Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364139
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62791)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21319)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21692)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8692)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3462)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20644)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: History Outline Essay Research Paper Mrs S

Название: History Outline Essay Research Paper Mrs S
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 05:05:46 03 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 1 Комментариев: 12 Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

History Outline Essay, Research Paper

Mrs. S Chris Johnson

History 10-H November 14, 1999

History Outline

A world of Progress and Reason

¨ Enlightenment grew out of the scientific revolution of the 1500?s and 1600?s

¨ Joseph Preistly and Antoine Lavoisier built framework for modern chemistry

¨ Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox

¨ Natural Laws ? Laws that govern human nature

Two views of the social contract

¨ Thomas Hobbes and John Locke made ideas key to the Enlightenment

¨ Thomas Hobbes put ideas into his book, Leviathan

¨ He argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish

¨ Thought life in a ?state of nature? would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short

¨ Hobbes supported the Stuart kings in struggle against parliament

¨ John Locke optimistic view of nature

¨ Thought people were basically reasonable and moral

¨ Believed that all people had Natural Rights ? rights that belonged to all humans from birth

¨ Theses rights included: right to life, liberty, and property

¨ Wrote Two Treatises of Government

¨ It said that people formed governments to protect their natural rights

¨ He rejected absolute monarchy

¨ Also believed that people had the right to overthrow the government

Montesquieu?s spirit of the laws

¨ 1700?s France saw a flowering of enlightenment

¨ early and influential thinker was Baron de Montesquieu

¨ he studied the governments of Europe

¨ often gave sharp criticism of absolute monarchy

¨ wrote, The Spirit of the Laws

¨ discussed governments throughout history and complimented England?s monarchy

¨ his ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in government were written into the constitution of the United States

The world of the Philosophes

¨ Philosophes? which means ? lovers of wisdom?

¨ Most famous Philosophes was Francois-Marie Arouet who later took the name of Voltaire

¨ His outspoken attacks offended the government and the catholic church

¨ He was imprisoned and exiled

¨ Encyclopedia written by Denis Diderot

¨ Took 25 years to write the 28 volumes

¨ The purpose was to change the general way of thinking

¨ Included articles by leading thinkers of the day including Montesquieu and Voltaire

¨ Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and argued education for all

¨ French government thought the book was an attack on public morals

¨ 20,000 copies were printed

Rousseau: A controversial figure

¨ Most controversial Philosophe was Jean-Jacques Rousseau

¨ Believed people in ?natural state? were basically good

¨ Thought natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society

¨ Set forth his ideas on government and society in The Social Contract

¨ Thought the individual should be subordinate to the community

¨ Hatred of political and economic oppression woven through out his works

¨ Helped fan the flames of revolt in centuries to come

Limited Natural Rights for Women

¨ Women did have natural rights

¨ These rights were limited to the home and family

¨ Notion that women were by nature inferior to men

¨ Germaine deStael in France and Catherine Macauly and Mary Wollstonecraft in England argued that women had been excluded from the social contract itself

¨ Wollenstonecraft best known British female critic

¨ Accepted that a woman?s first duty was to be a good mother

¨ Felt that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interest and should not be completely dependent on her husband

¨ She published, Vindication of the Rights of Woman

¨ Called for same education for girls and boys

¨ Argued only education can give women the tools to participate equally with men in public life

New Economic thinking

¨ Physiocrats ? looked for Natural Laws to define a rational economic system

¨ Laissez faire ? allowed businesses to operate with little or no government interference

¨ Claimed that real wealth came from making the land more productive

¨ Extractive industries such as agriculture, mining, and logging produced new wealth

¨ Physiocrats supported free trade and wanted to lift all tariffs

¨ Adam Smith a British economist admired the physiocrats

¨ He argued that Free market ? natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business

¨ A strong supporter of Laissez faire

¨ Believed that the marketplace was better off with out any government regulation

¨ However he did believe that the government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works

¨ His ideas gained increasing influenced as the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe

The challenge of new ideas

¨ The ideas of the enlightenment spread quickly through many levels of society

¨ Coffeehouses were often where people met to discuss new ideas

¨ Europeans had accepted without question a society based on divine right rule, a strict class system and a belief in heavenly reward for earthly suffering

¨ In the Age of Reason such ideas seemed unscientific and irrational

¨ Government and church authorities felt they had a sacred duty to defend the old order

¨ They waged a war of censorship, banning and burning books and imprisoning writers

¨ Writers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction

Salons

¨ Salons ? informal social gatherings

¨ Originated in 1600?s

¨ Noblewomen started the idea by inviting a few friends over to their homes for poetry readings

¨ Only the most witty, intelligent, and well-read people were invited to salons

¨ By 1700?s some middle class women began holding salons

¨ Gave middle class citizens the ability to meet with the nobility on an equal footing to discuss and spread enlightenment ideas.

The Salon in the Rue Saint Honore

¨ Inspired from previous visits to Salons Madame Geoffrin eventually set up her own salon in the house on Rue Saint Honore

¨ She entertained poets and philosophers, artists and musicians

¨ On Mondays Geoffrin welcomed artists and musicians

¨ Wednesdays, philosophers and poets came for discussion

¨ Madame donated large sums of money to help support the Encyclopedia

¨ Visiting monarchs paid their respects at what came to be called the ?kingdom? of Rue Saint Honore

¨ Catherine 2nd of Russia and Maria Theresa of Austria often visited

Enlightened Despots

¨ Some monarchs did accept enlightenment ideas

¨ They became Enlightened Despots ? absolute rulers who used their power to bring about social and political change

¨ Frederick the Great King of Prussia from 1740 ? 1786 saw himself as the ?the first servant of the state? with a duty to work for the common good

¨ He admired Voltaire tolerated religious differences welcoming victims of religious persecution

¨ His reforms were directed mainly at making the Prussian government more efficient

¨ Simplified laws

¨ Catherine the Great exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot

¨ Made limited reforms in law and government

¨ Spoke out against serfdom

¨ Allied herself with the Russian nobles

¨ Joseph 2nd Hapsburg emperor student of enlightenment

¨ Tried to improve the lives of peasants

¨ Chose talented middle class officials rather than nobles to head departments and impose a range of political and legal reforms

¨ Granted toleration to Protestant?s and Jews in his Catholic empire

¨ He also ended censorship

¨ Abolished serfdom

The Arts and Literature

¨ Grand, complex style of art known as Baroque

¨ Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement

¨ They glorified historic battles or the lives of saints

¨ By 1700?s Rococo style was invented

¨ Rococo art was personal, refined, elegant, and charming

¨ Furniture and tapestries featured delicate shells and flower decorations

¨ Also included European versions of Chinese art

¨ Painters showed noble subjects in charming rural settings, surrounded by happy servants and pets

¨ Ballets and operas- plays set to music- were performed at royal courts

¨ Opera houses sprang up from Italy to England to amuse the paying public

¨ Johann Sebastian Bach wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs

¨ George Frederick Handel wrote Water Music and other pieces for King George I

¨ His most celebrated work Messiah combines both instruments and choir

¨ Wolgang Amadeus Mozart was only 6 yr. old when he hit it big

¨ Although he was an instant celebrity he died in poverty at the age of 35

¨ Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe

¨ Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela

Lives of the Majority

¨ Villages in Western Europe were relatively more prosperous than those in Eastern Europe

¨ In the west serfdom had largely disappeared

¨ Peasants worked their own patches of land

¨ Others were tenants of large land owners

¨ In Eastern Europe serfdom was firmly rooted

¨ Peasants bound to the land owed labor services to their lords and could be bought and sold with land

¨ In France, peasants still had to provide free labor

¨ In England, country squires had the right to hunt foxes across the plowed and planted fields of their tenants

Global Expansion

¨ England?s location made it well placed to control trade during the Renaissance

¨ In the 1700?s Britain was generally on the winning side in European conflicts

¨ Treaty of Utrecht ? France was forced to give Britain Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

¨ England gained an monopoly in the slave trade in south America

¨ Slave trade brought enormous wealth to British merchants

¨ 1763 Treaty of Paris ? ended the seven years war. Gave Britain all of French Canada

¨ British east India company pushed the French out of India

¨ Britain had no large standing army instead it had a powerful navy

¨ England followed mercantilist policies

¨ 1707 Act of Union ? united Scotland and England in the United Kingdom of Great Britain

¨ United kingdom also included Wales

¨ England had controlled Ireland since the 1100?s

¨ Gave Protestant settlers title to Irish catholic lands

Growth of Constitutional Government

¨ Three new political institutions arose in Britain: Political parties, the Cabinet, and the office of the prime minister

¨ Government whose power is defined and limited by law ? Constitutional Government

¨ British constitution is made up of all acts of parliament over the centuries

¨ Includes: Magna Carta, and bill of rights

¨ Two political parties emerged: Whigs and Tories

¨ Whigs ? backed liberal policies, reflected urban business interests, and supported religious toleration for Protestants. Whigs dominated the parliament in the 1700?s

¨ Tories – conservative landed aristocrats, sought to preserve old traditions, supported broad royal powers and a dominant Anglican church

¨ The two parties represented cliques among the rich powerful men

¨ Votes were often pooled to advance their common interests

¨ A handful of parliamentary advisors set policies they were called the cabinet

¨ Leader of the majority party in parliament and in time the chief official of the British government ? Prime Minister

¨ Robert Walpole considered Britain?s first Prime Minister

Politics and society

¨ A government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people ? Oligarchy

¨ Highest nobles held seats in the house of lords

¨ Wealthy landowners controlled elections in house of commons

¨ The right to vote was limited to few male property owners

¨ Majority of society made a meager living from the land

¨ Landless families faced a harsh and desperate existence

¨ Middle class included successful merchants and manufactures

¨ George the 3rd tried to regain the crown?s powers to no avail many of his policies on America led to the American revolution

The 13 English colonies

¨ By 1750 a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America

¨ Part of Britain?s growing empire

¨ Busy centers of commerce

¨ 1600?s parliament had passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing

¨ colonies were home to diverse religions and ethnic groups

Growing Discontent

¨ George III and his ministers thought that the colonists should help pay for the French Indian war. Britain began to enforce the long-neglected laws regulating colonial trade and parliament passed new laws to raise taxes from the colonies

¨ Colonists protested with, ?no taxation without representation?

¨ They believed since they had no say on parliament that they shouldn?t be taxed

¨ 1770 British soldiers opened fire on a protesting crowd killing 5

¨ called the Boston Massacre

¨ 1773, a handful of colonists staged the Boston tea party throwing cargo of British tea of the ships and into the harbor to protest the new taxes on tea

¨ By April 1775 the crisis exploded into a war

¨ Colonial leaders met in a Continental Congress to decide what actions to take

¨ Congress setup a continental army with George Washington in command

¨ Following year the congress voted for independence and had Thomas Jefferson draft the Declaration of Independence

¨ The Declaration claimed that people had the right ?to alter or abolish? unjust government

¨ on July 4,1776 American leaders adopted the Declaration

The American Revolution

¨ American cause looked bleak

¨ British held New York and Philadelphia, rebels controlled the country side.

¨ American trimuph over the British in Battle of Saratoga

¨ Convinced the French to join the Americans against it?s old rival, Britain

¨ Netherlands and spain soon added their support

¨ Washington forced the surrender of a British army at Yorktown

¨ Two years later American, British , and French negotiators signed the Treaty of Paris

¨ In it Britain recognized the independence of The United States of America

¨ It also accepted the new nation?s western frontier as the Mississippi river

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка
Комментарии:
Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya03:10:30 27 августа 2019
.
.03:10:29 27 августа 2019
.
.03:10:28 27 августа 2019
.
.03:10:27 27 августа 2019
.
.03:10:26 27 августа 2019

Смотреть все комментарии (12)
Работы, похожие на Реферат: History Outline Essay Research Paper Mrs S

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(260451)
Комментарии (3522)
Copyright © 2005-2020 BestReferat.ru support@bestreferat.ru реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru