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Реферат: Information On The Career Of Psychology Essay

Название: Information On The Career Of Psychology Essay
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: реферат Добавлен 06:36:21 15 ноября 2010 Похожие работы
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, Research Paper

Psychology

Job Outlook

Employment of psychologists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2006. More job opportunities will arise in businesses, nonprofit, organizations, and research and computer firms for psychologists working as consultants. Companies will use psychologists? expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide marketing evaluation and statistical analysis.

Opportunities for people holding doctorates from leading universities in areas with an applied emphasis, such as clinical, counseling, health, and educational psychology, should have particularly good prospects. Psychologists with extensive training in quantitative research methods and computer science may have a competitive edge over applicants without this background. Graduates with a master?s degree in psychology are qualified for positions in school and industrial-organization psychology. Graduates of master?s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools expected to increase student counseling and mental health services.

Still others may find jobs involving research and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies. Bachelor?s degree holders can expect very few opportunities, directly related to psychology. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers, or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers.

Earnings

According to 1995 survey by the American Psychological Association, the median salary of psychologists with a doctoral degree and 5 to 9 years of experience was $55,000 in counseling psychology in individual private practice; $ 54,500 in private research organizations; $51,000 as clinical psychologists in public psychiatric hospitals; and $59,000 in school psychology. The median annual salary of master?s degree holders was $38,000 in counseling psychology; $43,000 in clinical psychology; $41,500 in research positions; $60,000 in school psychology, and $55,000 in industrial-organizational psychology. Some psychologists have much higher earnings, particularly those in private practice.

The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry-level positions. In general, the starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor?s degree was about $19,500 a year in 1997; those with superior academic records could begin at $24,200. Psychologists with a master?s degree and 1 year of experience could start at $29,600. Psychologists, having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $35,800 and some individuals with experience could start at $42,900.

Related Occupations

Psychologists are trained to conduct research and teach, evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups with special needs. Others who do this kind of work include marketing research analysts, advertising and public relations managers, clinical social workers, physicians, sociologists, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors.

Occupations for People with Psychology Majors

Surveys of employers and psychology graduates indicate that the jobs obtained by psychology majors with a bachelors degree are most often in social service and business setting, such as:

· Business: personnel administrator, loan officer, retail sales management, occupational analyst, industrial relations specialist, claims specialist, and marketing representative.

· Social Services: group home attendant, case worker, probation officer, admissions counselor, occupational therapist, substance abuse counselor, youth counselor, employment counselor, social service aide, public health administrator, parole officer, social-urban planner, community relations officer, affirmative action officer, vocational rehabilitation, and day care center supervisor.

What Psychologists Do

Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in applied fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods may vary depending on the topic under study. Psychologists sometimes gather information through controlled laboratory experiments, as well as through administering personality, performance, aptitude, and intelligence tests. Other methods include observation, interviews, questionnaires, clinical studies, and surveys.

Health psychologists promote good health through health maintenance counseling programs that are designed to help people achieve goals such as to stop smoking or lose weight.

Cognitive psychologists deal with money, thinking, and perceptions. Some conduct research related to computer programming and artificial intelligence.

Counseling psychologists use various techniques, including interviewing and testing to advise, on how to deal with problems of everyday living.

Developmental psychologists study the physiological development that takes place throughout life.

Experimental or research psychologists work in university and private research centers, and in business, nonprofit and governmental organizations.

Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of work life.

School psychologists work in elementary and secondary schools or school district offices with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students? learning and behavior problems.

Social psychologists examine people?s interactions with others and with the social environment. They work in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems design or other applied psychology fields. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and perception.

Working Conditions

A psychologist?s specialty and place of employment determine working conditions. Clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice have their own officer and set their own hours. However, they often must offer evening and weekend hours to accommodate their clients. Those employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities may work shifts including evenings and weekends, while those who work in schools and clinics generally work regular hours.

Psychology is the study of human behavior. It?s a field that is growing in popularity very quick. There are many different types of psychology. For example: school psychology, cognitive psychology, and abnormal psychology. There are three main reasons why I want to pursue a career in psychology. The first reason is because I find the field very interesting to work in. Second is because I enjoy helping people with their problems. Finally because of the amount of money involved in the field.

The first reason why I want to become a psychologist is because I find the field very interesting to work in. The field of psychology is a very intriguing and innovative field to base a career on. I love studying about the different careers you could get into by having a degree in psychology. I could work with children, adults, elderly, or do research on something. Things are constantly being discovered, Someone always has a new theory to discuss. It?s just something I enjoy very much.

The second reason why I want to become a psychologist is because I enjoy helping people with their problems. I?m the type of person people come to for advice all the time. If I get into this field there will be many ways in which I could help people. I could become a relationship psychologist to help couple with their problems or I could become a children psychologist and help out children. There are a variety of things I could do in this field that will keep me interested at all times.

The final reason why I want to become a psychologist is because of the amount of money involved in the field. I know it might sound greedy but money is an issue when it comes to the career I want to pursue. I want to be financially stable, so when I get older I can support my family. It all depends which type of psychology I get into and what type of degree I receive. Overall though, it still pays pretty well. Also it?s just something I enjoy doing.

In conclusion, these are the reasons why I want to pursue the field of psychology. One is because I find it very interesting. Another is because I enjoy helping people. Finally, because of the amount of money involved. Hopefully later in life I will achieve my goal and excel in my career whatever it might end up being.

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