Comparative political science
- one of directions political science. By master method comparative political science comes forward the comparison maneuver. Comparative political science tackles the politics study by means of comparison and the apposition of the same type political phenomena in discordant political systems. Among such phenomena in the first place undergo study political processes, political connectedness, political institutes, political regimes, political culture, political parties, and traffics and so on.
Historic justification comparative approach
(to conventionally attire and in combination with other maneuvers) lets establish clearance in the political theory of special branch of knowledge - comparative political science (in another section - comparative political cult urology).
In homogeneous culturally – civilization
media the applications of political comparisons not interface with difficulties of principle. Hereto much simplifies here, shall say, in respect to station christian the civilization of West, application of conventional and developed tongue for the description of political culture which began to form else in jobs Plato and Aristotelian. The distinguished scheme of political regimes last showed up, by the way, by the result of the comparison of dozens the states of Mediterranean ancientness. At this level apposition today permissible to use detecting of the political culture as of individual – identity behavior to the phenomena of political life, of the style of the behavior of the subject of political power. The classes of comparison can be found in developments of political socialization and formation, political philosophy and political economy, political psychology and ethics, political geography, demography and political ecology, of political cybernetics and even political astrology.
Complexities rise during the comparison of political mind, of political systems and instruments, of political elites and the political leadership of discordant civilization - cultural objects, for example of East and West. With like difficulties clashed M. Weber which tried to use Chinese material in its studies. The comparison of political traditions requires the accent carriage on a few another detecting of the political culture of - as adoption of available political experience which is set by history which requires comparable the rate of studied civilization - cultural objects (objectively) of and the adequate scientific choice of methodologies on the part of explorer - political scientist (subjectively). In this sense presumption will be waiver of euro centrism, survivability which except subjective preferences maybe determine tongue political science. In many cases it simply lacks of equivalents for the description of political East. Waiver of euro centrism will avoid the commitment of the concept of "high the highway" of the political development of humanity which baldly is manifested in Marxism-Leninism and latently is comprised in doctrines liberally-democratic sense.
I. Basic part
1.1 Comparative study and the adoption of political cultures
Comparative study and the adoption of political cultures habitually can go from “for more than advanced” the scientifically-theoretical triumphs of West in their applications to the "traditional" societies of East. This touches as borrowing of ready political forms, so and applications fairly rigid (in the theoretical plan) of the political technologies of West in the political environments of East in the process of modernization, witness not as "Europeanization". Structural-functional approach in combinations with sociological could lend exact and comparable data on establishment the institutes of West on east soil.
However possible, on our gaze, and all pathway _ from fixed culturally - civilization distinctions (West - Christian, Arab - Islamic, Indus - Buddhist, of and Russian - Orthodox civilizations) to resettlement the invariants of the behavior of political images, behaviors and make which dispensable will coincide with primitively treated universal, by so-called 'common to all mankind" values in politics. Following the extraction of invariants in "sediment" will turn out to be the elements of national political specifics which can become rich source material for practically-political and theoretically-political art. During it is important to avoid initial is unnecessary of the simplified dissociation of social organisms on traditional and modern, because "traditional" can turn out to be entirely modern, rather than simply "close", and "modern", in its turn, maybe presented by the tradition of political innovations, by "tradition", protection which implies discrete "closure". As to-new maybe, for example, is set the problem of political progress: find whether in the frames of political modernization traffic from traditional paternalistic east despotism to entirely modern west authoritarian – totalitarian dictatorship? In any case west-east political comparative can much give to on fairways of mutual enrichment and the synthesis of political cultures, of improving of the tongue of political communication, of practical settlement urgent and potential political conflicts.
Every subsequent generation not supply that understanding political life which him is got as to heritage, and sets forth new approaches to organizing of historical material, of modern politics to and the prognostication of political events. On today's day preserve its implication (i.e. work complementing each other) rub total sociological global paradigms including in itself sally political science approaches: formation, civilization – cult urological and world-systemic - every with their merits and blemishes.
1.2 Formative scheme world widely - of historic process
Formation the scheme of world widely - historic process
developed in Marxism, includes in itself, as is known, of 5 stages - formation: primeval communal, slave-holding, feudal, capitalist and willing communist who, from the point of view this theory, imminently must come on change to antagonistic society.
Allowing the capacity of this concept created preferentially on European material, turned out to be deficient, because even neither one European society did not pass preliminarily all steps of this "five-term" the ladder of historic progress. Hereto scheme turned out to be absolutely unfit for the nations of East which into all historic times demonstrated rub the quarters of humanity.
To honor Marx follow to evidenced that it guessed about it and proposed to complement scheme "Asian" formation (for all Neuropteran societies) which it inserted a joint primordial and second formation, roughly speaking, instead of slave-owning and feudalism, because of receipt capitalism eastward puts, as to Marx, limit to all east specifics. As well as village she made dependent from city, so barbarian countries she set in dependence on countries civilization, peasant nations - from bourgeois nations. East from West. Self Marx, and this again speaks in it usefulness, warned from applications "universal jimmy" in the form what concordant history - philosophical theory. Well known, what it flatly disapproved attempts to transform its "historical sketch of the appearance of capitalism in West Europe in history - philosophical theory about general pathway, as to which by big with fate manner doom to go all nations which neither were historic conditions, in which they turn out to be, - in order to come in the long run to that economic formation who provides the along with the greatest bloom of the productive forces of social labor and the most complete development of man". It is nevertheless, progeny Marx obviously transformed it scheme in "universal jimmy", and very design idea about the “Asian” method of production of throw off in the cause "purity" and "just proportion" doctrine, as if nothing such founder as and did not speak. Academic disputes on this topic occasionally were assumed, but in text-books were concrete.
Though in behalf of truth here follow to evidence that Marx and Engel’s self did not to the end overcome euro centrism. They came forward anti the ideas of national unity considering its bourgeois dodge hiding class antagonism, anti constructability the ideas of the repertories of cultures, because they are subdued to laws determine developments, and saw the progress factor in the capitalism transformation in world phenomenon, since the rest of the colonies benefit to economics progressive centre (of empire), and initiation to world economics has civilization implication. Today many scientists (in the west more, than in the east) as before do not realize that “common to all mankind” spiritual values are created and constantly feed and are refreshed of spring discordant national cultures.
1.3 Civilization - cultural paradigm
Civilization - cultural paradigm
- generally theoretical product finding centuries. Here all history of humanity is thought as assembly specific, regarding close-mouthed civilizations (them comprised from 5 before 21), each of which passes the stages of appearance, of growth, break and breakdowns dying from naturally - occurring catastrophes, of military damages or into conflicts. In last pattern guilty turns out to be creative elite which, appear not on height before next "annuls mirabilis" problem, turn into in reigning minority, and govern political elite preferring the authority force. The main load of population, aloof from power and property – it "into proletariat" which in union with barbarian periphery or "exterior proletariat" comes forward on the struggle of anti govern minority which conducts to civilization killing. The theory of civilizations comprises strong alternative euro centrism, opens the perspective of the rapprochement of East and West on the pathways of their spiritual enrichment and turnovers. By the nucleus of every civilization comes forward spiritual culture into entire her infrequency, and progress - the spiritual improving of persons attended with waiver of absolutization material values and by the revival of harmony between man and nature in the spirit of the best triumphs of the nations of East and West. In the field geopolitics civilization approach brings by pore untrivial results.
Concord of formation and civilization approaches in east-west comparison up to now is not easy problem and only partly is allowed with the help of third newest paradigm suggested by in 70 years school the world of-system analysis. Is agreeing Wallerstain, in XVI c. In Europe derived change the world of-systems: The world of-empire based on political wield power, complied place world to-economics based on commerce. The center of force shift from Seville (empire Gabsburgov) to Amsterdam. This was victory the capitalist world of-economics (KME) which from that time comes forward as modern world-system (SMS) and round which formed concentration rings world periphery. Nucleus-center KME obtained ding main load commercial arrived, constantly conducts struggle for monopoly, and state comes forward by the instrument of this struggle, by determinative into and exterior expansion. By specificity economic, and signifies and political hegemony world-system analysis considers the evidence of next signs:
· Development begins in agro industrial bead, maximum hegemony converges at stage of the commerce, deprivation hegemony is bound with entry to banking-financial term;
· Any hegemony will arrange its political - economic protection under the slogans of "elicited commerce" and "global liberalism";
· Power - predominant force predominates in naval connections;
· It is conventional, as this was evidenced above, hegemony gains strength through world wars which last approximately during 30 years old.
Remarkably also what every willing victor began with what took itself in partner’s previous predominant force (Great Britain - Holland, USA - Great Britain). Is agree to geopolitical forecast the world of-system analysis (and it predictive possibilities evident), history dismissed KME else 70-80 years old.
By the end onset follow to consider 1974 year. Its peak USA as modern predominant force already survive, and with the second half 70 years began their decline. Willing predominant force already must set cooperate connectedness with USA, but here is who by him will - this meanwhile stays under question, though much speaks in favor of the candidacy of Japan or China.
1.4 Victory modern world - of economics over "world - by empire"
Today is considered by fact victory the modern world of - economics soviet “world by - empire” which hereto in propagandistic purposes assessed as "empire of evil". With absolute predictive optimism Marxism derives difficult parting. But also make a bit of a noise on all world communication F. Fukuyama about the "end of history" and final and irreversible the triumph of liberally-democratic orders all over the world after the fashion USA of and Europe very assailable for criticism. In the epoch of Risk, of unresolved global problems to speak of some final decisions essentially with discrete care. It is all the more, what fourth portion of humanity continues socialist experiment and does this very circumspectly and solid. In order to repeat sad experience the soviet “world of-empire” to milliards nation is in prospect to originate its Gorbachev, express political will or to lend acquiescence on the decay of self country, what directly demand in the west as price for "exit from totalitarianism". Is thought, what hearings about the final death of Marxian socialism greatly are exaggerated, what only history will read, was whether this valid blind alley or outstripping its time, and that is why and tragic, social experience.
In any case can be take advantage of the strong sides of all three approaches, in order to arrange material remembering about high-purity euro centrist sin Marxism, about into euro centrist dominant the peace of – systems review, it "capital centrism", about balancing of potency civilization approach for chance common in its diversification world. Last especially important, for nobody will not become to deny that world of politics differently supervise and is seen from New York, of London, of Paris and Berlin, and distinctions this grow during gaze from Beijing, Divide, of Cairo, Tokyo of or Moscow which national political cultures of – tradition have not yet grew of common met language which tongue of west christian civilization is away off not alone.
Larger "advance" West in the development of political forms and theoretical understanding this development by the facilities of political science - incontestable triumph europium, from which follow to distinguish euro centrism. Today nobody from the serious explorers of West does not deny necessities to include in political immune-assay and synthesis rub the quarters of the population of world (East), all ethno cultural the regions of earth with their history and political culture. However acquisition scientific truth here interface with uneasy procedures comparisons, the since political life of East and West must be defined, as certain integrity, whereas earlier if and were attracted the materials of East, then only in order better to understand the self history of West and self problems.
In order to compare, necessary class (indicators), searches which inevitably resulted in well studied history and the theories of west political culture. To sally namely this circumstance - to the application of the developed tongue (of classes) European christian civilization - in many is obligated by its existence euro centrism. In other words, application of self mature and influential political culture contemporaneity, not to mention direct uncritical borrowings in institutional bead, pregnant involuntary euro centrism, by losses in national political make, by breakages national traditions and even their by deprivation.
This wonderfully understand of political scientist West which are agree with what the political life of East maybe adequately is understood only in terms of the political culture of East which asia centrism has not for less than right furs existence, than euro centrism, though, from our point of view, "both worse". By pore in the west are made successful attempts comprehend no self political experience through "neutral" notions of naturally - occurring and fine articles ("entrance, exit, encoding, information, feedback and so on, but in the long run all that by wrap the delusion of neutrality, because, strictly speaking, neither one of these notions cannot be neutral, since carries European values in hidden air. As work overcoming barricade euro centrism and containing the very complete kit of criterions and maneuvers for comparative political science, essential to call and to recommend translated into Russian language book M. Dugan and D. Pelosi.
However intuitively explicit, what political truth maybe procured in comparison, during condition which is compared of phenomenon, in comparable measure studied, of notion one thing current, and signifies fairly abstract. Today manages to read that modern rate of studied the political cultures of West and East lets to done their comparison. And not trouble, what of distinction between them evident, similarity it will be necessary seek.
In the center of the political life of all countries today undoubtedly reside the problems of democracy. However this does not signify that self democracy acquired for all countries and the nations of world implication first common to all mankind political value. In the east up to now democracies prefer "order", namely those variants authoritarian. Related to this follow to say that world really realizes the incompetence of the negative detecting of the democracy as of exemption from despotism what ours was called " worship persons", from oppressive control on the part of govern elite, of all-powerful nomenclature, as well as the narrowness of the self understanding of the democracy of as little as disengagement of political choice (these essential, but the deficient minimum of democracy) irrelative to the purposes of self democracy.
As soon as we move away from the question of the "negative" detecting of democracy and approach to positive its sense which politics of _ this rule of game, in basis which are put value orientation. But next essential to acknowledge that in politics rushes into the problems of ideals, and signifies of deideologization political bead - not above than convenient for what - that (for that, who does not want intelligibility in detecting of perspectives) political myth.
Read very attentively in ideas modern French political scientist: "Today in the countries of "third world" chief consists in that, in order to find pathway between openness with reference to world market (which essential, because she enables competition) and by protection personal and collective originality from devaluation and alien ideological constructs".
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