Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364139
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62791)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21319)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21692)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8692)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3462)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20644)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: Gothic Age Essay Research Paper GothicFor nearly

Название: Gothic Age Essay Research Paper GothicFor nearly
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 13:39:51 06 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 2 Комментариев: 13 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Gothic Age Essay, Research Paper

Gothic

For nearly four hundred years Gothic style dominated the architecture of

Western Europe. It originated in northern France in the twelfth century, and

spread rapidly across England and the Continent, invading the old Viking empire

of Scandinavia. It confronted the Byzantine provinces of Central Europe and

even made appearances in the near East and the Americas. Gothic architects

designed town halls, royal palaces, courthouses, and hospitals. They fortified

cities and castles to defend lands against invasion. But it was in the service

of the church, the most prolific builder of the Middle Ages, that the Gothic

style got its most meaningful expression, providing the widest scope for the

development of architectural ideas.1

Although by 1400 Gothic had become the universal style of building in

the Western world, its creative heartland was in northern France in an area

stretching from the royal domain around Paris, including Saint-Denis and

Chartres, to the region of the Champagne in the east and southward to Bourges.

Within this restricted area, in the series of cathedrals built in the course of

the 12th and 13th centuries, the major innovations of Gothic architecture took

place.2

The supernatural character of medieval religious architecture was given

a special form in the Gothic church. “Medieval man considered himself but an

imperfect refraction of Divine Light of God, Whose Temple stood on earth,

according to the text of the dedication ritual, stood for the Heavenly City of

Jerusalem.”3 The Gothic interpretation of this point of view was a cathedral so

grand that seems to belittle the man who enters it, for space, light, structure

and the plastic effects of the stonework are made to produce a visionary scale.

The result of the Gothic style is distortion as there is no fixed set of

proportions in the parts. Such architecture did not only express the physical

and spiritual needs of the Church, but also the general attitude of the people

of that time. Gothic was not dark, massive, and contained like the older

Romanesque style, but light, open, and aerial, and its appearance in all parts

of Europe had an enduring effect on the outlook of succeeding generations.4

Gothic architecture evolved at a time of profound social and economic

change in Western Europe. In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries trade and

industry were revived, particularly in northern Italy and Flanders, and a lively

commerce brought about better communications, not only between neighboring towns

but also between far-distant regions. Politically, the twelfth century was

also the time of the expansion and consolidation of the State. Along with

political and economic developments, a powerful new intellectual movement arose

that was stimulated by the translation of ancient authors from Greek and Arabic

into Latin, and a new literature came into being. Gothic architecture both

contributed to these changes and was affected by them.5

The Gothic style was essentially urban. The cathedrals of course were

all situated in towns, and most monasteries, had by the twelfth century become

centers of communities which possessed many of the functions of civic life.

The cathedral or abbey church was the building in which the people congregated

on major feast days. It saw the start and the end of splendid and colorful

ceremonies, and it held the earliest dramatic performances. The abbey

traditionally comprised at least a cloister, a dormitory and a refectory for the

monks. But the cathedral also was around a complex of buildings, the bishop’s

palace, a cloister and the house of canons, a school, a prison, and a hospital.

However the cathedral dominated them all, rising high above the town like a

marker to be seen from afar.6

The architectural needs of the Church were expressed in both physical

and iconographical terms. Like its Romanesque predecessor, the Gothic cathedral

was eminently adaptable. It could be planned larger or smaller, longer or

shorter, with or without transepts and ambulatory, according to the traditions

and desires of each community. It had no predetermined proportions or number of

parts, like the Roman temple or the centrally planned church of the Renaissance.

Its social and liturgical obligations demanded a main altar at the end of a

choir where the chapter and the various dignitaries would be seated, a number

of minor altars, and an area for processions within the building.7 There were

rarely more than about two hundred persons participating in the service, even

though the smallest Gothic cathedral could easily contain that number. The rest

of the building simply supplemented this core and provided space for the laity,

who were not permitted to enter the choir or sanctuary. Still, after the middle

of the twelfth century, the choir was usually isolated by a monumental screen

that effectively prevented laymen from even seeing the service, and special

devotional books came into use to supply the congregation with suitable subjects

of meditation during mass.8

The program of the Gothic church fulfilled iconographical as well as

social requirements. The intellectual centers of the Middle Ages had long been

associated with the Church, and the tradition of learning that had been

preserved in monastic and cathedral schools gave rise to universities such as

Paris and Oxford in the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Such an

association obviously had an effect on the arts, which were still primarily

religious in nature. Scholarly clerics, for instance, were appointed to arrange

the intricate, theological programs for the sculpture and the stained glass that

decorated the church. The relationship is thought by some historians to have

been even closer, for scholastic thinking first took shape in Paris early in the

twelfth century, at the very time that Gothic architecture came into being there.

It is possible that architects, who were “abstract” thinkers in their own right,

may occasionally have absorbed some of the habits of thought of the philosophers.

In the absence of written documents, however, it cannot be proved whether these

habits were consistently embodied in the design of the buildings.9

The Gothic age, as has often been observed, was an age of vision. The

supernatural manifested itself to the senses. In the religious life of the

twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the desire to behold sacred reality with

bodily eyes appeared as the dominant theme. Architecture was designed and

experienced as a representation of an ultimate reality.10 The Gothic cathedral

was originated in the religious experience and in the political and even

physical realities, of twelfth-century France. It was described as an

illusionistic image of the Celestial City as evoked in the Book of Revelation.

The essence of Gothic style was most fully developed in its conquest of space

and its creation of a prodigious, visionary scale in the cathedrals of the

twelfth century.11

Branner, Robert. The Great Ages of World Architecture: Gothic Architecture.

New York: George Braziller, 1967.

Gimpel, Jean. The Cathedral Builders. New York: Grove Press, 1983.

Mitchell, Ann. Great Buildings of the World: Cathedrals of Europe. Feltham:

The Hamlyn Publishing Group, 1968.

Panofsky, E. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. Latrobe: Faber and Faber

Limited, 1951.

Simson, Otto von. The Gothic Cathedral. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1956.

Worringer, Wilhelm. Form In Gothic. New York: Alec Tiranti Limited, 1957.

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка
Комментарии:
Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya23:45:37 28 августа 2019
.
.23:45:37 28 августа 2019
.
.23:45:36 28 августа 2019
.
.23:45:35 28 августа 2019
.
.23:45:34 28 августа 2019

Смотреть все комментарии (13)
Работы, похожие на Реферат: Gothic Age Essay Research Paper GothicFor nearly

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(258478)
Комментарии (3476)
Copyright © 2005-2020 BestReferat.ru support@bestreferat.ru реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru