Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
Теги названий
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62791)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21319)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21692)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8692)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3462)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20644)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: Animal Rights Essay Research Paper Do all

Название: Animal Rights Essay Research Paper Do all
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 07:21:38 31 октября 2010 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 3 Комментариев: 11 Оценило: 1 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать

Animal Rights Essay, Research Paper

Do all animals have the same rights as humans? Some but not all, animal rights

activists believe animals have inherent legal and moral rights, just as humans do.

According to this viewpoint it is unethical to use animals for any purpose,

whether for pets, research, recreation, clothing, or as food (Press 17). Animal

use in testing is a huge controversial issue. Some believe animals have the same

rights as humans and should for no reason be used as test subjects for research.

Others, including members of medical and scientific communities say it is

unethical not to use animals in research because animal experiments can lead to

medical discoveries that improve the health and well-being of both humans and

animals (Leepson 304). Human health will not improve without animal


There is of course two sides to this issue. Worldwide, animals are used in

numerous experiments which inflict pain and suffering to the animal. The first

testing of animals started over one hundred years ago. Since then, animal

testing has been a source of emotional conflict for humans. In 1966, the Animal

Welfare Act took place (307). This was the start of the animal rights movement.

Over the years, animal activists have become increasingly vocal and/or

destructive. The ways in which animal activists try to get their message across

to the public varies greatly. Some conduct letter-writing campaigns, others

attack laboratories and harass scientists (Green 204) One of these groups is the

PETA founded in 1980 by Alex Pacheco and Ingrid Newkirk. PETA stands for

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. The group works on a wide range of

issues such as biochemical testing, cosmetic testing, dissection, factory farming,

neglect and abuse to animals in pet stores, and through hunting and trapping,

and the wearing of fur, and non-leather footwear (Masci 686). The PETA is not

known to be a violent group. Instead it often pulls public stunts. For example

three members dressed in rabbit suits and chained themselves to a flagpole in

front of Gillette head quarters in Boston, Mass. to protest the company s use of

animals in product testing. The stunt was an embarrassment to the company.

While PETA may be the most visible animal rights group, it is by no means alone.

There are dozens of rights groups who pursue a more far-reaching agenda.

One of these groups is the ALF, Animal Liberation Front. This group emerged in

the United States in the late 1970 s and has claimed responsibility for destroying

or damaging more than one hundred labs and farms around the nation (686).

In a world of animal testing there are a wide range of tests. These tests are

done for multiple purposes, from finding a cure for a disease to testing the

harshness of a shampoo or floor cleaner. Many activists claim that animal

testing is not only unethical but also often scientifically unproductive.

There have been some medical advances of course but the pay off

is slight. When you re doing billions of animal experiments, it would

be a miracle if there weren t some developments, says George

Cave an animal activist.

When Dr. Hamm was told what George Cave said, Hamm came back with a

strong argument. He discused how childhood leukemia, used to be a death

sentence but now those kids get to go home. He also discussed Hodgkin s

disease and how it is now a treatable cancer when ten years ago it was also a

death sentence. Another argument he stated was how we can treat some types

of liver cancer today and the research that got us there was done on animals

because it had to be. There are no other alternatives exist that could give us this

progress (Green 204).

One species that humans tend to use often in testing because they are

most like ourselves is the chimpanzee. They are used in different experiments.

Because chimpanzees are more like humans than any other species they are

popular subjects for the development of vaccines for prevention of hepatitis B,

hepatitis C and onchocerciasis. Chimpanzees are the only nonhuman animal

species susceptible to these infections (Prince 115). Animal Activists are against

the use of chimpanzees b/c of the decline in the chimpanzee population. In

approximately the past ten years the chimpanzee population of Gabon,

containing some of the best habitats, was reduced by twenty percent. There is

an estimate between four thousand and five thousand chimpanzees that exist

worldwide in medical institutions, zoological exhibits, roadside menageries,

entertainment compounds and homes of per owners. In the United States about

two thousand of three thousand confined chimpanzees exist in biochemical

facilities (Teleki 119).

Although chimpanzees are the closest in relation to humans many

different animals are used in research. The treatment of these animals is what

many activists are concerned about. Animal Rights Activists use a variety of

tactics to promote the humane treatment and wellbeing of animals. If not for

them no laws would be made to protect animal rights. In the past decade the

animal rights movement has taken on a more militant posture. Some procedures

they use range from public demonstrations, media campaigns and boycotts to

raids on medical laboratories to liberate research animals, and sending bomb

threats. Some of these tactics are in question but many have helped the animal

rights cause (Green 204). The number of animals used in cosmetic testing has

been significantly reduced and the conditions of laboratory animals used in

biomedical research has greatly improved (Leepson 303). Although these tactics

have enhanced animal rights, the animal rights movement has long and short

term costs on society. The short term costs are that research becomes more

expensive while the long term cost is schemes like these may slow research

down which in return means human health will suffer and few treatments will be

founded (304).

Animal testing is very beneficial to both humans and animals. By doing

research on animals, humans may find cures for diseases and new or better ways

of performing surgical procedures that may save human and animal lives. The

same methods that have been developed to prevent and treat diseases in humans

have improved the lives of countless animals. Many of the vaccines, antibiotics,

surgical procedures, and other approches developed for humans using animals

are now employed through veterinary medicine. Treatments have been

developed specifically for animals in many cases such as baccines for rabies,

canine parvovirus, distemper, and feline leukemia (Press 14).

Even with animals advances Animal Rights Activists say other alternatives

can be used in place of animals to experiment on but some researchers say that

using animals is the only way to see how a substance will react in an entire body

system. They say computer models are cell cultures do not provide all the

information of how something will react (Masci 679). Scientists say using

animals for testing is expensive and they would rather use computers or other

alternatives if they would give them the same or better results but generally

mom-animal experiments are alternatives or adjuncts that are usually only useful

in determining how something will affect a specific part of the human body (Press


Animal testing has improved human living in many ways. Surgical

procedures, pain, relievers, psychoactive drugs, medications for blood pressure,

insulin, pacemakers, nutrition supplements, organ transplants, treatment for

shock trauma and blood disease all have been developed and tested in animals

before being used in humans.

Virtually every advance in medical science in the twentiethcentury,

from antibiotics and vaccines to antidepressants drugs and organ

transplants, has been achieved either directly or indirectly through

the use of animals in laboratory experiments, according to the

American Medical Association (6).

One such experiment was done on HIV using mice. Researcher recently

reported success using mice transplanted with human immune cells to test the

efficacy of an AIDS drug. They are hoping this animal model can help assess the

potential of various drugs against AIDS. The researchers injected forty mice with

HIV and in two weeks they tested the mice with PCR a genetic technique, and HIV

showed up in all forty mice. Then the researchers took seventeen other mice and

injected them with zidovudine twenty-four hours before injecting them with the

HIV virus and for two weeks immediatly following. After those two weeks the

researcher tested some of the seventeen mice with PCR and found no HIV but

then they used a more sensitive technique and found a few cells with the HIV

virus. It was proven that with the drug zidovudine injected into the mice the HIV

virus was less effective in the body. Researchers are hoping that models like this

will be useful for drug testing (Fackelmann).

Another success that has been discovered with the help of mice is a

treatment for non-Hodgkin s lymphoma. In one case study Greg Maas discovered

that he had non-Hodgkin s lymphoma, a type of cancer. He underwent

chemotherapy followed by a bone marrow transplant to repair the damage done

to his immune system. The drugs used in Greg to kill the cancer were tested on

mice susceptible to leukemia. There are few side-effects because the mice were

genetically identical making it possible to compare compounds (Press 1).

Another way animals are helping to contribute to better health is with

surgical procedures. Richard Pothier was diagnosed with a deadly disease that

completely destroyed his heart. Had there been no experiments on dogs, sheep

or mice he would not be alive today. Mice have been a big help in the

development of organ transplants. Researchers were able to study inbred mice

with slightly different immune systems and learn that transplanted organs are

rejected because of immunological reactions in the host. This has made it

possible to identify the best donor for an organ transplant (Pothier 18). Today

thousands of people are alive because of transplanted kidneys, hearts, lungs,

livers, bone marrow and other organs and tissues.

The issue of animal-to-human organ transplants, or xenografts, another

controversy that goes along with animal rights. Animal right groups oppose

xenografts under all conditions (Worsnop 711). But Americans refuse to donate

enough organs to help others stay alive. Biomedical engineers are working hard

on mechanical replacements for hearts, but the human body does not take kindly

to such machines. However anti-rejection drugs can successfully allow animal

organs to be used in humans. Xenografts are nearing routine use as bridges to

transplantation s. In the future, genetically altered animals may be bred to

provide matched organs for dying humans. Of course this many never happen if

animal rights activists convince society it is wrong to use pigs, baboons, or

monkeys to save a human life (Pothier 18). Besides this being a problem of

ethics, animal right groups argue that many times animal-to-human organ

transplants fail (Worsnop 711). But that should be no reason to quit trying. For

at least ten years the problems of human-to-human transplants were not solved

either (Pothier 18).

Another surgical procedure we have because of the tests done on animals

is balloon angioplasty. There was a case study of Charolette Evert, an eight week

old girl who contracte pnemonia. She was successfully treated with antibiotics

but during follow up studies, she was found to have hypoplastic artery syndrom.

This is a fatal narrowing of the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. At

twelve months she became one of the hundreds of thousands of people to

undergo open heart surgery in the United States. Unfortunatly by age three her

heart was again failing, because of excessive pressures required to pump blood

to her lungs. A heart-lung transplant was considered but the doctors thought it

to be too dangerous because she was only a child. Instead she underwent

balloon angioplasty, a treatment of cardiovascular disease. The procedure was a

success and gave Charolette a normal life. Balloon angioplasty was developed in

the 1970 s using dogs and cadavers. In this procedure a catheter is passed down

a narrow artery and when it encounters a narrowing of the arteries the catheter is

inflated, widening the vessel. More than two hundred thousand people in the

United States receive balloon angioplasty each year for treatment of heart

disease to save their lives (Press 2).

In the nineteenth century there was little that could be done to treat heart

disease because there was no way to repair the heart of a living patient.

Surgeons began experimenting with heart operations on dogs and other animals.

By 1923 they successfully repaired a heart valve on a twelve year old girl. Still

heart surgery remained limited because there was no way to keep the blood

flowing through the body while performing operations so the operations could

not take very long. Researchers began to experiment on animals to develop

pumps for the hear to use during surgery and by the 1930 s the task was

accomplished (7).

Using animals in laboratories has also helped us to come up with different

treatments for illnesses such as depression. As one in two hundred adults do,

Gloria Barry sank in to a depression. She went to a psychiatrist who treated her

slightly manic. The psychiatrist then prescribed lithium which is used to treat

manic-depression and Gloria quickly returned to her normal self. The effect of

lithium, the drug used to help cure Gloria, was discovered in 1994. Research was

done on guinea pigs and observed that it h ad a calming effect on them. Then it

was tested on humans and was found that it was a treatment for people suffering

from manic-depresive illness. It took another two decades of research on

animals befor it gained acceptance. Without this research many people who

suffer from manic-depression would never have a treatment for it (Press 2).

People clearly want the benefits of animal research. They also want

animals to be well treated and to undergo a minimum of pain and distress.

Decisions about animal research should be made based on both reason and

values. We should be made based on both reason and values. We should use

animals in research in a way that is best going to help us in the future without

putting them through more pain than necessary. It would be unfair to halt

research given the harm that could accure future generations.

Animals will continue to be essential in combating human illness. Human

health has greatly improved over the last one hundred years because of the

research done on animals. We still have much research to do and much to learn

on many of the leading disease killers of today such as cancer, atherosclerosis,

debates, and other conditions such as strokes, arthritis, and other mental

disorders (Press 6). Most Americans except the use of animals in

experimentation. Although they might not agree with all the testing that may

occur with cosmetics and household cleaners most agree that when it comes to

finding cures and vaccines it is important to use them to do research.

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Привет студентам) если возникают трудности с любой работой (от реферата и контрольных до диплома), можете обратиться на FAST-REFERAT.RU , я там обычно заказываю, все качественно и в срок) в любом случае попробуйте, за спрос денег не берут)
Olya03:06:49 27 августа 2019
.03:06:48 27 августа 2019
.03:06:47 27 августа 2019
.03:06:46 27 августа 2019
.03:06:46 27 августа 2019

Смотреть все комментарии (11)
Работы, похожие на Реферат: Animal Rights Essay Research Paper Do all

Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.

Комментарии (3475)
Copyright © 2005-2020 BestReferat.ru support@bestreferat.ru реклама на сайте