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Реферат: Skin Of A Lion By Ondaatje Essay

Название: Skin Of A Lion By Ondaatje Essay
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 02:37:41 27 октября 2010 Похожие работы
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, Research Paper

"Let me now re-emphasise the extreme looseness of the structure of all

objects" How Ondaatje makes use of "loosness" in the novel. In

?In The Skin Of A Lion? by Michael Ondaatje, ?the extreme looseness of the

structure of all objects? is carried into the themes, characters and into the

nature of the novel itself. Ondaatje uses a ?looseness? in the style of the

novel – post modernism, and ?looseness of structure? in the way that people

are able to stretch and expand their boundaries: transform or mask themselves

into someone not typical of their social group. This novel was written in the

late 1980s and is classified as a post-modern work. Essentially, ?In The Skin

Of A Lion? has many traits of a post-modern novel, it deals with chaos and

order, has multi-layered interpretations, provokes an ambiguous and mixed

reaction from the reader, and has varied approaches to the conventional

storyline; beginning, exposition, and closure. There are liberties taken with

the time structure of the narrative. The story itself is like a ?mural, [the]

falling together of accomplices.? Ondaatje tells of ordinary people who?s

stories interlock and intersect, with many ?fragments of human order?.

Ondaatje does not tell the stories loosely and scattered with no real purpose in

mind, he employs recurring images and motifs, for e.g. moths and insects,

feldspar. This is to provide continuity and relevance, and helps him to give a

view on the untold history of Toronto. An emphasis is placed on the story that

comes from different viewpoints and angles – the ?chaos?, and then

structures it so that its order of history is ?very faint, very human? as

opposed to official histories. It takes every single word from the first page to

the last, in order to make sense of the meanings, which ?travel languorously

like messages in a bottle?. The novel?s storyline is not linear, it slides

from one character to the next, then slips and loses itself in the time that it

created, ?five years earlier, or ten years into the future…? The prologue

only makes sense once the end is reached, and the bits in between all mingle and

melt into one another until most of the completed narrative is achieved. In

fact, it takes a few good readings to pick up the events and stitch them

together to create order, and only then are the meanings apparent. ?Meander if

you want to get to town?. Even when the book is finished, there is no distinct

closure and finality of the narrative; the story itself is in the process of

being told. ?This is a story a young girl gathers in a car??, and in that

same way, it tells of how that car trip started, so the tale backs up on itself.

The novel constantly brings attention that it itself is a work of fiction. There

are constant references to art, music, drama, film, photography, and literature,

as well as devices used ?You reach people through metaphor?. It implies that

it is a creation, ?Only the best art can order the chaotic tumble of

events..? and even ?The first sentence of every novel should be??.

Authors, painters, singers and actors all feature highly in a book about

peoples? creation of their lives and history. Ondaatje?s language in the

novel borders on poetry. Imagery, figurative language and emotive words abound

whenever he is being descriptive, or making a point. The second paragraph at the

beginning of ?Caravaggio?, ?by noon [?] onto the blue metal?, has a

certain rhythm in the words and sentences, ?Taking an innocent step/He would

fall through the air and die?, ?joined by a rope – one on each slope?,

that somewhat mirrors lines in poetry. Poetic devices are in the scene of the

puppet-show. Similes ?Machine locked in habit?, economic use of words

?exhausted statuary?, and repetition ?There. There. There? effectively

convey a vivid image to the reader. There is not just flexibility in the

structure of the novel and how it is written, it is also carried into themes.

One of the issues deals with the looseness of boundaries, especially the

boundaries of stereotype and class, ?Gestures, and work and bloodline are the

only currency?. This attitude is one that Ondaatje aims to challenge in the

novel. Boundaries could be physical, e.g. the bridge with the ?lanterns

tracing outlines?. This kind is symbolical, the nun loses the boundaries and

falls over into a new existence. She takes on a new character and her past life

is obliterated, just by having stretched her boundaries. Boundaries could be

somewhat physical, in the mental sense. When Patrick sees the loggers skate

across ice holding fires, ?his mind raced ahead of his body.? i.e. he has

been exposed to a realisation outside of his world. Language and people often

have barriers to cross, they ?br[oke] through [their] chrysalis into

language? and by doing so, the structures of their world changes. Patrick

finally breaks through his isolation when he reaches out to communicate with

Elena and the Macedonians. He gained new friends, was admired and had to learn a

new culture. In this way Ondaatje expresses how life can change from extreme to

extreme, just by stretching and expanding boundaries. There is an insinuation

throughout the book of the superficiality of constraints. In many examples

through the book, Ondaatje lets us see how the ?extreme looseness? is

carried into role playing. Alice is a mother, a political activist, a lover, and

an actress, all at once, and yet is the same being. The dyers ?leapt into

different colours as if into different countries?, but the colour was disrobed

from them in a matter of minutes. Of course, the smell has permeated their body

eternally, perhaps symbolising that once a role is played, it remains with you

forever. When first becoming a ?searcher?, the experience remained with

Patrick, ?a searcher gazing into the darkness of his own country?, searching

for how to relate to the people around him and what his place was in his

country. So there is the significance of how loose boundaries and social casting

can be, and how life can oscillate from extreme to extreme. Structures such as

bridges and waterways also have a ?loose? quality, in that its significance

is past its physical state. In many instances in this novel, Toronto

infrastructure is symbolic of the work achieved by the builders, and how it

exists because of the sacrifice of immigrant workers. "In The Skin Of A

Lion" is not just a book based on "looseness". Although it

creates looseness by its poetic devices, the non-linear time structure and the

post-modern nature of the novel, there is nothing loose about Ondaatje’s

story-telling. There are constant ties and recurrent images in the narrative,

and even if the sequence of the events are not in chronological order, there is

no doubt that every significant event has been covered and cross-referenced. All

these literary devices contribute to the effect of looseness in the way the

novel is written. This is reflective of the themes, in that history’s

interpretation can be loosened. There is "extreme looseness" in the

meaning of events to the people who built Toronto in comparison to the official

histories, and the symbolic natures of the "structure of all objects"

in the novel.

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