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Реферат: Steroids

Название: Steroids
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 02:45:23 12 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 3 Комментариев: 14 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

“A Dangerous Game” Essay, Research Paper

What are steroids? Steroids are a drug that are mainly used by people who are involved in sports. They are also used by people who are affiliated with making themselves stronger.Steroids are drugs that are injected into the body, usually through the anus with hypodermic needles.The drug is chemical hormone. Steroids control growth, metabolism, and blood chemistry. The two main kinds of steroids are corticosteroids and sex steroids.

Corticosteroids are released by the adrenal gland. Corticosteroids help to regulate protein and carbohydrate metabolism. They also influence the body’s mineral and water balance in both males and females.

The sex steroid is also produced in the adrenal gland, in small quantities, and present in the bodies of both men and women. Women’s ovaries produce the sex steroids. In men testosterone produces the sex steroids.

Another type of steroid is the Anabolic steroid, which are similar to the male sex hormone testosterone. They are used to promote muscle growth. Both corticosteroids and anabolic steroids are legally manufactured for medical use.

Steroids are used in veterinary medicine. They are used in meat production, to increase muscle in cattle and that produces extra lean beef, and they are given to show horses, racehorses, and race dogs to increase their muscle mass.

People have used steroids for other purposes other than for those that were intended. People have especially abused anabolic steroids. Though intended to make sick people strong, the drug is often used by healthy people, mainly athletes, who simply want to promote muscle growth. On the streets steroids are known as "juice", "roids", and to many steroid users they are known as "chemical athletes".

The history of steroid use dates back to the late 1930s. Steroids were first developed in World War 2, the German army reportedly gave anabolic steroids to their soldiers to make them more aggressive in combat. After the war, doctors in Europe and the United States frequently used steroids to treat anemia – a blood disorder – and malnutrition, and helped recover more quickly from operations. By the late 1940s, bodybuilders in Eastern Europe taking testosterone in various forms. In the 1950s, athletes used anabolic steroids to improve their performance in international competition.

In 1956, American doctor John B. Zieglar worked with a drug company to produce anabolic steroids in the United States. Professional athletes particularly football players, began using anabolic steroids as early as the 1960s.

The health dangers of anabolic steroids were not yet recognized, and athletes obtained steroids from team doctors.

When state laws were passed against steroids in the 1960s a black market or illegal trade began for steroids. Steroids eventually found their way into school level athletic programs at both college and high school levels.

Dangers of steroids. Some physical and side effects of steroid use . Some temporary, things like hair loss, nose bleeds, acne, high blood pressure. Long lasting side effects are things like higher tolerance for pain, increased or lowered sex drive, sterility, impotence, increased appetite, and insomnia. In male users anabolic steroids can cause the penis to enlarge and the testicles to shrink.

The permanent irreversible physical side effects of steroid use are much more serious. Anabolic steroids can increase the levels of fat in the blood, users are at risk of heart attacks and other heart problems. Steroids can cause liver and kidney disease – including cancer and hepatitis. A condition called gynecomastia – breast development in boys and men – is prevalent among male steroid users. Gynecomastia is permanent, and many men with this condition have to have breast reductions.

Indictable steroids can cause AIDS or hepatitis B. Black market steroids are likely to have been manufactured without any medical supervision and can not be guaranteed sterile and pure.

Psychological effects of anabolic steroids. Bigger muscles can help increase self esteem. But steroids that build those muscles can lead to lowered self-esteem, depression, inability to think clearly, and lack of energy. Medical researchers are also looking at the connection between testosterone may increase hostility and the potential for violence and testosterone at high levels may increase aggressive behavior.

Teenagers and steroids is very dangerous. Use of steroids as a teen can stunt grow that the ends of the arm and leg bones. Steroid use can cause the cartilage to turn prematurely into bone, permanently stunting a teens growth.

Steroids and the law. The health risks that go along with the use of steroids may stop some people from using them. They are also illegal in the United States without a prescription. Penalties for steroid use can resolve in fines or imprisonment. There are even penalties for doctors who give anabolic steroids to athletes solely to improve their athletic skill. A U.S. doctor caught giving steroids to a person without a prescription can have his or her medical licenses revoked by the American Medical Association.

Drug testing in sports. The history of drug testing all started in the Olympic Winter Games in 1968. Accurate testing didn’t start until the Summer Olympic Games of 1976.

Drug testing has spread through all different sport leagues such as the NBA, NFL, and professional baseball.

How effective are drug test? There are several types of drug tests that use blood, urine, and hair samples. Hair sample testing is still in developmental stages, and lie detector tests are unreliable. Blood tests may be most accurate because they can trace any drug use back as far as two months. Urine tests are most commonly used in sporting events.

Steroids are drugs that can kill you, not as quickly as some other drugs can. They can also get you in a lot of trouble with the law. Athletes have used steroids for years, but when they were caught they were thrown out of their leagues.

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