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Реферат: Development Of Communist Theory Essay Research Paper

Название: Development Of Communist Theory Essay Research Paper
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 00:31:01 07 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
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Development Of Communist Theory- Essay, Research Paper

Development of Communist Theory-

If neither Marx or Engels never lived and written the books

they did, former Soviet Union and China would probably be conducting

their governmental systems in a different manner. Defined by Marx and

Engels, the communist theory can be summed up in the single phrase:

abolition of private property (Engels, Marx 80). Communists are

distinguished by the lower working class which will rise to overthrow

the higher supreme class (Engels, Marx 80). The second distinction can

be found in the struggle of the proletariats against the Bourgeoisie,

or the higher class (Engels, Marx 80).

Marx and Engels state that society as a whole is more and more

splitting up into the great hostile camps, or opposing classes; the

Proletariats and the Bourgeoisie (Engels, Marx 58). Political power,

property so called is merely the organized power of one class

oppressing another (Engels, Marx 95). “Communism deprives no man of

the power to appropriate the products of society; all that it does is

to deprive him of the power to subjugate the labor of others by means

of such appropriation (Engels, Marx 86).”

Communists do not form a separate party opposed to other

working class parties. There are ten measures needed to convert to

communism (Engels, Marx 94). 1. Abolition of property in land and

application of all rents of land to the public. 2. Heavy progressive

income tax. 3. Abolition of all rights of inheritance. 4. Confiscation

of the property of all emigrants and rebels. 5. Centralizing of credit

in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with a state

capital. 6. Centralizing of the means of communication and

transportation in the hands of the state. 7. Factories and production

owned by the state and cultivation of wastelands. 8. Equal liability

of all labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for

agriculture. 9. Combining agriculture and manufacturing industries;

abolition of distinction between town and country by a more equal

distribution of the population. 10. Free education for all children in

public schools. Abolition of children’s factory labor (Engels, Marx

94). According to Marx and Engels these were the ten steps to follow

if you wanted your country to convert to communism.

Marx and Engels had their influence in modern ideology because

heads of state put their ideas into action in their own countries

(Hacker 516). Words and phrases taken from Marx and Engels’ writings

clearly constitute the ideology framework of communist power (Hacker

516). The former Soviet Union, China, and lesser communist states all

claim to be guided by Marxist principles (Hacker 512). “It would be

wrong to say that two nineteenth century political theorists are

responsible for the course of communism today. Communist leaders of

the twentieth are responsible for keeping alive Marxist ideology

(Hacker 516).”

Communist leaders have elected to utilize the books,

pamphlets, letters and speeches of Marx and Engels as their official

doctrine (Hacker 513). The leaders in communist states use perceptions

of Marxism as merely an aid in motivating their citizens for the

pursuit of political goals (Hacker 516). While Communist leaders

dictate the words of Marx and Engels, they, themselves are the ones to

make and carry out plans (Hacker 516). The fact of the matter is that

communist leaders are the interpreters of that Marxist ideology in

their countries (Hacker 516).

It has been proven that Plato had an influence on Rousseau,

and Rousseau on Hugel, and Hugel on Marx and Engels (Hacker 515). The

strength in an ideology is lies not only in its content of ideas but

also in the spirit that moves it (Hacker 516). Obviously Marx and

Engels wanted their ideas to be put to use. They condensed their

theory so that their messages would move men to revolutionary activity

(Hacker 515). Had a soviet power never emerged, the contribution of

Marx and Engels to political theory would still be a major one (Hacker

517).

In the Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all

class differences would disappear (Payne 421). They declared that the

course of history was discovered by the clash of opposing forces

(Payne 421). These forces were rooted in the economic system and the

ownership of property (Payne 421). The struggle between the

Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat would end when the socialists started

a revolution and attained a full communistic government (Payne 423).

If the leaders of present day communist countries and the

former communist countries were not guided by the principles of Marx

and Engels they operation of the countries past and present would most

definitely be different. It is true that each leader runs his country

his own way, but the bottom line is that the foundation of their

communist rule is rooted in the works of Marx and Engels. Without

these two men the entire basis of communism and communist principles

would be non-existent.

Bibliography

Engels, Friedrich, Karl Marx. The Communist Manifesto. Washington

Square Press; New York: 1964.

Hacker, Andrew. Political Theory: Philosophy, Ideology, Science. The

Macmillian Company; New York: 1961.

Heilbroner, Robert. Marxism, For and Against. W.W. Norton & Company;

New York: 1980.

Payne, Robert. Marx. Simon and Schuster; New York: 1968.

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