is walking n had been b walked washed/ c 'd been
walking was washed d had taken o 've been e was taken
washing f '11 take p will have g 'vehad been sold h
'11 be having q sells i were having r will be sold/ j is
freshly made 's going to k '11 have made be sold
's been made s will have been m 're being teaching washed
t were being taught
Exercise 2 ACTIVE
Simple Continuous Present
sells is walking Past walked were
having Future will take
having Present Perfect
have had have been
washing Past Perfect
had taken had been
Future Perfect will have
will have made been
Simple Continuous Present
is made are being
washed Past was
taken were being
taught Future will
be sold Present Perfect has been
made Past Perfect had
washed Future Perfect will
have been sold
Manchester United are playing
really well at the moment. ... c
I've heard you're going to have a
baby!/you're having a baby! ... d
• e When I was a little girl, I always
spent my ...
I've been going out with Paul ... g ... Perhaps I'll get him
... h •
A ... strike has been called by ... j ... and deserved
to pass ...
Choosing the right tense
a 've been looking/was looking b
wondered/was wondering c went d
'd never been
did you feel
have been learning/are learning
're looking forward
will that be
will be able
Active or passive?
Volvos aren't made in Norway. b Our house was built in the 17th
Has your bedroom been decorated d My bedroom's being decorated ... e
While ... was being built... f ... our house had been burgled. g She
won't be recognized ...
were caught were leaving/left
arrived had caught
hadn't been delivered
has been missing
don't you like love
're going to see
were driving were overtaken h had been snowing i arrive '11 be picked
At home on a train Exercise
don't live k have been b has travelled removed c is made
1 paid d 've lived/ m were offered
've been living n 'm discovering
e didn't want o was built f saw p 've worked/ g fell
're working/ h bought have been i had already
done q '11 ever sell j
we're still r will remain/
Do they live in a caravan? b How long have they lived/been
Who did they buy it from? d How much did they pay for their
house? e How much were they
offered for the house? f Where
and when was it built? g Are they still working on the hous< h
Will they ever sell the house?
have, be,or do?
has (A) h does (A) b did (F) i was (A) c have (F)
j is (A) d 've (A) being (A) e is/was (F) k doing (F)
has/had (F) to have (F)
f didn't (A) 1 been (A) g
done (F) 'm(F)
7 Forms of have
and have got Exercise 1
'... have you got/do you have a ...'
'... I'm having ...'
'... I've got/have ... to have
...' b '... have you got/do you have ...'
'... I haven't/don't...'
'... haven't got/don't have ... c
'... Will you have to ...' d
'Have you got/do you have ...'
'No, we haven't/don't. Have/do
'... I've had ... I've got/have
to have ...' e '... We've got to/have to ...'
'... haven't got/don't have ...'
'... had ... Have ...' f ...
having ... I've had ... haven't
She hasn't got...
I don't usually have ...
I haven't got/don't have ...
They aren't having ...
We didn't have ...
I don't have to ...
I didn't have to ...
What colour eyes has she got? b What time do you usually have
How much money do you have? d What are they having a row about? e Did
you have a good time on
holiday? f How many hours a day
do you have
to work? g , What time did you
have to get up
Rooms and their contents
taps sink dishwasher
scales breadbin tin opener
cat flap tea towel high chair
Welsh dresser Living room:
armchair sofa rug
drinks cabinet magazine rack
ornaments Bedroom: chest
dressing table cot duvet
wardrobe pillow ornaments
sheets rug quilt Bathroom:
towel rail washbasin bidet taps
scales flannel towel
house and home idioms
He's got a huge appetite.
They have a very good relationship.
I could shop for a very long time.
The drinks are free.
The musical was a success.
The pictures made me realize fully
the horrors of the famine. g Mum
earns the money in our
h Haig managed to win, although
it wasn't easy.
When I saw her empty cat basket it
really brought home the fact I'd
never see her again. b We all got
on like a house on fire. c They eat us out of house and home. d
Apparently, it brought the house
down. e I could dance until the
Literal and idiomatic
out e down h back b away f off on i in c down g out
j away d off
fell out (L) e Hold on (I)
fell out (I) hold on (L)
b put up (I) f take it off (L)
put up (L) take off (I) c
've sorted g picked it up (I)
out (L) pick him up (L)
sort it out (I) d stand up (L)
stand up (I)
11 Vowel sounds and spelling
friend e took i thought b English f huge j shirt c cheese
g crash k chart d month h shock 1 temper
letter weather breakfast head /i/ sick women busy building I'r.l
tree jeans heat machine /a/ hug mother fun worry Ivl good
woman could pullover /u:/ cool roof suit canoe 1x1 camp family
accent fan /o/ log odd sausage want /a:/ horse walk daughter floor
/3:i early work search worm /a:/ party father banana garden
/a/ letter banana father machine
Learning a foreign language is very
useful. b It's important to have
English spelling isn't easy. d It's good to keep lists of vocabulary.
e Grammar doesn't have to be
boring. f Everyone wants to speak
1 and 2
usually f rarely/ b occasionally hardly ever c used to
C) g always d frequently h sometimes e rarely/ i
ever j would (•)
2 Present habit Exercise 1
2g 3f 4e 5h 6c 7b 8 i 9 j 10 a
Exercise 2 (Sample
She has three a day.
He's always telling people how
clever he is. c She won't eat
anything at all
He doesn't play anything. e They're always buying things. f He's
always sitting at his computer,
surfing the Internet. g She's
always watching TV. h He always expects the worst to
happen. i They will eat
with their mouths
open. j He never lets you down.
used to e used to
Did you use to f didn't use to
never used to/ g did you use to
didn't use to h Didn't you d
Did you use to use to
a,b 2 a 3 a,b,c 4 a,b,c 5 a 6 a, b, c 7 a, b 8 a 9 a,b,c
Criticizing other people
• d • e • h • i •
Exercise 2 My family
My dad will mend/is always
mending... b My brother will
leaving... c My sister will
borrowing... d Uncle Tom will
smoking ... e My grandpa would
chewing... f Our great-grandma
on/was always turning off...
5 Henry's Ј4.5 million
secret Exercise 1
b2 cl d3 e2 fl g2 hli3jlk211m3n2 o 3 p 3
believe d didn't g always b to e use h inherited c
would f used
get, become, or be?
get upset h became clear b became ill i got to know c 'm
getting better got to like d to become j aren't used to
a pilot k has become a e
'11 be ready bit of a bore 'm just getting 1 'm tired dressed
m gets dark 've been ready n is becoming f 're lost
more g are getting/ widespread are going to get/ have got
7 Money Exercise 1 A+B
took out a loan.
exchanged some traveller's cheques.
inherited my grandfather's farm.
don't accept credit cards.
need change for a fiver.
earned over Ј2,000 in interest.
new coat was a bargain.
went up by 2%.
exchange rate is good at the
credit card expires at the end of
piggy bank is full of 5p pieces.
Exercise 2 A lesson in thrift
at the supermarket
a check-out i wallet b bar
codes j cash c added k customers d bill 1 cut
e pay m came to f salary n saving g cheque
o change h overdrawn p receipt
Verb + object + preposition
a remind me so much of
b invest all our money in c insured our car against d
congratulated me on
e was compensated ... for f
models herself on g hide the truth from h held her
tightly against/to i invited 300 guests to j brainwashes
people into k inherit a penny from 1 shouted abuse
at m forgive him for n was accused ... of
Rhymes and limericks
good food nude bread said leaf chief choose lose
taught court toes knows chef deaf hate weight through
knew tight height wore pour full wool brain reign
pool fool leave grieve blood mud foot put
Exercise 2 The Pelican
rare old bird is a pelican
beak can hold more than his belly
He can take in his beak
Enough food for a week, And I'm
damned if I know how the hell he can!
The lady from Twickenham There
was a young lady from Twickenham
shoes were too tight to walk quick in 'em.
She came back from a walk
Looking whiter than chalk And she
took them both off and was sick in 'em!
1 Real or hypothetical past?
• d • h •
b, c, e, f, and g all express
a X b • c X d X e •
f X g X h • Exercise 3
don't, d is. g was. b didn't, e won't, h don't. c
can't, f do.
Present and past wishes Exercise
I wish you were rich. I wish I
were rich. I wish you could come. I wish I could come. I wish you
would come. I wish you had come.
could/ e had stayed
was able to f didn't speak/ b
wasn't wouldn't speak c didn't g hadn't spent d
hadn't gone h lived
3 Expressions of regret
I wish I'd invited him to the party.
You should have been watching ..,
If only I hadn't said that to her.
I wish I hadn't hit him.
I'd rather you didn't tell her.
I wish Megan didn't/wouldn't stay
out so late.
If only we could come ... h I should have worked harder ...
Exercise 2 (Sample
I wish I had a Rolls Royce.
If only I could get a job.
If only I could get to sleep. I wish it
were morning. d We should have
I wish I'd bought some petrol. f I wish she'd stop playing, (the cat
4 Making excuses Exercise
If I hadn't had the shellfish, I
wouldn't have been ill. b I would
have phoned you if I'd had
the time. c If I'd known the
jumper was so
expensive, I wouldn't have bought
it. d I wouldn't have believed it
hadn't seen it with my own eyes.
If I'd known your address, I'd have
sent you a postcard. b If I'd
known when your birthday
was, I'd have bought you a
present. c If I'd set my alarm clock, I wouldn't
be late/have been late. d If I
hadn't been taking my wife to
hospital, I wouldn't have broken
May's disastrous day
... she'd set her alarm clock.
... she hadn't been late again.
... she wouldn't have locked herself
in the toilet and she wouldn't
forgotten to meet Ben for lunch.
d ... he wouldn't have ended their
relationship. e ... she wouldn't
have lost a contact
... she hadn't lost a contact lens. g ... she wouldn't have had to
the bus stop in the pouring
she wouldn't have got so wet. h
... she hadn't waited at the bus stop
in the pouring rain/ ... she
got so wet. i ... she hadn't
forgotten to meet him
three times. j ... it wouldn't
have eaten the
M Well, if you hadn't ended
our relationship. I wouldn't have forgotten to feed the cat and then
it wouldn't have eaten the budgie.
M Well, that was Ms Collins'
fault. If she hadn't cancelled mv business trip. I wouldn't have
been upset and
locked myself in the toilet
and I wouldn't have forgotten to meet you for lunch.
B Ah! Now I understand
everything. If you'd remembered to set your alarm clock, you
wouldn't have overslept and you wouldn't have been late for work and
Ms Collins wouldn't have cancelled your business trip and you
wouldn't have been upset and forgotten our date.
Revision of all conditionals
If I still feel sick. I won't go ... b If you sold them, you'd
make ... c If I see her. I'll tell her... d If Alice hadn't gone
... she wouldn't
have met... e 'If she
didn't love him, she wouldn't
have married him.' f If
you buy .... you get one free. g A What would you do if you saw a
B I'd run a mile. h If we had
brought.... we would
know... i If you hadn't
had ..., the house
would have burnt down. j
If I were you, I'd apologize. k If he eats
cheese, he gets ... 1 If you listened .... you would have
heard ... wouldn't be
7 Words other than if
a Supposing e Were b in case
f as long as c unless g Had d Providing h Should
I won't come unless they invite me. b Supposing he left you, what
you do? c I'll join the tennis
that you do/join too. d We're
going to install a smoke
alarm in case there is a fire. e
She won't get the job unless she
learns to speak French. f Imagine
the lifeguard hadn't been
there, what would have happened?
g I won't go out this evening in case
Paul rings. h I'll come at 8.00
as long as that's all
right with you.
Poor rich Mr Briggs
wish b provided c unless d would e should f only g if h case i even j
would k been 1 be m hadn't n would o hadn't
Physical appearance or personality?
Physical appearance: curly
spotty skinny freckled wrinkled bald well-built graceful bespectacled
agile chubby smart
Personality: brainy nosy
cheeky moody two-faced absent-minded narrow-minded quick-tempered
affectionate hard-hearted big-headed smart
arm a country against the threat of
war to back out of an
out of the garage to elbow
someone out of the way to eye someone with suspicion to finger the
material gently to foot the bill for the meal to hand out the books
to the class to head the ball into the net to shoulder the
responsibility/blame to thumb through a book quickly to toe the line
in a job or organization
handed g were armed b elbow h toe c thumbed i
fingering d eyed j have backed e was footing k shoulder f
Nouns from phrasal verbs
breakdown g outlook b comeback h outbreak c hangover i
breakthrough d check-up j feedback e outcome k takeaway f
by-pass 1 downfall
Ways of pronouncing -ea-
Exercises 1 and 2 lei
bread: breath breadth deaf
thread death breast leapt
lead (n) health heaven jealous
meant weapon 1'r.l
meat: scream breathe cease
cheat heal beast leap lead (v)
reason lisl fear:
dear tear (n) spear
clear beard gear theatre
weary /es/ wear: tear(v)
/ei/ break: steak great
ls:l learn: yearn earth pearl
Adding information before
after a noun Exercise 1
There's a woman wearing a hat
pushing a pram. b I can see a boy
being chased by a
dog. c A man is sitting on a
a newspaper and eating a
sandwich. d There's a gardener with a cap on his
head cutting the grass. e A
family is sitting under a tree
having a picnic. f I can see an
ice-cream van with a
long queue. g There are some
children in rowing
boats on the lake. h Some men are
sitting fishing by the
side of the lake.
There's a boy on a hill flying a kite. j I can see a boy on a bike
lawn mower f ice-cream van b litterbin g rowing boat c
tennis racquet h fishing rod d goalposts i mountain bike e
wheelbarrow j rollerblades
I'm going on a two-week adventure
holiday driving through the
Desert. b The judge gave her a
prison sentence for kidnapping a
millionaire's son. c She's going
to do a three-year
course in modern languages at
Oxford University. d Mercedes
have brought out a new
two-door sports car with a top
speed of 150 miles per hour.
2 Articles Exercise 1
a a b the c the d a e (nothing),
a, the f the g a, (nothing) h the, (nothing) i a. The, (nothing), the
An b the c a da
(nothing) f an g a h the
the j a/the k The la m the
the o (nothing) p the q the
(nothing) s his t The
(nothing) v an w (nothing)
(nothing) y the z A
All none i Each
either both j either both
both neither k Neither
every 1 Either
each m both either
each n No
no every o Each
These f that k that b This g this 1 this c That
h these m That d those i this n those e that j this
The thing I don't understand is
where he gets his money from. c
What I like about her is her sense of
humour. d It's the dark winter
evenings I don't
like. e What those children need
guidance. f The thing I don't
like about Jenny is
the way she always has to know
It isn't money I want, it's love. h What I can't stand about John is
fact that he never buys you a
drink. i The thing you have to remember
about Kathy is that she's
sincere. j It's the fact that I'm rich and he
isn't that makes him jealous.
Emphasis in speaking
I did do it.
I did it. Sorry
I knew John was coming.
I knew that ages ago.
I didn't tell her.
I didn't tell her.
I told you.
I like Annie.
I do like Annie. I think she's great.
I like her.
I was born in the middle of winter
in 1981. b She bought a new car
money her father had left her in
will. c He walked with a limp,
had hurt his leg playing
football. d I usually go shopping at Tesco's
because the prices are lower. e I
go shopping early on Saturday
morning, before everyone else
arrives. f I'm going to London
today to buy
a new coat for Jack. g You should
put your money in the
bank immediately. h Last year we
went to France on
holiday, but unfortunately the
weather was awful. i She tidied
up her flat quickly/She
quickly tidied up her flat,
her parents were coming to stay.
j I'll never understand why she loves
him so passionately.
The passive voice
a Many of van Gogh's most famous
paintings were completed in Aries in 1888, including Sunflowers.
Just two years later he shot himself at the age of 37.
During his lifetime, he only sold
one of his pictures. Today his art work is among the highest priced
in the world. In 1989 Irises was bought for $53.9 million.
b I've been invited to Buckingham
Palace to collect an award for a book I wrote a few years ago.
c Penicillin was discovered in
1929. Since then, it has saved many lives.
d Scientists working in America
have discovered a drug that prevents the common cold. The drug will
now be produced commercially, and it should be available soon.
the back of the chair
the cat's milk
my parents' advice
a bottle of wine
The Prime Minister's duties/The
duties of the Prime Minister i
The heel of my shoe j your hair brush k the end of the film 1 today's
news m Underground station n my parents' wedding anniversary o The
company's success/The success
of the company
p a fortnight's holiday q The
policy/The economic policy of the
government r the local state
school s The annual rate of inflation t coffee cups u cup of coffee
Hot verbs set and break
set off on a journey a bone in
plaster fire to sth your alarm clock a good example a new world
record your heart on doing . sth
break a bone skiing the
sound barrier the law the old world record a promise someone's heart
the speed limit
Teachers should set a good example
You're breaking the speed limit. c I'll set the alarm clock for .,. d
It broke his heart... e I set fire to the kitchen. f ... is breaking
the law. g ... do we need to set off? h He's broken the old world
record ... i She's set a new world record. j I broke my arm ... the
my arm in plaster ... k You
should never break a promise.
... it breaks the sound barrier ... m We've set our hearts on moving
Noun + prepositions
out of b in c on, by d for e in f between g for h to i about/on j
with k to 1 of m on n to o in
Nouns and verbs
/sdvais/ to advise /sdvaiz/ use /ju:s/ to use /ju:z/ abuse
/sbju:s/ to abuse /sbju:z/ belief /bili:f/ to believe
/brii:v/ relief /nli:f/ to relieve /nli:v/ grief /gri:f/
to grieve /gri:v/ excuse /ikskju:s/ to excuse /ikskju:z/ breath
/bre6/ to breathe /bri:S/ half /ha:f/ to halve /ha:v/
house /haus/ to house /hauz/ safe /serf/ to save /seiv/
bath /ba:9/ to bathe /bei8/
belief g half half
breath h use
safe i being housed
abuse j excuse
bathing k grieve
relief 1 advice
Present Perfect simple or
I've written to Auntie Fay to wish
her a happy birthday.
I've been writing my essay all
morning. b I've lost my car keys.
I've been losing weight recently.
They've missed the train.
They've been missing you lots, so
come home soon. d She's been
talking on the phone for
She's talked about this subject
before. e Paula's been leaving
work late all
Paula's left work early today to
meet her uncle. f The cat's been
going next door to
have its dinner.
The cat's gone upstairs. g He's
had a heart attack.
He's been having second thoughts
about accepting the job. h I've
been saving up to buy a new
I've saved up about Ј200.
I've been swimming which is why
my hair is wet.
I've swum twenty lengths today. j
I've been finding it difficult to
I've found my cheque book at
's been snowing
have you travelled
have lived 've been trying
haven't managed d have been
arguing e 've eaten
f have been running g 's been
crying 's failed h 've been sunbathing
Present Perfect/Past Simple
Which school did he go to? b How long has he known Julian?
Since he was 11 years old. c How
long has he been married to
Maria? d What did he do/was he
He taught/was teaching English. e
When did he return to England?
After his son was born. f How
many times did he work as a
sales representative? g Where did
he move to after
Caroline was bom? h How long has
he been selling
Since he was fifty-five years
old. i Has Paul had a successful career?
No, he hasn't, because he's now
selling clothes at Peckham
3 World's highest dustman
lives g has found b has already h came
made i has collected c
aims/'s aiming j has been d was working preparing e heard
k 's training f was looking 1 succeeds
'm beginning m try/'m trying/ b 'vedone 've been trying c
feel n 's snowed/ d 've been 's been snowing
learning/ o are sunbathing/
've learned have been e
been p are checking/ f
've slept/'ve have been
been sleeping checking g 're
staying q mentioned h dream r are thinking/ i haven't
seen were thinking j feels s get k 've been telling/
tell u get up 1 's
been/is v to be lying
Present Perfect passive
A yachtsman has been rescued in
the Pacific. b Valuable jewels
have been stolen
from Harrods. c The missing boy
has been found
alive. d MPs have been given a
rise. e Ten people have been
killed by a
tornado in Texas. f An ancient
tomb has been
discovered in Egypt. g 2,000
people have been made
redundant at British Aerospace. h
A cure has been discovered for
have something done
I had one hundred copies of my
She wants to have her ears pierced. c I'm going to have my eyes
tested. d They've had their leaking roof
fixed. e We haven't had the
Exercise 2 (Sample
had the cake decorated.
having her hair done.
had the wedding dress made.
having her nails manicured.
had the invitations printed.
having the photographs taken.
had the champagne delivered.
having the bouquets delivered.
had his hair cut.
having his feet massaged.
had his suit fitted.
be having the photographs
had his shirt pressed.
be having her wedding dress
= Car; 2 = Bus; 3 = Train; 4 = Plane;
= Bicycle; 6 = Ferry
123456 get into/ ^ out
• • • • pit___________________
^ \/ >/____f/
Exercise 2 car: traffic
lights one-way street
joyrider tyres trailer slip-road
spare tyre service station lay-by
seat-belt horn tunnel
traffic jam bus: traffic
lights tunnel tyres
timetable spare tyre lay-by
horn traffic jam season ticket
ticket collector train:
carriage tunnel ticket
collector platform timetable
track porter coach
season ticket plane:
runway check-in desk
trolley tyres seat-belt cargo
hand luggage Customs cabin
life jacket bicycle:
handlebars tyres crash
helmet traffic lights
one-way street ferry: deck
life jacket gangway
jetty port horn cargo cabin
Prepositions of movement
above/over/behind n in b out of o off c along/down/up p
over d out of/through q across e along/down/up r towards f
over s to g to t through h on/onto
u on i round v by/beside j along/up/down w against k
past x past/by 1 into y over m beside/by/at
8 Word stress
a explorer exploration b
Japan Japanese c optimist optimistic d industry
industrial e economy economics f politics politician g
origins original h opera operatic
Exercises 2 and 3
• • opera chocolates
•• Japan create abroad
• • • explorer
religion delicious destruction illegal develop
• • •
optimist industry politics
origins traveller backpacker privileged organize passenger caravan
• • •
• exploration optimistic
economics politician operatic prehistoric
• • •
• industrial economy
original discovery inhabitant experiment photographer
Past Simple and Past Perfect
fell i had cost
had fallen j cost
had felt/felt k flew
felt 1 had never flown
had had m caught
had n had caught
tore o had been
had torn p were
•/: feel have
cost catch ^:fall tear fly be
Past Simple or Continuous?
played/was playing were winning
was coughing/coughed didn't get c was playing hit made d wasn't
thinking had e picked gave made f was pruning heard appeared
stung g was snowing got up
were making put raced
Past Simple or Past Perfect?
a didn't find had given b rang
had just returned c had wanted did had come d had/had had burst/had
broke/had broken left/had left e
went had been had had
decided f had been/was became
had earned gave g had eaten
didn't fit h came had done had made
4 Time expressions Exercise
b4 c2 d5 el f9 g6 h 10 i 8 j 7 k 13 1 14 m 15 n 12 o 11
Two years ago, while I was working
in Paris, my grandfather died. b
As soon as I had fed the cat I did
my homework. c First I had a
shower, then I got
dressed. d Since I was a child I
wanted to go to Australia, and I
finally went last year. e As he
posted the letter he realized
he hadn't put a stamp on it. f By
the time he'd finished speaking,
most of the audience had fallen
Once I'd told him the truth I felt
better. h Until I tried/had tried
hadn't believed/didn't believe
difficult it would be.
Puss in Boots
1 had been staying, had just
2 were driving, was miaowing
3 crashed into
4 caught fire, arrived, pulled
5 had raced back
6 leapt up, ran away, was
7 hadn't found
8 was lying awake, heard, woke,
had been dreaming
9 crept, the noise was coming
from, were bleeding, had found his way, had been walking
10 knitted, wore
were driving n was lying awake b had been o had been
staying dreaming c had
just waved p heard d was miaowing q woke e crashed into r crept f
caught fire s the noise was g arrived coming from h
pulled them t had been
out walking i had
raced back u had found his j was carrying way k leapt up v
were bleeding 1 ran away w knitted m hadn't found x wore
Who had Jim and Rita been staying
Why was Whiskers miaowing? c What happened to their car? d What was
Rita doing when the car
exploded? e Why did Whiskers run
did Whiskers leap into the air? f
What had Rita been dreaming
about? g How long had Whiskers
walking (for)? h Why did Rita
knit him some baby
Active to passive
A medieval temple was discovered
underneath the new housing
estate. b The races were held indoors
because it was raining. c Our
house had been broken into
and all my jewellery had been
stolen. d The leisure centre had
for a children's party on
Saturday. e The dishwasher was being fixed so I
couldn't leave the house. f Our
hotel room still hadn't been
cleaned when we returned. g The
fish hadn't been cooked for
long enough. It was still raw! h
New traffic lights were being put up
at the crossroads.
