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Реферат: Rudyard Kipling Stalky Essay Research Paper Rudyard

Название: Rudyard Kipling Stalky Essay Research Paper Rudyard
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 15:30:39 26 октября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 44 Комментариев: 12 Оценило: 1 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Rudyard Kipling Stalky Essay, Research Paper

Rudyard Kipling

Stalky & Company

Rudyard Kipling, was born in the city of Bombay, India on December 30, 1865.

He made a significant contribution to English Literature in various areas including poetry,

short stories, and novels. Rudyard Kipling came from an affluent family with his father

working at the Bombay School of Art, and his mother coming from a family of very

accomplished women. Most of his childhood was spent in India where he was taken care

of by a baby-sitter, that instilled in him Indian culture and traditions (?Biography? 1). At

the young age of five, he was sent to England, for education purposes, but he endured a

life of misery resulting from mistreatment. The experience left him with deep

psychological scars and a sense of betrayal (?Kipling? 1). Kipling suffered from insomnia

the rest of his life because of the victimization he went through when in the foster home.

This played an important part in his literary imagination. The English schoolboy code of

honor and duty affected his views in later life, especially when it involved loyalty to a

group or a team (?Biography? 1).

Returning to England in 1882 Rudyard worked as a newspaper reporter, which

helped him gain an experience of colonial life that he later represented in many of his

works. He found himself recognized by many admiring individuals. A few years after

returning to England, he produced some of his best work including his most acclaimed

poem ?Recessional? and his most famed novel Kim. In 1907 Kipling won the Nobel prize

for literature, the first English author to have done so (?Kipling? 1). Soon after winning

the Nobel prize, the deaths of both his children Josephine and John deeply affected his life.

Both of the incidents left a profound impression on his life, which is noticeable in his

works that were published after the deaths (?Biography? 1). As quoted, ?This tragic loss

led Kipling to change from being the poet of Empire, to the poet of bitterness and guilt? .

As quoted by Andrew Lang, ?There is a false air of bitterness; there is a knowing air; there

are mannerisms,…….? (?Bookworm? 1).

Rudyard Kipling is regarded as one of the greatest English short-story writers. His

poems dealt with racial and imperialistic topics that attracted many critics. Critics

condemned that unlike the popular model of poetry, Kipling?s poetry didn?t have an

underlying meaning, which resulted in only having to read that particular work only once

through (?Biography? 1).According to English and Western Literature, conservatism ,

optimism, and self-assurance marked the poetry of his age. As a poet, he is remarkable for

rhymed verse written in the slang used by the ordinary British soldier (?Kipling, (Joseph)?

1). His work was not limited to the highly educated. Many people regarded him as the

soldiers author. Kipling wrote so much from their point of view even though he never

was in any military duty. He also included the slang that the British soldiers used. The

writings of Kipling consistently projected three ideas : intense patriotism, the duty of the

English to lead lives of strenuous activity, and England?s destiny to become a great empire

(?Kipling, (Joseph)? 1). T.S. Elliot describes Kipling?s verse as ??great verse? that

sometimes unintentionally changes into poetry? (?Biography? 1). Rudyard?s preoccupation

with physical strain, breakdown, and recovery was displayed later in his works, as a result

of self-experience (?Biography? 1). As the career of Rudyard Kipling matured, he

drastically improved as a poet, and by the time of his death, he had compiled one of the

most diverse collections of poetry in English Literature (?Kipling? 1).

After being plagued by illness for quite some time, Rudyard Kipling passed away

while residing in London on January 18, 1936, just after his seventieth birthday (?Kipling?

1). He was buried beside T.S. Elliot, and the following year after his death, his

autobiographical work Something of Myself was published (?Kipling? 1).

The basic theme throughout the novel Stalky & Company was the conflict with

authority, and a matter of preserving their individuality and self-respect against adults who

would break their spirits and try to transform these young men into descent members of

society. Stalky & Company is a collection of stories based on adolescence and moral

teachings. Rudyard Kipling based Stalky & Company on his own individual experiences

from growing up, and attending school. In this book, Kipling is represented by the

character Stalky. Stalky was the inventive, lively leader in all illegal pursuits schoolboy,

who had an attitude towards authority. Stalky was bullied somewhat throughout the story,

but Kipling felt it was necessary to add this to the story, because it was a character

-forming ritual. His attitude was that he considered it ?the necessary evil against which

happiness is achieved by reaction? (Rudyard 8). Punishment is a great concern as the

storyline thickens. It is the central concern for the schoolboys, where it becomes the

physical manifestation of a deep conflict in life. The conflict is between the young and the

old, as well as the endless struggle between the individual and the group. The group in this

story has the power to punish, and it uses this power for defense and for instruction. For

instance, Stalky & Company scheme to have their Latin teacher, Mr. King, run off a

neighboring farmer?s land as a poacher, and they succeed without violating any rules, but

the headmaster beats them anyway, and punishes them for deliberately bringing a master

into discredit and degrading school authority. Even though the boys were technically in

the right, there was no justification for the behavior that threatened the organization itself.

In Stalky & Company, Kipling was set out to demonstrate how perfect a place the

United States had been for the formation of the sort of characters that would maintain an

empire. The book is idealized by Kipling, and was imperialistic, yet in his own

experiences, his true headmaster was anti-imperialistic, and there was hardly any flogging.

Rudyard portrayed his old school in Stalky & Company as the perfect training grounds for

soldiers of the Empire. The school that the boys of the story Stalky & Company attended

preached success, because success was power. To be without power was to be a failure.

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