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Реферат: Child Development Essay Research Paper Prenatal development

Название: Child Development Essay Research Paper Prenatal development
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 12:04:12 09 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 1 Комментариев: 12 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Child Development Essay, Research Paper

Prenatal development is the period in development from conception to the onset of

labor. Perinatal period is the period beginning about the seventh month of pregnancy

and continuing until about four weeks after birth. Postnatal development is the period

in development the follows directly after birth. The germinal stage is the stage lasting

about ten -fourteen days following conception before the fertilized egg becomes

implanted in the uterine wall. The embryonic stage is the stage in which major

biological organs and systems form. The fetal stage is the stage in which is marked by

rapid growth and preparation of body systems for functioning in the postnatal

environment. Viability is the ability of the baby to survive outside the mother’s womb.

The gestational age is the age of the fetus derived from onset of mother’s last

menstrual period. The number of older mothers is on the rise in the U.S. as women

postpone pregnancy to establish careers or for other reasons. Healthy women older

than thirty-five routinely deliver healthy infants just as other between the ages of

twenty and thirty-five do. Teenagers, however, may be at a greater risk for delivering

less healthy babies. Lack of prenatal care is a big reason. Diets, while pregnant, must

be sufficient not only in number of calories but also with respect to the right amount of

proteins, vitamins, and other nutrients. Stress also plays a big role in delivering a

healthy baby.

Cultural beliefs about potentially harmful consequences of frightening or stressful

events on fetal development are pervasive, and many societies encourage a calm

atmosphere for pregnant women. The social support a pregnant woman receives from

family and friends is an important factor that can lessen the consequences of stress

during pregnancy.

Another reason is the complicated nutritional needs of teenagers. Teenage mothers

give birth to as many as 500,000 babies in the U.S. every year. It is suggested to

women that are thirty-five or older undergo a test. Not in all cases does the woman

have to be certain age.

In some cases women must undergo an amniocentesis which is a small sampling of the

fluid surrounding the developing fetus by inserting a needle and drawing fluid. This test

is designed to diagnose fetal developmental disorders and/or genetic disorders.

Ultrasonography is a method using sound wave reflections to obtain a representation

the developing fetus. Support within the womb: the placenta. The placenta is a support

organ formed by the cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining; serves as exchange

site for oxygen, nutrients and waste products. The umbilical cord is made up of blood

vessels in which oxygen, nutrients and waste products are transported between

placenta and embryo. As extra precaution the fetus is surrounded in a fluid-filled,

transparent protective membrane known as the amniotic sac. Teratogen is any

environmental agent that can cause deviations in prenatal development. Causing

behavioral problems to death. There are a number of diseases that can cause

complications to a pregnancy. These are just a few of the many diseases that can cause

harm: toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B, diabetes, and chlamydia. FAS (Fetal Alcohol

Syndrome) is a cluster of fetal abnormalities stemming from mother’s consumption of

alcohol. This disease can be avoided.

Most infant’s are born in a hospital, although there are some alternative birth settings

such as, birthing centers (home-like setting). Statistics show that births directly

supervised under a midwife, have less complications and distress. Preparing for

childbirth, prepared childbirth (also known is ouch), is procedures practiced during

pregnancy and childbirth designed to minimize pain and reduce the need for medication

during delivery. A cesarean birth is the delivery of a baby through a surgical incision in

the woman’s abdomen and uterus. During the delivery, a fetal monitoring device is

used to monitor fetal heartbeat. In the first stage of labor , the neck of the uterus,

dilates and thins to open a passage through the birth canal. When the water is about to

break, the baby’s head rests inside the cervix. Then, transition, the baby shifts to the

birth canal. After the resting in the birth canal, the baby is ready to be born. The head

rotates sideways after it emerges. Thus, allowing the placenta to fall.

Infants born with low-birth weight are in luck. Despite the immediate obstacles facing

low-birth weight babies, many become normal children and adults. Newborns and

infants display a number of states. A large part of their time in engaged in REM sleep, a

state that may provide them with stimulation even when asleep.

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