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: 10:23:45 09 2011
: 26 : 14 : 1 : 5 :    

ڧߧڧ֧ӧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ߧѧܧ ڧۧܧ ֧է֧ѧڧ

էѧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧߧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ֧ڧߧѧݧߧԧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ

<<ݧѧէڧާڧܧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ >>

ѧܧݧ֧ ѧӧ ڧݧԧڧ

֧֧ѧ

էڧڧݧڧߧ<<ާ. ֧. ߧѧܧ ҧ. >>ߧ ֧ާ<<֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧ֧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ>>

ݧߧڧ:.ԧ.ާ-110 ߧݧߧ

ڧߧ:ڧܧѧ ..

ݧѧէڧާڧ 2010

ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ֡.......3

ݧѧӧ 1 ߧڧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ 4

1.1 ֧ ڧ֧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ڧ ڧڧߧ...................7

ݧѧӧ 2 ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ - ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ . 10

ݧѧӧ 3 ڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ . 11

3.1 ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ.......................................................11

3.2 ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ڧ է ڧݧا֧ߧڧ.................................................11

3.3 ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ڧҧ....................................12

3.4 ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ݧԧڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ( ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ѧާ)...........................................................................................................13

ݧѧӧ 4 ѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ . 15

4.1 ߧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ܧݧѧ................................................................15

4.2 ֧ѧڧ ާէݧ֧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧ...........................................16

ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ . .19

ڧ֧ѧ . .20

ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ

ѧѧէܧѧݧߧ ӧܧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ߧѧէ ڧާ֧֧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ ѧ. ѧާ է֧ݧ, ֧ާ ֧ݧӧ֧ ѧ ֧ާڧ ѧҧڧ ֧ҧ ާѧڧߧѧާ? ܧݧܧ ӧ֧ݧڧܧ ڧ ӧݧѧ ߧѧ ݧէާ? ֧ا֧ݧ ӧ֧ ԧ֧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ӧ ݧܧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧, ҧ ڧ ѧܧ ާڧ, ܧ ѧ ֧ݧӧ֧ ѧߧ֧ ٧ӧ֧ߧ ڧ٧ҧߧ, ߧ֧ڧ٧ҧ֧اߧ ڧ֧٧ߧ֧? ܧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ӧҧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ѧߧ ݧ էݧԧڧ ֧ߧڧ : ֧ӧ ӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ (1960 ԧ), ݧا֧ߧѧܧ (1960-65), ֧ ֧֧ߧڧ ԧݧӧݧާ ڧԧ (1965-1975), ѧ٧ѧӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ٧ѧէѧ (1970-1985), ֧ӧ ֧ ֧֧ߧڧ է ѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ٧ѧէѧ (1962-1992), ާѧӧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ٧ѧէѧ (1993-1995). ߧӧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧԧ ֧ ѧӧ ѧӧݧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ , ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ. ާ֧ߧߧ ߧ ٧ӧݧڧݧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧާ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ֧֧ۧ ڧԧ ԧݧӧݧާ ާѧӧާ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ٧ѧէѧ. ѧ ֧ݧ ҧ ٧ѧߧڧ ߧ֧ܧ ڧ ݧ֧էߧڧ ߧѧߧ ѧҧ ҧݧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ.

ݧѧӧ 1 ߧڧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ

ԧѧާާߧ ֧էӧ, ҧѧ٧ڧڧ֧ ߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ާ֧էѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ, ݧڧݧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ. ӧѧاߧ, , ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧֧, ڧ , էѧߧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧڧ ܧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ٧ѧէѧ, ܧ ާاߧ ֧ѧ ߧ ܧާ֧ѧ, ڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ܧ. ا ӧ֧ާ, ֧ߧݧԧڧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ ӧݧ֧ ӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ֧էӧ ֧֧ߧڧ ԧݧҧѧݧߧ ҧݧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ: էݧڧ֧ݧߧ , ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ, ӧܧѧ ڧާ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ; ӧܧѧ ڧާ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ݧاߧ ڧ֧; ӧߧѧ ڧݧ٧֧ާ ԧѧާ .. ާ ԧ, ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧֧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ էҧѧӧݧ֧ ߧӧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧڧ էܧѧ ٧ ֧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧ ާէڧڧܧѧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ֧, ߧ ԧѧާާڧ, ҧݧ֧ "٧ѧߧ" ڧݧا֧ߧڧ (ߧѧڧާ֧, ٧ߧѧߧڧ ѧߧ ߧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ܧ, ߧ ֧ҧ֧ ܧާާ֧ߧѧڧ֧ ߧڧ, ѧ֧ ҧ֧ߧڧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ), ݧڧ ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧է, ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧܧԧ ڧߧ֧֧ۧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ.

ާߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ [1], ߧ֧էѧݧ֧ܧ ֧֧ܧڧӧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ҧէ ڧԧѧ ӧ֧է ݧ ӧ ӧ֧ ѧ٧ѧ ֧ܧڧӧѧߧڧ, ѧ٧ѧҧܧ, ڧ٧ӧէӧ, ѧ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, էѧا, էէ֧اܧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ݧ. ֧ߧݧԧڧ, ݧڧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ, ҧ֧֧ڧ ֧ӧݧڧߧߧ ڧߧ֧ԧѧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ڧ ԧӧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ-ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ާէݧ֧.

ާާ֧֧ܧڧ ߧ էܧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ާڧ 1993 ԧէ ֧ߧڧӧѧݧ ڧާ֧ߧ 0,9 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ; ڧ ߧڧ 600 ާݧ. ڧէڧ ߧ էݧ [2]. է֧ݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧ ߧܧ:

1) ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ; ֧֧ ڧ ѧ ҧ٧ߧѧѧ ֧ էߧڧ ֧ާڧߧ - "ڧ֧ާ, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ";

2) ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧ "ѧ٧ާ" (fuzzy) ݧԧڧܧ;

3) ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-٧ܧӧ ڧ֧ާ.

1993 ԧէ ߧ ާ֧اէ ڧާ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧާ ѧ֧է֧ݧڧݧ ѧ [2]: ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ - 62%, ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧ - 26%, ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-٧ܧӧ ڧ֧ާ - 12%. ߧ ާاߧ ѧ٧է֧ݧڧ ڧߧѧ: ߧ ڧ֧ާ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ (ڧݧا֧ߧڧ) ڧߧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ֧էӧ, ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ѧӧާѧڧ٧ѧڧ ӧ֧ ѧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. 1993 ԧէ ҧ֧ ҧ֧ާ ߧܧ էݧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ѧӧڧݧ ڧާ֧ߧ էӧ, էݧ ڧߧާ֧ߧѧڧ - ڧާ֧ߧ էߧ ֧ [2].

ݧ֧է֧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ اڧ٧ߧ - ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ (geneticprogramming) - ӧݧ֧ ܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ާ֧ѧ ԧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧا֧ߧ֧ڧ էݧ ڧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧݧԧڧާ. ܧ (string) ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ "ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ" ڧ֧ާ ѧߧѧݧԧڧߧ ާާѧ ҧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧ާѧ. ѧܧߧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧҧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ܧ (structure). ܧ է֧ܧէڧ ߧѧҧ ѧѧާ֧, ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ܧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ߧڧ. ܧ ڧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧ, ڧݧ է֧֧ܧ, ܧ ާԧ ڧߧڧާѧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ. ֧֧ܧ ާԧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧ ߧ ѧ٧ߧ ٧ڧڧ ܧ. է֧ݧѧߧ ѧߧѧݧԧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ާڧ. ڧէߧ ڧ֧ާѧ ݧߧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧܧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ԧ֧ߧڧ. ԧѧߧڧ٧, ܧ ҧѧ٧֧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ԧ֧ߧڧ ܧاѧ֧ ֧է, ߧڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ߧڧ. ާާ ڧ ԧ֧ߧ, ܧ ާԧ ڧߧڧާѧ ѧ٧ߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ. (ѧڧާ֧, ԧ֧ ӧ֧ էݧ ԧݧѧ٧ اڧӧߧԧ ާا֧ ڧާ֧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ "٧֧ݧ֧ߧ" ٧ڧڧ 10).

ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧݧԧڧާѧ ݧ ߧӧߧ ڧ֧ݧߧ ҧݧܧ ڧԧѧ ܧ ڧܧڧӧѧߧߧ էݧڧߧ, ԧէ ܧѧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ܧ ѧ٧ӧѧڧӧѧ է֧֧ӧ, ݧ ٧ߧѧܧާ ֧ڧѧݧڧѧ ҧݧѧ ѧߧݧڧ. ѧڧާ֧, ӧѧا֧ߧڧ a+b*c ӧԧݧէڧ ѧ:

ߧ էߧڧ ڧ ݧڧէ֧ ҧݧѧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ӧݧ֧ ԧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧ ߧէէܧԧ ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ (StanfordUniversity), ѧҧѧѧ ܧӧէӧ ֧ اߧ ٧. ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ӧէߧݧ ߧӧ اڧ٧ߧ ֧ߧܧ ا է٧ѧҧ ٧ LISP (ListProcessing), ܧ ٧էѧӧѧݧ ԧ اߧ ѧܧܧѧ (ԧ ѧާԧ, ܧ 60- ԧէ ӧӧ֧ ߧѧ ҧڧ ֧ާڧ "ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ") ܧѧ ѧ էݧ ҧѧҧܧ ڧܧ ߧܧڧߧѧݧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ. ѧ, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ٧ ҧ ѧ֧ էߧڧ ڧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧߧ ٧ܧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ էݧ ٧ѧէѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ.

1.1 ֧ ڧ֧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ڧ ڧڧߧ

ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧֧ ڧߧڧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ܧ. ѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧:

- AmericanExpress [1] ܧѧڧݧ ӧ ֧ ߧ 27 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ ԧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ, ֧է֧ݧ֧ ֧ݧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ӧէѧ ڧݧ ܧѧ٧ ܧ֧էڧ ڧݧ ڧߧ ڧާ;

- DEC ֧ا֧ԧէߧ ܧߧާڧ [1] 70 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ ԧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ڧ֧ާ XCON/XSEL, ܧѧ ٧ѧܧѧ٧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ѧӧݧ֧ ܧߧڧԧѧڧ ӧڧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧ֧ާ VAX. ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ܧѧڧݧ ڧݧ ڧҧ 30% է 1%;

- Sira ܧѧڧݧ ٧ѧѧ ߧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ҧӧէ ӧѧݧڧ ߧ 40 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ [3] ٧ ֧ ѧӧݧ֧ ҧӧէ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ, ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ߧ ҧѧ٧ ڧӧѧ֧ާ ߧڧا ڧ֧ާ G2.

ާާ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާѧ ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧ ڧݧ ߧ ѧ٧. ا֧ߧڧ է ݧ֧ ( 1960- ԧէ) ֧ ܧѧѧݧڧ ߧӧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧ, է֧ާߧڧӧѧӧڧ ڧԧէߧ ڧ֧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ էݧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ѧڧߧѧ ڧާ֧ߧ 1985 ( ާѧӧ ާѧѧҧ, ӧ֧ߧ, 1988-1990 ԧէ), ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ, ݧ֧էߧڧ էӧ ԧէ ߧ֧ۧߧߧ ֧ ѧݧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ֧ѧݧߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ.

ڧڧߧ, ڧӧ֧էڧ ڧ֧ާ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧާ ֧, ݧ֧էڧ:

1. ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ. ֧֧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧߧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ֧է ҧ֧ԧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ֧ާߧ/֧էާ֧ߧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ֧էӧѧ [4], ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ܧѧ֧ߧڧ ܧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ݧڧڧӧѧ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧߧާ֧ߧѧڧ, ѧ֧ ܧ֧ ѧҧ ܧ֧, ٧ӧݧ֧ ӧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ڧߧާѧڧߧߧ ԧѧާާߧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ (ҧ֧ܧ, ܧݧѧ, ѧӧڧݧ, ֧է).

2. ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ٧ܧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧڧ. ֧֧ ڧ֧, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ٧ܧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ (Lisp, Prolog ..), ٧ܧѧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ (, ++ ..) ڧ "ڧߧ֧ԧڧӧѧߧߧ" ߧڧ٧ڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ҧէ֧ۧӧڧ ֧ާܧ ѧާ. ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧڧ ӧާ֧ ֧٧ܧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧݧ ܧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ާ֧է ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ.

3. ߧ֧ԧڧӧѧߧߧ. ѧ٧ѧҧѧߧ ڧߧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ֧էӧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ, ݧ֧ԧܧ ڧߧ֧ԧڧڧ֧ էԧڧާ ڧߧާѧڧߧߧާ ֧ߧݧԧڧާ ֧էӧѧާ ( CASE, , ܧߧݧݧ֧ѧާ, ܧߧ֧ߧѧѧާ էѧߧߧ ..).

4. ܧ ֧֧ߧڧާ. ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ӧ֧է ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧߧէѧ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧڧ էѧߧߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ [5].

5. ڧ֧ܧ ܧݧڧ֧ߧ/֧ӧ֧. ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ѧ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧާѧڧߧߧ ڧ֧ާ էѧߧߧ ѧڧ֧ܧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ߧڧ٧ڧ ڧާ ҧէӧѧߧڧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާԧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, է֧֧ߧѧݧڧ٧ӧѧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ӧڧ ߧѧէ֧اߧ ҧ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧߧ, ܧݧܧ ܧѧѧ֧ ҧ֧ ڧߧާѧڧ, ֧֧ݧѧ֧ާ ާ֧اէ , ܧѧاէ ާէݧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ӧݧߧ֧ ߧ ѧէ֧ܧӧѧߧ ҧէӧѧߧڧ.

ѧ, ҧݧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ԧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧԧ ֧ էڧԧݧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧էӧ էݧ ڧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ. ӧ ֧֧է, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ԧ ֧ էڧԧݧ ҧݧ֧ާߧ/֧էާ֧ߧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ֧էӧ. ݧ 1988 ԧէ է ߧڧ ѧӧڧ ݧܧ 3 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ, 1993 ԧէ - 55 ާݧ. էݧݧѧ.

ݧѧӧ 2 ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ - ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ

֧է ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ڧ֧, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ڧݧ էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧڧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ. ڧ էݧ ڧէڧ 70 ֧ߧ ԧ ߧܧ.

ߧѧڧާ ڧߧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ֧է ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ߧ ݧܧ ڧ ҧߧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ ( էۧߧ ѧ֧ݧߧԧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧), ߧ, ֧ӧ ֧֧է, ֧, ݧܧ ާ էҧߧ ֧է ٧էѧ ѧ֧ԧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧڧާ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ ҧݧѧ, ܧѧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧֧ӧߧާ ڧ٧ӧէӧ֧ߧߧާ ֧ѧާ ڧާڧ, ѧާѧܧݧԧڧ, ڧ٧ӧէӧ ֧ާ֧ߧ, էܧ ڧѧߧڧ .., ѧܧާڧ֧ܧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ѧߧڧӧܧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ ߧ֧ ԧѧ٧, ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧާߧާ ֧ݧӧާ ݧ֧ܧѧߧڧާ, ڧߧѧߧӧ ֧ѧڧ, ӧ٧ ާߧԧڧ էԧڧ.

ݧѧ ٧ѧէѧ, ֧ѧ֧ާ ܧ֧ߧާ ڧ֧ާѧާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ѧܧӧ: ާߧڧڧߧ ֧ѧݧߧ ާѧѧҧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ڧ֧ާ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ӧߧ, ڧ֧ާ ҧߧѧا֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ڧѧӧߧ֧, էڧѧԧߧڧܧ, ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧڧѧߧڧ, ݧѧߧڧӧѧߧڧ, ڧާڧ٧ѧڧ, ڧ֧ާ-ӧ֧ڧܧ ֧ѧ, ڧ֧ާ ֧ܧڧӧѧߧڧ.

ݧѧӧ 3 ڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ

ڧ٧ߧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ G2 ڧ ڧ է ѧ.

3.1 ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ

ѧ٧ѧҧڧܧ ҧߧ ӧݧ֧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ҧݧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. է ҧاէ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ߧܧڧ, ӧݧߧ֧ާ ڧ. ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧ ߧ ڧݧ٧֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ. ٧էѧߧڧ ڧ ҧߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ էߧ է էӧ ߧ֧է֧ݧ ( ߧѧݧڧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧڧܧ ٧էѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ էѧߧߧ ֧է. ڧ, ܧѧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ٧էѧ֧ ߧ ܧڧӧѧߧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ܧ, ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ҧ֧ܧߧ ԧѧڧܧ, ڧ֧ѧڧ ܧݧѧ ҧ֧ܧ, ѧӧڧ, էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧڧ ާէ֧ݧ֧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ާڧ. ߧԧݧӧߧ ٧ܧ ӧ֧է֧ߧ ާڧߧڧާާ ֧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ѧڧ ܧݧߧڧӧѧߧڧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧ٧ާߧاڧ ݧҧ ߧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ.

3.2 ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ڧ է ڧݧا֧ߧڧ

ߧ֧ߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ѧߧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧҧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ܧ ߧ֧. ѧ٧ѧҧڧ ާا֧ ѧڧ ާէڧڧڧӧѧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ڧӧڧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ էѧا ާާ֧ߧ, ܧԧէ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ڧݧߧ֧. է ѧҧ ڧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ֧ է ѧܧԧ ߧڧ, ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ էӧݧ֧ӧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧ֧ߧԧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ. ܧߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ܧާѧߧէ ѧ٧ѧҧڧܧ ާا֧ ѧ٧ҧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ է֧ݧߧ ާէݧ, ܧ ڧߧ֧ԧڧ ֧էڧߧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ٧ާا֧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ է ٧էѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. էէ ܧѧاէ ѧ٧ѧҧڧ ڧާ֧֧ է ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ߧѧէ֧ۧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧, ާ ֧էӧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާԧ Telewindows, ҧߧ ѧݧا֧ߧߧԧ ߧ ܧާ֧֧ܧݧڧ֧ߧ. ݧѧ ѧ٧ѧҧڧܧ ާԧ ڧާ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧӧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ӧߧ է ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ҧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ߧ ݧܧ ߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ , ߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ҧݧ֧ G2.

3.3 ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧѧݧڧڧ ڧҧ

G2 ڧҧܧ ڧߧѧܧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ӧӧէ ܧߧܧڧ (ܧ էѧߧߧ ڧݧߧ֧ާ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ) ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ; ܧߧܧڧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧ڧ ڧߧܧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ. ԧ ҧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧ ݧܧ ܧߧܧڧ, ߧ է֧اѧڧ ڧߧѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧҧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ѧէѧ֧ ֧ݧѧ ѧ٧ ݧѧէܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ (ӧۧӧ֧ߧߧѧ ѧէڧڧߧߧާ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ), ܧ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. ѧ٧ѧҧڧ ӧҧاէ֧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ٧ߧѧ է֧ѧݧߧ ڧߧѧܧڧ ٧ܧ G2, ѧ ܧѧ ӧӧէ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ߧ֧ܧ ܧߧܧڧ ֧ާ ӧڧէ էܧѧ٧ܧ ҧѧ֧ ֧֧֧ߧ ӧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧߧѧܧڧ֧ܧ ѧӧڧݧߧ էݧا֧ߧڧ. ݧ ӧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧҧ ߧ֧֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ֧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ӧ٧ާاߧ "Inspect", ٧ӧݧѧ ާѧڧӧѧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧ֧ܧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, "ܧѧ٧ѧ ӧ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ݧܧѧާ ߧ ߧ֧֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ (ҧ֧ܧ, ӧ٧, ѧڧҧ)", "ܧѧ٧ѧ ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ٧ѧէѧߧߧԧ ܧݧѧ ҧ֧ܧ", "ܧѧ٧ѧ ӧ ߧ, ܧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ѧڧҧ Notes ߧ ". (ѧߧߧ ѧڧҧ ֧ ӧ֧ ߧ֧, ֧էѧӧڧާ ٧ܧ G2; ֧ԧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ - ݧڧҧ , ܧԧէ ߧ֧ ֧֧ߧ٧ڧ ߧ, ݧڧҧ ڧѧߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ڧݧ ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ ҧݧ֧, ߧѧڧާ֧, ݧܧ ߧ ߧ֧֧ӧڧ ҧ֧ܧ, ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ҧ֧ܧ էߧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ ..)

3.4 ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ݧԧڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ( ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ѧާ)

ݧ էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧԧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ӧ٧էѧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ڧѧڧ, ѧէ֧ܧӧѧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ާ ާڧ. ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ݧԧڧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ҧէ֧ ӧ֧ ֧ ݧӧڧ, էݧ ܧ ߧ ٧էѧӧѧݧѧ. ߧ֧ߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ާا֧ ڧߧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ѧڧ ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ (.. ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧէѧߧߧԧ ߧڧ ڧݧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ݧӧڧ) ѧߧڧާѧڧ (.. ֧֧ާ֧֧ߧڧ/ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧ/ݧӧڧ). ݧѧԧէѧ ާ ާا֧ ߧ ֧ߧڧ ݧԧڧܧ ѧҧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ߧ ѧߧѧݧڧ٧ڧ ѧӧڧݧ ֧է, ѧާѧڧӧѧ ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ ѧӧݧ֧ާԧ ֧, ֧ߧڧ֧ܧԧ ا֧ߧڧ .. ݧ ӧ֧ܧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ٧֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ "Meters", ӧڧݧѧ ѧڧڧܧ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧߧ ڧݧ٧֧ާ ѧާ. ݧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ݧߧ ֧֧ߧڧާ ߧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ݧѧާ ֧է UNIX (SUN, DEC, HP, IBM ..), VMS (DECVAX) WindowsNT (Intel, DECAlpha). ѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ѧߧ֧ ҧߧ ASCII-ѧۧݧ, ܧ էߧ٧ߧѧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ڧ֧ ߧ ݧҧ ڧ էէ֧اڧӧѧ֧ާ ݧѧ. ֧֧ߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ҧ֧ ֧ԧ ֧֧ܧާڧݧڧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ ֧֧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ѧۧݧ. ߧܧڧߧѧݧߧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ӧߧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧֧֧ӧѧ ߧڧܧѧܧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ. ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ѧҧѧ ܧѧ "ݧߧ" (.. ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ) ֧է, ѧ runtime, ܧѧ ߧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ާէڧڧڧӧѧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ.

ݧѧӧ 4 ѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ

٧ߧѧߧڧ G2 ѧߧ էӧ ڧѧ ѧۧݧ: ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ѧۧݧѧ ֧ӧԧ ڧ ѧߧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ: ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ҧ֧ܧ, ҧ֧ܧ, ѧӧڧݧ, ֧է .. ѧۧݧѧ ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ ѧߧ ҧڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ܧ ާԧ ҧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧ ҧݧ֧, ֧ էߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧէѧߧ ҧ֧ܧ. ѧۧݧ ҧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ާԧ ֧ҧѧ٧ӧѧ ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ҧѧߧ. ֧ݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ӧߧ ڧݧ٧֧ާ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ֧էӧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ҧ֧էڧߧ ֧ܧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ֧ ѧߧ֧ ٧էѧߧߧ ҧѧ٧ ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ܧߧݧڧܧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ާ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ӧӧݧ ҧѧاѧ ߧ էڧݧ֧. ߧѧߧڧ ܧڧ: ֧էާ֧ߧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ܧݧѧ, ڧ֧ѧڧ ާէݧ֧, ڧ֧ѧڧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧ. ѧاէ ڧ ߧڧ ާاߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧ էڧݧ֧.

4.1 ߧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ܧݧѧ

ݧѧ, ҧѧ٧ӧ ߧڧ ҧ֧ܧߧ-ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ, - ߧӧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ G2. ѧߧߧ է ѧӧݧ֧ ߧӧߧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ӧҧ, ܧݧܧ ާ֧ߧѧ֧ ڧ٧ҧߧ ѧ֧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧѧ (֧է֧ݧ֧ ߧ ӧ֧ ܧݧѧ, ݧܧ ֧ԧ ݧڧڧ ֧ܧݧѧ), ٧ӧݧ֧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ҧڧ ѧӧڧݧ, ֧է, ާݧ, ާ֧ߧѧ֧ ڧ ڧݧ, է ӧݧ֧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ҧ ڧѧߧڧ ߧ֧. ѧܧ էէ ܧ էѧߧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ ӧڧէ ܧݧѧ ҧ֧ܧ (ڧݧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ܧ), ڧާ֧ڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧڧҧ. ݧѧ ߧѧݧ֧է ѧڧҧ ֧ܧݧѧ ֧֧էѧ ӧ ѧڧҧ էܧݧѧѧ. ѧاէ ܧݧѧ (ڧܧݧѧ ܧߧ֧ӧ) ާا֧ ڧާ֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ܧ٧֧ާݧ ܧݧѧ. , ѧߧڧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ֧ ֧ڧ֧ ڧ֧ާ, ӧݧ֧ ܧ٧֧ާݧ ԧ ڧݧ ڧߧԧ ܧݧѧ. ݧ֧ ԧ, ӧ ڧߧѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧߧܧڧ G2 ӧݧ ܧݧѧѧާ. ݧ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧ էѧا ҧѧ٧ӧ ڧ էѧߧߧ - ڧާӧݧߧ, ڧݧӧ, ҧݧ֧ӧ ڧڧߧߧߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧֧ܧ ݧԧڧܧ - ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ӧڧާ ܧݧѧѧާ. ڧѧߧڧ ܧݧѧ ӧܧݧѧ֧ ݧܧ ߧ ֧ܧݧѧ է֧اڧ ֧֧֧ߧ ѧڧҧ, ֧ڧڧߧ էݧ ܧݧѧ.

