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Реферат: Spaniard Quietist Miguel De Molinos Essay Research

Название: Spaniard Quietist Miguel De Molinos Essay Research
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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Spaniard Quietist Miguel De Molinos Essay, Research Paper

The Spaniard Quietist Miguel de Molinos

I. Factors.

The Church, since its origins has suffered from the attack of heretics

and their heresies which have caused many controversies and schisms within it.

However, many of the conflicts are the result of other than heresies. There are

cases where conflicts arose because of ambition of power, lack of moral, and

intrigues, other because of lack of wisdom and a poor theological understanding.

One of the instances in which a mixture of the elements mentioned above

were present was the case of the Spaniard quietist Miguel de Molinos during the

XVII century. Molinos was accused by the Church with charges of heresy as well

as of immoral misconduct. His main work La Gu?a Espiritual (”The spiritual

Guide”) was placed in the Index of the Church, and Molinos himself was

condemned to life imprisonment, “to be perpetually clothed in the penitential

garb, to recite the Credo and one third of the Rosary, and to make confession

four times every year”.

Molinos recanted publicly. His admirers said that he was behaving

consistently with what he believed and taught. His accusers said that his

recanting was a proof of his guilt.

What were real motives why Molinos admitted his “guilt”? Molinos once

said: “The true quietists are always quiet, serene and eve-minded in Graces and

in extraordinary favors as also in the most rigorous and bitter torments. No

news causes them to rejoice, no event saddens them”. Was Miguel de Molinos

trying to be consistent way with his mystical teachings of total passivity?, or

was he really guilty as charged? Was Molinos a victim of the jealousy of the

Jesuits? Was his fall caused by “the machinations of a corrupt clergy who saw

that they would loose their living if his plain and simple method of devotion

were generally adopted”? Did he ever had any other options than recant

admitting his culpability? Was martyrdom his only other option?

II. Protagonists

Molinos was a man of noble character and a “brilliant and widely

cultured mind”. His reputation of director of consciences and spiritual guide

granted him the admiration and esteem of all kinds of people among whom was

Cardinal Benedict Odescalchi who later became pope Innocent XI. At his arrest

those who new him close were very distressed. His servants kissing his feet and

calling his “a saint” where convinced that all was a mistake. When all this

took place in 1685 Molinos was fifty-seven years old, (he was born in 1628 ).

Although when arrested he lost control , during the trial he show no

apprehension, “he was a quietist by conviction” .

The pope Innocent XI ( former Cardinal Benedict Odescalchi and personal

friend of Molinos ) was born in Como (Italy) and pursued his studies in Geneva,

Rome, and Naples. He was elected pope by the Cardinal College in 1676. He is

portrayed by catholic historians as pope that was committed to keep an

honorable life, which was hard to do in his age – and office -. He made reforms

in the Church specially in relation with the abuses of nepotism. In order to be

consistent with his convictions he kept his own nephew away from the Roman Curia.

Because of his campaign against king Louis XVI Innocent was called the

Protestant pope by the Gallican party. He was considered a man of “iron hand”

when needed. “He made some prescriptions concerning the behavior of the clergy,

forbade the entering of women into the Vatican Palace (except the royalty), ….

and condemned the Quietism of Molinos”. Concerning his former friendship with

Molinos he claimed “Veramente siamo engannati”.

III. The Conflict

The teachings of Molinos were not knew for the Church. In Spain the

mystic Juan Falcon? (1596-1638), had a large number of followers during his

lifetime. Another group, the “Alumbrados” influenced many people in Cadiz and

Seville in the late 1500’s. They taught that vocal prayer, and thinking in the

humanity of Jesus or in his passion must be avoided. In 1623 the Inquisition

condemned them as heretics. It is clear that both, Falcon? and the Alumbrados,

influenced Molinos’ thought.

Molinos’ doctrines about mysticism were world wide appreciated and

practiced. It is said that in Naples he had “more that 20.000 followers”. His

popularity among the royalty was notable. Queen Christina of Sweden, and

princess Borghese were among his devoted followers. The main work of Molinos La

Gu?a Espiritual was subject of investigation by the “Holy Office”. However the

conflict arose when the Jesuits begun to question his practices and the

teachings found in his writings which at one time were highly praise by the

clergy . Molinos has taught that “if souls in a high state of prayer are

tempted to commit the most obscene and blasphemous acts, they must not leave

their prayer to resist the temptation; the devil if being allowed to humiliate

them, and if the actions are committed, they are not to be confessed as sins”.

For him Quietism was the mean to reach God and to find peace: ” Rest is

necessary for the soul as well as the body; rest in which the force of grace

refresh and recreate the

soul. This rest can not be obtained by employing the soul in various

spiritual activities. Just as the body needs sleep in order to recruit his

energies, so the does the soul requires a silent resting if the presence of God”.

This kind of teachings caused that in many convents the nuns thought lightly if

confessions, indulgences, penance, and vocal prayer, and regarded themselves as

not blameworthy for their material faults. After months of investigation of

his books, and personal letters (about 20.000 were analyzed by the Inquisition),

the Inquisition sponsored by the Jesuits presented 263 charges against Molinos.

Sixty eighth of his propositions were condemned as “Heretical, erroneous,

blasphemous, dangerous, and in practice, incompatible with Christian morality”.

It is interesting that only two witness accused him with of obscenities . What

were those so called obscenities? It is not possible to answer this question.

There is no access to the reports of Molino’s trial. They are “buried in

the secret files of the Holy Office”.

Molinos retracted from his teaching publicly in 1687 at the Church of

Santa Mar?a Sopra Minerva. Along with Molinos more than two hundred persons

were arrested in Rome, and “several communities of nuns” found themselves

implicated in the scandal. One month after his sentence the “Gazette de France”

published the news of Molino’s dead; however, historians tells us that Molinos

lived nine more years, dying at the age of sixty-eight on December 28, 1696.

The Catholic Encyclopedia ends its article about Molinos saying: “He lived 9

more years of pious and exemplary behavior, perhaps practicing his teaching that

elevated souls seek only the humiliations and scorn that it might please God to


IV. Possible Options

It is evident that the Molinos was facing a dilemma. The Church has

called him to repent of serious charges. What should be his response to the

mandate of the Church? Shall he be consistent with his Quietism and recant in

obedience? He chose to recant admitting the charges against. In doing so he

tried to be consistent. By the other hand the other only option was to keep

himself standing in his beliefs and to pay a the higher price of martyrdom. We

probably never know what was in his mind during the trial. It may be that the

accusations of immoral behavior were real and that he just was “caught” and had

no other option.

V. Biblical Principles.

The Scriptures leave no place for immorality and lack of repentance in

the life of true believers . We don’t know the heart of man, (God is the final

judge), but if Molinos was living an immoral lifestyle the Bible have very clear

teachings. The Apostle Paul dealing with immorality in the Church of Corinth

says: “It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such

fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have

his father’s wife. And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he

that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you. 1 Cor. 5:1-2. The

Church must never allow immoral people to continue living in sin. In 2 Th. 3:6

Paul again gives specific commandment concerning this issue: “Now we command you,

brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from

every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he

received of us”. There is not only immorality that is to be forbidden inthe

Church but heresy as well: “A man that is an heretic after the first and second

admonition reject; Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being

condemned of himself, Titus 3:10-11. Was this the case of Molinos? Was he one of

those whom “profess that they know God; but in works they deny him”? Titus 1:16.

VI. Conclusion

Miguel de Molinos have passed to the history as accused of being both

heretic and immoral. He has been judged by the Roman Catholic Church and found

guilty. However the lack of historical evidences bring doubts upon his blame.

Only God the Supreme Judge of all men will have the last word concerning the

case of this mystic of the middle ages.

Bell, Mary. A Short History of the Papacy. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company,


Braure, Maurice. The Age of Absolutism. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1963.

Calvin, John. Institutes of The Christian Religion. Grand Rapids, Michigan:

Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1962.

Cristianini, Leon. Heresies and Heretics. New York: Hawthorn Books, c1959.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 1926 ed. S.v. “Quietism”.

Gonz?lez, Justo L. The History of Christianity Volume II. New York: Harper

Collins Publishers, 1984.

Herbermann, Charles, Edward Pace, Cond? Pallen, Thomas Shasan, and John Wynne,

eds. The Catholic Encyclopedia New York: Robert Appleton Co., 1911. S.v.

“Molinos, Miguel de Art,” by Antonio P?rez Goyena.

Hogarth, Henry. “The Mystery of Molinos”. London Quaterly and Holborn Review,

(January 1953): 178: 6-10.

Knox, Ronald, A. Enthusiasm. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961 [c1950].

Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in Spain. Vol. IV. New York:

AMS Press, Inc., 1988.

Llorca Vives, Bernardino. Historia de la Iglesia Cat?lica en sus Cuatro Grandes

Edades, Vol. 4. Madrid: Editorial Cat?lica, 1950-1960.

Mestre Sanchis, Antonio. La Iglesia en la Espana de los siglos XVII y XVIII.

[The Church in Spain during the XVII and XVIII centuries]. Madrid: Editorial

Cat?lica, 1979.

Pastor, Ludwing. The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages. Vol.

32. USA: Consortium Books, 1978.

Whalen, John P., and Patrick O. Boyle, eds. New Catholic Encyclopedia.

Washington: McGraw Book Co., 1966. S.v. “Molinos, Miguel de Art,” by T. K.


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