Active and passive
had just d was overcome
succeeded e suffered b was
smiling f died c waving
had died g had just caught b was fighting h struck c was
struck i were paralysed d fell j was being e wasn't
injured k shattered f was
fishing Rueben Tice
wasn't e exploded b was working f was hit c hadn't slept
g was killed d was putting/ h was covered
had been putting
The world of literature
Poetry: nursery rhyme
character ballad verse paperback hardback
Prose: plot chapter
autobiography character best-seller review science fiction novelist
critic blockbuster fairy tale hardback whodunnit paperback thriller
plot act director
character backstage leading role
.science fiction script review blockbuster props scenery critic
rehearsal playwright whodunnit stalls thriller standing ovation
9 Words commonly confused
1 a 're waiting for b is expected
c are looking forward to
2 a ground b floor c ground
3 a Actually b at the moment c
4 a alone lonely b lone
5 a nervous b embarrassed c
6 a was usually taken b
brought/brings c fetch
7 a Have you seen b were watching
c Look at
Phrasal verbs type 1
off-boast turnup-arrive find out - discover own up - admit doze
off- fall responsibility
asleep cheer up - be
hold on - wait happier speak up - talk go out - stop
louder burning set off
- begin a shut up-be quiet
journey stay in - not go
blow up - explode out, stay at home settle down - have
a calmer, more
a owns up i dozed off b
went out j find out c '11 turn up k Shut up d set off
1 Hold on e Cheer up m Speak up f showing off ' n blew up g
stay in h settled down
11 Diphthongs Exercise 1
a /pei/ e /dis/ b
/rait/ f /boi/ c /faun/ g /tus/ d /round/
a near e page b care
f join c throw g town d flight h fewer
1'v.l (2) /ei/ (1 )
/3:/(5) /3:/(6) /3:/(8) /I8/(7)
(10) /a:/ (9)
(13) /so/ (14)
/somf (25) ls\l
(27) (28) /ei/(29) /e/(30) /u/ (33) /u:/(32) /a/ (31) /ud/ (35)
/sold/ (34) /su/(38) /a/(36) /o/(37)
Countable or uncountable?
luggage f unemployment b food g accommodation c cash
h health d corn i music e fruit j traffic
some or any?
any d some any b some/any any e any any c Some any f
much or many?
Is there much work ...? b I didn't spend much time .'.. c Did they do
much research ...? d They couldn't give me much
information ... e There is too
much traffic ... f I didn't have too many problems...
1 (Sample answers) a There are lots of cheese sandwiches. b There
are a few ham sandwiches. c There's a huge amount of spaghetti. d
There's only a little rice and
vegetable curry. e There are a
few hamburgers. f There are no chips. g There's hardly any fruit
There are a couple of bananas. i There aren't many doughnuts. j
There's hardly any apple juice.
's lots f are a few b a few g 's only a little
c 's only a little h 've got a couple d aren't any (left) i a
little e a little j lots
very little, a little, very few, a few, fewer, less
a few chips
a little whisky
Children have less respect for their
teachers than they used to. d
very few e a little Swedish f Fewer people . g Very few people h a
i There's very little I can do
... j a few of them
6 From riches to rags Exercise
many k all b hardly any/ 1 a large number
very little m very little/ c
a few hardly any d a huge amount n fewer e no o
less f few p none g nobody q a lot h much
r a couple i most s anything j several t Something
Fred has no relatives. b Fred didn't talk to anyone about his
grief. c People were friendly to
because he had a lot of money. d
He invested a lot/a huge amount of
his money. e Fred had a little
money left when
Barings went bankrupt. f Nobody
helped Fred when he ran
out of money. g Fred has made a
couple of real
friends. h Fred has learned a lot
somewhere h anywhere b anyone i someone c everywhere j
anywhere anything d
anything k anyone e everything 1 Everyone/ f nothing
Everybody g nobody/no one
He told the police that he knew
He didn't tell the police
anything. b I think they live somewhere in
I don't mind. I'll live anywhere
Anybody can cook. It's easy.
Nobody phoned you. Sorry. d I've
I can't find it anywhere. e I
thought I'd know somebody at the
I didn't know anyone at the
party. f My parents never took me
anywhere when I was a kid.
My parents took me everywhere
when I was young. g Jane always
got everything she
Jane didn't have anything to
wear. h I've already had something to eat.
I've had nothing to eat.
all or every?
everything b Everything c All d Every e All f All g All h all the i
everything j all k Every
9 A piece of cake! Exercise
jar of honey a can of beer/soup/
a slice of bread/cake
tube of toothpaste a piece of cake/
a loaf of bread
bottle of beer/Coke a bar of
a box of chocolates
tin of soup a sheet of paper
a piece/slice f slice of bread
of cake g many cans/ b a
tin/can of bottles of beer
soup h bar of soap c
sheets of paper i a jar of special d a box of apple blossom
chocolates honey, e bar of
Prepositions and nouns
average on foot
arrest over/under Ј500
18 years old
holiday under pressure
midnight during/in the night
New Year's Day
time in a fortnight's time
the rush hour in his forties
over b in c on d at e on f on g By h On i at j during/ in k below 1
under m in n by o in
a Well, I know he earns a lot
• than me.
b What do you mean? He's already
bought a brand new one.
Didn't you know that all of Frank's
clothes are designer labels? d He
has loads of them.
e No, in fact he's in Florida on
• • f Really?
The girl I saw him with had
• • short, brown
Exercises 1 and 2
Fruit: 'grapefruit pear
'pineapple 'cherry 'melon 'orange plum 'strawberry 'raspberry
'cauliflower pea po'tato 'cabbage leek cour'gette 'parsnip 'cucumber
'sweetcorn 'spinach 'onion
You're going to work harder from
now on, aren't you? b I'll see
you next week, won't I? c Kate's leaving soon, isn't she? d You'll
ring when you get there,
won't you? e Our plane takes off
at 4 p.m.,
doesn't it? f The decorators will
have finished by
next week, won't they? g You
aren't getting married next
week, are you? h We won't need
tickets to get in, will
We'll be millionaires one day, won't
we? j Max won't be coming, will
will or going to?
a A 'm going to B '11 b A are
going to B '11 c A 'm going to '11 B '11 d A 's going to/will B '11 e
A 'm not going to B '11 f A '11 B 'm going to '11 g A 'm going to B
'11 '11 h A 're going to/'ll B '11
What does John say?
I'll buy her a present.
I'm going to study hard ...
I'm seeing/going to see ...
I think Manchester United will/are
going to win on Saturday. e I'm
sorry. I'm going to be late. f My sister is going to have/having a
baby next March. g My plane takes
off at 7.30 a.m.
from London, Heathrow. h I'll be
lying on a beach in Spain this
time next week.
Future Cont. or Perfect?
I'll have become ...
I'll be running my own ,..
I'll have moved to California.
I'll be living in a mansion ...
I'll have joined a ...
I'll have married a ...
g I'll be earning over ... h I'll
have given up smoking.
A Hollywood interview Exercise
are getting h will arrive b will have i are coming
exchanged j won't be c '11
make coming d are going to k are going to
tell have e are
having 1 doesn't start f will you be m will be arriving
inviting n leaves g are
coming o '11 be
will be e will be working
expecting f will be worried/
b '11 own worrying c will have fallen g won't have
out remembered/ d
will be having/ won't remember
will have had h will want i
a A What are you doing
B • b A •
B Oh, no! What am I going to
do? c A Is it true that Rachel is getting married to ...
B • d A •
B Yuk! You'll have to wake me up.
I can never get up ... e A •
B ... You'll be getting ... f A •
B ... It'll only take a ... g A •
B ... We're going to stay/
're staying at home. h A
I'll ring you as soon as I arrive.
Future time clauses
won't get eat sensibly.
're not moving to find/have found
'11 love/'re going to love meet
Are you going to learn 're
won't go to bed have
's going to be 've finished
don't do will you have to
will deal are
'11 feel have/have had
try/have tried '11 never use
Exercise 1 (Sample
answers) a The nurse took the patient's
temperature. b The surgeon
performed a difficult
operation. c The accident victim
was carried on
a stretcher. d The toddler fell
over and grazed his
The teenager had spots on her face. f The pregnant woman felt faint
the smoky atmosphere. g The old
man had a heart attack.
The tennis player sprained her
wrist. i The racing driver was
survive the crash. j The soldier
was wounded in the
The gardener was stung by a wasp. 1 The ferry passengers felt
during the crossing. m The
holidaymaker suffered from
injured f allergic to b dislocated g a blister c
stitches h dizzy d pain i run down e a rash
Hot Verbs be and have
be on the safe side in
touch with sb no point in doing sth off colour out of one's mind up
to date in charge of sb/sth on one's mind
have the nerve to do sth
sb round a word with sb a ball no chance of doing sth
be a bit off g had the nerve
colour h to be on the b
'11 be in touch safe side c 're having Mel i have no chance
and Andy of
round j 'm in charge of d
's always on k having a ball
my mind 1 's no point in e
've been out m be up to date
of my mind f have a word
Phrasal verbs types 2 and 3
talked it over g look after him b take after her h look into it c
sort it out i get over it d gone off her j work it out e call
it off k putting me f put them away down
Sounds and spelling
a won't /au/ want /r>/
b walk h:/ work ly.l c wonder /a/ wander
lol d woman /u/ women /i/ e warm lo:l worm
/3:/ f word /3:/ ward Iv.l g wear leal
weary list h weight /ei/ weird /is/
phone e weak h height b blood f lower i pear c love
g north j layer d through
General knowledge quiz
2a 3a 4c 5b 6a 7c 8b 9c 10 a
Defining or non-defining?
aD bD cND dD eND f D g ND
h D i ND j ND
... who could teach me ...
... that has four bedrooms.
... Romeo and Juliet, which is one of
the best films I've ever seen. d
... that sells second-hand furniture? e Marilyn Monroe, whose real
was Norma Jean Baker, died of an
overdose of barbiturates. f ...
who lose their temper ... g My computer, which I bought just
last year, is already out of
date. h I met a girl I went to school with. i Professor James
Williams, who is
considered to be the world's
on butterflies, will... j I
bought a ham and pickle
sandwich, which I ate
Punctuation and omitting the pronoun
The thing that I most regret is not
going to university. b My two
daughters, who are 16 and
13, are both interested in
dancing. c (no change) d (no change) e (no change) f Salt, whose
qualities have been
known since prehistoric times, is
used to season and preserve food.
g The CD -that I bought yesterday
doesn't work. h You know the book
-that you paid
Ј20 for? I just got it for
Ј5. i (no change) j Devon, where my mother's family
comes from, is famous ...
All relative pronouns Exercise 1
Have I told you recently how much I
love you? b I have to do what I
believe to be
right. c I love garlic in all my
food, which is
why I'm always brushing my teeth.
d We're emigrating to Australia,
where my brother lives. e I met a
girl whose hair came down
to her waist. f I passed all my
exams, which greatly
surprised my teachers. g Let me
know when you expect to
arrive. h Being generous, I'll
whatever you want.
a who i where b that
j that c where k whose d which 1 (nothing) e
(nothing) m where f whose n which g which o
Whatever h (nothing)
Prepositions in relative clauses
This is the book I was telling you
She's a friend I can always rely on. c That's the man the police were
looking for. d She recommended a
Robert Palmer, who I'd never
of. e The carpet which you paid
has been reduced to Ј200. f
The Prime Minister, whose views I
agree with, gave a good speech. g
He spoke about the environment,
which I care deeply about. h
What's that music you're listening
to? i Her mother, who she looked
for many years, died last week. j
My daughter has started smoking,
which I disapprove of.
Participles as adjectives
screaming k boring
satisfied 1 tiring
disgusting m unexpected
confusing n disturbing
loaded o thrilling
exposed p relaxing
conceited q blocked
frightening r disappointed -
exhausting s well-behaved
disappointing t promising
Participle clauses Exercise 1
a People living ... b Letters
posted ... c The train standing ... d ... passengers trapped ... e
... litter dropped ... f ... house overlooking ...
a finishing f knowing b
stolen g explaining c saying h Taking d Feeling
i directed e borrowed j studying
/ didn't know what to do
... what time to invite people.
... whether to invite Suzie or not.
... how to use e-mail.
... what drink to buy.
... how many people to invite.
Micro Mad Max
10 b 13 c 7 d 9 e 1 f 2 gl4 h4 ill j3 k5 16 m 12- n 8
a three-mile walk
a ten-pound g a ten-page letter
note h a three-year b a
language course i a ten-year c a
drive j a five-star
hotel d a three-course k a 30-mile-an-
meal hour speed e a
holiday 1 a two-hundred-f
a two-hour year-old house
People, places, and things
obstinate cunning spoilt
aggressive arrogant easy-going
Places: breathtaking unspoilt
picturesque deserted overgrown
accurate waterproof artificial
illegible g truthful b unreadable h true c childish
i intolerant d childlike j intolerable e sensitive k
economic f sensible 1 economical
Adjective + preposition
of b with, for c for d of e of f with/in g from, to h about i to j of
k of 1 for m for n about o with
Exercise 1 A
computer continent recipe eccentric insect lamp hooligan stadium
forest citizen B
listen gadget honest receipt mortgage fasten heirloom whistle
straight fascinating sandwich exhausted
scientific g climb b psychologist h grandfather c handsome
i campaign d research j Wednesday e Christmas k calm f
friendship 1 whisky
Basic verb patterns
I enjoy cooking. I find it very
creative. b I look forward to
seeing you again
soon. c You need to book if you
want to eat
at Guide's. d I finished
painting the bathroom
last night. e My dad promised to
buy me a
stereo if I passed my exams. f I
hope to see you again soon. g Anna chose to wear her black suede
skirt for the party. h What do
you feel like doing
tonight? i I can't afford to buy
broke. j I can't stand waiting in
really annoys me. k Beth helped
me do the washing-up.
What would you like to do tonight?
Using a dictionary Exercise 1
... they stopped to ask for ...
I stopped playing ...
The rain was so heavy ... to stop
the kitchen from flooding. e
... stopped me to ask why ... f ... the sun stopped
... stop his son from going to ...
Exercise 2 a •
I avoid travelling ...
Have you considered working ...
We expected him to arrive ...
I've arranged to collect...
h I can't help loving ... i I
offered to give ...
J • k •
I suggest we go to a restaurant... m I want you to come home early.
More complex verb patterns
1 (Sample answers)
brother wants me to fix his bike.
hosts would hate us to be late.
aunt would love me to visit her
doctor warned his patient not to
parents expect me to do well in my
guide advised the tourists to stay
policeman told the driver to slow
invited all our friends to come to a
teacher made her class do the
grandparents let us do what we
like my son to take over my
I didn't expect to see Ben ... b We've been invited to dinner ... c I
need to have a hair-cut. d I'm looking forward to seeing you
in June. e I can't decide what to
The teacher let us go home early. g But she made us do ... h Do you
mind waiting for a minute? i I'd rather have tea. j I suggest we wait
before we ... k She offered to lend me some money. 1 He asked me not
to make a noise. m I apologized to my neighbours for
-ing or infinitive?
to think getting
to lock falling
making to make
to buy meeting
to do asking
to play to rain
to speak painting
cooking to cook to pay
Adjectives, nouns, and prepositions
impossible e delighted
nice f kind
safe g sorry
mean h interesting
time to go e need to shout b way to skin f things to do c
idea to visit g money to pay d anyone to talk h nothing to wear
for arriving g at remembering b by doing h of buying c about
going i for coming d without asking j like going e with having
k of being stung f for making
Forms of the infinitive
have forgotten g to disturb b to be selected h be working c to pay
i to have seen d to have met j to be e to be
k have told f to be having 1 to be handed
/don't want to
b9 c6 d2 el flO g 4 h 3 i 5 j 8
The house that Jack built
to work i repaying b to pay j to give c leaving
k to celebrate d to do 1 doing e to lend m to build
f listening n living g working o being h to make
Verbs of perception
singing f waiting b slam g being built c cooking
h laughing d playing i eat
sunbathing j shoplifting e
pick rip take put
blood test blood pressure
campsite building site bomb-site c waterfall water-melon
water-skiing d greenhouse
nightclub nightmare night shift f briefcase suitcase bookcase g paper
bag plastic bag
rainbow raincoat raindrop i sunshine sunrise sunset j roadworks road
sign road rage k blackboard floorboard
daylight daybreak day-dream m handshake handwriting
ice-cube iceberg ice-rink o birthday cake birthday present
landscape landlady landslide q sports car sports centre
sports ground r address book
Phrasal verbs type 4
away from g up for b down on h away with c on with i
up with d up to j out with e down on k up against f
away with 1 in with
12 Weak and strong forms
She isn't going to learn from this
experience, but he is. b I've
heard that you're thinking of
moving from London. Are
you? c They have dinner at seven, don't
they? d You'll be able to get a
ticket for me,
won't you? e Rye got no idea who
from. f Can't you
remember who Bill used
to work for? g I've been^ waiting
for you to come.
Where were you? h We'd
been looking forward to
coming for ages, then at the last
minute we weren't able to.
i Won't you sit down for a couple of
What are you doing at the
weekend? A We're going to
Scotland. Do you
want to come too? A We've decided
to camp. None of us
can afford to pay for a hotel. A
No we won't. We've got strong
tents, lots of warm clothes, and
thick sleeping bags. A Of course
we have, and it's pretty
warm for October. A Excellent.
I'll tell the others. They'll
be delighted. We'll pick you up
six on Friday. See you then.
•• b • c •• d •• e • f
•• g • h •• i • j ••
k •• 1 ••
She must be missing her boyfriend.
It'll be Tom.
She can't still be sleeping.
They should be in the top drawer.
They could be having a party.
He must have a deadline to meet.
It might be difficult driving to
work. h She may be hiding in the
Past probability Exercise
She must have got engaged to Andy. b He can't have cut it for
ages. c They must have been doing
something naughty. d She must
have been making a cake. e They can't/must/might have gone
He can't have had a party last night. g They should have arrived home
now. h She might have mislaid my
It must have been blown down by
the wind. b They must have been
It can't have been mended properly. d It can't have been given enough
eat. e They can't have been
watered for a
long time. f It must have been
shattered by a
Exercise 3 (Sample
answers) If I go to India I can see the Taj Mahal.
I go to India I will see.... If I go to India I might see ... If I go
to India I may see ... If I went to India I would see ... If I went
to India I might see ... If I went to India I could see ... If I'd
gone ... I might have seen ... If I'd gone ... I would have seen ...
If I'd gone ... I could have seen ...
Deductions about the present and past
a must be making b could have
used might have
climbed up c would have been d
may have been joking can't have
spent must have misheard e should
be touching down
must be will already have landed.
f could be snowing can snow
ability g sure
permission h possibility
permission i gave ...
advice not necessary
asking j ought
Which modals fit? Exercise 1
ought to f can g have to h
ought to/must i
must/have to j must/have to
shouldn't f was able to b don't have to g should have c
couldn't gone d won't h mustn't e cannot
Obligation and permission
will not marry 5 may not visit
2 can only keep 6 cannot ride
3 should 7 shall sweep
command 8 will dress
4 must be at must be
9 may not travel
had to couldn't
had to weren't allowed to/couldn't
didn't have to was also allowed
couldn't/weren't allowed to d
weren't allowed to/couldn't e were forbidden to/weren't allowed
to/couldn't f had to weren't
Present to past
I had to take ... b They must have been away ... c We couldn't see
the top ... d He can't/couldn't have been ... e We weren't allowed
forbidden to/couldn't... f He
wouldn't go to bed. g That would have been John ... h You should have
been more careful. i You didn't have to do this exercise.
Positive to negative
a You mustn't stop here. b We
didn't have to learn ... c They didn't have to take ... d He can't be
speaking Swedish. e We didn't have to wear ... f You won't have to
help me ...
10 need and needn't
have Exercise 1
bM cV dV eV fM g M h V i V j M
mustn't f didn't need to b needn't/ take/didn't
don't have to to take c have
to/need to g got to d don't need to/ h needn't have
don't have to bought e
Words that go together
C bA cD dB eD fC gB hA iC jA kB ID m C n D
12 A word puzzle
Verb + preposition
for b about/for/at c of d from e in f to g in h in i to/with j to,
Consonant clusters and
speech Exercise 1
doesn't i thrilled b shouldn't j marvellous c mustn't
k excitement d muscles 1 sixth e crashed m
impressed f distinctly n length g special o comfortable
a The car windscreen's smashed. b
My uncle's sprained his ankle. c This cream doesn't taste fresh. d
You don't have to scream. e These white jeans must have
shrunk. f She arrived dressed in
He doesn't know his own strength. h He can't have fixed it properly.
don't e isn't h doesn't b didn't f won't/ i hadn't c
haven't isn't j hasn't d aren't g 'm not
no, not, -n't, or none?
not b n't c not d not e no f Not g none h no i n't j not k Not 1 none
m No n no o None p Not
3 Making sentences mean the
opposite (Sample answers) a None of the students passed the
exam, so their teacher was
furious/disappointed. b Tom was
businessman who achieved very
little in his life. c Our house
is easy to find. No one
ever gets lost. d We had a
terrible time in Venice. - .
There were too many people there.
e You mustn't exercise your ankle. Try
not to move it at all. f I don't
have to iron my shirt. I'm
not going out tonight. g You
don't need to/needn't come
with me. I'll go on my own. h I
wasn't in a hurry because I didn't
need to go to the shops. i You
ought not to have given the dog
anything to eat. j I told you not
to go to work. Why
aren't you in bed?
/ don't think you're right
I don't suppose you've got... b The machine doesn't seem to be
I didn't think it was going to rain. d They don't want their daughter
marry a footballer. e I didn't
expect to see you ... f I don't suppose you've seen ... g I don't
think I'd like snails. h I don't expect you remember me.
She doesn't seem to like her job. j I don't believe she got grade A
When did man first walk on the
Who went first? c How long has Buzz Aldrin been
travelling the world? d Where was
he born? e Which military academy did he
f Where did he serve as a pilot?
g When was he chosen as an
astronaut? h When was Apollo 11
How long did the mission last? j What happened to Buzz when he
What did he suffer from? 1 How many children did he have
from his first marriage? m How
many times has he been
Who saved him from self-destruction? o Who do they live with? p How
many cars do they have? q What sort of books has he written? r When
was Encounter with Tiber
published? s What does he do with
Who made that mess ...?
What were you doing?
When are you going to tidy it up?
b What was it like?
Who did you talk to?
What went wrong?
What about? c What for/Why?
Who was he attacked by/Who by?
What was he doing/Where was he
How is he?
Which hospital was he taken to?
How long is he going to be in
Questions and prepositions
by b to c at d on e for f in g about h of i from j with
Whatabout? e Who for? b Where to? f Who to? c Whatabout? g
What with? d How long for?
How... 7 and What... like?
What's he like?
How was school today?
What was the food like?
How was your journey?
What's the weather like?
How is/was she?
What's it like?
How's your job these days?
bl c3 d4 e5 f6 g 8 h 7 .i 9 j 10 k 12 1 11
Antonyms and synonyms A B
cruel dishonest deceitful incredible
unbelievable disappear vanish unfair biased
displeased annoyed discontinue halt unfasten
undo abnormal exceptional unemployed redundant
unfriendly hostile distrust suspect unprofessional
amateur unknown anonymous discover/uncover reveal
unsafe hazardous abuse/misuse damage improbable
unlikely unimportant trivial unemotional reserved
Hot Verbs keep and /ose Exercise 1
calm a promise going
in touch with sb sb company
your nerve a secret sb waiting
your temper fit lose
weight your way your nerve
keep in touch e lost my nerve b lost my temper f keep fit c keep
going g Keep calm d keep a secret h lost my way
Phrasal verbs and nouns
that go together Exercise
up with a new idea, a plan beat up an old man, a victim of
crime break into a house,
a flat, to steal
something break off a
out a new product on the market bring up children to be
hard-working clear out a
cupboard and throw out
what you don't want count on
your best friend to help you deal with a problem, a complaint,
difficult customer drop out of
a university course after
one year fit in with the
other people in the
up to someone you respect point out a fact that someone
not be aware of take back
what I said -1 didn't mean
it tell off a naughty
clear out h come up with b are bringing out i told Tom off c
broke into j deal with d beat him up k fit in with
looked up to 1 drop out of f I take it all back. m count on g
I'll point him out n brought me up
Intonation in question tags Exercise 1
aren't you? V g aren't I? V b wasn't it? V h have you? A c could
you? A i isn't it? V d isn't he? V j weren't we? V e isn't it?
V k would you? A f has he? A 1 had we? V
You like that car, don't you? V b Vanessa, you're going to Rome next
week, aren't you? A c That was
awful, wasn't it? V d You haven't borrowed my new coat
again, have you? A e You couldn't
water my plants while
I'm away, could you? A