4.2 ֧ѧڧ ާէݧ֧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧ

ݧ ܧڧ٧ѧڧ G2-ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ڧݧ٧ "ާէݧ" "ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ". ֧ާ ߧ , ߧܧڧ ڧ ܧߧܧڧ ا, ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ ֧ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ. ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ҧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ӧڧէ էߧ ڧݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ҧѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ާէݧާ. ݧ֧էߧ֧ ݧѧ ԧӧ, ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ܧ (ڧ֧ѧڧ֧) ާէݧ֧. ӧ֧ߧ֧ ӧߧ - էڧ ާէݧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ӧߧ. էݧ ݧ֧է֧ԧ ӧߧ ڧ ֧ ާէݧ֧, ҧ֧ ܧ ߧ ާا֧ ѧҧѧ ާէݧ ֧էէ֧ԧ ӧߧ. ܧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧӧѧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧڧ ԧѧ ѧ٧ѧҧڧܧ, ѧ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ, ݧѧէܧ ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ ާէݧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ է էԧ, ѧ֧ ӧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ ӧݧ ܧߧ֧ۧߧ֧ߧ ܧݧѧ, ܧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧ էԧڧ ܧݧѧ ڧ ܧ٧֧ާݧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ҧ֧ܧ, ӧ٧, ѧӧڧݧ, ֧է .. ѧاէ ާէݧ (ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ) ާا֧ է֧اѧ ݧҧ ڧݧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧ. ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ ҧѧ٧ էߧ ڧݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ է֧ӧӧڧէߧ ڧ֧ѧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ "is--part-of" ("ӧݧ֧ ѧ"). ܧѧاէ ާէݧ֧ ѧڧڧ֧ էߧ ڧݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ѧҧڧ ѧߧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ԧ (ߧݧ֧ӧԧ) ӧߧ; ܧѧاէ ڧ ߧڧ - ܧ֧ߧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ ڧ֧ѧڧ. ӧ ֧֧է, ܧѧاէ ҧ֧ܧ (֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧ֧ܧ ڧݧ ӧ٧), ѧݧا֧ߧߧ ߧݧ֧ӧ ӧߧ, ާا֧ ѧڧڧӧѧ ѧҧ֧ ѧߧӧ ֧ӧԧ ӧߧ, "ӧݧ֧֧ ֧ԧ ѧ" .. ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ާ֧اէ "ާէݧާ" "ѧҧڧާ ѧߧӧѧާ" ڧ ݧ֧է֧. էݧ ѧ٧է֧ݧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ է֧ݧߧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ӧާ֧ߧ ڧݧ٧֧ާ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. ߧ ݧ֧٧ߧ ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ߧ ֧ԧ ڧݧߧ֧ߧڧ. ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ, ߧѧҧ, ӧݧߧ ӧ ݧ ڧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. ߧ է֧اѧ ֧ҧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ߧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ ѧ٧ҧڧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧ֧ҧݧڧ ѧ, ܧ ݧ֧ԧ ߧ ҧѧҧѧӧѧ. ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ ާاߧ ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ (ӧߧ ڧݧ է֧ۧӧڧ֧ ѧӧڧݧ/֧է) ѧܧڧӧߧ ڧݧ ߧ֧ѧܧڧӧߧ ߧڧ ( ߧ, ߧѧէڧ֧ ѧߧӧ ֧ԧ էѧߧӧѧ, ѧߧӧ ߧ֧ӧڧէڧާާ էݧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ާ ӧӧէ). ѧߧߧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ ڧݧ٧֧, ߧѧڧާ֧, ߧѧݧڧڧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ ԧ ѧӧڧ, ܧԧէ ѧܧڧӧߧ էݧاߧ ҧ ݧܧ էߧ ڧ ߧڧ. ާ ԧ, ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ ڧݧ٧ էݧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ, ֧է֧ݧڧ ѧ٧ߧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ էݧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ܧѧ֧ԧڧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ֧.

4.3 ܧ էѧߧߧ

ߧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ܧ ٧֧ߧڧ ڧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ާاߧ ѧ٧է֧ݧڧ ߧ ܧ էѧߧߧ ӧݧߧ֧ާ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ. ڧާ֧ѧާ ֧ӧ ӧݧ ҧ֧ܧ ڧ ܧݧѧ, ӧ٧ (connection), ߧ֧ߧڧ (relation), ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ, ѧѧާ֧, ڧܧ, ާѧڧӧ, ѧҧڧ ѧߧӧ. ڧާ֧ѧާ ӧ - ѧӧڧݧ, ֧է, ާݧ, ߧܧڧ. է֧ݧ ҧ֧ܧ ( ܧݧѧ), ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ֧ާ ӧӧէڧާ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ֧. ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ, ܧѧ ѧӧڧݧ, ٧էѧ էܧݧѧ, ѧاѧڧ ֧ڧڧܧ էѧߧߧԧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ. ֧է ӧ֧ߧߧ էܧݧѧ ҧ֧ܧ ߧѧڧҧݧڧ ڧߧ֧֧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ էܧݧѧ էѧߧߧ, ӧܧݧѧڧ էܧݧѧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ, ѧѧާ֧, ڧܧ ާѧڧӧ. ҧѧ ݧ ӧէڧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ. ݧڧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ է֧ݧ ߧ ӧڧէ: ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ, ѧѧާ֧ ѧڧҧ. ѧѧާ֧ ݧѧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ ѧҧ ާѧڧߧ ӧӧէ ڧݧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧܧ-ݧڧҧ ֧է. ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ ڧ٧ާ֧֧ާ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ ҧ֧ܧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ާڧ ާ ڧާ֧ ֧ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧: ӧ֧ާ اڧ٧ߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧڧ էѧߧߧ. ֧ާ اڧ٧ߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ާ֧ا ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ֧֧ߧڧ ܧԧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧѧݧߧ, ڧ֧֧ߧڧ ԧ ާ֧اܧ ֧֧ާ֧ߧߧѧ ڧѧ֧ ߧ ڧާ֧֧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ.

ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ

ѧާ֧ߧߧ ѧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ٧ӧݧ ӧ֧اէѧ, էߧڧ ڧ ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧ ӧݧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ. ѧާ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧է֧ߧ ߧ ڧާ֧ ҧݧܧ ܧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ ֧ѧݧߧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ G2, ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ҧ ѧާէѧߧ ֧է էݧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ, ӧߧ֧է֧ߧڧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ڧܧ էڧѧѧ٧ߧ ѧݧ֧. G2 ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ ֧ҧ ܧѧ ߧڧӧ֧ѧݧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧߧާѧڧߧߧ ڧ֧ (ѧߧէѧ ܧ ڧ֧, ѧڧ֧ܧ ܧݧڧ֧ߧ/֧ӧ֧, ҧ֧ܧߧ-ڧ֧ߧڧӧѧߧߧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ, ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ , ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧڧ ѧѧݧݧ֧ݧߧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ާߧԧڧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ֧), ѧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ާ֧է (ѧاէ֧ߧڧ, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ѧӧڧݧѧ, ѧاէ֧ߧڧ, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ էڧߧѧާڧ֧ܧڧ ާէ֧ݧ, ڧݧ ڧާڧѧڧߧߧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ, ֧էߧ ѧاէ֧ߧڧ, ѧܧڧӧߧѧ ҧ֧ܧߧѧ ԧѧڧܧ, ܧڧӧѧߧߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ էݧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ), ѧܧا ڧߧ֧ԧڧ֧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ڧ֧, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧԧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ( ѧܧ֧ѧާ ԧѧާ, , ܧߧݧݧ֧ѧާ ܧߧ֧ߧѧѧާ էѧߧߧ ..).

٧ӧݧ֧ ާ էѧߧߧ ҧݧܧ ٧էѧӧѧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ݧҧ ҧݧڧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧ֧, ֧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ ާ֧է ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ, ߧڧ٧ڧ է٧ѧѧ ߧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ԧӧ ڧݧا֧ߧڧ ڧ ֧֧ߧ ߧ էԧڧ ݧѧާ.

ڧ ڧ֧ѧ

[1] F. Hayes-Roth, N. Jacobstein. The State of Enowledge-Based Systems. Communications of the , March, 1994, v.37, n.3, .27-39.

[2] . Harmon. The Size of the Commercial AI Market in the US. Intelligent Software Strategies. 1994, v.10, n.1, . 1-6.

[3] Expert system saves 20 million L on pipeline management. C&I July, 1994, .31.

[4] . Harmon. The Market for Intelligent Software Products. Intelligent Sopware Strategies 1992, v.8, n.2, .5-12.

[5] D.R Perley. Migrating to Open Systems: Taming he Tiger. McGraw-Hill, 1993, .252.

[6] . Harmon. The AI Tools Market The Market for Intelligent Software Building Tools. Part I. Intelligent Softwane Strategies, 1994, v 10, n.2, pp.1-14.

[7] . Harmon. The market for intelligent software pnducts Intelligent Software Strategies, 1992, v.8, n.2, .5-12.

[8] B.R. Clements and F. Preto. Evaluating Commencial Real Time Expert System Software for Use in the Process Industries. C&I, 1993, . 107-114.

[9] . ԧ et al. Questions and Answers about G2. 1993. Gensym Corporation. .26-28.

[10] B. Moore. Memorandum. 1993, April. Gensym Corparation.

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