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Реферат: History Outline Essay Research Paper Mrs S

Название: History Outline Essay Research Paper Mrs S
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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History Outline Essay, Research Paper

Mrs. S Chris Johnson

History 10-H November 14, 1999

History Outline

A world of Progress and Reason

¨ Enlightenment grew out of the scientific revolution of the 1500?s and 1600?s

¨ Joseph Preistly and Antoine Lavoisier built framework for modern chemistry

¨ Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox

¨ Natural Laws ? Laws that govern human nature

Two views of the social contract

¨ Thomas Hobbes and John Locke made ideas key to the Enlightenment

¨ Thomas Hobbes put ideas into his book, Leviathan

¨ He argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish

¨ Thought life in a ?state of nature? would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short

¨ Hobbes supported the Stuart kings in struggle against parliament

¨ John Locke optimistic view of nature

¨ Thought people were basically reasonable and moral

¨ Believed that all people had Natural Rights ? rights that belonged to all humans from birth

¨ Theses rights included: right to life, liberty, and property

¨ Wrote Two Treatises of Government

¨ It said that people formed governments to protect their natural rights

¨ He rejected absolute monarchy

¨ Also believed that people had the right to overthrow the government

Montesquieu?s spirit of the laws

¨ 1700?s France saw a flowering of enlightenment

¨ early and influential thinker was Baron de Montesquieu

¨ he studied the governments of Europe

¨ often gave sharp criticism of absolute monarchy

¨ wrote, The Spirit of the Laws

¨ discussed governments throughout history and complimented England?s monarchy

¨ his ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances in government were written into the constitution of the United States

The world of the Philosophes

¨ Philosophes? which means ? lovers of wisdom?

¨ Most famous Philosophes was Francois-Marie Arouet who later took the name of Voltaire

¨ His outspoken attacks offended the government and the catholic church

¨ He was imprisoned and exiled

¨ Encyclopedia written by Denis Diderot

¨ Took 25 years to write the 28 volumes

¨ The purpose was to change the general way of thinking

¨ Included articles by leading thinkers of the day including Montesquieu and Voltaire

¨ Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and argued education for all

¨ French government thought the book was an attack on public morals

¨ 20,000 copies were printed

Rousseau: A controversial figure

¨ Most controversial Philosophe was Jean-Jacques Rousseau

¨ Believed people in ?natural state? were basically good

¨ Thought natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society

¨ Set forth his ideas on government and society in The Social Contract

¨ Thought the individual should be subordinate to the community

¨ Hatred of political and economic oppression woven through out his works

¨ Helped fan the flames of revolt in centuries to come

Limited Natural Rights for Women

¨ Women did have natural rights

¨ These rights were limited to the home and family

¨ Notion that women were by nature inferior to men

¨ Germaine deStael in France and Catherine Macauly and Mary Wollstonecraft in England argued that women had been excluded from the social contract itself

¨ Wollenstonecraft best known British female critic

¨ Accepted that a woman?s first duty was to be a good mother

¨ Felt that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interest and should not be completely dependent on her husband

¨ She published, Vindication of the Rights of Woman

¨ Called for same education for girls and boys

¨ Argued only education can give women the tools to participate equally with men in public life

New Economic thinking

¨ Physiocrats ? looked for Natural Laws to define a rational economic system

¨ Laissez faire ? allowed businesses to operate with little or no government interference

¨ Claimed that real wealth came from making the land more productive

¨ Extractive industries such as agriculture, mining, and logging produced new wealth

¨ Physiocrats supported free trade and wanted to lift all tariffs

¨ Adam Smith a British economist admired the physiocrats

¨ He argued that Free market ? natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business

¨ A strong supporter of Laissez faire

¨ Believed that the marketplace was better off with out any government regulation

¨ However he did believe that the government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works

¨ His ideas gained increasing influenced as the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe

The challenge of new ideas

¨ The ideas of the enlightenment spread quickly through many levels of society

¨ Coffeehouses were often where people met to discuss new ideas

¨ Europeans had accepted without question a society based on divine right rule, a strict class system and a belief in heavenly reward for earthly suffering

¨ In the Age of Reason such ideas seemed unscientific and irrational

¨ Government and church authorities felt they had a sacred duty to defend the old order

¨ They waged a war of censorship, banning and burning books and imprisoning writers

¨ Writers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction


¨ Salons ? informal social gatherings

¨ Originated in 1600?s

¨ Noblewomen started the idea by inviting a few friends over to their homes for poetry readings

¨ Only the most witty, intelligent, and well-read people were invited to salons

¨ By 1700?s some middle class women began holding salons

¨ Gave middle class citizens the ability to meet with the nobility on an equal footing to discuss and spread enlightenment ideas.

The Salon in the Rue Saint Honore

¨ Inspired from previous visits to Salons Madame Geoffrin eventually set up her own salon in the house on Rue Saint Honore

¨ She entertained poets and philosophers, artists and musicians

¨ On Mondays Geoffrin welcomed artists and musicians

¨ Wednesdays, philosophers and poets came for discussion

¨ Madame donated large sums of money to help support the Encyclopedia

¨ Visiting monarchs paid their respects at what came to be called the ?kingdom? of Rue Saint Honore

¨ Catherine 2nd of Russia and Maria Theresa of Austria often visited

Enlightened Despots

¨ Some monarchs did accept enlightenment ideas

¨ They became Enlightened Despots ? absolute rulers who used their power to bring about social and political change

¨ Frederick the Great King of Prussia from 1740 ? 1786 saw himself as the ?the first servant of the state? with a duty to work for the common good

¨ He admired Voltaire tolerated religious differences welcoming victims of religious persecution

¨ His reforms were directed mainly at making the Prussian government more efficient

¨ Simplified laws

¨ Catherine the Great exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot

¨ Made limited reforms in law and government

¨ Spoke out against serfdom

¨ Allied herself with the Russian nobles

¨ Joseph 2nd Hapsburg emperor student of enlightenment

¨ Tried to improve the lives of peasants

¨ Chose talented middle class officials rather than nobles to head departments and impose a range of political and legal reforms

¨ Granted toleration to Protestant?s and Jews in his Catholic empire

¨ He also ended censorship

¨ Abolished serfdom

The Arts and Literature

¨ Grand, complex style of art known as Baroque

¨ Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement

¨ They glorified historic battles or the lives of saints

¨ By 1700?s Rococo style was invented

¨ Rococo art was personal, refined, elegant, and charming

¨ Furniture and tapestries featured delicate shells and flower decorations

¨ Also included European versions of Chinese art

¨ Painters showed noble subjects in charming rural settings, surrounded by happy servants and pets

¨ Ballets and operas- plays set to music- were performed at royal courts

¨ Opera houses sprang up from Italy to England to amuse the paying public

¨ Johann Sebastian Bach wrote complex and beautiful religious works for organ and choirs

¨ George Frederick Handel wrote Water Music and other pieces for King George I

¨ His most celebrated work Messiah combines both instruments and choir

¨ Wolgang Amadeus Mozart was only 6 yr. old when he hit it big

¨ Although he was an instant celebrity he died in poverty at the age of 35

¨ Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe

¨ Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela

Lives of the Majority

¨ Villages in Western Europe were relatively more prosperous than those in Eastern Europe

¨ In the west serfdom had largely disappeared

¨ Peasants worked their own patches of land

¨ Others were tenants of large land owners

¨ In Eastern Europe serfdom was firmly rooted

¨ Peasants bound to the land owed labor services to their lords and could be bought and sold with land

¨ In France, peasants still had to provide free labor

¨ In England, country squires had the right to hunt foxes across the plowed and planted fields of their tenants

Global Expansion

¨ England?s location made it well placed to control trade during the Renaissance

¨ In the 1700?s Britain was generally on the winning side in European conflicts

¨ Treaty of Utrecht ? France was forced to give Britain Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

¨ England gained an monopoly in the slave trade in south America

¨ Slave trade brought enormous wealth to British merchants

¨ 1763 Treaty of Paris ? ended the seven years war. Gave Britain all of French Canada

¨ British east India company pushed the French out of India

¨ Britain had no large standing army instead it had a powerful navy

¨ England followed mercantilist policies

¨ 1707 Act of Union ? united Scotland and England in the United Kingdom of Great Britain

¨ United kingdom also included Wales

¨ England had controlled Ireland since the 1100?s

¨ Gave Protestant settlers title to Irish catholic lands

Growth of Constitutional Government

¨ Three new political institutions arose in Britain: Political parties, the Cabinet, and the office of the prime minister

¨ Government whose power is defined and limited by law ? Constitutional Government

¨ British constitution is made up of all acts of parliament over the centuries

¨ Includes: Magna Carta, and bill of rights

¨ Two political parties emerged: Whigs and Tories

¨ Whigs ? backed liberal policies, reflected urban business interests, and supported religious toleration for Protestants. Whigs dominated the parliament in the 1700?s

¨ Tories – conservative landed aristocrats, sought to preserve old traditions, supported broad royal powers and a dominant Anglican church

¨ The two parties represented cliques among the rich powerful men

¨ Votes were often pooled to advance their common interests

¨ A handful of parliamentary advisors set policies they were called the cabinet

¨ Leader of the majority party in parliament and in time the chief official of the British government ? Prime Minister

¨ Robert Walpole considered Britain?s first Prime Minister

Politics and society

¨ A government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people ? Oligarchy

¨ Highest nobles held seats in the house of lords

¨ Wealthy landowners controlled elections in house of commons

¨ The right to vote was limited to few male property owners

¨ Majority of society made a meager living from the land

¨ Landless families faced a harsh and desperate existence

¨ Middle class included successful merchants and manufactures

¨ George the 3rd tried to regain the crown?s powers to no avail many of his policies on America led to the American revolution

The 13 English colonies

¨ By 1750 a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America

¨ Part of Britain?s growing empire

¨ Busy centers of commerce

¨ 1600?s parliament had passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing

¨ colonies were home to diverse religions and ethnic groups

Growing Discontent

¨ George III and his ministers thought that the colonists should help pay for the French Indian war. Britain began to enforce the long-neglected laws regulating colonial trade and parliament passed new laws to raise taxes from the colonies

¨ Colonists protested with, ?no taxation without representation?

¨ They believed since they had no say on parliament that they shouldn?t be taxed

¨ 1770 British soldiers opened fire on a protesting crowd killing 5

¨ called the Boston Massacre

¨ 1773, a handful of colonists staged the Boston tea party throwing cargo of British tea of the ships and into the harbor to protest the new taxes on tea

¨ By April 1775 the crisis exploded into a war

¨ Colonial leaders met in a Continental Congress to decide what actions to take

¨ Congress setup a continental army with George Washington in command

¨ Following year the congress voted for independence and had Thomas Jefferson draft the Declaration of Independence

¨ The Declaration claimed that people had the right ?to alter or abolish? unjust government

¨ on July 4,1776 American leaders adopted the Declaration

The American Revolution

¨ American cause looked bleak

¨ British held New York and Philadelphia, rebels controlled the country side.

¨ American trimuph over the British in Battle of Saratoga

¨ Convinced the French to join the Americans against it?s old rival, Britain

¨ Netherlands and spain soon added their support

¨ Washington forced the surrender of a British army at Yorktown

¨ Two years later American, British , and French negotiators signed the Treaty of Paris

¨ In it Britain recognized the independence of The United States of America

¨ It also accepted the new nation?s western frontier as the Mississippi river

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