Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364141
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62791)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21320)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21692)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8693)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3462)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20644)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Учебное пособие: Методические указания для студентов 1 курса заочного обучения

Название: Методические указания для студентов 1 курса заочного обучения
Раздел: Остальные рефераты
Тип: учебное пособие Добавлен 07:31:58 31 августа 2011 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 1429 Комментариев: 2 Оценило: 1 человек Средний балл: 2 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФГОУ ВПО

"НОВОСИБИРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ВОДНОГО ТРАНСПОРТА"

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

42 Д302

Е.А. Дементьева

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания для студентов 1 курса заочного обучения


УДК 802.0(07) Д302

Дементьева Е.А. Английский язык: методические указания для студен­тов 1 курса заочного обучения /Е.А.Дементьева, Н.Ю. Симушкина, Е.В. Жигалкина. Новосибирск: Новосиб. гос. акад. вод. трансп.. 2007

Данные методические указания предназначены для студентов I курса всех специальностей заочного факультета. Указания составлены для орга­низации работы студентов-заочников в межсессионный период и в период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии. Данные указания включают: поясни­тельную записку, контрольную работу № 1, разговорные темы, предусмот­ренные программой 1 курса, и тексты для внеаудиторного чтения, а также для работы на практических занятиях.

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков 5 июня 2006 г., протокол № 9.

Рецензент: к.ф.н., доцент Е.И. Мартынова.

© Дементьева Е.А., 2007 © Новосибирская государственная академия водного транспорта, 2007


Часть 1. ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

• Данные методические указания составлены для организации
работы студентов-заочников НГАВТ по изучению дисциплины «английский
язык» в межсессионный период (до начала лабораторно-экзаменационной
сессии) и в период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии. Пособие адресо­
вано студентам 1 курса всех специальностей.

• Курс разработан на кафедре иностранных языков и входит в
учебный план НГАВТ.

• Курс ориентирован на государственный стандарт.

• Курс направлен на самостоятельное изучение иностранного языка
на базе программы средней школы.

• Курс имеет практико-ориентированный характер: для студентов
проводится одна установочная лекция, на которой обсуждается
учебная программа и планируется их будущая самостоятельная
деятельность. В дальнейшем проводятся 18-20 часов занятий в
период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии, предлагаются
консультации по программе обучения.

• Оценка знаний и умений студентов проводится в соответствии с
целями в виде зачета.

• Структура и содержание курса

Курс рассчитан на 170 часов: Установочная лекция — 2 часа;

Практические занятия - 18 — 20 часов (в зависимости от специальности) Самостоятельная работа - 150 часов:

1. Изучение теоретического материала - 45 часов;

2. Подготовка внеаудиторного чтения - 10000 печатных знаков об­
щетехнических текстов и страноведческого характера — 40 ча­
сов;

3. Изучение разговорных тем: «Знакомство. Приветствие» - 5 ча­
сов, «О себе. Моя семья» -10 часов, «Моя академия» -10 часов,
«Мой родной город» - 10 часов, «Россия» - 10 часов;

4. Выполнение контрольной работы - 20 часов.
Зачет




• Самостоятельная работа в межсессионный период

1. Студенты должны изучить следующий теоретический (грам­
матический) материал:

Имя существительное. Множественное число. Артикли и предлоги как показатели имени существительного. Выражения надежных отношений с помощью предметов и окончания s. Существительное в функции определения

• Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения, конструкции the
more...the less

• Числительные (порядковые и количественные)

• Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, указательные,
неопределенные и указательные

• Глагол. Группа Simple/Indefmite (present, past, future) в
действительном залоге изъявительного наклонения.
Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма

• Простое распространенное предложение (прямой порядок слов
повествовательного и побудительного предложений в
утвердительной и отрицательной форме). Порядок слов
вопросительного предложения. Оборот обстоятельства места there
is \ there are.

Словообразование (основные случаи)

Литература:

- Полякова Т.Ю. Английский язык для инженеров, М., Высш. шк.,
2000

- Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский для технических
вузов, Высшее образование, 2002

- Разработки кафедры по грамматике

- Учебники и справочники по английскому языку (библиотека
НГАВТ)

Словари

2. Студенты должны выполнить внеаудиторное чтение (тексты
представлены в четвертой части данных указаний)

Чтение и перевод общетехнических текстов, текстов страновед­ческого характера. Всего -10000 печатных знаков. Составление терминоло­гического словаря. Тексты выбираются студентом самостоятельно с учетом его специализации.


3. Студенты должны выполнить контрольную работу:

Необходимо выполнить один из пяти вариантов контрольной работы №1 из данных методических указаний. Контрольную работу необходимо выполнять в соответствии с образцами, находящимися в указанном разделе методических указаний, на основе изученного грамматического материала, который приведен в разделе 1. Вариант выбирается по последней цифре шифра студента:

1,2 - вариант № 1 7,8 - вариант №4

3,4 - вариант №2 9,0 - вариант №5

5,6 - вариант №3

Контрольную работу следует выполнять в отдельной тетради. На об­ложке тетради необходимо указать свою фамилию, номер контрольной ра­боты и вариант. Контрольная работа должна выполняться аккуратным, чет­ким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецен­зента. Задания должны быть представлены в той же последовательности, в которой они даны в контрольной работе, в развернутом виде с указанием номера варианта ответа. После проверки контрольной работы её следует защитить устно . При устной защите студент должен ответить на вопросы преподавателя по материалу контрольной работы.

4. Отчетность и сроки отчетности

Результаты выполнения контрольной работы (КР) представляются в виде, указанном в пункте 3 на втором или третьем занятии.

♦ Аудиторные занятия, аттестация. К аудиторным занятиям допуска­ются студенты, выполнившие домашнее задание в межсессионный период. Параллельно с прохождением аудиторных занятий студент корректирует ошибки КР, защищает КР.

На аудиторных занятиях прорабатываются разговорные темы: «О себе. Моя семья», «Моя академия», «Мой родной город», «Россия», которые в даль­нейшем выносятся на экзамен (на 2-ом курсе). Студенты должны вести бе­седу с преподавателем по вышеуказанным темам. С первого курса на экза­мен выносятся две разговорные темы: "Моя семья", "Моя академия".

По окончании занятий на 1 курсе - сдача зачёта.




Структура и содержание зачета за 1-ый курс

Допуск к зачету

Чтение и перевод подготовленных текстов (10000 печатных знаков), устно - с выписанными словами; • Устная защит а контрольной работы №1.

Зачет

Письменный перев од незнакомого текста со словарем (500 печатных знаков - 30 минут);

Беседа с преподавателем (ответы на вопросы) по одной из пройденных тем.


Часть 2. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 1

Чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №1, необходимо ус­воить следующие разделы курса.

1. Имя существительное. Множественное число. Артикли и
предлоги как показатели имени существительного. Выражения
падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и
окончания -s. Существительное в функции определения и его
перевод на русский язык.

2. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных.
Конструкции типа the more.. .the less.

3. Числительные.

4. Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, указательные,
неопределенные и отрицательные.

5. Глагол. Форма настоящего (Present), прошедшего (Past) и
будущего (Future) времени группы Simple/Indefinite
действительного залога изъявительного наклонения. Спряжение
глаголов to be, to have в Present, Past и Future Simple/Indefinite.
Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма.

6. Простое распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов
повествовательного и побудительного предложений в
утвердительной и отрицательной формах; обратный порядок слов
вопросительного предложения. Оборот there is, there are.

7. Основные случаи словообразования.

Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.

• ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 1 (К УПР. 1) Грамматическая функция окончания



1. The students attend lectures and practical lessons on physics.


Студенты посещают лекции и практические занятия по физике.


Lectures - множественное число от имени существительного a lecture -лекция.


2. Не lectures on theoretical mechanics.


Он читает лекции по теоретической

механике.


Lectures - 3-е лицо единственного числа от глагола to lecture в Present Simple.


3. My brother's son is a student. Сын моего брата - студент.

В слове brother's s - окончание притяжательного падежа имени суще­ствительного в единственном числе. My brothers ' sons are students. Сыновья моих братьев - студенты.

Слово brothers' - форма притяжательного падежа имени существитель­ного a brother во множественном числе.

• ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 2 (К УПР. 2)

Особенности перевода на русский язык имен существительных, упот­ребляющихся в функции определения, стоящего перед определяемым сло­вом.

1. Several Moscow University physicists work at this problem.

Несколько физиков Московского Университета работают над этой проблемой.

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 3 (К УПР. 5 )

1. Lomonosov founded the first Ломоносов основал первый русский

Russian University in Moscow. университет в Москве .

Founded - Past Simple Active от стандартного глагола to found.



ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи явля­ются слова, оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

• показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present
Simple/Indefinite;

• признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

• показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного
(см. образец выполнения 1).

/. Britain is famous for the rapid changes in the weather.

2. Canada's great natural resource is its forests.

3. Winter temperature in Britain seldom falls below zero.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая вни­
мание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных
именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. It is a land of pine forests and green river valleys.

2. The elevator takes visitors to the top of the New York State Observation
Tower.

3. The English people made the first underground railway travel in the
world.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения, переведите их на русский язык.

1. The Tower of London is one of the most popular sights in Great
Britain.

2. You must learn the history of this country as quick as possible.

3. London has got a much bigger population than Prague.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоиме­
ний.

1 Practically any museum in the United Kingdom is free nowadays.

2 No Russian citizen can visit England without visa.

3. Some people in Russia celebrate St. Valentine's Day at present.




5. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовре-
менные формы глаголы и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения
на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).

/. The warm Gulf Stream brings the prevailing southwest winds.

2. Robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us in the nearest
future.

3. Over the years Agatha Christie wrote more than 80 mysteries and
sold over 300 million books.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Political Parties in Great Britain

Political parties first emerged in Britain at the end of the 17-th century. The Conservative and Liberal Parties are more than three hundred years old. The main British political groupings are the Conservative* and the Labour** Parties and the Party of Liberal Democrats.

The Conservative Party is often called the Tory Party. Today the Tory Party is that of big business, industry, commerce and landowners. Most of the money needed to run the party comes from large firms and companies. The Tories are a mixture of the rich and privileged - the monopolists and landowners. It is very powerful.

In the middle of the 19-th century the Liberal Party represented the trading and manufacturing classes. During the second half of the 19-th century many working people looked at the liberal Party as an alternative to the Conservatives and their policy.

The Labour Party, formed in 1900, was the one, which drew away working people's support. It was founded by the Trade Unions. Now its policy is very similar to that of the Liberals. The two-party system means that, if one is dissatisfied with the Government, one votes for the opposition. So one can say there isn't much difference between them.

* the Conservative Party - Консервативная партия (партия тори) ** the Labour Party - Лейбористская партия


ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи явля­ются слова, оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present

Simple/Indefinite;

признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного

(см. образец выполнения 1).

/. Canada covers more than one third of North America.

2. There are no high mountains in Britain.

3. Since 1800 the nation's capital called Washington has kept on
growing.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая вни­
мание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных
именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

/. Hollywood had become the center of American network television entertainment.

2. At present millions of people have their computer mail addresses.

3. The first stream carriage was invented in France.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

/. You can find wax models of the most famous people in the Madam Tussaud's Museum.

2. The more cities you visit, the better knowledge about history of this
country you get.

3. Naples is much further south than Riga.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоиме­
ний.

/. No European language is so difficult as Hungarian.

2. Any person will admire the Statue of Liberty.

3. Some places in Britain are closely connected with Dickens's name.

10


11


5. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовре­
менные формы глаголы и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения
на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).

1. Rain tends to fall throughout the year in Britain.

2. The Cambridge University started during the 13-th century and grew
until today.

3. Scientists will find solutions to our most urgent problems.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Newspapers in Great Britain

Fleet Street is the home of most national daily and Sunday newspapers. People often say "Fleet Street" to mean "the press".

British newspapers can be divided into two groups: quality and popular. Quality newspapers are more serious and cover home and foreign news while popular newspapers like shocking, personal stories. These two groups of papers can be distinguished easily because the quality newspapers are twice the size of the popular newspapers.

Among the quality daily papers is the "Times" (founded in 1785) - the most authoritative newspaper voice in the country. The "Guargian" appeals to well-educated readers interested in intellectual and social affairs. The "Financial Times" is read by businessmen. The "Daily Telegraph" is bought by educated middle-class readers.

The "popular" press consists of the "Daily Mail", the "Daily Express", the "Daily Star" and the "Daily Mirror". In all newspapers there is a desperate fight to improve their circulations. But it is the worst among the "popular" papers whose main weapons are sex, scandal and sport.

There are also many local papers. Most of these are evening papers and many appear weekly.


ВАРИАНТ 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский
язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи явля­
ются слова, оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание
выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

• показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present
Simple/Indefinite;

• признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

• показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного
(см. образец выполнения 1).

1. The brown stone walls of the president's home were painted white.

2. The President speaks to the whole nation on radio and television.

3. At weekends the harbour is crowded with sailing boats.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая вни­
мание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных
именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. Many inland waterways are used for the transport of heavy goods.

2. This problem was solved by the invention of the internal combustion
engine.

3. London transport's experience with tunnels brought them another
record.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

/. Novosibirsk is less crowded than Lisbon.

2. Neither Paris nor London has much heavy industry.

3. Tourism makes the largest contribution to Suzdal's economy.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоиме­
ний.

/. Some cities in Europe are more than a thousand years old.

2. A lot of streets in Prague have no traffic.

3. Any visitor of Moscow will notice its busy atmosphere today.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовре-
менные формы глаголы и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения
на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3). -



12


13


/. The English Channel separates Great Britain from continental Europe.

2. People will learn to live in peace and understand each other.

3. Columbus 'voyages gave Europe its first important knowledge of the
New World.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Climate in Great Britain

The climate in the UK is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The southwestern winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain.

The weather is so changeable that the English often say that they have no climate but only weather. Therefore it is natural for them to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in the UK.

The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. Rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. It is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly.

This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring.

In the British homes there has been no central heating up till recently. The fireplaces are often used. The British bedroom is especially cold, sometimes electric blankets or hot-water bottles are used.


ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи явля­ются слова, оформленные окончанием —s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present

Simple/Indefinite;

признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного

(см. образец выполнения 1).

/. New York attracts people from all over.

2. The waters of the two streams flow side by side.

3. In summer, when the day's work is over, the families go off to the
beach.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая вни­
мание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных
именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. The front wheel was driven by a two-cylinder steam engine.

2. All passenger and control buildings are in the center of the airport.

3. Plastics are employed in a number of aircraft engine applications.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. There is less rain in Siberia than in Estonia.

2. There are much more inhabitants in New York than in Chicago.

3. Brazil and Argentina are both the largest South American countries.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоиме­
ний.

/. Picasso influenced some modern painters.

2. There is no other so popular author in England as Shakespear.

3. You can meet almost any nationality in London.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовре-
менные формы глаголы и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения
на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3).



14


15


1. People all over the world know Wimbledon as the center of tennis.

2. The invention of the petrol engine made flight feasible.

3. We will do shopping, pay our bills and even cook with the help of
computers.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Oxbridge

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote the elitarian education. Both universities are independent. Only very rich families can afford to send their sons and daughters to these universities.

The tutorial* is the basic mode of instruction at Oxford and Cambridge. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B. A.). Some courses, such as languages or medicine, may be one or two years longer.

Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms**. Each college is governed by a Master. Within the college one will normally find a chapel, a dining room, a library, rooms for students, and also rooms for teaching purposes. There are twenty-four colleges for men, five for women and another five which have both men and women members in Oxford. Almost all colleges are mixed now in Cambridge.

There is a great deal of bicycle traffic both in Oxford and Cambridge. The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine.

* tutorial — консультации, практические занятия с наставником ** coat of arms - герб


ВАРИАНТ 5

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи явля­ются слова, оформленные окончанием —s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present

Simple/Indefinite;

признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного

(см. образец выполнения 1).

/. The Queen receives a large number of formal and informal visitors in the palace.

2. Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia.

3. The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая вни­
мание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных
именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

/. The further development of British motor industry is connected with the name of F. Royce.

2. The program also aims to develop a power control system for vehicles.

3. The second generation computers contained transistors.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Novosibirsk has much more industry than New York.

2. Sofia has a smaller population than Moscow.

3. Buckingham Palace is one of the most memorable sights in London.

4. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоиме­
ний.

1. No visitor in London can remain indifferent towards its lively
atmosphere.

2. Conan Doyle created some popular detective stories about Sherlock
Holmes.

3. Any inhabitant of New Orleans can speak much about juzz.

16


17



5. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовре-
менные формы глаголы и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения
на русский язык (см. образец выполнения 3)

1. English Universities greatly differ from each other.

2. Scientists will invent anti-aging pills and people will live much longer
than now.

3. The Olympic Games began in 777 ВС in Greece and took place every
four years for nearly 12 centuries.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Sport in Great Britain

The British are a nation of sport lovers. Many kinds of sport originated from Britain. Football, or soccer is one of the most popular games not only in the British Isles but all over the world. It has a great many fans in Britain. The next popular sport after football is rugby, which is largely an amateur game. It is the Welsh national sport.

In summer the English national sport is cricket. English people love it. Cricket is played in schools, colleges and universities and in most towns and villages by teams, which play weekly games. Test matches with the other cricketing counties are held annually. Even if you do not understand the rules, it is attractive to watch the players, dressed in white playing on the beautiful green cricket fields. It is the most English of all sports.

Golf is Scotland's chief contribution to British sport. This is true of golf which is everywhere in the British Isles a middle-class activity.

Walking and swimming are the two most popular sporting activities, being almost equally undertaken by men and women. Boxing and wrestling, snooker (billiards) and darts, cycling and tennis are the next most popular sports. The interest to such sports as horse-racing and dog-racing can be explained by the Englishman's fondness for gambling.

18


Часть З. РАЗГОВОРЫЕ ТЕМЫ

I. GREETINGS, ACQUAINTANCE AND SAYING GOOD-BYE (Приветствие, знакомство и прощание)

TOPICAL VOCABULARY:

1. How do you do? - Здравствуйте!

2. Hello! Hallo! Hi! - Привет!

3. Good morning! - Доброе утро!

4. Good afternoon! -Добрый день!

5. Good evening! - Добрый вечер!

6. How are you? - Как дела?

7. How is life? - Как жизнь?

8. How is business? - Как дела? Как жизнь?

9. How is everybody at home? - Как твои домашние?

10. I am glad to see you! - Рад видеть тебя!

11. Nice meeting you! - Рад видеть тебя!

12. Pleased to know you! - Рад познакомиться!

13. Let me introduce myself to you- Разрешите представиться

14. Let me introduce ... - Разрешите представить...

15. Meet my friend (my brother) - Познакомьтесь с моим другом (братом)

16. I'd like to meet... -Я бы хотел(а) познакомиться...

17. I'd like you to meet... - Хочу познакомить Вас с ...

18. Good-bye! Bye-bye!-До свидания!

19. See you again! - До скорого свидания!

20. See you later! - До скорой встречи!

21. See you soon! - Пока!

22. All the best! - Всего наилучшего!

23. See you tomorrow! - До завтра!

REPLIES:

1. Fine, thanks — Хорошо, спасибо!

2. I'm all right, thank you — Хорошо, спасибо!

3. Not bad. Not too well - Неплохо.

4. Very much the same — Так же.

5. No complaints - He жалуюсь.

6. Life is going its usual way — Жизнь идет обычно.

7. Very well, thanks - Очень хорошо (отлично), спасибо.

8. So-so - Так себе.

19




3. -

4. -

5. -

6. -

Прочитайте и переведите следующие диалоги:

1. - Good morning, Mike!

- Good morning, Bob!

- How are you?

- Fine. Thanks. How are you?

- Very much the same. Thank you.

2. - Good afternoon, Miss Bright!

- Good afternoon, Mr. Black!

- How is life!

- No complaints. Thank you. And how are you?

- Life is going its usual way. Thanks.

3. - Good evening, Mrs. Smith!

- Good evening, Mr. Green!

- How is business?

- Thanks, not bad! How are you getting on?

- I am doing fine. Thank you.

- Glad to hear it.

4. - Hi, Susan! Nice meeting you!

- Hi, Carol! Glad to see you too!

- How is everybody at home?

- All right, thanks. How's Jack getting on?

- He's fine, thanks.

- All the best! See you later!

- See you soon!

5. - Let me introduce myself to you. I am George Flake.

- How do you do, Mr. Flake. Pleased to know you. How are you?

- Life is going its usual way, thank you.

- Glad to hear it.

6. - Hello, Mary.

- Hi, Tom! How are you?

- Fine, thanks. And you?

- Not bad - but my daughter's not well today.
Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.


7. - Hi, Dan! Meet my friend Bob!

- Hello, Bob! Nice meeting you! How are you?

- Fine, thanks. I'm glad to know you too. How are you?

- Very well, thanks. It's a nice day today, isn't it?

- Yes, it is. Let's go to the park!

- With pleasure.

Переведите следующие диалоги на английский язык:

1. - Здравствуйте! Как дела?

- Спасибо, хорошо. А как у тебя?

- Жизнь идет по-старому. Я поступил в институт.

- Рад слышать. Желаю удачи!

2. -

Привет! Познакомься с моим другом Петей. Здравствуйте! Рада с Вами познакомиться. Как поживаете? Неплохо, спасибо. А как Вы? Спасибо, не жалуюсь.

Доброе утро! Как у Вас дела?

Все так же. Очень много работы. А как Вы поживаете?

У нас все идет по-старому. До встречи!

Пока. Желаю удачи!

Привет! Какой приятный сюрприз*.

Привет! Мир тесен**!

Как поживаешь?

Так себе, а ты?

Очень хорошо. Я женился.

О, поздравляю! Желаю удачи.

Разрешите представиться? Я...

Очень приятно познакомиться. Как у Вас дела? Чем Вы занима­етесь?

Неплохо, спасибо. Я — врач, работаю в больнице. А Вы? Я работаю экономистом в одной из фирм города.

Разрешите представить Вам одного из моих друзей— мистера Смита.

Здравствуйте, мистер Смит! Очень приятно с вами познако­миться.



20


21


Это Джеймс Ричардсон — наш новый директор. Здравствуйте, рад встретиться с вами, мистер Ричардсон.

7. - Послушайте, кто этот молодой человек в черных очках? Вы его

знаете?

- Да, конечно. Это наш новый инженер. Давай я познакомлю вас. Спасибо. С удовольствием.

* What a pleasant surprise!- Какой приятный сюрприз! ** This is a small world! - Мир тесен!

П . MY FAMILY AND MYSELF (О себе и своей семье )

TOPICAL VOCABULARY:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

relative - родственник

parents — родители

grandparents - дедушка и бабушка

sister — сестра

brother - брат

cousin - двоюродный брат/сестра

uncle - дядя

aunt - тётя

niece — племянница

nephew - племянник

wife — жена

husband - муж

daughter-дочь

son - сын

mother-in-law — тёща/свекровь

father-in-law - тесть/свёкор

an engineer — инженер

a worker — рабочий

a doctor - врач

a businessman - бизнесмен

an accountant - бухгалтер

a housewife - домохозяйка

to be born - родиться

to study - учиться

22


25. to consist of- состоять (из)

26. to enter — поступать (в учебное заведение)

27. to finish (to leave) - оканчивать (среднюю школу)

28. to be busy - быть занятым

29. to be married - быть женатым/замужем

30. to get married - выйти замуж/жениться

31. to get retired (on) - уйти (на пенсию)

32. to keep house - вести домашнее хозяйство

33. to live —жить

34. to be ... years old - быть в возрасте .. .лет

35. to have a family of one's own - иметь свою семью

36. native town — родной город

37. old/older/elder—старый/старше/старший

38. young/younger-молодой/младше, младший

39. secondary school - средняя школа

40. to be fond of- увлекаться, нравиться

41. to be interested in -интересоваться

MY FAMILY AND MYSELF

My family is not large. I have a father, a mother and a younger sister. We all live together in Novosibirsk.

My father is 45 years old. He works as a doctor at a hospital. My mother is a teacher of music and plays the piano well. She is a busy woman. My sister's name is Kate. She is three years younger than me. She goes to school.

And my name is Tanya. I was born in Novosibirsk in 1983. Now I am 20. My birthday is on the 26-th of May. I'm not married. Now I am a first-year student of the Novosibirsk State Water Transport Academy. I'd like to become an economist.

I am fond of reading detective stories. I am interested in music, sport and travelling.

Our family is friendly. We often come to see our grandparents who are pensioners. I also have many other relatives: uncles, aunts, cousins. We are happy when we are together.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. What is your name?

2. How old are you?

3. Where were you born?

4. When were you born?

5. What are you? What do you do?

23




6. Is Novosibirsk your native town?

7. Is your father a worker?

8. What is his job?

9. Where do your parents live?

10. What does your mother do?

11. What is your sister?

12. How old is your brother/sister?

13. Is he/she younger or older than you?

14. Have you got a brother?

15. What is his name?

16. Are you married?

17. What is your husband/wife?

18. Have you got a son or a daughter?

19. Do you have any friends?

20. Where do your grandparents live?

21. Do you have a family of your own or live with your parents?

22. Where do you study?

23. Have you got any other relatives?

24. What is your hobby?

25. What is your favourite occupation?

26. What are you fond of?

27. Is your family friendly?

Заполните пропуски в данных предложениях:

Let me introduce myself.

My name is ...

My surname or last name is ...

I was born on the ... (date) of... (month) in... (town/city).

Now I am ... years old.

Now I am a first-year student of...

I work as a (an).. .(profession) at...

I am from ...

I am very interested in ...

I am fond of...

My favourite hobby is ...

I finished school ... and entered ...

I would like to tell you about my family. I have a family of my own.

24


I am married. My wife 's/husband 's name is ...

She/Не is a (an)...

She/Не is ... years old.

Не/She is ... years older/younger than me.

We have a child. His/Her name is ... Не/She is ...

Не/She goes to the kinder-garden/school.

I also have parents and a sister/brother.

They live in...

My family is very ...

TOPICAL VOCABULARY:

1. State Water Transport Academy - Гос. Академия водного транспорта

2. to enter the Academy - поступать в академию

3. to graduate (from) - оканчивать вуз

4. department/faculty - факультет

5. Navigation Department - Судоводительский факультет

6. Hydrotechnical Department - Гидротехнический факультет

7. Ports Operations Management Department - УВТ

8. Shipmechanical Department - Судомеханический ф-т

9. Electromechanical Department - Электромеханический ф-т

10. full-time department - дневное отделение

11. correspondence department - заочное отделение

12. to train specialists - готовить специалистов

13. to be located/situated - быть расположенным

14. to occupy — занимать

15. computer center—компьютерный центр

16. well-equipped laboratories - хорошо оборудованные лаборатории

17. simulator-тренажер

18. library - библиотека

19. to be founded-быть основанным

20. academic year-учебный год

21. term/semester-семестр

22. to take exams — сдавать экзамены

23. to pass exams - сдать экзамены

24. to receive credits — получать зачеты

25

25. - subject-предмет

26. exam period - сессия

27. higher mathematics -высшая математика

28. drawing — черчение

29. computer technology - информатика

30. physics - физика

31. chemistry - химия

32. humanities — гуманитарные науки

33. natural subjects - естественные науки

34. technical subjects - технические науки

35. fleet-флот

36. branch - (зд.)филиал

37. hostel - общежитие

38. postgraduate - аспирант

39. graduate - выпускник

40. course of training - курс обучения

THE ACADEMY I STUDY AT

Novosibirsk State Water Transport Academy trains specialists for River and Sea Fleet. The Academy was founded in 1951. More than six thousand students study at its full-time and correspondence departments. The Academy has branches in many towns of Siberia and Far East.

There are five Departments at the Academy: the Navigation Department, the Hydrotechnical Department, the Port Operations Management Department, the Shipmechanical Department, the Electromechanical Department.

The students study many new subjects at the Academy, such as higher mathematics, physics, drawing, computer technology, foreign language, philosophy, history of Russia, etc.

The academic year consists of two terms/semesters. At the end of each term the students take exams and receive credits. At the correspondence department the course of training lasts 6 years.

The Academy is situated in the center of Novosibirsk and occupies three buildings. It has two hostels for students and postgraduates. The Academy has a computer center, well-equipped laboratories, simulators and a good library. The graduates from the Academy get a Diploma of Engineer.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. What is the name of your Academy?

2. When was it founded?

26


3. Where is it situated?

4. How many students study at the Academy?

5. Are you a student of a full-time, evening or correspondence department?

6. How many faculties are there at the Academy? What are they?

7. What subjects do the students study?

8. How many terms does the academic year consist of?

9. What do the students do at the end of each term?

10. How is the Academy equipped?

11. What specialists does the Academy train?

12. Where do the students live?

13. What Department do you study at?

14. What is your favourite subject?

15. How many exams will you have in this semester?

16. What is the most difficult subject for you?

17. Are there any branches at the Academy?

18. How long does the course of training last?

19. What Diploma will you get?

20. Do you like to study at the Academy?

IV. MY NATIVE TOWN (NOVOSIBIRSK)

TOPICAL VOCABULARY:

1. native town (home town) - родной город

2. to be situated — быть расположенным

1. to be founded - быть основанным

2. educational center — центр образования

3. a number of — несколько

4. to be proud of- гордиться

5. church - церковь

6. chapel - часовня

7. plant-завод

8. branch - (зд.) отделение

9. science - наука

10. research institute — научно-исследовательский институт

11. higher school - вуз

I live in Novosibirsk. It is my native town. I was born here and have lived all

my life in it.

27



Novosibirsk is a great city, one of the largest in Russia. It is situated on the Siberian river Ob. But it is not old. Novosibirsk was founded in 1893 by N.Garin-Mikhailovsky, a well-known Russian writer and engineer. Now its population is about 1.5 million people.

Novosibirsk is a cultural and educational center. There are some universities and a number of higher schools and colleges. The city is proud of its Opera and Ballet Theatre, which is one of the biggest and most beautiful in the country. There are many monuments, museums, some churches, an Art Gallery and a chapel.

Novosibirsk is an important industrial center too. Its plants and factories produce different machinery and equipment.

Novosibirsk is famous for Academgorodok, the center of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of sciences. There are more than 20 research institutes.

Novosibirsk is a beautiful green city. There is a wonderful park in the center of the town where people like to walk. I like my home town and I'm happy to live in it.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

What is your native town?

Where is it situated?

What places of interest are there in your town?

When was your town founded?

Are there any higher schools in the town?

What is the town famous for?

What is your favourite place in the town?

What is its population?

Is your native town green and clean?

ГУ. RUSSIA (THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)

TOPICAL VOCABULARY:

1. total area - общая площадь

2. square — квадратный

3. to cover - занимать (площадь)

4. to wash - омывать

5. to border - граничить с

6. river - река

7. lake-озеро .

8. mountain - гора


9. vast plain - обширная равнина

10. mineral resources - полезные ископаемые

11. various - различный

12. temperate climate — умеренный климат

13. legislative powers - законодательные полномочия

14. to exercise - осуществлять, выполнять

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. Russia borders on 14 countries.

The population of Russia is about 150 million people. The capital of Russia is Moscow, its political, administrative, cultural and scientific center.

Russia is a land of long rivers and deep lakes. The Europe's biggest river is the Volga. The world's deepest lake is Lake Baikal. There are high mountains (the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai) and vast plains, forests and steppes.

Russia is very rich in mineral resources: oil, coal, natural gas, iron ore and others. On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate. But most part of the country has temperate continental climate.

The Russian Federation is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. Where is Russia situated?

2. What is the total area of the country?

3. What is the climate like in Russia?

4. What is the country washed by?

5. What mineral resources is the Russian Federation rich in?

6. What is the longest river in Europe?

7. How many countries does Russia border on?

8. Who is the head of the country?

9. Who is the President of Russia today?

10. What do you know about Lake Baikal?



28


29


Часть 4. ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА

Text I: «THE UNITED KINGDOM»

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is an island nation and constitutional monarchy in north-western Europe, member of the European Union (EU).

Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles. It comprises, together with numerous smaller islands, England and Scotland, and the principality of Wales. Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, occupies the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland.

The United Kingdom is bordered to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe, to the east by the North Sea, and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border is between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242 sq km. The capital and largest city is London.

The names «United Kingdom», «Great Britain», and «England» are often used interchangeably. The use of «Great Britain», often shortened to «Britain», to describe the whole kingdom is common and widely accepted, although strictly it does not include Northern Ireland.

However, the use of «England» to mean the «United Kingdom» is not acceptable to members of the other constituent countries, especially the Scots and the Welsh.

England and Wales were united administratively, politically, and legally by 1543. The crowns of England and Scotland were united in 1603, but the two countries remained separate political entities until the 1707 Act of Union, which formed the Kingdom of Great Britain with a single legislature. From 1801, when Great Britain and Ireland were united, until the formal establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the kingdom was officially named the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Hong Kong, which has 200,000 population, was returned to China in 1997.

The mainland of the island of Great Britain is 974 km at its longest and 531 km at its widest; however, the highly indented nature of the island's coastline means that nowhere is more than about 120 km from the sea.

The climate of the United Kingdom is mild relative to its latitude, which is the same as that of Labrador in Canada. The mildness is an effect of the warm Gulf Stream. This current brings the prevailing south-west winds that moderate winter temperatures and bring the depressions which have the main day-to-day influence on the weather. The western side of the United Kingdom tends to be warmer than

30


the eastern; the south is warmer than the north. The mean annual temperature is 6 °C in the far north of Scotland; 11 °C in the south-west of England. Winter temperatures seldom are below -10 С and summer temperatures rarely higher than 32 °C. The sea winds also bring plenty of moisture; average annual precipitation is more than 1,000 mm.

Rain tends to fall throughout the year, frequently turning to snow in the winter, especially in Scotland, the mountains of Wales, and northern England. The western side of Britain is much wetter than the eastern: average rainfall varies is from 5,000 mm in the western Highlands of Scotland, to less than 500 mm in parts of East Anglia in England.

The population of United Kingdom is more than 56 mln people, but it is one of the world's leading commercial and industrialized nations. In terms of gross national product (GNP) it ranks fifth in the world, with Italy, after the United Japan, Germany, and France.

Text 2: «HISTORY OF LONDON»

The Romans were the first to settle and occupy the Celtic fortress of Londinium. Construction of a bridge in 100 A.D. made London an important junction: it soon became a busy commercial and administrative settlement, and in the 2nd century A.D. a wall was built round the city.

The Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. London have maintained its trading activity. In the 9th century Danish invaders destroyed much of the city. They were followed by the Saxons led by King Alfred the Great, who entered the city in 8 86. The Danes remained a powerful force in England, however, and it was not until the reign of Edward the Confessor, which began in 1042, that civic stability was re-established, to be cemented by the Norman Conquest in 1066.

William the Conqueror centred his power at the Tower of London, and his White Tower is still the heart of this impressive monument.

The City soon united its economic power with political independence. Late in the 12th century it elected its own Lord Mayor. From 1351 it elected its own council, and by the end of the 14th century the reigning sovereign could not enter the City without permission.

In the reign of Elizabeth I had the arts a renaissance with such great dramatists as Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Ben Jonson.

In 1665, London had been devastated first by the Great Plague, and then by the Fire of London, which destroyed most of the city the following year. During the reconstruction of the city, following the original street pattern, the architect Sir

31




Christopher Wren was given responsibility for the design of a number of State-funded buildings, including St. Paul's Cathedral.

The western part of London was developed under the Hanoverian Kings: great squares were laid out such as those of Grosvenor, Cavendish, Berkeley, and Hanover, and more bridges were built across the river. Public services were improved, such as the water supply and sewerage systems, and the streets were paved.

In the 19th century London's population began to rise still more rapidly: it increased sixfold over the century as a whole, thanks to influx from all over the British Isles, from Britain's colonies, and from continental Europe. The Industrial Revolution was creating huge numbers of jobs, but never enough to satisfy the hopes of all the poor people who came to the capital. The novels of Charles Dickens tell us about the social problems of that period.

The First World War had little effect on London, but the Depression that followed in the late 1920s and early 1930s hit the whole country, including the capital. There were hunger marches and riots. London was to pay far more dearly during World War II. The intensive bombing of London (The Blitz) in 1940-1941 took the lives of 10,000 people and left 17,000 injured. Countless historic buildings were damaged, including the Houses of Parliament.

After the war London was to re-emerge as a radically different city. The docks had been so severely damaged that reconstruction, a very expensive process, was not reasonable. By the end of the 1950s most of the war damage had been repaired. New skyscrapers were built, outdoing each other in height and spectacular design. The 30-storey Post Office Tower was built in 1965. It is 189 m high. Other significant post-war developments include the 183 m National Westminster Bank Building (1979); and Britain's highest building, the 244 m Canary Wharf Tower on the Docklands site, near to a new City airport.

Text 3: «HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK»

Education after 16 is voluntary in United Kingdom. Students, who live in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland must take at the age of 16 the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In Scotland students receive the Scottish Certificate of Education. After this exam students can choose to stay on in school or attend colleges of further education.

British universities are self-governing and are guaranteed academic independence. Funding for education and research is provided by funding councils set up by Parliament. The number of universities jumped in 1992 when polytechnics and some other higher education establishments were given the right to become

32


universities. By the end of 1994, there were some 90 universities, almost half of them former polytechnics, including the Open University.

Many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. All other universities in Britain were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Open University, based in Milton Keynes, England, was founded in 1969. It uses extension techniques of correspondence courses, television and radio programmes, and video cassettes, supported by local study centres and summer schools, to provide higher education opportunities to a wide variety of people.

During the 1960s there was a significant increase in the number of new universities, reflecting a fast growth in student numbers. During the 1980s, an expansion in higher education places led to another large jump in student numbers. In the 1992-1993 academic year there were more than 1.4 million students in full or part-time higher education in Great Britain, compared with just under 850,000 a decade earlier. About one quarter of young people are in higher education in England, Wales, and Scotland; one third in Northern Ireland. About 90 per cent of students get state grants to cover tuition fees and living costs.

The size of the grant is determined by parents income. Since the late 1980s, however, grants have been frozen; students can apply for a student loan.

Text 4: «THE UNITED STATES Of AMERICA»

The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the central part of the North American continent.

The United States of America is a federal republic, consisting of 50 states including the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands.

The northern boundary is partly formed by the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River; the southern boundary is partly formed by the Rio Grande. United States also has a sea-border with Russia.

The total area of the United States (including the District of Columbia) is about 9,809,000 sq km.

The country is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, with the Great Lakes included. There are also many rivers on the US territory. The longest of them are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia, the Rio Grande and some others. On the US territory there are mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the

33


Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is located in Alaska.

The climate conditions are rather different. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.

The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio-engineering and others.

Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 mln. The national symbol of the USA is its national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolising the number of the original and present day states.

Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1st US President -George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Cleveland and some others.

The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives - the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.

There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolised by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolised by an elephant).

Text 5: "AUSTRALIA"

If you go to Australia it will seem to you rather an upside-down world. The seasons are the other way round. Summer is from December to February, autumn from March to May, winter from June to August, and spring from September to November. New Year is at midsummer, and midwinter is in June. Hot winds blow from the north; cold winds blow from the south. The farther north you go, the hotter it gets.


You will be dazzled with magnificent landscapes and unusual plants. It will seem strange to you that trees lose their bark, not their leaves, and a lot of flowers have no smell. Even stranger than plants are the animals. Many of them are found nowhere else in the world. There live kangaroos, koalas, echidnas, platypi and a lot of rare birds.

Australia is the world's largest island and its smallest continent. People often call Australia the "land down-under" because it lies entirely south of the equator.

Australia is the oldest of all continents. Its mountains are the worn and ancient stumps that were once higher than the Himalayas; its desert sands rose from the waves of the sea millions of years ago and still contain fossils of the marine creatures that formerly swam over them. Its animals are ancient and unique. Its wandering aboriginal tribes still live like the men of the Stone Age.

Australia is the driest continent on earth. The four great deserts of central Australia cover 2,000,000 square kilometres. There are few rivers there. Australian lakes, which look impressive on the map, are usually little more than clay and salt pans.

Australia is the flattest of all continents. Unlike any other continent, it lacks mountains of truly alpine structure and elevation. Its most significant mountain chain is the Great Dividing Range running down most of the east coast. Because of its overall flatness and regular coastline, Australia is often called a "sprawling pancake".

An island continent, Australia was cut off from the rest of the world for millions of years. As a result, it was the last continent to be discovered and settled by Europeans.

Australia is the only continent that is also a country. As a country, it has the sixth largest area in the world after Russia, Canada, China, the United States and Brazil.

Australia is the least populated of the continents. Only 0,3% of the world's population live there. However, Australia is the most urbanized country in the world. Two out of three of its citizens live in the eight largest cities.

The capital of Australia is Canberra.

Text 6: "CANADA"

Canada is the second largest country in the world. It covers the northern part of North America and its total area is 9,975,000 square kilometres. Canada's only neighbour is the USA. The border between the two countries is the longest unguarded border in the world.



34


35


Canada's motto, "From Sea to Sea," is particularly appropriate because the country is bounded by three oceans - the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. Its vast area includes some of the world's largest lakes and countless smaller ones. One-third of all fresh water on Earth is in Canada.

Canada's name comes from an Indian word kanata, which means "village". The first French settlers used the Indian name for the colony, but the official name was "New France". When the area came under the British rule in 1897, the new country was called the Dominion of Canada, or simply Canada. Canada is a union often provinces and two territories.

Compared with other large countries, Canada has a small population, only about 27,300,000. The country, however, is one of the world's most prosperous. Canadians developed its rich natural resources and, in the process, have achieved a high standard of living.

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and Queen Elizabeth II is its official head of state. Although the Queen holds this high position, she doesn't rule. She serves as a symbol of British tradition. Her representative in Canada is the Governor General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. The Governor's duties are limited to symbolic, mostly ceremonial acts.

The real power belongs to the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Canadian Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the Senate.

There are two official languages in the country: English and French. All Canadian children have to learn both French and English at school, but Francophones and Anglophones do not enjoy learning each other's language.

"We have two races, two languages, two systems of religious belief, two sets of laws... two systems of everything," said one Canadian journalist.

There was a time when Quebec Province (its population is 90% French) decided to separate from Canada and form a new country. Fortunately, the movement has waned.

The capital of Canada is Ottawa.

Text 7: "WHAT IS A COMPUTER?"

The term computer is used to describe a device made up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is referred to as hardware. A computer system is a combination of five elements: Hardware Software


• People Procedures Data/information

When one computer system is set up to communicate with another computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth system element. In other words, the manner in which the various individual systems are connected - for example, by phone lines, microwave transmission, or satellite - is an element of the total computer system.

Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do. People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a program and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw material while information is organized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information. Computer is also used to store information in the digital form.

Computers

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a program (a set of instructions) and then carry out this program by calculating numerical information.

The modern world of high technology is possible mainly due to the development of the computer. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing by means of automation, and they have enhanced modern communication systems.

Personal computers

Personal computers are also called microcomputers or home computer. The most compact are called laptops. They are portable and work on built-in batteries.

Personal computers are designed for use at homes, schools, and offices. At home they can be used for home management (balancing the family finances, for example) and for playing computer games, watching films or listening to music. Schoolchildren can use computers for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping, storage and handling of necessary information.



36


37




Personal computers were made possible by two technical innovations in the field of microelectronics: the integrated circuit, or 1С, which was developed in 1959 and the microprocessor that first appeared in 1971. The

1С permitted the miniaturization of computer-memory circuits, and the microprocessor reduced the size of a computer's CPU to the size of a single silicon chip.

Because a CPU calculates, performs logical operations, contains operating instructions, and manages data flows, a complete microcomputer as a separate system was designed and developed in 1974.

In 1981, IBM Company offered its own microcomputer model, the IBM PC that became a necessary tool for almost every business. The PC's use of a 16-bit microprocessor initiated the development of faster and more powerful personal computers, and its use of an operating system that was available to all other computer makers led to a standardisation of the industry.

In the mid-1980s, a number of other developments were especially important for the growth of personal computers. One of these was the introduction of a powerful 32-bit CPU capable of running advanced operating systems at high speeds.

Another innovation was the use of conventional operating systems, such as UNIX, OS/2 and Windows. The Apple Macintosh computers were the first to allow the user to select icons - graphic symbols of computer functions - from a display screen instead of typing commands. New voice-controlled systems are now available, and users are able to use the words and syntax of spoken language to operate their personal computers.

Text 8: «TYPES OF SOFTWARE»

A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software - programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a generalpurpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and applications software.

System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is

38


first turned on, one of the systems programs is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.

System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver program which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you "teach" your mainboard to "understand" the newly attached part.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one program to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.

Text 9: "HARDWARE"

What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following definition of the hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system.

Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:

1. input hardware

2. processing hardware

3. storage hardware

4. output hardware.

39


Input hardware

The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.

The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to input data into the computer о Electronic cameras are becoming very popular among the consumers for their relatively low price and convenience.

Processing hardware

The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer, you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.

Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;

ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.

Storage hardware

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve when needed for processing.

40


Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk, floppy disk and CD-ROM.

Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.

Floppy disk (diskette) - thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size, flexibility and small capacity. 5.5" disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.

CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays.

Output hardware

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.

Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.

Modem is an example of communication hardware - an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.

Text 10: "INTRODUCTION TO THE WWW AND THE INTERNET"

Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make

41




commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local providers have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.

All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.

Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.

Text 11: "History and Future of the Internet"

The Internet technology was created by Vinton Cerf in early 1973 as part of a project headed by Robert Kahn and conducted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the United States Department of De-fence. Later Cerf made many efforts to build and stand-ardise the Internet. In 1984 the technology and the net-work were turned over to the private sector and to government scientific agencies for further development. The growth has continued exponentially. Service-provider companies that make «gateways» to the Internet avail-able to home and business users enter the market in ever-increasing numbers. By early 1995, access

42


was available in 180 countries and more than 30 million users used the Internet. The Internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect in promoting the exchange of information, making possible rapid transactions among businesses, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organisations. More than 100 million computers are connected via the global Internet in 2000, and even more are attached to enterprise internets. The development of the World Wide Web leads to the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities that may lead to annual business transactions on the Internet worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

Text 12: "OPERATING SYSTEMS"

When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex, and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer's hardware, which others programs could have used when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.

Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.

DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.

The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.

Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0,3.1 programmes. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating

43


system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory management capabilities. OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS/2 preinstalled.

UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.

Windows 95 & 98 (Windows 2000) are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system.

Windows 95 requires 486 processor with 16 megabytes of RAM or Pentium 75-90 with 40 megabytes of free hard disk space.

Text 13: "History of Robotics"

The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that imitate the motions of living creatures. Some of the «robots» used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.

The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning

«compulsory labour». It was first used by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel

Chapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but» lacking

human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. Robots as

they are known today do not only imitate human or other living forms. True robots

did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s

and the miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an

experimental model designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in

the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a

television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.

44


Computers today are equipped with microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback, robots can change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is the most advanced nation exploring robot technology. Nowadays robots continue to expand their applications. The home-made robots (горничная) available today may be one sign of the future.

Text 14: "Engineering as a profession"

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most diverse field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fibre optics.

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

Electric Power and Machinery

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyse the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.

45


Electronics

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

Prior to the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices - resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes - assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. The electronics revolution of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.

Communications and Control

Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, such as those that run a lift, to the exotic, such as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.

Computers

Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more «intelligent» (artificial intelligence), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages or other means, is generally regarded as the aim of computer science.

46


One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Engineers try to place greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend is towards increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.

Mechanical Engineering

Engineers in this field design, test, build, and operate machinery of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. The field is divided into (1) machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and (2) heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. The mechanical engineer, therefore, must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics and must know such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. Some mechanical engineers specialise in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves, and must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical example of modern mechanical engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

Safety Engineering

This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. In recent years safety engineering has become a speciality adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships and roads, suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the possibility of accident. In the design of machinery, for example, the safety engineer try to cover all moving parts or keep them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator and to eliminate dangerous sharp parts. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections that

Text 15: "Direct-Current (DC) Generators"

If an armature revolves between two stationary field poles, the current in the armature moves in one direction during half of each revolution and in the other direction during the other half. To produce a steady flow of unidirectional, or direct, current from such a device, it is necessary to provide a means of reversing the current flow outside the generator once during each revolution. In older machines this reversal is accomplished by means of a commutator (коллектор) — a split metal ring mounted on the shaft of the armature. The two halves of the ring

47



are insulated from each other and serve as the terminals of the armature coil. Fixed brushes of metal or carbon are held against the commutator as it revolves, connecting the coil electrically to external wires. As the armature turns, each brush is in contact alternately with the halves of the commutator, changing position at the moment when the current in the armature coil reverses its direction. Thus there is a flow of unidirectional current in the outside circuit to which the generator is connected. DC generators are usually operated at fairly low voltages to avoid the sparking between brushes and commutator that occurs at high voltage. The highest potential commonly developed by such generators is 1500 V. In some newer machines this reversal is accomplished using power electronic devices, for example, diode rectifiers.

Modern DC generators use drum armatures that usually consist of a large number of windings set in longitudinal slits in the armature core and connected to appropriate segments of a multiple commutator. In an armature having only one loop of wire, the current produced will rise and fall depending on the part of the magnetic field through which the loop is moving.. A commutator of many segments used with a drum armature always connects the external circuit to one loop of wire moving through the high-intensity area of the field, and as a result the current delivered by the armature windings is virtually constant. Fields of modern generators are usually equipped with four or more electromagnetic poles to increase the size and strength of the magnetic field. Sometimes smaller interpoles are added to compensate for distortions in the magnetic flux of the field caused by the magnetic effect of the armature.

DC generators are commonly classified according to the method used to provide field current for energizing the field magnets. A series-wound generator has its field in series with the armature, and a shunt-wound generator has the field connected in parallel with the armature. Compound-wound generators have part of their fields in series and part in parallel. Both shunt-wound and compound-wound generators have the advantage of delivering comparatively constant voltage under varying electrical loads. The series-wound generator is used principally to supply a constant current at variable voltage. A magneto is a small DC generator with a permanent-magnet field.

Text 16: "AC Motors"

Two basic types of motors are designed to operate on polyphase alternating current: synchronous motors and induction motors. The synchronous motor is essentially a three-phase alternator operated in reverse. The field magnets are mounted on the rotor and are excited by direct current, and the armature winding

48


is divided into three parts and fed with three-phase alternating current. The variation of the three waves of current in the armature causes a varying magnetic reaction with the poles of the field magnets, and makes the field rotate at a constant speed that is determined by the frequency of the current in the AC power line.

The constant speed of a synchronous motor is advantageous in certain devices. However, in applications where the mechanical load on the motor becomes very great, synchronous motors cannot be used, because if the motor slows down under load it will «fall out of step» with the frequency of the current and come to a stop. Synchronous motors can be made to operate from a single-phase power source by the inclusion of suitable circuit elements that cause a rotating magnetic field.

The simplest of all electric motors is the squirrel-cage type of induction motor used with a three-phase supply. The armature of the squirrel-cage motor consists of three fixed coils similar to the armature of the synchronous motor. The rotating member consists of a core in which are imbedded a series of heavy conductors arranged in a circle around the shaft and parallel to it. With the core removed, the rotor conductors resemble in form the cylindrical cages once used to exercise pet squirrels. The three-phase current flowing in the stationary armature windings generates a rotating magnetic field, and this field induces a current in the conductors of the cage. The magnetic reaction between the rotating field and the current-carrying conductors of the rotor makes the rotor turn. If the rotor is revolving at exactly the same speed as the magnetic field, no currents will be induced in it, and hence the rotor should not turn at a synchronous speed. In operation the speeds of rotation of the rotor and the field differ by about 2 to 5 per cent. This speed difference is known as slip.

Motors with squirrel-cage rotors can be used on single-phase alternating current by means of various arrangements of inductance and capacitance that alter the characteristics of the single-phase voltage and make it resemble a two-phase voltage. Such motors are called split-phase motors or condenser motors (or capacitor motors), depending on the arrangement used. Single-phase squirrel-cage motors do not have a large starting torque, and for applications where such torque is required, repulsion-induction motors are used. A repulsion-induction motor may be of the split-phase or condenser type, but has a manual or automatic switch that allows current to flow between brushes on the commutator when the motor is starting, and short-circuits all commutator segments after the motor reaches a critical speed. Repulsion-induction motors are so named because their starting torque depends on the repulsion between the rotor and the stator, and their torque while running depends on induction. Series-wound motors with commutators, which will operate on direct or alternating current, are called universal motors. They are usually made only in small sizes and are commonly used in household appliances.

49

Text 17: "Measurements"

Metric System is a decimal system of physical units, named after its unit of length, the metre, the metric system is adopted as the common system of weights and measures by the majority of countries, and by all countries as the system used in scientific work.

Weights and Measures

Length, capacity, and weight can be measured using standard units. The principal early standards of length were the palm or hand breadth, the foot, and the cubit, which is the length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Such standards were not accurate and definite. Unchanging standards of measurement have been adopted only in modern time.

In the English-speaking world, the everyday units of linear measurement were traditionally the inch, foot, yard and mile. In Great Britain, until recently, these units of length were defined in terms of the imperial standard yard, which was the distance between two lines on a bronze bar made in 1845.

In Britain units of weight (ounces, pounds, and tons) are now also derived from the metric standard - kilogram. This is a solid cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy maintained at constant temperature at Sevres, near Paris. Copies, as exact as possible, of this standard are maintained by national standards laboratories in many countries.

International System of Units is a system of measurement units based on theMKS (metre-kilogram-second) system. This international system is commonly referred to as SI.

At the Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures, held in Paris in 1960 standards were defined for six base units and two supplementary units:

Length. The metre had its origin in the metric system. By international agreement, the standard metre had been defined as the distance between two fine lines on a bar of platinum-iridium alloy. The 1960 conference redefined the metre as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of the reddish-orange light emitted by the isotope krypton-86. The metre was again redefined in 1983 as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

Mass. When the metric system was created, the kilogram was defined as the mass of 1 cubic decimetre of pure water at the temperature of its maximum density or at 4.0 °C.

Time. For centuries, time has been universally measured in terms of the rotation of the earth. The second, the basic unit of time, was defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day or one complete rotation of the earth on its axis in relation to

50


the sun. Scientists discovered, however, that the rotation of the earth was not constant enough to serve as the basis of the time standard. As a result, the second was redefined in 1967 in terms of the resonant frequency of the caesium atom, that is, the frequency at which this atom absorbs energy: 9,192,631,770 Hz (hertz, or cycles per second).

Temperature

The temperature scale is based on a fixed temperature, that of the triple point of water at which it's solid, liquid and gaseous. The freezing point of water was designated as 273.15 K, equalling exactly 0° on the Celsius temperature scale. The Celsius scale, which is identical to the centigrade scale, is named after the 18th-century Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who first proposed the use of a scale in which the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 100 degrees. By international agreement, the term Celsius has officially replaced centigrade.

One feature of SI is that some units are too large for ordinary use and others too small. To compensate, the prefixes developed for the metric system have been borrowed and expanded. These prefixes are used with all three types of units: base, supplementary, and derived. Examples are millimetre (mm), kilometre/hour (km/h), megawatt (MW), and picofarad (pF). Because double prefixes are not used, and because the base unit name kilogram already contains a prefix, prefixes are used not with kilogram but with gram. The prefixes hecto, deka, deci, and centi are used only rarely, and then usually with metre to express areas and volumes. In accordance with established usage, the centimetre is retained for body measurements and clothing.

In cases where their usage is already well established, certain other units are allowed for a limited time, subject to future review. These include the nautical mile, knot, angstrom, standard atmosphere, hectare, and bar.

Text 18: "Construction of an automobile"

The primary components of a car are the power plant, the power transmission, the running gear, and the control system. These constitute the chassis, on which the body is mounted.

The power plant includes the engine and its fuel, the carburettor, ignition, lubrication, and cooling systems, and the starter motor.


51


The Engine

The greatest number of cars use piston engines. The four-cycle piston engine requires four strokes of the piston per cycle. The first downstroke draws in the petrol mixture. The first upstroke compresses it. The second downstroke - the power stroke - following the combustion of the fuel, supplies the power, and the second upstroke evacuates the burned gases. Intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder control the intake of fuel and the release of burned gases. At the end of the power stroke the pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder is 2.8 to 3.5 kg/sq cm. These gases escape with the sudden opening of the exhaust valve. They rush to a silencer (muffler), an enlarged section of piping containing expanding ducts and perforated plates through which the gases expand and are released into the atmosphere.

Greater smoothness of operation of the four-cycle engine were provided by the development of the four-cylinder engine, which supplies power from one or another of the cylinders on each stroke of the cycle. A further increase in power and smoothness is obtained in engines of 6,8,12, and 16 cylinders, which are arranged in either a straight line or two banks assembled in the form of a V.

Carburation

Air is mixed with the vapour of the petrol in the carburettor. To prevent the air and the carburettor from becoming too cold for successful evaporation of the fuel, the air for the carburettor is usually taken from a point close to a heated part of the engine. Modern carburettors are fitted with a so-called float-feed chamber and a mixing or spraying chamber. The first is a small chamber in which a small supply of petrol is maintained at a constant level. The petrol is pumped from the main tank to this chamber, the float rising as the petrol flows in until the desired level is reached, when the inlet closes. The carburettor is equipped with such devices as accelerating pumps and economizer valves, which automatically control the mixture ratio for efficient operation under varying conditions. Level-road driving at constant speed requires a lower ratio of petrol to air than that needed for climbing hills, for acceleration, or for starting the engine in cold weather. When a mixture extremely rich in petrol is necessary, a valve known as the choke cuts down the air intake, permitting large quantities of unvaporized fuel to enter the cylinder.

Ignition

The mixture of air and petrol vapour delivered to the cylinder from the carburettor is compressed by the first upstroke of the piston. This heats the gas, and the higher temperature and pressure facilitate ignition and quick combustion.

52


The next operation is that of igniting the charge by a spark plug. One electrode is insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit of an induction system.

The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the battery-and-coil system. The current from the battery flows through the coil and magnetizes the iron core. When this circuit is interrupted at the distributor points by the interrupter cam, a current is produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the condenser. This induces a high-voltage current in the secondary winding. This secondary high voltage is needed to cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the distributor, which connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders in their proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the same shaft, the number of breaking points on the interrupter cam being the same as the number of cylinders.

The electrical equipment controls the starting of the engine, its ignition system, and the lighting of the car. It consists of the battery, a generator for charging it when the engine is running, a starter and the necessary wiring. Electricity also operates various automatic devices and accessories, including windscreen wipers, directional signals, heating and air conditioning, cigarette lighters, powered windows and audio equipment.

Lubrication

In the force-feed system, a pump forces the oil to the main crankshaft bearings and then through drilled holes in the crankpins. In the full-force system, oil is also forced to the connecting rod and then out to the walls of the cylinder at the piston pin.

Cooling

At the moment of explosion, the temperature within the cylinder is much higher than the melting point of cast iron. Since the explosions take place as often as 2,000 times per minute in each cylinder, the cylinder would soon become so hot that the piston, through expansion, would «freeze» in the cylinder. The cylinders are therefore provided with jackets, through which water is rapidly circulated by a small pump driven by a gear on the crankshaft or camshaft. During cold weather, the water is generally mixed with a suitable antifreeze, such as alcohol, wood alcohol, or ethylene glycol.

To keep the water from boiling away, a radiator forms part of the engine-cooling system. Radiators vary in shape and style. They all have the same function, however, of allowing the water to pass through tubing with a large area, the outer

53


surface of which can be cooled by the atmosphere. In air cooling of engine cylinders, various means are used to give the heat an outlet and carry it off by a forced draught of air.

Text 19: "THE HISTORY OF LAND TRANSPORT"

Introduction

The word transport means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is also used for the vehicles that carry people or goods - for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, motor coaches and motor cars. The American word for the same thing is transportation, and the remark "transportation is civilization" was made by an American, the motor-car manufacturer Henry Ford.

The history of transport is divided into two stages. The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and current, The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.

Porters and Pack Animals

The most ancient people were probably wanderers. They did not live in settled homes because they did not know how to till the soil. As they moved from place to place they had to carry their goods themselves. The porters were usually the women, probably because the men had to be ready to beat off attacks by wild beasts or enemies. Even now, to carry the household goods is the job of women in backward wandering tribes.

The next step was the use of pack animals for carrying goods. The kind of animal used varied in different places, but the general idea was the same - the bundles or baskets were carried by the animals on their backs. The dog, although too small to carry much, was probably one of the first transport animals used because it is so easily trained. Dogs are still to be trained for dragging sledges in the Arctic because of their light weight.

The next advance in land transport came with the invention of the wheel. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled waggons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary. These roads had to be wide enough to take a cart and paved, for unless their surface was paved the wheels sank in and the cart stuck. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by the Romans, chiefly so that troops could be marched without

54


delay from place to place. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic. However, when the Roman Empire collapsed, the roads gradually got into a very bad state.

There were two problems to be solved - first, how to make good roads, and, second, to decide who was to pay for them. In Great Britain these problems were solved in the 18th century. Stretches of roads were handed over to groups called trusts. The trusts borrowed money for repairing and improving the roads, paying it back from the sums they collected from road users. This method of paying for new roads and bridges is still used, especially in the United States.

Then it became possible to travel rather comfortably by coaches. In cities like London, rich people had their own carriages, while poor people went on horseback or walked. Then appeared carriages that could be hired for short distances. They correspond to the modern taxis. The word is short for taxi cab which in turn comes from the words taximeter and cabriolet. A cabriolet is a light two-wheeled carriage introduced from France in the 19th century. The taximeter is a mechanical device connected with the wheels which, by measuring the distance traveled, shows the fare due at any moment. It is also controlled by a clock so that waiting time too is charged for.

Text 20: "THE WHEEL, STEAM CARRIAGES AND RAILWAYS"

One of mankind's earliest and greatest inventions was the wheel. Without it there could be no industry, little transportation or communication, only crude farming, no electric power.

Nobody knows when the wheel was invented. There is no trace of the wheel during the Stone Age, and it was not known to the American Indians until the White Man came. In the Old World it came into use during the Bronze Age, when horses and oxen were used as work animals. At first all wheels were solid discs.

The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and at the same time keep them strong. At first holes were made in the wheels, and they became somewhat lighter. Then wheels with spokes were made. Finally, the wheel was covered with iron and then with rubber.

Light two-wheeled carriages were used widely in the ancient world. As time passed they were made lighter, stronger, and better. Later people joined together a pair of two-wheeled carts into a four-wheeled vehicle. At first only kings and queens had the privilege of driving in them.

In the West the first steam carriage was invented in France. The three-wheeled machine had the front wheel driven by a two-cylinder steam engine, and carried two people along the road at a walking pace. It was not a great success, as the

55


boiler did not produce enough steam for keeping the carriage going for more than about 15 minutes.

The steam engine appeared in 1763. It was followed by several improved steam road carriages. Their further development was prevented by railway companies. The rapid spread of railways in the United Kingdom was due largely to George Stephenson, who was an enthusiast as well as a brilliant engineer.

He demonstrated a locomotive that could run eighteen kilometres an hour and carry passengers cheaper than horses carried them. Eleven years later Stephenson was operating a railway between Stockton and Darlington. The steam locomotive was a success.

In Russia the tsar's government showed little interest in railway transportation. After long debates the government, which did not believe in its own engineers, finally decided to invite foreign engineers to submit (представить) projects for building railways in Russia.

Yet at the very time when foreign engineers were submitting their plans, in the Urals a steam locomotive was actually in use. It had been invented and built by the Cherepanovs, father and son, both skilful mechanics and serfs (крепостные). The first Russian locomotive was, of course, a "baby" compared with the locomotives of today. Under the boiler (котел) there were two cylinders which turned the locomotive's two driving wheels (there were four wheels in all). At the front there was a smoke stack (труба), while at the back there was a platform for the driver.

Text 21: "WATER TRANSPORT"

One of the most important things about water transport is the small effort needed to move floating craft. A heavy boat or a barge weighing several tons can be moved through the water, slowly but steadily, by one man. An aeroplane of the same weight as the barge needs engines of 1,000 horsepower or more in order to

fly.

The raft made of logs of wood is supposed to be the earliest type of boat.

Rafts seem to be clumsy vessels, although the Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl and his five companions in 1947 made a voyage on the raft Kon-Tiki from Peru to Tuamotu Islands - a distance of 4,500 miles.

The water transport in ancient times developed most rapidly on great rivers. The ancient Romans used vessels to carry their armies and supplies to colonies. These ships, usually called galleys, continued to be used in the Mediterranean till 1750.

56


The introduction of the magnetic compass allowed long voyages to be made with much greater safety. At the end of the 15th century, sailing vessels are known to have carried men from Europe to America and round Africa to India.

The middle of the 19th century proved to be the highest point in the development of sailing ships.

Steam and Motor Ships. One of the earliest steamboats is known to have been tested at the end of the 18th century. The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Savannah, 98-foot ship built in New York, which made the crossing in 1819. Like all the early steamships, it had sails as well as paddles.' By the middle of the 19th century it became possible to build much larger ships for iron and steel began to replace timber.

The rapid increase in the size and power of ships was promoted by the industrial revolution. The industrial countries produced great quantities of goods which were carried to all parts of the world by ships. On their return voyages, the ships brought either raw materials such as cotton, metals, timber for the factories, or grain and foodstuffs for the growing population.

During the same period, a great deal was done to improve ports, and that permitted larger ships to use them and to make loading and unloading faster.

Improvements introduced in the 20th century included the smoother and more efficient type of engines called steam turbines and the use of oil fuel instead of coal. Between 1910 and 1920 the diesel engine began to be introduced in ships. These diesel-engined ships are called motor ships.г The largest ships, however, are still generally driven by steam turbines. In the late 1950s a few ships were being built which were equipped with nuclear reactors for producing steam. In 1957 the world's first atomic ice-breaker was launched in Leningrad. This atomic ice-breaker is equipped with an atomic engine owing to which her operating on negligible quantities of nuclear fuel is possible. In spite of the capacity of her engine being 44,000 h.p. it will need only a few grams of atomic fuel a week.

The atomic ice-breaker has three nuclear reactors. The operation of the nuclear reactor is accompanied by powerful radiation. Therefore, the icebreaker is equipped with reliable means of protection. The ice-breaker is designed for operation in Arctic waters.

Canal Transport. Sea-going ships can use some rivers, such as the Thames in England, the Rhine, and the Volga in Europe and the Mississippi in the United States. Generally, however, a river has to be "canalized" before ships can use it. This means widening and deepening the channel and protecting its banks so that they do not wash away and block the river with mud.

We find the British canals to be quite narrow and shallow.

57


The canals in Europe are much larger than those in Great Britain. France has a big network of canals, centred on Paris, and linking ports of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and English Channel3 coasts with each other and with other countries.

NOTES TO THE TEXT

1 paddle - гребное колесо

2 motor ship - теплоход

3 the English Channel - Ла-Манш

Text 22: "INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CANALS"

The best examples of canals used for draining land are found in Holland, where much of the country is below sea-level. Dams are used to prevent flooding and since 1932 over 300,000 acres of land have been drained. In winter the Dutch people use the frozen canals for ice-skating.

In a hot dry country such as Egypt water is scarce, and to prevent the land from becoming dry long canals are built from dams. These canals must be continually kept open, for the Egyptian farms and cotton fields cannot exist without these life lines of water.

Many inland waterways are used for the transport of heavy goods by barges. This method of carrying materials is not so widely used now, for although it is cheaper, it has the disadvantage of being much slower. Speed is regulated by the number of bridges and locks1 which the barges encounter.

Two notable canals for ships in Europe are the Corinth Canal and the Kiel Canal. The former was built in 1893 across the solid rocks of the isthmus2 of Corinth. Bridges from the tops of the steep sides of the canal connect north and south Greece. The Kiel Canal, which also has no locks, was built two years later and it gives the countries of the Baltic Sea quicker access to the west.

Venice, at the Adriatic Sea, is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, for it has many canals instead of streets. Long narrow boats with curved ends, called "gondolas", carry passengers and goods from one part of the city to another. The gondolas are supplied with lanterns, which at night make the canals very colourful and romantic. A peculiar custom of former days was that the Ruler of Venice used to throw a ring into the water each year to show that the city was wed3 to the sea. One of the greatest arteries of world trade is the Suez Canal separating the two continents of Asia and Africa. As trade with India increased, the overland route across Suez became regular but very expensive. In 1859, the French engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps, started to cut a passage through this flat desert country. Ten years later, the first seagoing ships passed through the canal, which is a hundred

58


miles long and has no locks, thus completing a direct water route from the North Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.

The journey along the canal takes about fifteen hours and shortens the distance from Britain to the East by about 4,000 miles. The canal belongs to Egypt and is a vital waterway serving the merchants fleets of many nations.

The Great Lakes which lie between Canada and the United States have become part of the world's ocean highways for it is now possible for big ships to sail up the Saint Lawrence Canal to the ports of Toronto, Cleveland and Chicago. A 218 mile canal joins the Atlantic with these Great Lakes which contain half of all the fresh water in the world. There are seven locks, five on the Canadian side and two on the United States side. Bridges needed to be raised fifty feet to allow big ship traffic to pass and, indeed, from Montreal, these ocean-going vessels are raised 246 feet above the sea-level to Lake Ontario. The Saint Lawrence Canal takes the ships 2,200 miles inland, half-way across the North American continent and deep into the heart of Canada.

NOTES TO THE TEXT

1 lock - шлюз

2 isthmus - перешеек

3 to be wed - быть обрученным

Text 23: "AIR TRANSPORT»

Modern air transport using craft which is heavier than air requires good deal of power merely to stay in the air. It is for this reason that air transport uses more fuel to carry a ton over a distance of a mile than land or water transport Another drawback of air transport is that whereas a ship, truck or train whose engines break down can stop until they are mended, an aircraft with the same trouble must land. This means that an aircraft must have several engines and this increases its cost. Safety precautions for air transport also tend to make it expensive It cannot be relied upon for regular services in places or seasons with low clouds and mist. The great advantage of air transport being its high speed, all civilized countries try to develop it. If you want to save time, you will naturally fly by air.

Balloons. The earliest form of air transport was balloons which are sometimes called "free balloons" because having no engines they are forced to drift by the wind flow. This fact alone makes balloons not reliable enough for carrying people. If they were safer, they would be used more for transportation, but at present the scientists use balloons mostly for obtaining information about the upper atmosphere, its density, and other scientific subjects. Weather balloons are particularly used by meteorologists. They carry instruments whose readings

59


are automatically sent back to the ground by the radio, the position of the balloon

being obtained by radar. Small balloons released from air-fields are observed to

obtain the direction and strength of the wind.

Aeroplanes. The heavier-than-air machines called aeroplanes were rather

slow in being adopted for transport. The first aeroplane flight was made in 1884. World War I quickened the development of aeroplanes enormously. By 1918 they were no longer unreliable things capable of only short flights, but powerful machines able to carry heavy loads at high speeds for long distances. What was more, the ending of the war meant that thousands of aeroplanes and skilled pilots were available.

The first aeroplanes were machines that had been used as bombers. They were quickly converted for use by passengers by fitting extra seats and windows. The first regular public air service from London to Paris was started in August.

During World War II the value of aeroplanes for carrying heavy loads was recognized. This led after the war to an increase in the practice of sending goods by air. Air freight is expensive but is often thought worth while for such goods as early vegetables, fruit and flowers, as well as for things urgently needed such as spare parts for machinery, medical supplies, films and photographs. Some parts of the world are hundreds of miles from a road, railway or waterway, and air transport is the only possible kind of transport. Such places are kept supplied wholly by air. After World War II, bigger and faster airliners were introduced. Jet-propelled aircraft were first used in 1950. Air transport is very valuable for emergency medical work. The most important use of air transport besides carrying passengers is carrying mail. If the letters are sent by air mail, they are not long in coming. Although it is unlikely that aircraft will ever replace ships for carrying heavy and bulky cargoes such as oil, coal, minerals, grain and machinery, air transport is already proving a serious rival to passenger ships on some routes.

Helicopters and Hovercraft.1 Helicopters are very useful in places where there is no room for long, flat runways.2 Modem turbo-jet airliners need a run of nearly two miles long to take off, but helicopters can use small fields, platforms mounted on ships and the flat tops of buildings. Helicopters were first introduced for regular airline service in 1947. Later, helicopters were used for carrying passengers and mail on short routes, and for taking airline passengers between the centres of cities and the main airports.

While helicopters gain in needing very little space for taking-off and landing, they lose because the speed at which they move forward is quite low. So the problem was to develop an aircraft combining the advantages of the helicopter with the high speed of an ordinary aircraft. If the designers could develop such a machine the problem would be solved. So for this purpose the hovercraft was designed.

60


Hovercrafts are likely to be useful for ferry services - for example, in ferrying motor cars across the English Channel. They may also be useful for travel in roadless countries.3

NOTES TO THE TEXT

1 hovercraft - машина на воздушной подушке

2 runway - взлетно-посадочная полоса

3 in roadless countries - в условиях бездорожья

Text 24: «TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE USA»

The development of transport facilities was very important in the growth of the United States. The first travel routes were natural waterways. No surfaced roads existed until the 1790s, when the first turnpikes were built. Besides the overland roads, many canals were constructed between the late 18th century and 1850 to link navigable rivers and lakes in the eastern United States and in the Great Lakes region. Steam railways began to appear in the East in the 1820s. The first transcontinental railway was constructed between 1862 and 1869 by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies, both of which received large subsidies from the federal government. Transcontinental railways were the chief means of transport used by European settlers who populated the West in the latter part of the 19th century. The railways continued to expand until 1917, when their length reached a peak of about 407,000 km. Since then motor transport became a serious competitor to the railway both for passengers and freight.

Air transport began to compete with other modes of transport after World War I. Passenger service began to gain importance in 1920s, but not until the beginning of commercial jet craft after World War II did air transport become a leading mode of travel.

During the early 1990s railways annually handled about 37.5 per cent of the total freight traffic; tracks carried 26 per cent of the freight, and oil pipelines conveyed 20 per cent. Approximately 16 per cent was shipped on inland waterways. Although the freight handled by airlines amounted to only 0.4 per cent of the total, much of the cargo consisted of high-priority or high-value items.

Private cars about 81 per cent of passengers. Airlines are the second leading mover of people, carrying more than 17 per cent of passengers. Buses are responsible for 1.1 per cent, and railways carry 0.6 per cent of passengers.

Roads and Railways

The transport network spreads into all sections of the country, but the web of railways and highways is much more dense in the eastern half of the United States.

61



In the early 1990s the United States had about 6.24 million km of streets, roads, and highways. The National Interstate Highway System, 68,449 km in length in the early 1990s, connected the nation's principal cities and carried about one-fifth of all the road and street traffic.

More than 188 million motor vehicles were registered in the early 1990s. More than three-quarters were cars - one for every two persons in the country. About one-fifth of the vehicles were lorries. Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation), a federally subsidized concern, operates almost all the inter-city passenger trains in the United States; it carried more than 22 million passengers annually in the early 1990s.


4.


БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ

Полякова Т.Ю. и др. Английский язык для инженеров, М.: Высш. шк.

2000.

Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский для технических вузов,

Высшее образование, Ростов-на-Дону, 2002.

Цветкова И.В., Клепальченко И.А., Мальцева Н.А. Английский язык для поступающих в вузы (тексты для чтения), М., 2004. Ощепкова В.В., Шустилова И.И. О Британии вкратце (тексты для чтения), М.: Просвещение, 1998.



62


63


Содержание

Часть 1. ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА..................................................................... 3

Часть 2. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 1 .......................................................................... 7

ВАРИАНТ 1 ............................................................................................................ 9

ВАРИАНТ 2........................................................................................................... И

ВАРИАНТ 3........................................................................................................... 13

ВАРИАНТ 4........................................................................................................... 15

ВАРИАНТ 5........................................................................................................... 17

Часть 3. РАЗГОВОРЫЕ ТЕМЫ.................................................................................... 19

I. GREETINGS, ACQUAINTANCE AND SAYING GOOD-BYE

(ПРИВЕТСТВИЕ, ЗНАКОМСТВО И ПРОЩАНИЕ)...................................... 19

И. MY FAMILY AND MYSELF

(О СЕБЕ И СВОЕЙ СЕМЬЕ)........................................................................... 22

III. MY ACADEMY

(МОЯ АКАДЕМИЯ)........................................................................................ 25

IV. MY NATIVE TOWN (NOVOSIBIRSK)............................................................. 27

IV. RUSSIA (THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)........................................................ 28

Часть 4. ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА....................................................... 30

TEXT I: «THE UNITED KINGDOM»..................................................................... 30

TEXT2: «HISTORYOF LONDON»......................................................................... 31

TEXT 3: «HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK».................................................... 32

TEXT 4: «THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA»................................................ 33

TEXT 5: "AUSTRALIA"......................................................................................... 34

TEXT 6: "CANADA"............................................................................................... 35

TEXT 7: "WHAT IS A COMPUTER?".................................................................... 36

TEXT 8: «TYPES OF SOFTWARE»........................................................................ 38

TEXT 9: "HARDWARE"......................................................................................... 39

TEXT 10: "INTRODUCTION TO THE WWW AND THE INTERNET" 41

TEXT 11: "HISTORY AND FUTURE OF THE INTERNET".................................. 42

TEXT 12: "OPERATING SYSTEMS"...................................................................... 43

TEXT 13: "HISTORY OF ROBOTICS"................................................................... 44

TEXT 14: "ENGINEERING AS A PROFESSION"................................................... 45

TEXT 15: "DIRECT-CURRENT (DC) GENERATORS".......................................... 47

TEXT 16: "AC MOTORS"....................................................................................... 48

TEXT 17: "MEASUREMENTS"............................................................................... 50

TEXT 18: "CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMOBILE".......................................... 51

TEXT 19: "THE HISTORY OF LAND TRANSPORT"............................................ 54

64


TEXT 20: "THE WHEEL, STEAM CARRIAGES AND RAILWAYS" ...55

TEXT 21: "WATER TRANSPORT"............................................................................ 56

TEXT 22: "INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CANALS"............................................. 58

TEXT 23: "AIRTRANSPORT"................................................................................... 59

TEXT 24: «TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF THE USA» .................................................. 61

БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ........................................................................................................... 63

65


УЧЕБНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ

Дементьева Елена Александровна Симушкина Наталья Юрьевна Жигалкина Елена Витальевна

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания для студентов 1 курса заочного обучения

Ответственный за выпуск: Дементьева Е.А. Компьютерная верстка: ШуликаИ.В.

Подписано в печать 14.12.2006 с оригинал-макета

Бумага офсетная № 1, формат 60x84 1/16, печать трафаретная — Riso

Усл. печ. л. 3,84 Тираж 300 экз., заказ № 111 . Цена договорная

ФГОУ ВПО "Новосибирская государственная академия водного транспорта" (ФГОУ ВПО "НГАВТ"), 630099, г. Новосибирск, ул. Щетинкина, 33

Отпечатано в издательстве ФГОУ ВПО "НГАВТ"

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка

Работы, похожие на Учебное пособие: Методические указания для студентов 1 курса заочного обучения

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(222496)
Комментарии (3006)
Copyright © 2005-2019 BestReferat.ru bestreferat@gmail.com реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru