The given annual project is dedicated to the linguistic problem - СThe Subject: Ways of Expressing It in the SentenceТ.
The main goal
of the work is to identify the main features of the subject in the sentence, basing on the theoretical and scientific works of Russian, English, American, Moldovan and Romanian authors, and examine the subject and its features in the works of American and English fiction.
of the thesis, in their turn, represent ascending steps to the main goal of the project:
1. to define the notion of the subject;
2. to present the classification of the subject according to the theoretical sources of the examined works of the linguists.
3. to present the ways the subject is expressed in the sentence.
4. to identify the subject features and the ways it is expressed in the works of the investigated American and English fiction.
5. to compare the means the subject is expressed in fiction in the works of such writers as: СThe Book of GrotesqueТ by Sherwood Anderson, СThe Magic BarrelТ by Bernard Malamud, СThe Last LeafТ, СThe Gift of the MagiТ by O. Henry, СThe Man with the ScarТ, СThe Door of OpportunityТ, СA Friend in NeedТ by W.S. Maugham.
of the work maintains the basic functions of the subject in the sentence as one of the main constituents and its continual study due to this fact. That is a linguistic phenomenon having been introduced into education on different educative levels starting from the simplest definitions in primary school and reaching gradually deep theoretical interpretations of the subject in the institutions of higher education.
The annual project is based mainly on the scientific sources of English and Russian linguists, such as:
Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, J. Svartvik, Richard Gardiner, Timothy Cobb, Geoffrey Leech, as for the Russian grammarians: V. L. Kaushanskaya, I. P. Krylova, M. A. Ganshina, N.M. Vasilevskaya, Ѕ. ј. »льин.
Besides, the works of the Romanian scholars Ц Andrey Bahtaş and Leon Levitchi, and others.
Thus, Chapter One of the present project embodies three points:
1. The definitions of the subject;
2. Classification of the subject (from structural and functional points of view);
3. Ways of expressing the subject;
In English grammar the subject (along with the predicate) is researched by a number of linguists and philologists. It is defined in different interpretations, but still the entire variants base on one common backbone of the notion:
The subject (abbreviated sub
. or su.
) is one of the two main constituents of a clause or a simple sentence, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle. It is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent.
The subject is sometimes said to be the relatively familiar element, to which the predicate is added as something new, СThe utterer throws into his subject all that he knows the receiver is already willing to grant him, and to this he adds in the predicate what constitutes the new information to be conveyed by the sentenceЕТ [4, 154]
Besides, the following features of the subject are maintained in most definitions of the studied linguists:
a) the subject is normally a noun or a clause with nominal function;
b) the subject occurs before the verb phrase in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions;
c) the subject has number and person concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase.
The classifications of the subject are presented according to the role and structure of the subject in the sentence.
Ways of expressing the subject vary in conformity with the parts of speech and constructions it is presented by.
Chapter Two is the practical part of the given work on the basis of the studied fiction, such as:
1. American fiction: СThe Book of GrotesqueТ by Sherwood Anderson, СThe Magic BarrelТ by Bernard Malamud;
СThe Gift of the MagiТ, СThe Last LeafТ by O. Henry;
2. English fiction: СThe Man with the ScarТ, СThe Door of OpportunityТ, СA Friend in NeedТ by W.S. Maugham.
The practical part is aimed at investigation of the subject features in the works of American and English fiction and fulfillment of the comparative analysis in the given works of two different cultures Ц American and English.
The results of the executed practical work demonstrating common and contrasting ways of expressing the subject in British and American fiction are evidenced in conclusion of the project.
1.Chapter One. The Subject: Ways of Expressing It in the Sentence
1.1 Definitions of the Subject
The notion of the Subject in the grammatical theory of the English language can be presented very briefly and clearly: it is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [8, 67]
The reason for calling the subject and the predicate the main parts of the sentence and distinguishing them from all the other parts which are treated as secondary, is roughly this. The subject and the predicate between them constitute the backbone of the sentence: without them the sentence would not exist at all, whereas all the other parts may or may not be there, and if they are there, they serve to define or modify either the subject, or the predicate, or each other. [10, 205]
A linguistic experiment to prove the correctness of this view would be to take a sentence containing the subject, a predicate, and a number of secondary parts, and to show that any of the secondary parts might be removed without the sentence being destroyed, whereas if either the subject or the predicate were removed there would be no sentence left: its СbackboneТ would be broken. This experiment would probably succeed and prove the point in a vast majority of cases.
The question now arises: what criteria do we practically apply when we say that a word (or, sometimes, a phrase) is the subject of a sentence? [10, 206]
The grammatical phenomenon of the subject in English has been examined by a number of linguists, philologists and grammatical experts both of English and foreign origin in different epochs. This notion is defined in various interpretations; still the common backbone is identified in all of them. LetТs retrace this Сcommon threadТ, kept in all the definitions of the subject.
Sidney Greenbaum in СThe Oxford English GrammarТ notes that the subject of a sentence is the constituent that normally comes before the verb in a declarative sentence and changes position with the operator in an interrogative sentence. It is applicable, the verb agrees in number and person with the subject (I am ready): the subject СIТ is first person singular and so is СamТ [2,305]
Paul Roberts in СUnderstanding GrammarТ presents the subject as the element stressed or the new element added to the discourse end in complexities that are interesting philosophically but useless grammatically. The beginnerТs device to find the subject is first to find the verb and then ask Сwho?Т or СwhatТ before it. When the subject is very specific (e.g. a proper name), we may even invert the normal word order without befuddling out listeners. [6, 405]
Some brief definitions of the subject are presented by Richard Gardiner and Timothy Cobb in СTodayТs English GrammarТ from one side, and by Geoffrey Leech in СAn A-Z of English Grammar and UsageТ from the other side.
In СTodayТs English GrammarТ the authors state that the word indicating the person or thing referred to is called the subject of the sentence. [1, 202]
Geoffrey Leech, in his turn, notes that the subject is a grammatical term for the past of a clause or sentence which generally goes before the verb phrase (in statements). [5, 413]
Russian philologists, such as Kaushanskaya in Ђ√рамматикаанглийского€зыкаї, say that the subject is the principal part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the second principal part (the predicate) is grammatically dependent, i.e. in most cases it agrees with the subject in number and person. The subject can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea. [13, 115]
According to I. P. Krylova in СA Grammar of Present DayТ the subject is a word or a group of words which names the person, object or phenomenon the sentence informs us about. [14,85]
Thus, we can identify the following common points:
a) the subject is normally a noun phrase or a clause with nominal function;
b) the subject occurs before the verb phrase in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions;
c) the subject has number and person concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase. [3, 158]
Ѕ. ј. »льинin Ђ—тройсовременногоанглийского€зыкаї examines the question first of all by formulating the structure of the definition itself. It is bound to contain the following items: (1) the meaning of the subject, that is its relation to the thought expressed in the sentence, (2) its syntactical relations in the sentence, (3) its morphological realization: here a list of morphological ways of realizing the subject must be given, but it need not be exhaustive, as it is our purpose merely to establish the essential characteristics of every part of the sentence.
The definition of the subject would, then, be something like this. The subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence. (1) It denotes the thing whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate. (2) It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. (3) It may be expressed by different parts of speech, the most frequent ones being: a noun in the common case, a personal pronoun in the nominative case, a demonstrative pronoun occasionally, a substantivized adjective or past participle, a numeral, an infinitive, and a gerund. It may also be expressed by a phrase. [10, 207]
1.2 Classification of the subject
There aresome classifications given by different authors. For example, from the structural point of view and functional point of view
1.2.1 Classification of the subject from the structural point of view
From the point of view of the structure, the subject can be:
, expressed by a word or a number of words in the nominal case, the combination of which represents one doer of the action.
No glass renders a manТs form or likeness so true as his speech. (Ben Johnson, Timber)
The proper force of words lies not in the words themselves, but in their application. (William Hazlitt, On Familiar Style)
All things are admired either because they are new or because they are great. (Francis Bacon)
Even in his novels HardyТs pessimism is always a fighting pessimism. (T.A. Jackson, Thomas Hardy)
What do you think the weather will be tomorrow?
, expressed by two or more nouns that represent one and the same notion (or one and the same person)
The great poet, essayist and philosopher died in 1882. (Emerson)
, that unites two or more different objects with the conjunction.
Tom and Maggie are the principal characters in СThe Mill of the FlossТ. (G. EliotТs novel)
, expressed by a special construction, first of all, by a noun in the nominal case with an infinitive or with a participle:
He had been reported to move house.
The rain could be heard rapping against the windows.
that is characteristic of the English folklore.
СSome suits, some suits,Т the sheriff he said, СSome suits IТll give to thee.Т (Robin Hood Rescuing the WidowТs Three Sons) [9, 186]
1.2.2 Classification of the Subject from functional point of view
The most typical semantic role of a subject is AGENTIVE; that is the animate being instigating or causing the happening denoted by the verb:
John opened the letter.
Apart from its agentive function, the subject frequently has an INSTRUMENTAL role; that is, it expresses the unwitting (generally inanimate) material cause of the event:
The avalanche destroyed several houses
With intransitive verbs, the subject also frequently has the AFFECTED role that is elsewhere typical of the object:
Jack fell down
The pencil was lying on the table
We may also extend this latter function to subjects of intensive verbs:
The pencil was on the table
It is now possible to see a regular relation, in terms of clause function, between adjectives or intransitive verbs and the corresponding transitive verbs expressing CAUSATIVE meaning:
S affected Sagent/instr.Oaffected
The door opened John/The key opened the door
The flowers have died The frost has killed the flowers
Saffected Sagent/instr Oaffected
The road became narrower They narrowed the road
I got angry His manner angered me
Sagentive Sagentive Oaffected
My dog was walking I was walking my dog [3,160]
The subject may also have a recipient role with verbs such as have, own, possess, benefit (from), as is indicated by the following relation:
Mr. Smith has bought/given/sold his son a radio → So now his son has/owns/possesses the radio
The perceptual verbs see and hear also require a СrecipientТ subject, in contrast to look at and listen to, which are agentive. The other perceptual verbs taste, smell, and feel have both an agentive meaning corresponding to look at and a recipient meaning corresponding to see:
Foolishly, he tasted the soup
* Foolishly, he tasted the pepper in the soup
The adverb foolishly requires the agentive; hence, the second sentence, which can only be understood in a non-agentive manner, does not make sense.
Verbs indicating a mental state may also require a recipient subject:
I thought you were mistaken (cf It seemed to meЕ)
I liked the play (cf The play gave me pleasure)
Normally, recipient subjects go with stative verbs. Some of them (notably have and possess) have no passive form:
They have a beautiful house ↔ A beautiful house is had by them
The subject may have the function of designating place or time:
This path is swarming with ants (= Ants are swarming all over this path)
The bus holds forty people (=Forty people can sit in the bus)
Unlike swarm, the verbs in such sentences do not normally admit the progressive (* The bus is holdingЕ) or the passive (* Forty people are held Е).
Temporal subjects can usually be replaced by the empty it, the temporal expression becoming adjunct:
Tomorrow is my birthday (= It is my birthday tomorrow)
The winter of 1970 was exceptionally mild (= It was exceptionally mild in the winter of 1970)
Eventive subjects (with abstract noun heads designating arrangements and activities) differ from others in permitting intensive complementation with a time adverbial:
The concert is on Thursday (but * The concert hall is on Thursday)
Finally, a subject may lack semantic content altogether, and consist only of the meaningless СpropТ word it, used especially with climatic predications:
ItТs raining/snowing, etc. ItТs getting dark ItТs noisy in here [3, 163]
Note: The СpropТ subject it as discussed here must be distinguished from the СanticipatoryТ it of sentences like СIt was nice seeing youТ, where the СpropТ subject is a replacement for a postponed clausal subject (= Seeing you was nice).
1.3 Ways of Expressing Subject
As it is stated above, the Subject is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [7, 67]
The subject can be expressed by different parts of speech and by different constructions:
1. The noun in the common (or occasionally possessive) case;
The sulky waiter brought my tea. (Du Maurier)
Marcellus slowly turned his head. (Douglas) [13, 226]
The address must be written in the center of the envelope.
Jonathan Swift is the father of irony. (E.B. Browning, Aurora Leigh) [9, 185]
Occasionally a noun in the possessive case is used as the subject of the sentence.
Mrs. GummidgeТs was in a fretful disposition. (Dickens)
Oh, my dear Richard, AdaТs is a noble heart. (Dickens)
2. A pronoun (personal, demonstrative, defining, indefinite, negative, possessive, interrogative);
After about an hour I heard Montgomery shouting my name. That set me thinking of my plan of action. (Wells)
All were clad in the same soft, and yet strong silky material. (Wells)
All were happy.
Everyone was silent for a minute. (Wells)
Nothing was said on either side for a minute or two afterwards. (Dickens)
Theirs is not a very comfortable lodging Е (Dickens)
Who tore this book? (Twain) [13, 226]
The pronouns Сone, we, you are much used with the same general or indefinite force:
СAs long as one is young, one easily acquires new friends.Т
СWe donТt like to be flatly contradicted.Т
СYou donТt like to be snubbed.Т [12, 149]
3. A substantivized adjective or participle;
The Privileged have seen that charming and instructive sight. (Galsworthy)
The wounded were taken good care of.
4. A numeral (cardinal or ordinal);
Of course, the two were quite unable to do anything. (Wells)
The first and fourth stood beside him in the water. (Wells)
Two were indeed young, about eleven and ten. (Galsworthy)
The first was a tall lady with dark hair Е (Bronte) [11, 335]
5. An infinitive, an infinitive phrase or construction;
To see is to believe.
To live uprightly, then, is sure the best. (John Dryden) [9, 185]
To prolong doubt was to prolong hope. (Bronte)
For him to come was impossible.
To be a rich man, Lieutenant, is not always roses and beauty. (Heym) [13, 226]
To walk is useful. Walking is useful. [17, 38]
6. A gerund, a gerundial phrase or construction;
Lying doesnТt go well with me.
Winning the war is what counts. [7, 67]
Walking is a healthy exercise.
Watching and ministering Kit was her best care. (Galsworthy) [11, 335]
Teaching others teaches yourself. [9, 185]
7. Any part of speech used as a quotation;
On is a preposition.
A is the first letter of the English alphabet.
And is a conjunction.
No is his usual reply to any request. [13, 227]
^is the sign of perpendicular.[16, 50]
8. A group of words which is one part of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group.
The needle and thread is lost. (here the subject represents one person).
Their friend and defender is darkly groping towards the solution. [7, 67]
Twice two is four.
How to do this is a difficult question. [11, 335]
9. It as the subject of the sentence.
In English the pronoun it is sometimes used as the subject of a sentence.
|Types of subject it
it represents a living being or a thing and has the following characteristics:
P stands for a definite thing or some abstract idea Ц the personal it;
P points out a person or thing expressed by a predicative noun, or it refers to the thought contained in a preceding statement, thus having a demonstrative meaning Ц the demonstrative it;
The door opened. It was opened by a young girl of thirteen or fourteen. (Dickens)
If this is a liberty, it isnТt going to mean a thing. (Lindsay)
It is John.
It was a large room with a great window. (Dickens)
Dick came home late, it provoked his father. (Lindsay)
it doesnТt represent any person or thing. Here we must distinguish:
a) the impersonal it, which is used to denote:
* denotes natural phenomena (such as the state of the weather, etc.) or that which characterizes the environment. In such sentences the predicate is either a simple one, expressed by a verb denoting the state of the weather, or a compound nominal one, with an adjective as predicative.
* to denote time and distance
b) the introductory or anticipatory it introduces the real subject.
When the subject of a sentence is an infinitive, or a gerund or a whole clause, it is placed after the predicate and the sentence begins with the pronoun it which is called an anticipatory or introductory it.
c) the emphatic it is used for emphasis.
It is cold in winter.
It often rains in autumn.
It is stuffy in here.
It is delightfully quiet in the night.
It is five minutes past six.
How far is it from your office to the bank? (Galsworthy)
It is a long way to the station.
It is morning already.
ItТs no use disguising facts
It was curious to observe that child
It was he who had brought back George to Amelia. (Thackeray)
It was Winifred who went up to him. (Galsworthy)
The construction there is
When the subject of the sentence is indefinite (a book, books, some books), it is often placed after the predicate verb and the sentence begins with the introductory particle there. The word there has no stress and is usually pronounced with the neutral vowel /ðƏ/ instead of /ðέƏ/. It has lost its local meaning, which is shown by the possibility of combining it in the sentence with the adverbs of place here and there:
there was a gate just there, opening into the meadowЕ (Bronte)
СThereТs a good spot over there.Т (Cusack) [11, 341]
Things are specifically different in cases when it
are used in subject positions as representatives of words or longer units which embody the real content of the subject but are postponed.
It is most pleasant that she has already come.
It was easy to do so.
There are a few mistakes in your paper.
There were no seats at all.
in such syntactic structures are generally called anticipatory or introductory subjects.
in such patterns is often referred to as a function word, and this is not devoid of some logical foundation [15, 94] Sentences with the introductory there may serve to assert or deny the existence of something. In sentences with the introductory there the predicate verb is usually the verb to be; occasionally some other verbs are found, such as to live, to occur, to come, etc., which, similarly to the verb to be, indicate to exist or have the meaning of to come into the existence:
There was a little pause. (Voynich)
Ц an introductory particle; was Ц a simple verbal predicate; a pause Ц the subject; little Ц an attribute)
Еthere is the rustle of branches in the morning breeze;
Еthere is the music of a sunny shower against the window; (Gissing)
There came a laugh, high, gay sweet. (Galsworthy) r
Еthere came a scent of lime-blossom. (Galsworthy)
There soon appeared, pausing in the dark doorway as he entered, a hale, grey-haired old man. (Dickens) [11, 341]
2. Chapter Two. Ways of Expressing Subject in Fiction
Practical part of the given project, presented in Chapter Two, brings to light subject features, investigated from theoretical point of view in Chapter One, in separate examples, drawn from fiction works. Opposing works of American and British English fiction, the paper is aimed at distinguishing subject peculiarities in both fiction sides. Thus, the investigated works are СThe Book of GrotesqueТ by Sherwood Anderson, СThe Magic BarrelТ by Bernard Malamud, СThe Last LeafТ, СThe Gift of the MagiТ by O. Henry concerning American writers and СThe Man with the ScarТ, СThe Door of OpportunityТ, СA Friend in NeedТ by W. S. Maugham for British authors.
2.1 Ways of Expressing Subject in British Fiction
СThe greatest English playwright, novelist and short story writer, considered one of the most popular writers of his era, and reputedly, the highest paid author during the 1930sТ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W. Somerset Maugham], William Somerset Maugham gives preference mainly to the personal pronouns in the role of the subject. All the examined works of the writer within the project keep the tendency of the presenting the personal pronouns as the subject.
СWe draw our conclusions from the shape of the jaw, the look in the eyes, the contour of the mouth.Т [26, 355]
СWhen you made him that offer of a job, did you know heТd be drowned?Т [26, 360]
СWell, I hadnТt got a vacancy in my office at the moment.Т [26, 360]
СShe gave him a long searching look.Т [25, 501]
СIn your place I should never have been able to resist the temptation to take my eight cops and have a whack at the blighters myself.Т [25, 503]
СShe is waiting at the prison door.Т [27, 229]
The second preferable part of speech in the subject role is a noun in the nominal case.
СWomen thought a lot of him.Т [26, 357]
СThe blood spurted from the cut vein and dyed his shirt.Т [27, 230]
СThis scar spoke of a terrible wound and I wondered whether it had been caused by a sabre or by a fragment of shell.Т [27, 228]
СBut Alban had already a London look.Т [25, 495]
СAnne quickly made friends with the shy, pretty native woman and soon was playing happily with the children.Т [25, 496]
Other parts of speech in the Subject position are surely kept but in much less frequent periodicity.
СThat was how you thought a poet should look.Т [25, 515] where СthatТ is a demonstrative pronoun in the Subject role.
СTwo or three shouted back in answer.Т [25, 525] where СtwoТ and СthreeТ are cardinal numerals occupying Subject position in the sentence.
СThe worst of it was that Anne knew how low an opinion Alban had of the GovernorТs parts.Т [25, 514] where Сthe worst of itТ is construction carrying Subject function in the sentence.
СHow can anyone be so shameless?Т [25, 532] where СanyoneТ is indefinite pronoun in the Subject role.
СNothing that concerns me was at stake.Т [25, 530] where СnothingТ is a negative pronoun carrying the Subject function.
СAll that was far away in the future.Т [25, 527] where indefinite pronoun СallТ is in the Subject role.
The Subject it is surely also presented in the works of W. S. Maugham. In consequence of its research we can state that the frequency of the usage of notional СitТ is much higher in comparison with the formal СitТ in the works of W. S. Maugham.
СItТs only an hourТs journey,Т said Anne. [25, 495] where СitТ is formal denoting time aspect.
СIt was a room with twin beds and a bathroom.Т [25, 502] where СitТ is notional pointing out a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
СIt was a change, but Anne was always glad to get home.Т [25, 511] where the notional СitТ is the Subject pointing out a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
СIt was on account of the scar that I first noticed him, for it ran, broad and red from his temple to his chin.Т [27, 228] where both СitТs are notional subjects but first СitТ points out a thing expressed by a predicative noun whereas the second СitТ stands for a definite thing mentioned before.
СIt happened so quickly that many didnТt know what had occurred, but the others gave a cry of horror;Т [27, 231] where the notional subject СitТ again denotes a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
СIt was a busy, exhilarating scene, and yet, I know not why, restful to the spirit.Т [26, 357] where СitТ is notional carrying the Subject role in the sentence.
The introductory СthereТ also is maintained in the work but as it is mentioned above in Chapter One, the particle СthereТ carries just the introductory function, but doesnТt represent the Subject of the sentence.
СThere was a group of nativesТ [25, 517]
СThere was a little stir at the gateway.Т [26, 229]
Subject features corresponding to their characteristics in Classifications One and Two can be commented on the following points.
Proceeding from the structural point of view (Classification 1) simple and complex subjects are predominantly met.
СThough his offices were in Kobe, Burton often came down to Yokohama.Т [26, 356] where СBurtonТ represents the simple Subject.
СThose sort of fellows always do.Т [26, 358] where СsortТ presents the simple Subject.
СI couldnТt help laughing.Т [26, 358] where I in combination with the gerund СlaughingТ represents the complex Subject.
СThey laid the girl on the ground and stood round watching her.Т [27,230] where СtheyТ in combination with the gerund СwatchingТ represents again the complex Subject.
СThe rebel advanced a step or two to meet her.Т [27, 231] where Сthe rebelТ in combination with the infinitive Сto meetТ represents the complex Subject.
СAlban, as was his way, tipped the porter generously and then went to the bookstall and bought papers.Т [25, 495] where СAlbanТ represents the simple Subject.
Concerning Classification 2 agentive and affected Subjects are essentially identified.
СBurton came into the lounge presently and caught sight of me.Т [26, 357] where СBurtonТ in relation with the predicate СcameТ represents the affected Subjects and in combination with the predicate СcaughtТ Ц the agentive Subject.
СA sort of sigh passed through those men crowded together..Т [27, 231] where С a sortТ represents the instrumental Subject.
СShe stared into his blue eyes as if they were open windows.Т [25, 527] where СsheТ carries the agentive function of the Subject.
СThe tears streamed from AnneТs eyes, she rushed to the door and ran out.Т [25, 533] where СtearsТ and СsheТ represent in both cases the agentive Subject.
СWe shook hands.Т [26, 359] where СweТ represents the affected Subject.
СHe gave a little mild chuckle and he looked at me with those kind and candid blue eyes of his.Т [26, 360] where СheТ represents the agentive Subject in both cases.
Thus, the cases of the agentive and affected Subjects, classified from the functional point of view, and the simple Subjects, classified from the structural point of view, constitute substantially 99% of the Subject, distinguished in fiction of W.S. Maugham.
2.2 Ways of Expressing Subject in American Fiction
Works of American fiction, examined in the given project are СThe Book of GrotesqueТ by Sherwood Anderson, СThe Magic BarrelТ by Bernard Malamud, СThe Gift of the MagiТ and СThe Last LeafТ by O. Henry.
Investigating American literature, we should mention that the same Subject features, distinguished in the works of the British fiction, are kept here as well. Still some peculiarities of the Subject are evidenced in comparison with British fiction.
Proceeding from the classification of the Subject from functional and structural points of view, we can identify that surely, the simple (Classification 1) and agentive (Classification 2) are essentially distinguished.
СA carpenter fixed the bed so that it would be on a level with the window.Т [21, 8] where СcarpenterТ carries the agentive function and meanwhile has a simple structure.
СMan made the truths himself and each truth was a composite of a great many vague thoughts.Т [23, 12] where СmanТ represents the simple and agentive Subject whereas СtruthТ performs the affected function in a simple structure.
СThe matchmaker appeared one night out of the dark fourth-floor hallway of the gray stone rooming houseЕТ [24, 380] where Сthe matchmakerТ represents a simple Subject carrying the agentive function.
СDella finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with the powder rag.Т [23,12] where СDellaТ is a simple Subject with an agentive function.
СThe magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them.Т [23,18] where Сthe magiТ is again a simple Subject with an agentive function.
Still, another types of the Subject are also distinguished.
СJim stopped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail.Т [23,17] where the simple Subject СJimТ carries the affected function.
СJohnТs eyes were open wide.Т [22, 100] where the simple Subject СJohnТs eyesТ carry the affected function.
СThe thing to get at is what the writer or the young thing within the writer, was thinking about.Т [21, 10] where the construction in the role of the Subject Сthe thing to get atТ is complex in its structure.
СHer face deeply moved him.Т [24, 404] where the simple Subject Сher faceТ performs the instrumental function.
СAn odor of frying fish made Leo weak to the knees.Т [24, 408] where the simple Subject СodorТ displays again the instrumental function.
СThe idea alternately nauseated and exalted him.Т [24, 412] where the simple Subject Сthe ideaТ performs the instrumental function.
СBut, surprisingly, SalzmanТs face lit in a smile.Т [24, 390] where the simple Subject СSalzmanТs faceТ carries the affected function.
СSuddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass.Т [23, 12] where the simple Subject СsheТ displays the affected function.
The only peculiarity of American fiction in comparison with the British one in the Subject investigation is that the instrumental function of the Subject appears on the pages of the examined stories.
The ways of expressing the Subject also maintain similar features of being presented by a noun or pronoun (esp. personal) in nominal case in the examined stories of American fiction.
СShe stood by the window and looked out dully at a gray cat walking a gray fence in a gray backyard.Т [23, 12] where she is personal pronoun in the Subject role.
СAfter the doctor had gone Sue went into the workroom and cried a Japanese napkin to a pulp.Т [22, 100] where Сthe doctorТ and СSueТ represent Subjects expressed by a common and a denominative nouns in nominal case.
СThe old man listed hundreds of the truths in his book.Т [21, 12] where Сthe manТ is the Subject expressed by a common noun in nominal case.
СBy remembering it I have been able to understand many people and things that I was never able to understand before.Т [21, 12] where the Subject is expressed by the personal pronoun СIТ.
Still, some cases where the subject is expressed by numerals, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns are also noticed.
СWho can love from a picture?Т mocked the marriage broker.Т [24, 414] where the Subject СwhoТ is expressed by the interrogative pronoun.
СThis is my baby, my Stella, she should burn in hell.Т [24, 412] where the Subject СthisТ is expressed by a demonstrative pronoun.
СHundreds and hundreds were the truths and they were all beautiful.Т [21,12] where the Subject is expressed by cardinal numerals.
The Subject is undoubtedly maintained in American fiction as well.
The notional СitТ is noticed much oftener in comparison with the formal СitТ as it is witnessed in British fiction as well.
СWell, it is the weakness, then,Т said the doctor. [22, 100] where the subject СitТ is notional and denotes a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
СIt reached below her knee and made itself almost a garment for her.Т [23, 12] where the Subject СitТ is notional and denotes a definite object mentioned before.
СNo, it wasnТt a youth, it was a woman, young, and wearing a coat of mail like a knight.Т [21, 10] where the Subject СitТ is again notional and denotes a thing expressed by predicative noun.
The introductory features of СthereТ are kept on the pages of the American fiction as well.
СThere are only five left nowТ [22, 102]
СThere was a pier-glass between the windows of the room.Т [23, 12]
Thus, the Subject features in American fiction are predominantly similar to the ones kept in British literature; the only noticed peculiarity is the instrumental function of the Subject.
On the basis of the theoretical and practical investigation of the Subject within the framework of distinguishing its features in American and British fiction conforming to the examined theory, we have reached the following results of the research work:
The Subject justifies its definition of being Сthe main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependentТ in combination with all the other characteristics mentioned by different grammarians of any languages practically throughout the investigated fiction.
Classifications of the Subject presented in two variants reflect that from structural point of view, simple and complex types of the Subject are predominantly used. From functional point of view, the agentive and affected role of the Subject is generally maintained. Vivid examples proving the present conclusion are presented in Chapter Two.
Ways of expressing the Subject vary mainly surely between the nouns in nominal case (these examples constitute the majority part of expressing the Subject), personal pronouns (that also present a vast percentage of the examples where they are in the role of the Subject), demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite pronouns are of less often frequency.
Numerals are also used in the role of the Subject, these cases are mainly characteristic of the colloquial dialogues.
Infinitive and gerundial constructions possess a rather high index of frequency usage identified in the investigated fiction.
Concerning СitТ Subject, the results of the investigations prove to state that generally the notional type of СitТ is practiced in the role of the Subject. Formal type of СitТ Subject is used much more moderate.
Regarding the other parts of speech that also can be used in the role of the Subject, that is substantivized adjective or participle, any part of speech used as a quotation, a group of words which is one part of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group are less preferred both by the American and British writers within the given project.
In reference to the feature differences in the usage of the Subject in American and British fiction, we can surely state that both cultures prefer to use common features of the Subject. The only characteristic of the American fiction touches the fact that instrumental function of the Subject is used a little oftener whereas British writers keep 100%-preference to the Subject expressed by nouns and personal pronouns.
The implemented investigation will be elaborated in the subsequent thesis of the next year based on the fiction of the John Galsworthy (СThe Forsyte SagaТ) where detailed internal research analysis will be executed.
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