Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364139
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62791)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21319)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21692)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8692)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3462)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20644)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: Transgenic Technology Cloning Technique Essay Research Paper

Название: Transgenic Technology Cloning Technique Essay Research Paper
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 07:09:12 09 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 2 Комментариев: 12 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Transgenic Technology: Cloning Technique Essay, Research Paper

Transgenic Technology: “Cloning” Techniques

Amanda Kruvand

Transgenic Technology Transgenic technology can introduce a gene or genes from one individual’s DNA into the DNA of another individual- even when the genes come from different species. The gene or genes are inserted in to a fertilized egg and become integrated in to the DNA of that zygote.

Nuclear Transfer Technology It is possible to replace a complete set of genes (called a genome) using nuclear transfer technology. The nucleus, which contains the genome, is taken from a fertilized egg cell when it is still a zygote (when it is still one egg cell and has not begun to differentiate). The genome of an unfertilized cell (called a gamete) is removed, and the nucleus from the fertilized egg cell is inserted in to the unfertilized gamete. This results in a new zygote, its nuclear DNA identical to the original zygote. The donor’s genome was not duplicated but only transferred from one egg cell to another. The donor egg cell never developed and no longer exists. If the new fertilized egg begins dividing, its cluster of new cells can be separated into individual egg cells gain, so that they divide and grow in to separate individuals, so it is possible to have two or more embryos with identical nuclear DNA. However, there is other DNA, called mitochondrial DNA, that is not inside the cells nucleus but in the mitochondria of the surrounding cytoplasam. This DNA is not transferred in nuclear transfer technology

Purposes This technology is currently being used to engineer mice to express human genes. Genes, such as cancer genes, are inserted on to the embryos of research mice. These transgenic mice express the human genes and can be used to test different treatments to see if they might be effective on humans. Transgenic technology can also be used to insert human genes into sheep, pigs, cattle, and goats so the animals would produce human proteins in their milk. Once extracted, these proteins would be useful for treating such human diseases as emphysema and cystic fibrosis. Organs, tissues, and blood might also be produced using this technology. The transplantation of animal organs to humans is called xenotransplatation, but is very difficult. For example, pig hearts are similar enough to human hearts that they could be transplantable in to humans, but they would be rejected as foreign tissue by a human recipient’s immune system. Perhaps using the DNA of a recipient, a transgenic pig could be engineered to produce a heart the immune system would not recognize as foreign. Thousands of patients awaiting organs might benefit from transgenic technology.

Problems Engineering organs and tissues in animals for transplantation to humans creates the danger of developing new zoonoses (diseases transmitted from animals to humans) and giving certain classes and cultures of people the ability to live longer.

Transgenic Technology: “Cloning” Techniques

Transgenic Technology Transgenic technology can introduce a gene or genes from one individual’s DNA into the DNA of another individual- even when the genes come from different species. The gene or genes are inserted in to a fertilized egg and become integrated in to the DNA of that zygote.

Nuclear Transfer Technology It is possible to replace a complete set of genes (called a genome) using nuclear transfer technology. The nucleus, which contains the genome, is taken from a fertilized egg cell when it is still a zygote (when it is still one egg cell and has not begun to differentiate). The genome of an unfertilized cell (called a gamete) is removed, and the nucleus from the fertilized egg cell is inserted in to the unfertilized gamete. This results in a new zygote, its nuclear DNA identical to the original zygote. The donor’s genome was not duplicated but only transferred from one egg cell to another. The donor egg cell never developed and no longer exists. If the new fertilized egg begins dividing, its cluster of new cells can be separated into individual egg cells gain, so that they divide and grow in to separate individuals, so it is possible to have two or more embryos with identical nuclear DNA. However, there is other DNA, called mitochondrial DNA, that is not inside the cells nucleus but in the mitochondria of the surrounding cytoplasam. This DNA is not transferred in nuclear transfer technology

Purposes This technology is currently being used to engineer mice to express human genes. Genes, such as cancer genes, are inserted on to the embryos of research mice. These transgenic mice express the human genes and can be used to test different treatments to see if they might be effective on humans. Transgenic technology can also be used to insert human genes into sheep, pigs, cattle, and goats so the animals would produce human proteins in their milk. Once extracted, these proteins would be useful for treating such human diseases as emphysema and cystic fibrosis. Organs, tissues, and blood might also be produced using this technology. The transplantation of animal organs to humans is called xenotransplatation, but is very difficult. For example, pig hearts are similar enough to human hearts that they could be transplantable in to humans, but they would be rejected as foreign tissue by a human recipient’s immune system. Perhaps using the DNA of a recipient, a transgenic pig could be engineered to produce a heart the immune system would not recognize as foreign. Thousands of patients awaiting organs might benefit from transgenic technology.

Problems Engineering organs and tissues in animals for transplantation to humans creates the danger of developing new zoonoses (diseases transmitted from animals to humans) and giving certain classes and cultures of people the ability to live longer.

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка
Комментарии:
Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya03:29:06 27 августа 2019
.
.03:29:05 27 августа 2019
.
.03:29:05 27 августа 2019
.
.03:29:04 27 августа 2019
.
.03:29:03 27 августа 2019

Смотреть все комментарии (12)
Работы, похожие на Реферат: Transgenic Technology Cloning Technique Essay Research Paper

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(260511)
Комментарии (3522)
Copyright © 2005-2020 BestReferat.ru support@bestreferat.ru реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru