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Реферат: The Development Of Constitutional Monarchy In England

Название: The Development Of Constitutional Monarchy In England
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 04:27:50 09 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 11 Комментариев: 13 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Essay, Research Paper

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. The first king to try to have an absolute monarchy during this time period was Charles I. After Charles I was tried for high treason and killed, Cromwell took order into his own hands. Cromwell s son, Richard was asked to be king. Oliver ruled for a few years, then parliament decided that they would ask Charles I son Charles II to rule England and take his father s place. Due to Charles II death, parliament asked Charles I other son James II to rule England. James II had a rough time ruling and fled with his wife to France. The daughter s of James II finished off the years ruling England with their husbands.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. Charles I began his rule believing that he was a divine right monarch. Due to his insignificant political mind he made many harsh choices. One of the decisions that he made was to declare war on Spain and France, two of the most powerful nations at the time, because he thought if he could defeat them England would become the most powerful nation. He believed that during his rule, he should be the most powerful man in England, and England should become the most powerful nation in the world. During these wars he became bankrupt and asked parliament for more money. Parliament then issued a Petition of Rights. This petition stated that the king may not call any new tax with out consent by act of parliament. This petition gave parliament a bit of power over the king, so the king would now never be an absolute monarch. Due to this, he thinks that parliament has committed high treason against him and decides to close parliament. This was so he would not have to depend on parliament and become the absolute monarch that he believed he should be. His idea of not calling on parliament only lasted from only 1629 – 1640. His need for money was too great. Parliament demanded more of him this time. They asked him to sign the triennial act, abolish ship taxes, and there would no more tax extensions. For signing agreeing to these terms and signing the triennial act, he lost a lot more power to parliament. His so-called absolute monarchy was no longer when Cromwell decided to commit regicide, and part of parliament convicted Charles I of high treason.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. After Charles I was tried for high treason and killed, England went a while without a king, but there were people in high command. They were under military dictatorship, and this was definitely not absolute monarchy. Absolute monarchy is when there is one king and everyone serves under the king. After the collapse of the common wealth England needed another person to rule over them. They thought of choosing another military general, or have parliament rule. They choose Richard Cromwell, Oliver Cromwell s son. So during this time period there was definitely no absolutism. General Monk calls the last long parliament together so that they can think of something new, because they didn t like the idea of Richard being their ruler.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. The long last parliament called upon Charles II to be their king. Parliament had many conditions. They wanted Britain to go back to a monarchy but absolute, anything without the Charles I signature isn t a law, no extended taxes, no ship money, the triennial act was to enforced, and parliament could impeach and of his ministers. So parliament was really in control of the government. Charles II was there to be a head figure. Charles II tried to make some rash decisions by himself. He tried ally with the French king Louis XIV. Parliament did not like this and they didn t allow it. So once again parliament was making the decisions. As England went through king after king parliament seemed to getting stronger and stronger, by making deals with these up and coming new kings. After Charles II died parliament seemed to develop even more. There were two parties, the Whigs and the Tories. These two parties discussed on if the king should have more or less power. So parliament was controlling the amount of power that the kings of England should have. Whigs thought the king should have less power, and the Tories thought that the king should have more power. An absolute monarch would make be the one allowing how much power he should have and distributing the rest of the power amongst the others. But parliament is doing it the opposite way.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. James II was the next in line to become king of England. James II believed in what is father believed in also that he was a divine right monarch. His rule was very short. He believed the opposite that past kings had thought. He believed that Catholicism should be legal through out England. He also wanted a standing army of 30,000 men. Parliament was worried why he would want such a big standing army. Parliament did not like him as king so the threatened him. James II and his 19-year-old wife fled to France.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. Then there was Mary, daughter of James II, and William, husband of Mary. Parliament once again controlled their being king and queen of England. They made them sign the English Bill of Rights. This document basically guaranteed that parliament has to write the law, and did not guarantee freedom of religion and press. The extracts from this document that follow bring about some things that parliament can do, and what the king and queen cannot do. That election of Members of Parliament ought to be free. This means that the king may not interfere with elections. That levying money for or to the use of the Crown, by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted is illegal. This statement means that the king may not raise money what so ever without parliament s permission. There is also a clause that ensures that the parliament cannot be punished for what they say, or they have freedom of speech. These examples just show the power of parliament at the end of the Late Stuart s rule.

England did not develop into an absolute monarchy during the Ancien Regime during the periods of 1624 – 1714 because of the Stuart family s rule. With these examples, there is no way that England could have ever developed into an absolute monarchy. Parliament had too much control over the kings starting from Charles I going through his children and their children.

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