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Реферат: Ecomansf Essay Research Paper Management of changeAnalyse

Название: Ecomansf Essay Research Paper Management of changeAnalyse
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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Ecomansf Essay, Research Paper

Management of changeAnalyse the ways in which resistance to change becomes evident withinorganisations. What strategies can senior managers adopt to overcome suchresistance when implementing change programmes. CONTENTSPageINTRODUCTION1WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE1Fear of the unknown1Disrupted habits2Loss of face2Loss of confidence3Loss of control3Poor timing4Work overload4Lack of purpose4DEFENSE MECHANISMS5Overt resistance5Implicit resistance5SYMPTOMS OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE6Aggression6Fantasy6Regression6Resignation/avoidance7Negativism7Compensation7Rationalisation7Projection 7STRATEGIES TO REDUCE RESISTANCE8Change programme9Impact of change9Change mechanism10Change management11Education and communication11Participation12Facilitation and support12Negotiation13Manipulation and co-optation13Coercion14CONCLUSION15Bibliography and references161.INTRODUCTION1.1Change is the process of moving from one state to another state.Just as moving house requires the massive packing of furniture and otheritems, change requires just as much preparations to be successful. 1.2Most people do not like change, we like things to remain thesame. Changes require more effort from us to adapt. Change threatens ourstability and security and we fear that we will not be able to cope withthe change. Resistance is the natural defense to such perceived threats. 2.WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE2.1To know the symptoms of resistance to change, we have tounderstand why people resist change. Reasons can range from as trivial(though not trivial to the person) as not knowing how to take a bus home(in the instance of a shift in the office) to as serious as fearing theloss of job or status. 2.1.1Fear of the unknown; The person does not know what is happeningand why it is happening. Imagine a person walking down a street only tohave a electricity blackout. He panics for a moment, because he does notknow what had happened and he is afraid of being robbed or murdered inthe dark. Similarly, employees do not like to be kept in the dark. Theywant to be kept informed of happenings, especially when it will affectthem, so that they can prepare themselves for any onslaught. 2.1.2Disrupted habits: AYou can=t teach a old dog new tricks@ ringtrue in some instances. Older employees especially who are set in theirways get upset when they are told that they can no longer use the oldmethod of doing things. In the 1960s, the Singapore government advocatedfamily planning banned spitting in public areas. The older folks who werebrought up on the tradition that clearing phlegm is good for the lungsgot pretty upset. 2.1.3Loss of face: The Chinese in Singapore are divided into variouscommunities depending on their forefathers= origins in China and thedialect group. To unit the Chine, the Singapore government advocated theuse of Mandarin as a common language. Use of dialects was stronglydiscouraged. Television shows and radio programmes in dialects wereAbanned@. This pretty much upset the older folks who felt that their oldtraditions and culture were being Aerased away@, and that the Aold@ wayswere not the Agood@ ways. 2.1.4Loss of confidence: The employee feel that he cannot perform justas well under the new way of doing things. A typist who formerly couldtype at 60wpm and now has to use the computer, is afraid that she cannottype just as fast on the machine. In the 1960s, English was promoted asthe official language of Singapore. The older Chinese, who came toSingapore in the first half of the century, were mainly uneducated. Theybuilt up their businesses through hard work. Accounts were kept in Athehead@ and credit was given on trust. They felt that they would not ableto cope just as well in the new English speaking environment. 2.1.5Loss of control: The government=s population control policyencourage the Singapore citizens to Astop at two@. Measures to discouragehaving more children, such as higher accouchement fees for the thirdchild, low priority in education, etc. were implemented. Many couplesfelt that they had no choice but to follow the policy. Their feeling wasof >things being done >to= you rather than >by= or >with= you.@. 2.1.6Poor timing: In these times, when changes are happeningfrequently, the employee will feel overwhelmed by the many changes andalso that things are moving too fast. Before he has learnt how to useWordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft comes out with Microsoft Word 6.0 and he hasto re-learn again. 2.1.7Work overload: With the tight labour shortage in Singapore, manyemployees had Aenjoyed job enlargement@. Their energy is already consumedby the additional workload, and they do not have spare energy, physicalor psychic to commit to the change. 2.1.8Lack of purpose: To control traffic congestion on the East CoastExpressway, the Communications Ministry had implemented the ARoad PricingScheme@ (RPS), whereby motorists using the East Coast Expressway (ECP)from 0730 hours to 1030 hours in the morning, have to pay a toll ofS$1.00. Many motorists see this as purposeless, as the ECP was built toease traffic congestion in the eastern part of the island. They do notsee any reason for the change and/or do not understand the benefits. 3.DEFENSE MECHANISMS3.1Just as we resist physically when someone tries to assault us, weuse resistance as a defense mechanism, when we perceive any change as athreat. Resistance can be overt or implicit. 3.1.1Overt resistance ) When resistance is overt and immediate, it iseasiest to dealt with, as the causes for the resistance is easily seen.For instance, a change is proposed and employees respond by voicingcomplaints, engaging in a work slowdown, threatening to go on strike, orthe like. Management will be able to formulate strategies to deal withthe root causes of complaints. 3.1.2Implicit resistance ) Implicit resistance is more subtle; theloss of loyalty to the organisation, loss of motivation to work,increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism due to Asickness@ )and hence more difficult to recognise. 3.1.3Deferred reactions blur the link between the source of resistanceand reaction to it. A change may produce what appears to be only aminimal reaction at the time it is initiated bur surfaces weeks, monthsor even years later. Or a single change in and of itself has littleimpact. But it becomes the Astraw that breaks the camel=s back@. 3.1.4Reactions to change can build up and then explodes in someresponse that seems totally out of proportion to the change it follows.The resistance has merely been deferred and stockpiled. What surfaces isa response to an accumulation of previous changes. 4.SYMPTOMS OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE4.1Symptoms to resistance can take the form of;4.1.1Aggression ) Showing hostility toward supervisor or fellowemployees through gestures, words, or even physical attacks. 4.1.2Fantasy ) Day dreaming of another world where the change isnon-existent. 4.1.3Regression ) Manifesting childlike behaviour such as crying,pouting to attract attention in the hope that the change will beabandoned by sympathetic superiors. 4.1.4Resignation/avoidance ) Having excessive absenteeism ortardiness, quitting the job or having a high sick-leave rate. The personcreate absences from the place of change, in order to avoid dealing orfacing the change. 4.1.5Negativism ) Putting up strong and irrational resistance toaccepting the suggestions of others, so as influence others into the samethinking that the change is bad. 4.1.6Compensation ) Exhibiting exaggerated behaviour such as usingbig words, being bossy to show that he/she is not afraid of the change,

contrary to internal emotions. 4.1.7Rationalisation) Making excuses for one=s behaviour in order tocome to terms with one=s guilt. 4.1.8Projection ) blaming others for the problem. 5.STRATEGIES TO REDUCE RESISTANCE5.1Resistance to change is not always dysfunctional. It can providea vehicle for employees to release pent-up frustrations. Rather than letthose frustrations fester, overt resistance allows employees to bringtheir feelings to the surface. Management can then address employeeconcerns, help them understand the change better, and lessen its threat. 5.2Employee resistance may also bring to light problems in a changeproposal that management had overlooked. In an odd way, employeeresistance is a form of checks-and-balances on management and acts topreserve the organisation=s culture. 5.3Change, particularly if it effects will be tremendous and/or wideranging should be properly planned. In planning a change, managementshould consider;5.3.1the impact of change5.3.2change management and approaches that can be used to overcomeresistance and gain commitment to change5.4Change programme5.4.1Senior management should then draw up a programme for the change; goals and defining the new state required after thechange5.4.1.2analysing the present conditions in relation to the goals. the transitional activities and commitments required toachieve the new state. strategies and action plans for managing thetransition. This involve identifying the forces resistant to change andthe reasons for resistance. a Achange agent@ to facilitate the change. 5.5Impact of change5.5.1To understand the impact of the change, it is essential forsenior management to Acome off their high horses@ and listen to theground. Management can initiate discussion with trade unions and obtaintheir feedback and inputs on any proposed changes, before implementation.Union representatives, having stronger credibility with the members(employees) will also be the best person(s) to garner support for thechange. Management have to identify the perceived or real negativeconsequences of the change. 5.6Change mechanism5.6.1Reducing resistance to change can best be understood byconsidering the complexity inherent in the change process. Successfulchange requires unfreezing the status quo, moving to a new state andrefreezing the change to make it permanent.5.6.2According to Lewin, the basic mechanism for managing change is; – changing the present state which supports existingbehaviours and attitudes. This process must also consider the perceivedthreats of any change (as earlier discussed) and the need to motivatepeople to achieve the new state by accepting the change. – developing new attitudes and responses. – stabilising the change. 5.7Change management5.8The are many styles of managing change and reducing resistance tochange, include;5.8.1Education and communication ) Resistance can be reduced throughcommunicating with employees to help them see the logic of a change. Thistactic basically assume that the source of resistance lies inmisinformation of poor communication. If employees receive the full factsand get misunderstandings cleared up, resistance will subside. Howeverthe management-employee relations have to be characterised by trust andcredibility. If these conditions do not exist, the change is unlikely tosucceed. The time and effort that this tactic involves must be consideredagainst its advantages, particularly when the change affects a largenumber of people. 5.8.2Participation ) It is difficult for individuals to resist achange decision in which they participated. Prior to making a change,those opposed to it can be brought into the change process. Assuming thatthe participants have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution,their involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment, and increasethe quality of the change decision. However, against these advantages arethe potential for a poor solution and great time consumption. 5.8.3Facilitation and support ) Change agents can offer a range ofsupportive efforts to reduce resistance. When employee fear and anxietyare high, employee counselling and therapy, new skills training, or ashort paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. The drawback isthat as with the others, its is time consuming,. It is also expensive andits implementation offers no assurance of success. 5.8.4Negotiation ) Another way for the change agent to deal withpotential resistance to change is to exchange something of value for alessening of the resistance. Example, the resistance is centred in a fewpowerful individuals, a specific reward package can be negotiated thatwill meet their needs. Negotiation as a tactic may be necessary whenresistance comes from a powerful source. Yet one cannot ignore itspotentially high costs. There is also the risk that once a change agentnegotiates to avoid resistance, he/she is open to the possibility ofbeing blackmailed by other individuals in positions of power. 5.8.5Manipulation and co-optation ) Manipulation refers to overtinfluence attempts. Twisting and distorting facts to make them appearmore attractive, withholding undesirable information, or creating falserumours to get employees to accept a change are all examples ofmanipulation. If management threatens to close down a particularmanufacturing plant if that plant=s employees fail to accept an acrossthe board pay cut, and if the threat is equally untrue, management isusing manipulation. Co-optation on the other hand, is a form of bothmanipulation and participation. It seeks to Abuy off@ the leaders of aresistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision. Theleaders= advice is sought not to make a better decision, but to get theirendorsement. Both manipulation and co-optation are relatively inexpensiveand easy ways to get the support of adversaries, but the tactics canbackfire if the targets become aware that they are being tricked or used.Once discovered, the change agent=s credibility may drop to zero. 5.8.6Coercion ) The application of direct threats of force on theresisters. Examples of coercion, include pay cuts, threats of transfers,loss of promotions, negative performance evaluations or a poor letter ofrecommendation. The advantages and disadvantages are similar to those formanipulation and co-optation. 5.9If resistance is extremely high, management may have to resort toboth reducing resistance and increasing the attractiveness of thealternative if the unfreezing is to be successful. CONCLUSION6.Assuming that the change has been implemented, if it is to besuccessful, the new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can besustained over time. Unless this step is taken, there is a high chancethat the change will be short lived and employees will attempt to revertto the previous equilibrium state. The objective of refreezing then is tostabilise the new situation by balancing the driving and restrainingforces. Bibliography and references1.Werther Jr, William B & and Davis Keith (1985)Personnel Management And Human Resources, 2nd editionMcGraw Hill International, Singapore. 2.Sherman, Arthur W Jr, Bohlander, George W. and Chruden, Herbert J. (1988)Managing Human Resources, 8th editionSouthWestern Publishing Co, USA. 3.Robbins, Stephen, P. Robbins (1989)Organisational behaviour (concepts, controversies and applications) 4th editionPrentice-Hall of India, India4.Stoner, A. F. James (1988)Management 4th editionPrentice Hall international, Inc., USA. 5.Clark, Liz (1994)The essence of changePrentice Hall international, Inc., UK. 6.Armstrong, Michael (1993)A Handbook of Management Techniques 2nd EditionNichols Publishing Comoany, New Jersey. 7.Armstrong, Michael (1991)A Handbook of Personnel Practices 4th EditionKogan Page Limited, USA. 8.Chruden, Herbet J and Sherman Jr, Arthur W. (1976)Personnel Management 5th EditionSouth Western Publishing Company, USA. 9.Durphy, D.C (1981)Organisational Change by choiceMcGraw Hill Book Co, Sydney10.Lippitt, G.L., Langeseth, P. and Mossop J (1986)Implementing Organisational ChangeJosey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, London11.Leigh, A. (1988)Effective Change: Twenty ways to make it happenInstitute of Personnel Management, UK


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