parts of it survive today. Addenbrooke's Hospital was founded in 1766. The railway and station were built in 1845.

Original historical documents relating to the town of Cambridge (as opposed to the university or colleges within Cambridge) are held by Cambridge shire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office Cambridge and at the Cambridge shire Collection. These records include original registers for the parish churches dating back to the 1530s, local government records, maps, photographs, and records of some businesses, schools and charities.

Library of Alexandria

The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. The Library was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the Library complex, the temple of the Muses - the Museion. It has been reasonably established that the Library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old Library.

The Library was initially organized by Demetrius of Phaleron. Demetrius was a student of Aristotle. Initially the Library was closely linked to a "museum," or research center, that seems to have focused primarily on editing texts. Libraries were important for textual research in the ancient world, since the same text often existed in several different versions of varying quality and veracity.

A story concerns how its collection grew so large: by decree of Ptolemy III of Egypt, all visitors to the city were required to surrender all books and scrolls in their possession; these writings were then swiftly copied by official scribes. Sometimes the copies were so precise that the originals were put into the Library, and the copies were delivered to the unsuspecting previous owners. This process also helped to create a reservoir of books in the relatively new city. The Ptolemies also purchased additional materials from throughout the Mediterranean area, including from Rhodes and Athens.

The Library's collection was already famous in the ancient world, and became even more storied in later years. It is impossible, however, to determine how large the collection was in any era. The collection was made of papyrus scrolls. Later, parchment codices (predominant as a writing material after 300) may have been substituted for papyrus. A single piece of writing might occupy several scrolls, and this division into self-contained "books" was a major aspect of editorial work. King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309–246 BC) is said to have set 500,000 scrolls as an objective.

Mark Antony was supposed to have given Cleopatra over 200,000 scrolls for the Library as a wedding gift. These scrolls were taken from the great Library of Pergamum, impoverishing its collection. Carl Sagan, in his series Cosmos, states that the Library contained nearly one million scrolls, though other experts have estimated a smaller number. No index of the Library survives, and it is not possible to know with certainty how large and how diverse the collection was. It is likely, for example, that even if the Library had hundreds of thousands of scrolls (and thus, perhaps, tens of thousands of individual works ), many of these were duplicate copies or alternate versions of the same texts.

Ancient and modern sources identify four possible occasions for the destruction of the Library:

1. Caesar's conquest 48 BC;

2. The attack of Aurelian in the 3rd century;

3. The decree of Theophilus in 391;

4. The Muslim conquest in 642 or thereafter.

Saint Petersburg

Founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27, 1703 as a “window to Europe”, it served as the capital of the Russian Empire for more than two hundred years. Tsar Peter the Great founded the city on May 27, 1703. He named it after his patron saint, the apostle Saint Peter. At the same time Peter hired a large number of engineers, architects, shipbuilders, scientists and businessmen from all countries of Europe. Peter the Great transferred the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712. Inspired by example of Venice and Amsterdam, Peter the Great proposed boats and coracles as principal means of transport in his city of canals. Initially there were only 12 permanent bridges over smaller branches, while the Bolshaya Neva was crossed by boats in the summertime and by a horse carriage during winter. The first permanent bridge over Bolshaya Neva was built in 1850.

Several revolutions, uprisings, assassinations of Tsars, and power takeovers in St. Petersburg had shaped the course of history in Russia and influenced the world. During World War I, the name Sankt Peterburg was seen to be too German and it was renamed Petrograd, three days after Lenin`s death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor.

Probably the most illustrious of imperial palaces is the baroque Winter Palace, a vast stately building with over 600 rooms and dazzlingly luxurious interiors, now housing the Hermitage Museum. The Hermitage is the most famous of St. Petersburg's museums, one of the world's largest and richest collections of Western European art. The largest cathedral in the city is St Isaac's Cathedral; it is the biggest gold-plated dome in the world. The Kazan Cathedral on the Nevsky Prospekt is a national landmark in the Empire style, modeled after St Peter's, Vatican. The Church of the Savior on Blood, is a monument in the Old Russian style which marks the spot of Alexander II's assassination. The Peter and Paul Cathedral, a long-time symbol of the city, contains the sepulchers of Peter the Great and other.

Other popular tourist destinations include the Kunstkammer, the State Russian Museum and the Summer Garden, the Ethnography Museum, Stieglitz Museum of Applied Arts, the Suvorov Museum of Military History, and the Political History Museum. Nevsky Prospekt is the main avenue of St. Petersburg connecting the Winter Palace with the ancient monastery at Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Probably the most familiar symbol of St Petersburg is the equestrian statue of Peter the Great, known as the Bronze Horseman and installed in 1782 on the Senate Square. Considered the greatest masterpiece of the French-born Etienne Maurice Falconet, Aleksandr Pushkin's poem about the statue figures prominently in the Russian literature under the name of The Bronze Horseman . The Palace Square is dominated by the unique Alexander Column, the tallest of its kind in the world and so nicely set that no attachment to the base is needed.

Использованная литература.

Березина О.А., Шпилюк Е.М. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Упражнения по грамматике-СПб: Издательство «Союз», 2002.

Бонди Е. А. Английский язык для студентов-историков. Москва, 2003.

Голицынский Ю. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. С.-П., 2005.

Лариса Романова. Практическая грамматика английского языка. Айрис Пресс, Рольф, Москва, 2001.

Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Практический курс. Часть 1, 2. Минск, 2004.

Христорождественская Л. П. Английский язык. Упражнения по грамматике. Минск, 2004.

Michael Duckworth, Kathy Gude. Countdown, Oxford, 1999.

Raymond Murphy. English grammar in use. Cambridge, 2004.

Bob Obee, Virginia Evans. Express Publishing, 2003.

Wikipedia. Free Encyclopedia.

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