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Реферат: Joan Of Arc The Saint Essay Research

Название: Joan Of Arc The Saint Essay Research
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 15:05:53 01 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
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Joan Of Arc: The Saint. Essay, Research Paper

Saint Joan was born on January 6, 1412, in the village of Domre my-la-Pucelle, on the Meuse River, in Eastern France on January 6, 1412, to Jacques and Isabelle d’Arc. Joan was the youngest of their suspected five children. While growing up among the fields and pastures of her village, she was addressed as Jeannette but when she entered into her mission, her name was changed to Jeanne, la Pucelle, or Joan, the Maid. As a child her mother taught her domestic skills as well as her base of religious teachings. Joan would later say, “It was my mother alone who taught me the ‘Our Father’ and ‘Hail Mary’ and the ‘Creed;’ and from none other was I taught my faith.” Joan never learned to read or write, but was skilled in spinning and sewing. Since her time of birth, Joan was known for her obedience towards her parents. She demonstrated religious vigor, decency, unselfish generosity and kindness toward everyone around her. Simonin Munier was one of Joan’s childhood friends. He later told how Joan had nursed him back to health when he was sick as a small boy. Some of her childhood friends teased her for being ‘too pious.’ Others remembered her for her kindness, in that she would give up her bed to the homeless stranger who came to her father’s door asking for shelter without a second thought.Joan was like all the others children in her village until she was 13 years old. Shortly after her thirteenth birthday, she began recieving revelation from Our Lord through which a voice told her to be good and attend church often and that by doing that, God would help her with her mission in life. Joan believed that her ‘Voices’ were Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. At first the ‘Voices’ came to her two or three times a week but as the time for her mission drew near (a good five years later), they visited her daily telling her to ‘Go into France’ to raise the siege of Orleans, conduct the Dauphin Charles to Reims for his crowning and to drive the English from the land. Joan then went to the neighboring town of Vaucouleurs, (”the valley of colors, named for its beautiful colors during the summer seasons); there she spoke to the loyal French governor by the name of Sir Robert de Baudricourt. After many rejections he finally agreed to send her to the Dauphin, the eldest son of the Kind of France, who at the time was living in the castle of Chinon. On the evening of February 23, 1429, she began her mission for God. In the company of six men, she rode through the Gate of France on her way to Chinon. Joan reached this town on March 6th, but was not received by the Dauphin, Charles, until the evening of March 9th.

After being questioned as to her goals, joan was accepted and approved by a church council that was headed by the archbishop of Reims. Joan had been given permission to lead the Dauphins army! This part of her career was crucial, as without this foot in the door, her mission would have been completely lost. She entered Orleans on the evening of April 29th and by May 8th the city had been freed. The campaign to free Loire of English invaders began on June 9th and by June 19th the English were driven out of the Loire valley. The march to Reims began on June 29th and by July 17th Charles was crowned King of France in the cathedral of Reims. From this time on, the King becams, for unknown reasons, became suspicious of Joan s advice and guidance, and began to turn away from it. She had always told him that God had given her about a years time to accomplish his bidding, but the king seemed to not notice that the time was elapsing rapidly. For almost a year he wasted what time remained to Joan, until in a fit of frustration, she left the court. Her last campaign lasted from the middle of March until her capture at the town of Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430. Her years time was over. Abandoned by her king, community and friends, she began her year of captivity. As a prisoner of the Burgundians she was treated fairly but that all changed when on November 21st, 1430, she was handed over the English. Scolars still wonder how she survived the English s harsh treatment.The English s mission was not only to kill Joan, but to dethrone King Charles as a false king, and have Joan condemned by the church as a witch and a heretic. To obtain this, the English used those whom they knew would be favorable to them, including Bishop Cauchon Joan’s trial of condemnation lasted from February 21st until May 23rd. She was finally burnt at the stake in Rouen’s market square on May 30th, 1431. Twenty-five years later the findings of Joan’s first trial were discredited and declared ‘null and void’ by another Church court, which this time was favorable to King Charles. It was not until within this past century, in 920 that the Church of Rome officially declared Joan to be a saint. Her feast day is celebrated on May 30th. By: Megan

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