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Реферат: Lung Cancer Essay Research Paper Smoking is

Название: Lung Cancer Essay Research Paper Smoking is
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 02:39:20 08 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 2 Комментариев: 13 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Lung Cancer Essay, Research Paper

Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. During 1995, approximately 2.1 million people in developed countries died as a result of smoking. One tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States. Lung Cancer mortality are about 23 times higher for current male smokers and 13 times higher for current female smokers compared to a lifelong never-smoker. In addition to being responsible for 87% of lung cancers, smoking is also associated with cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney, and bladder. Smoking accounts for at least 29% of all cancer deaths, is a major cause of heart disease, and is associated with conditions ranging from colds and gastric ulcers to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cerebrovascular disease.

Women have a better chance in getting lung cancer then men do. This year the disease will kill 68,000 women in the United States, more than one and a half times as many as breast cancer. Even if a woman smoked for awhile and quit, her chances are much greater then a man that smoked 2 times longer then the woman did. Scientists still don?t know all the reasons why this happens. With 23 million women still smoking. Lung cancer will remain a deadly epidemic threatening the lives of millions of women.

Second hand smoke, also called environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a human carcinogen. Each year about 3,000 nonsmoking adults die of lung cancer as a result breathing the smoke of others? cigarettes. Second hand smoking causes an estimated 35,000 to 40,000 deaths from heart disease in people who are not current smokers. It also causes respiratory problems in nonsmokers such as, coughing, phlegm, chest discomfort, and reduced lung function. Each year, exposure to secondhand smoke causes 150,000 to 300,000 lower respiratory tract infections in U.S. infants and children younger then 18

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months of age. These infections result in 7,500 to 15,000 hospitalizations every year. Children exposed to secondhand smoke at home are more likely to have middle-ear disease and reduced lung function. Secondhand smoke increases the number of asthma attacks and the severity of asthma in about 20% of this country?s two to five million asthmatic children.

The number of people who die or suffer illness because of its use, best measure tobacco costs to our society. Tobacco use also drains the US economy of more than $100 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. Tobacco costs Medicare more than $10 billion and Medicaid more than $5 billion per year. Lost economic productivity causes by smoking costs the US economy $47.2 billion in 1990. The total economic costs of smoking are more than $100 billion per year.

People, who quit, regardless of age, live longer than people who continue to smoke. Smokers who quit before the age of 50 have half the risk of dying in the next 15 years compared with those who continue to smoke. Quitting smoking substantially decreases the risk of lung laryngeal, esophageal, oral, pancreatic, bladder, and cervical cancers. Benefits of cessation include risk reduction for other major disease including coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. In 1994, an estimated 69% of current smokers reported that they wanted to quit smoking completely. Quit attempts, abstaining from smoking for at least one day during the preceding 12 months, were made by about 46% of current every-day smokers.

There has been a revival in the use of all forms of smokeless tobacco, plug, leaf, and snuff, but the greatest cause for concern centers on the increased use of dipping

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snuff. Doing this, tobacco that has been processed into a coarse, moist powder is placed between the cheek and gum, and nicotine, along with a number of carcinogens, is absorbed through the oral tissue. Dipping snuff is highly addictive, and exposes the body to levels of nicotine equal to those of cigarettes. Oral cancer occurs several times more frequently among snuff dippers compared with non-tobacco users. The excess risk of cancer of the cheek and gum may reach nearly 50-fold among long term snuff users. According to the US department of Agriculture, US output of moist snuff has risen 83%, from about 30 million pounds in 1981 to an estimated 57 pounds in 1996.

In August 1995, President Clinton proposed a comprehensive plan to reduce smoking among children and adolescence by 50% by reducing access and limiting the appeal of cigarettes to children. There was banning of outdoor advertisement within 1,000 feet of schools and playgrounds and permitting black and white text only advertising for all other outdoor advertising accessible to kids. Also prohibiting the sale or giveaway of items popular with kids like ball caps, jackets, and gym bags that carry cigarettes or smokeless tobacco product brand name or logos. They prohibited brand name sponsorship of sporting of entertainment events, but permitting sponsorship in the corporate name. And requiring tobacco companies with significant sales to children to educate young people about the dangers of tobacco.


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