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Реферат: Терминология и используемые концепции english

Название: Терминология и используемые концепции english
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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APPENDIX 1.

THE TERMINOLOGY AND CONCEPTS USED:

DEFINITIONS

I

n this first small chapter we wish to define more precisely the principal terms used further. It's always quite complicated procedure, but in this particular case we can do it quite correctly after describing indicative qualities of every main socio-cultural formation. We do not even hope to present here a completely exhaustive, maximum correct definitions, and in general don't believe such "statements of a things' precise meaning" make any particular sense. It seems more important to define certain theoretical basis that would make it possible to successively and exactly distinguish one socio-cultural formation or process from another, along the whole length of their historical evolution. Complexity of this task is that socio-cultural formations and processes have very long life terms and exist as an astonishing diversity of specific external forms. With it all, their essence remains one and the same. Variety of the socio-cultural formations' and processes' specific forms makes defining the terminology used here quite a practical problem.

* * *

HOMELAND - the most deeply transformed in a socio-cultural respect territory where representatives of a certain socio-cultural formation lived and / or still live during historically lengthy interval of time, absolutely securing this territory as their own. Homeland's territory is always furiously protected and defended from any outside invasions. Representatives of the alien socio-cultural formations may be present there only for a brief time and with many restrictions that especially concerns homelands of socio-cultural systems.

Territories of the Urals and Moscow region may serve as the examples of the Russian homeland. They were assimilated according to Russian standards and are clearly interpreted as Russian homeland, though duration of these territories' occupation by the Russian population differs essentially.

SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEM (SCS) - type of the socio-cultural formations dominating in a socio-cultural evolution. SCS-s include main part of the World's population and inhabited territories. SCS-s are characterised by great sizes of their territories and considerable quantities of own population; they possess original standards of a space, society and state organisation as well as many unique qualities because of those they do differ drastically from the rest of the socio-cultural formations.

Unique characteristics of SCS-s are as follows:

* ability to expand own homeland at the expense of socio-cultural assimilation of a new territories;

* ability to generate complicated structure of own space, with internal buffer zones, in order to protect and defend itself from other SCS-s;

* complete cycle of the space socio-cultural assimilation which includes seven principal periods;

* domination of the inner logic over outer factors which are always used in a strict correspondence with the SCS's evolution internal order;

* ability to create naturally dependent vassals in a course of socio-cultural transformation of other territories;

* own world religion, or its own unique version;

* ability to widen a circulation of own language outside own homeland, and first of all - in the internal buffer zone and among the naturally dependent vassals;

* reliability and self-sufficiency of own economy;

* ability to generate and invent stable original economic standards and forms which may have no analogues outside a single SCS.

There are eight socio-cultural systems, and in the process of their evolution each of them goes through seven periods. With this, with every period SCS-s acquire specific distinguished forms. Thus, there are 56 essentially different external forms of SCS-s to examine which we should base all the theoretical interpretations on a correct generalisation of a very high level.

INTERNAL BUFFER ZONE OF SCS - qualitatively original and distinctive socio-cultural part of the SCS's space that is always located on the "outskirts" of the SCS's homeland, along its borders with other socio-cultural formations. Internal buffer zone is destined mainly to protect homeland of a single SCS from immediate contacts with alien SCS-s and their possible aggression. It may border with an external socio-cultural buffer zone as well as an internal buffer zone of a neighbouring SCS. Organisation of an internal buffer zone is characterised by many distinctive qualities determined by the specific evolutionary process of the SCS this particular buffer zone belongs to.

Example of the internal buffer zone of the past is the territory of the Great Novgorod Principality that, during socio-cultural contest of Russian SCS of the XI - XVI centuries, protected Russian homeland from the invasions of Western SCS. Modern internal buffer zone of Russian SCS is formed by the newly independent states rising after the collapse and transformation of the USSR. All of them, excluding Belarus and Kazakhstan, have formed internal buffer zone of Russian SCS, irrespective of their own wishes as well as - and especially - declarations.

NATURALLY DEPENDENT VASSAL - relatively integral territory with own population that retains some - not really principal - differences from the neighbouring, dominating over it SCS, but became this SCS's inalienable part as a result of a lengthy and systematic socio-cultural transformation. It is important that sizes of states - naturally dependent vassals may vary essentially: the point isn't size in itself, but a special socio-cultural type of these formations.

Naturally dependent vassals may possess a considerable amount of political and economic independence, have quite complicated - at times conflicting - relationships with their dominants, being actually just a part of a dominating SCS.

In fact, they practically cannot change their socio-cultural status, and the point isn't just separate, single economic or political actions, but socio-cultural measures that should be conducted successively during several centuries and (most probably) on the competing SCS-s' own initiative. Only initiative or, especially, declaratory wishes of a naturally dependent vassal itself are never quite enough to change its socio-cultural status, and no single example of a naturally dependent vassal really changing its status is known. Study of eight SCS-s along the whole length of their history confirms that, if some territory was formed as a naturally dependent vassal of a certain SCS, then it remains as such forever.

Example of a naturally dependent vassals are modern, now politically independent states rising in place of the disintegrated former USSR. All of them, excluding only Belarus and Kazakhstan, are naturally dependent vassals of Russia.

EXTERNAL SOCIO-CULTURAL BUFFER ZONE - type of the socio-cultural formations that evolves to separate two or more alien SCS-s. As a rule, external buffer zones border not immediately with the SCS-s, but with their internal buffer zones completely controlled by their own SCS-s. External buffer zone as a special socio-cultural formation is characterised by extreme instability and dependence on dynamics of those SCS-s it separates.

East Europe may serve as the classic example of the external buffer zone, being a special type of the socio-cultural formation which separates Western and Russian SCS-s.

SOCIO-CULTURAL DOMAIN (SCD) - type of the socio-cultural formations that is quite similar to socio-cultural system, but possesses a substantial quantity of a principal distinctions. It's characterised by stable and prolonged existence as well as specific economic, social and cultural forms. Fundamental differences compare to SCS are that SCD-s are categorically unable to assimilate and transform new territories into own homeland, expanding it with this, and create naturally dependent vassals: so, there is no systematic work with space as in case of a socio-cultural systems. The effect is a sort of socio-cultural conservation: SCD-s do not change / expand their own space and in general do not evolve in themselves during very prolonged periods; modern results of such phenomenon are quite modest sizes of their territories. Another essential SCD-s distinction from SCS-s manifests itself in their extraordinary situational behaviour.

At the present level of knowledge about socio-cultural formations and processes, there is no possibility to determine the reasons for emerging differences of socio-cultural systems and domains with respect to space, but it's possible to describe all the details and components of these distinctions.

MIXED SOCIO-CULTURAL REGION - territory that has no distinct internal socio-cultural dominant and where various socio-cultural formations (SCS-s, SCD-s and buffer zones) co-exist. As a rule, these are regions of the young historical assimilation which, in some perspective, gain socio-cultural certainty, but with this may retain in their boundaries presence of a several socio-cultural formations. Most probable evolution of a mixed socio-cultural regions is into naturally dependent vassals and external buffer zones, and as a more rare case - into part of the homeland of some SCS.

ENCLAVE - territory of a historically temporary domination of a particular SCS within another socio-cultural and / or political formation. Genesis and evolution of enclaves are diverse and in many respects depend on a specific characteristics of a particular SCS's dynamics. As a rule, enclaves are generated in a process of expanding areas controlled by one or another SCS. They carry out important socio-cultural tasks, but are not lasting as from historical point of view. Next in turn stage of the SCS's evolution may become the reason for enclave's degradation, even in the absence of an external pressure.

ENCLAVE-COMMUNITY WITHIN ALIEN SCS - critical self-reproducible quantity of one SCS' population permanently living on the territory of another SCS and retaining with this own specific socio-cultural standards. Enclave-community reproduces itself by means of both natural growth and mechanical migrations of population from maternal SCS into SCS of permanent inhabitancy. Enclave-communities are most typical for the regions of mixed socio-cultural assimilation as well as pioneer colonisation.

As the classical example we may consider black inhabitants of North America, and the USA in particular.

CIVILISATION - initial form of the territories' sporadic socio-cultural colonisation that may be found in a socio-cultural systems, but does not bear an compulsory character. It is typical for the first periods of the SCS-s' evolution. As soon as SCS starts large-scale spatial assimilation, civilisation is being absorbed by its own SCS and then change its organization into another forms. Civilisations are isolated one from another, but not from their own SCS-s. It is an initial form of the SCS's existence, its possible first exterior manifestation and appearance.

Quite often, ecological crises become the specific reason for transition from the territories' sporadic colonisation within civilisations to their large-scale spatial assimilation. Such crises are being generated as an indications of the achieving the certain level of the space assimilation processes. Results of ecological crises generated by civilisations are usually migrations of their population to other regions. From that point of view, civilisations might also be considered as a cause for the growth of the SCS's population up to certain quantity. Most of the known civilisations are the facts of the distant history: they either remained in the past, or have grown into SCS-s. It is especially important to link the fact of the existence of civilisations as a quite reserved centres of culture and territories' assimilation and the fact that they often did not produce any inheritance to the fact that the general process of socio-cultural assimilation "re-covers" such formations, absorbs and "dissolves" them within.

Ecological crises as a reason for the civilisations' decay, or their drastic degradation, should be examined from the general positions of fundamental socio-cultural process of the territories' assimilation. In such context, it is clear that ecological crisis is the most efficient way and reason to make the population of a certain civilisation to "spread" around the under-populated territory of its own SCS.

SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEST - process which is inherent only for socio-cultural systems. Its socio-cultural meaning lies in developing and selecting the most efficient, in a specific historical conditions, socio-cultural basis for a certain SCS which should determine further ways of solving this SCS' most fundamental and principal problems. Socio-cultural contests may take place during various periods of the SCS-s evolution and, as a rule, in a form of a cycle of civil wars, domestic quarrels and feuds, economic and cultural depression. They do usually leave the very gloomy and strange memories in the following generations and become the subject of subsequent falsifications from the side of their very own SCS-s. In reality, socio-cultural contests are absolutely necessary for the efficient growth and development of any SCS and are a kind of its response to changing arrangements of socio-cultural powers.

SOCIO-CULTURAL STANDARD - combination of the specific regulating principles and norms that rule a state's and society's organization, as well as specific forms through those internal potential of a socio-cultural formation is being realised. Initial socio-cultural standard emerges together with its socio-cultural formation. As for SCS's, it's being formed during first period of their evolution; then it may be essentially transformed as a result of a socio-cultural contest conducted by SCS. Transformation of a socio-cultural standard takes place only in SCS-s: it is an indication of their high adaptability to changing (socio-cultural) environment / conditions.

SOCIO-CULTURAL MIGRATIONS (SOCIO-CULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT MIGRATIONS) - migrations that are directed outside the traditional homeland of a certain SCS and aimed at the socio-cultural transformation of the alien territories into the new homeland of the SCS in question, or creating its naturally dependent vassals. Ability to generate such migrations is the unique quality of SCS-s. Specific causes that bring them about may be very different, but, as a rule, manifest themselves through generating a sort of the "end of the World" within traditional homeland.

Example of the migrations aimed at the expanding the own homeland is eastward flight of Russians to new territories in Siberia and Far East as from the second half of the XVI century, and especially - as from the second half of the XVII century. The result of the "time of troubles" within the traditional - at the time - Russian homeland and the Russian Orthodox church schism were mass migrations of the Russian population to new lands that thus became the new Russian homeland - not the result of a fortuitous, but socio-culturally grounded process.

Processes of the rise and growth of the Cossack movement in Moscow Tsardom and Russian Empire as well as resettlements of a considerable numbers of Russians in Baltic Republics and Central (Middle) Asia during Soviet times may serve as the examples of the migrations aimed at the creating naturally dependent vassals. Results of such "melting" actions and processes began revealing themselves only after the USSR disintegration. Transformed in a socio-cultural respect territories turned out to be greatly dependent from Russia.

Such processes are of universal character and take place in the evolution of actually all the SCS-s - socio-cultural migrations are not unique for any one of them.

SCS's EVOLUTION - process of the SCS's change through realisation of its own internal potential and taking into consideration outer factors and conditions. External factors may exert essential influence on SCS, mainly on its specific forms, but in general, process of the SCS's evolution is a product of its own internal development.

PERIOD - historically significant interval of time in the SCS's evolution during which radical and clearly identified transformation of the entire SCS's space, based on its own internal logic, takes place. Qualitatively redesigned organization of the entire SCS's space is usually the result of the completed period.

SUBPERIOD - a part of a period during which vital and definitely identified transformations of some territories within the SCS's space are being performed. Such transformations may be regarded as individual manifestations of a more fundamental processes of space assimilation within SCS.

The basic distinction between the period and subperiod is that changes occurred during a subperiod may be of a local character, connected only to a separate regions within SCS. A sum of subperiods forms a period. A period, depending on its own specifics and current tasks of a SCS, may include a varied number of empirically established subperiods (as a rule, from 2 to 5).

STAGE - a part of a subperiod within which clearly distinguished specific political, economic and/or social transformations / reorganisation of SCS, not necessarily connected with recurrent completed changes in a process of its space assimilation, take place.

Stage is usually a historically brief interval of time and is only identified when a very detailed analysis of the SCS's evolution is being made. Presence of a certain political, economic and/or social specifics in the SCS's evolution is a criterion to single out a stage.

Idea of a stage is extremely important to correctly interpret a historical data on specific SCS's evolution. Socio-cultural approach isn't just general theoretical construction, but it's a tool and basis for examination and interpretation of concrete processes and events.

APPENDIX 2.

TYPES OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FORMATIONS

SOCIO-CULTURAL TYPE'S INDICATIONS / QUALITIES

SOCIO-CULTURAL SPACE

1.1. Relatively large areas of permanent inhabitancy

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Always possesses and controls significant territories

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Never comparable to the SCS' space. As a rule, it's much less than the territory of any taken separately SCS, and may be quite insignificant

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Never comparable with the SCS' space. As a rule, it's much less than the territory of any taken separately SCS, and as the neighbouring socio-cultural systems progress, decreases to a certain modest size

Mixed socio-cultural region

May possess quite large initial area, but demonstrates persistent tendency to its gradual reduction, due to various parts of the territory assimilation into and by other socio-cultural formations - socio-cultural systems and domains

1.2. Homeland where significant quantities of its population live permanently

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Always has own homeland where significant part of its population lives continually

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

In accordance with this particular criterion, there are two types of socio-cultural domains:

* Stable SCD, with permanent homeland and permanent population;

* Sporadic SCD, with homeland where its population may be absent for centuries

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Homeland exists, but it's extremely changeable in configuration and size, and unstable. Its fluctuations depend mainly on external factors, such as pressure from the side of a neighbouring SCS-s. Furthermore, homeland cannot be defined absolutely exactly within an entire area of inhabitancy and control of this particular socio-cultural type's population as a whole

Mixed socio-cultural region

Homeland has no definite, precise character. At the developed stage, micro-differences of the neighbouring socio-cultural enclaves' homelands may take place. Representatives of the various socio-cultural systems and domains have own homelands within the mixed region

1.3. Ability to expand the homeland, through assimilation into it new territories

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Has the ability to assimilate the new territories into own homeland, as a rule, in regard to territories bordering with the old homeland and extended from its boundaries for any distance. This ability is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. Only temporary changes of the space under control may take place. In practice, homeland never changes to grow

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability. Homeland may hardly be defined from an entire area of permanent inhabitancy of the particular socio-cultural buffer zone's population and its temporary control. Homeland never grows as a result of new territories assimilation

Mixed socio-cultural region

Socio-cultural systems' homelands expand to a considerable degree at the expense of transformation of the mixed socio-cultural regions' spaces. Population of the mixed socio-cultural regions themselves does not reveal any tendencies to expand their homeland(-s)

1.4. Ability to generate complicated internal structure of own socio-cultural space, as a response to demands from the outside (existence of an internal buffer zones)

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Has the ability to generate complicated internal structure of own space, mainly in order to protect and defend itself from other SCS-s and as a response to respective demands from the outside. This ability expresses itself in creating internal buffer zones along the borders with other SCS-s and external buffer zones. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no ability to generate complicated internal structure of own space. It is homogeneous because of its insignificant size and absence of systematic work with own space as well as neighbouring territories during historically considerable intervals of time

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no ability to generate complicated internal structure of own space. The latter is extremely unstable and changeable in configuration and size, and depends on outer factors, in particular, state / conditions and conflicts of the neighbouring SCS-s

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no ability to generate complicated internal structure of own space. The latter is extremely unstable and changeable in configuration and size, and depends on outer factors, in particular, state / conditions and conflicts of the neighbouring SCS-s

1.5. Ability to generate civilisations as a form of the own territory sporadic colonisation and assimilation, at the early stages of evolution

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Does have such ability. In the early periods of evolution, SCS-s may produce isolated civilisations. Later on, as SCS develops and evolves, it absorbs these civilisations into itself. Generating civilisations is a unique, but, none the less, not obligatory quality and indication of the SCS: it depends on a specific (regional) conditions of a historical process

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Unable to generate civilisations. In spite of their whatever great age and antiquity, SCD-s do not invent such forms of the territories' colonisation / assimilation

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Unable to generate civilisations

Mixed socio-cultural region

Unable to generate civilisations

1.6. Ability to independently generate one or several stable states within own socio-cultural space

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the ability to independently generate one or several stable states. Number of states depends on a period of the SCS evolution and may vary greatly (from one state occupying the whole SCS's territory, and up to several dozens)

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

This ability manifests itself depending on the SCD's type:

* Stable SCD with stable population and stable homeland, as a rule, generates one stable state;

* Sporadic SCD with homeland where its population may be absent for centuries, generates one state that however exists only from time to time

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Never independently generates stable states. Buffer states constantly change their boundaries and, in general, greatly vary in their sizes and configurations. Subject to (conflicting) interests and state / conditions of competing neighbouring SCS-s, they may be represented either by one or several states. Any buffer states are extremely unstable and always greatly depend on external factors (inter-relations of neighbouring SCS-s, in particular)

Mixed socio-cultural region

Never independently generates stable states, though areas inhabited by certain population - but never states - may be quite stable. May have both one or several states as well as no states at all: everything depends on positions of SCS-s participating in the region's assimilation, and the evolutionary age of the mixed region itself

1.7. Concentration of the considerable reserves of vitally important natural resources within own socio-cultural space

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Usually possesses considerable reserves of vitally important natural resources. Their structure differs significantly and, of course, depends on previous geological history of the SCS's territory, but in general available resources allow the SCS's economy to exist, in practice, autonomously

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

SCD's territory, as a rule, isn't considerable in itself, and most often reserves of vitally important natural resources are not contained there. In case of Northern SCD, their independent exploitation is in fact impossible due to primitive level of this SCD's general progress

Socio-cultural buffer zone

As a rule, there are no considerable reserves of vitally important natural resources within socio-cultural buffer zones. And if such resources are found, then unstable space of a buffer zone becomes an object for the next re-partition by competing neighbouring SCS-s, and buffer zone itself is again left without an important natural resource

Mixed socio-cultural region

Considerable reserves of vitally important natural resources may be found, but their exploitation is completely determined by various SCS-s participating in a mixed region's assimilation, and is an external business for the particular mixed region itself

1.8. Ability to generate ecological crises as a steps in assimilating own socio-cultural space

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the ability to generate ecological crises within local spaces during process of their assimilation, in order to move then further, to new territories with better natural and living conditions - in order to generate ecological crises there afresh. Such is, as a matter of fact, strategy of an initial socio-cultural assimilation of territories within utmost possible limits. After the boundaries of the socio-culturally assimilated spaces are defined, ecological crises lose their socio-cultural meaning and are not being generated any more

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

There is no such ability. SCD-s do not generate ecological crises as a step in a space assimilation, and are adapted to their natural environment with maximum correctness. The reason is not so much their highly-developed culture, but mainly their inability to expand own socio-culturally assimilated space

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Socio-culturally oriented ecological crises may take place in a buffer zones, but they are never aimed to expand their own socio-cultural space and / or assimilate alien territories, and are results of periodic fluctuations of a buffer zone's territory influenced by neighbouring SCS-s. The reason for such ecological crises may be, for instance, next in turn replacement of a dominating SCS. Similar ecological crises are generated not by buffer zone itself, but by one of neighbouring SCS-s within a buffer zone's space - as a sort of socio-cultural provocation aimed at achieving certain purposes of a certain SCS

Mixed socio-cultural region

Socio-culturally oriented ecological crises may take place in a mixed regions, but they are never aimed at expanding their own socio-cultural space and assimilating alien territories, and are results of periodic changes in the SCS-s' power arrangements in the region. The reason for such ecological crisis may be, for instance, next in turn replacement of a dominant in the region

2. SOCIO-CULTURAL TIME

2.1. Stable existence during historically considerable intervals of time

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Stable existence during historically significant intervals of time is a characteristic of SCS-s. Their life terms are amounted to 2500 years and more

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Stable existence during historically significant intervals of time is also a characteristic of SCD-s. Their life terms are amounted to 2500 years and more, too

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Usually formed as a result of neighbouring SCS-s interaction and competition. As a rule, duration of a buffer zone existence is lesser than that of any neighbouring SCS-s. Life term of the buffer zone as a specific socio-cultural formation may amount to 1000 years and more

Mixed socio-cultural region

Heavily depends on specific (historical) conditions of the region colonisation. As a developed formations may exist for a very long while without any changes. Life term of a completely formed mixed socio-cultural region may amount to 2000 years and more

2.2. Complete cycle of the own socio-cultural space formation which includes series of successive periods determined by the inner logic of the space evolution

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses a complete cycle of the space socio-cultural assimilation. Researches reveal seven principal periods of socio-cultural evolution, and every period may consist of a few particular phases - subperiods and stages. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such cycle. As distinguished from SCS, SCD does not work regularly at transforming its socio-cultural space. Its homeland is static during historically considerable intervals. As a result of a favourable outside situation, SCD's controlled space may change drastically, but always for a very brief time and without any socio-cultural assimilation / transformation of the territory that falls under such temporary control

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no complete cycle. Everything depends on the outside situation that determines the buffer zone's behaviour. Buffer zone itself does not work regularly at expanding and transforming its socio-cultural space. As a result of a favourable outside situation, space controlled by particular buffer zone may change drastically, but always for a (historically) brief time and without any socio-cultural assimilation / transformation of the territory that falls under such temporary control

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no complete cycle. Everything depends on the outside factors and situation that determine specific behaviour of the mixed socio-cultural region. It's unable to work regularly at expanding and transforming its socio-cultural space at all

3. CONTACTS WITH OUTER WORLD

3.1. Correlation of inner logic and outer factors. Ability to resist socio-cultural pressure from the outside

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Inner logic always prevails over outer factors that are only used in case of strict correspondence with the SCS's evolution internal order. Even successful external spatial expansions are always used for the own inner purposes. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Does have some inner regularities which may sometimes prevail over external factors, but in many cases namely outer factors prove to play decisive role in determining ways of the SCD's evolution. Pressure from the outside does not usually lead to annihilation of the SCD's socio-cultural specifics, but its resistance to the outside influences isn't sufficient

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Internal logic does not play a significant role. Outer factors obviously dominate. Pressure from the neighbouring SCS-s' side takes place nearly permanently and determines ways of the buffer zone evolution. Resistance to the outside influences is extremely low

Mixed socio-cultural region

Internal logic does not play a significant role. Outer factors obviously prevail. Correlation of the various SCS-s' positions in the mixed socio-cultural region determines ways of its evolution. Resistance to the outside influences is extremely low

3.2. Ability to create socio-cultural enclaves to transform and assimilate alien territories

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the ability to create enclaves within alien regions to transform and assimilate them socio-culturally. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. May establish temporary enclaves only as a way of own diffusion, but never - for socio-cultural transformation and assimilation of alien territories

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability. May establish temporary enclaves only as a way of own diffusion, but never - for socio-cultural transformation and assimilation of alien territories. Territories of the socio-cultural buffer zones themselves are often being assimilated into other socio-cultural formations

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability. Population of the mixed regions may create temporary enclaves only as a way of own diffusion, but never - for socio-cultural transformation and assimilation of alien territories, often being themselves assimilated into other socio-cultural formations

3.3. Ability to create socio-cultural enclave-communities

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Able to create stable enclave-communities within alien socio-cultural formations

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Able to create stable enclave-communities within alien socio-cultural formations

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Able to create temporary enclave-communities within alien socio-cultural formations during periods of excessive emigration, but with time these enclave-communities always become themselves assimilated into their foster socio-cultural formations

Mixed socio-cultural region

Able to create temporary enclave-communities within alien socio-cultural formations during periods of excessive emigration, but with time these enclave-communities always become themselves assimilated into their foster socio-cultural formations

3.4. Ability to establish colonies, military-political and economic vassals outside own homeland

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

If necessary, may generate such vassals and colonies alike, usually established to solve certain internal problems produced in the process of own socio-cultural evolution and other territories' transformation

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

In case of necessity and as a result of a certain, advantageous external situation, SCD-s with stable homelands may generate colonies and vassals, but only for a very brief time. However, this never leads to socio-cultural transformation of neither stable SCD-s themselves nor peoples and territories temporarily subordinate to them. Sporadic SCD-s never establish neither vassals nor colonies

Socio-cultural buffer zone

May generate colonies and vassals of a second grade, with this permanently being itself a vassal of a certain neighbouring SCS. Space temporarily controlled by the buffer zone states never exceeds the limits of internal and external buffer zones themselves. Changes of the controlled areas are absolutely unstable and always external matters for a buffer zone itself

Mixed socio-cultural region

Mixed socio-cultural region is usually itself a colony and / or vassal of a certain SCS and subject to the various SCS-s struggle and socio-cultural competition

3.5. Ability to create naturally dependent vassals in a course of a socio-cultural transformation of other territories

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Has the ability to create naturally dependent vassals in a course of socio-cultural transformation of other territories. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. Military-political and economic vassals of a second grade never become naturally dependent ones. SCD-s themselves may, for some historical time, become vassals of a neighbouring SCS and then use such subordinate status to achieve own goals and gain some socio-cultural benefits

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability. Buffer zones never form naturally dependent vassals and themselves are always vassals of a neighbouring SCS. Change of a dominating SCS is a routine and always external matter

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability. Mixed socio-cultural regions never form naturally dependent vassals and themselves are always vassals of various SCS-s that pretend to assimilate some territories within the region. Change of a dominating SCS is a routine and always external matter

4. POPULATION

4.1. Existence of a relatively large quantities of own population

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Quantities of the SCS's population, compare to general numbers of currently inhabiting the Earth people, are always significant. Most of the World's population lives within SCS-s

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Quantities of the SCD-s' population, as a rule, are not comparable to those of SCS-s', but may be quite significant, especially in the case of SCD-s with stable homelands

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Quantity of the buffer zone's population may be quite large, but, as a rule, it's never comparable to that of any taken separately SCS. It maintains definite tendency to periodically reduce the numbers of own population, at the expense of various mechanical migrations of its considerable parts

Mixed socio-cultural region

Quantity of the mixed region's population may be quite large, but, as a rule, it's not comparable to that of SCS

4.2. Ability to conduct a successive socio-cultural assimilation of alien population, by including it into own structure together with the new territories

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Able to socio-culturally assimilate alien population successively. This ability manifests itself during periods of creating the own homeland and internal buffer zones. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. SCD's population is rigidly reserved and unable to assimilate alien population in principle. Isolation from the rest of the world is a strict standard of SCD as a specific socio-cultural formation

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability. There is no isolation as in case of SCD, but there is no assimilation of alien population either

Mixed socio-cultural region

Within mixed socio-cultural regions, assimilation of alien population and territories by various SCS-s takes place. At the developed stages of a mixed region assimilation, it ceases to exist

4.3. Ability of population to retain its qualitative specific characteristics within alien socio-cultural formations

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

SCS's population is able to preserve its specific qualities within alien socio-cultural formations

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

SCD's population possesses strikingly expressed ability to retain own specific qualities within alien socio-cultural formations. It guarantees SCD's survival in a sporadic condition during historically considerable intervals of time

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Such ability isn't quite obvious. Usually, assimilation of the significant parts of a buffer zone's population into other socio-cultural formations takes place

Mixed socio-cultural region

Population is too diverse and heterogeneous. As a rule, it retains own qualitative characteristics, but also may be assimilated itself: everything depends on a combination of specific (historical) conditions

4.4. Extent of a socio-cultural homogeneity of the population

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Population has homogeneous socio-cultural character. There are certain stages of its socio-cultural assimilation. There is also definite distinction between population of such types of the socio-cultural spaces as homeland, internal buffer zones and enclaves. Exceptions may appear among population inhabiting recently included into SCS territories. Existence of such non-converted (non-transformed) socio-culturally population and its territories within SCS is usually temporary and ends in a complete socio-cultural assimilation. Growth of the SCS population is attributed to natural increase as well as assimilation of new territories with all their population, with the latter's successive conversion and transformation that may last for centuries

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Population has homogeneous socio-cultural character and differs drastically from the rest of the world. SCD's basic distinction from SCS is that growth of the SCD's population is attributed to its natural increase only, and never - to socio-cultural conversion and assimilation of other territories with their population

Socio-cultural buffer zone

As a rule, population isn't socio-culturally homogeneous. Depending on a specific historical situation, very different versions and combinations of the population socio-cultural structure may take place

Mixed socio-cultural region

As a rule, population isn't homogeneous. Depending on a specific historical situation, very different versions and combinations of the population socio-cultural structure may occur

4.5. Ability to generate migrations of population for socio-cultural transformation of other territories

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses such ability. SCS-s generate migrations of population to socio-culturally transform alien territories into homelands, naturally dependent vassals and enclaves within buffer zones. In all the SCS-s, such migrations most often happen as a result of creating "end of the World" (mass starvation, civil wars, unstable state authorities) within traditional homelands. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability

4.6. Ability to generate migrations of population to diffuse it into other socio-cultural formations, with no purpose of the latter's transformation

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Has no such ability. SCS-s do never possess too big numbers of population so that to force it out into new territories without historically clear and definite purposes of the latter's socio-cultural transformation

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Such ability can be traced down. SCD-s representatives may be diffused into various SCS-s and be present there to solve own problems, but never - to transform and assimilate other territories socio-culturally

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Such ability can be traced down. Mass migrations of the buffer zone's population into alien socio-cultural formations, and especially - into SCS-s, are possible from time to time, and are even quite regular. Such migrations become a norm during aggravation of a neighbouring SCS-s' competition to control some particular buffer zone, and may be well provoked by these SCS-s. However, migrations from buffer zones never aim to transform and assimilate other territories socio-culturally

Mixed socio-cultural region

Such ability exists. Mass migrations of the mixed region's population into alien socio-cultural formations, and especially - into SCS-s, are quite possible from time to time. Such migrations become a norm during aggravation of relations of the SCS-s that participate in a competition to control some particular mixed region, and may be well provoked by these SCS-s. Migrations from mixed regions never aim to transform and assimilate other territories socio-culturally

4.7. Ability to maintain multinational structure of population, with various languages, within own socio-cultural formation

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses such ability. Can maintain whatever multinational structure of population and large numbers of languages, even representing different lingual groups. Unity and integrity of the SCS's spaces is determined by their respective assimilation. National and lingual diversity do not have an influence on SCS in principle. In this respect SCS-s may demonstrate staggering tolerance that grows substantially after completing the socio-cultural transformation of the respective territories

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. Within own homeland, consistent intolerance to different nationalities and their suppression develop. In case of SCD with own stable homeland, mono-national structure of population and singular language usually take place

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has a multinational structure of population and big numbers of languages that are foreign relatively one another. They are united only by the neighbouring SCS-s' pressure that affects all the nations of a buffer zone. This pressure may be reflected differently on a different nations, and it naturally gives rise to inner problems within the buffer zone's population

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has a multinational structure of population and big numbers of languages that are foreign relatively one another. They are united only by the fact that pressure of the competing for the region SCS-s affects all its nations / population. This pressure may be reflected differently on a different nations, and it naturally gives rise to inner problems within the mixed region's population

5. RELIGION, LANGUAGE AND SPIRITUAL CULTURE

5.1. Own specific world religion, or its own unique version

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Always possesses own world religion or its own unique version. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no own world religion. SCD's religions may be of a national character only and are bound to this particular SCD at most

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no own world religion. Some version of the neighbouring SCS's religion always dominates. Choice of the religion is determined by specific historical and often circumstantial factors; in general, it's completely regulated by correlation of the neighbouring SCS-s' positions in the area

Mixed socio-cultural region

Various world religions may peacefully co-exist there, with no obvious dominance of any one. Structure of religions represented in the region is determined in many respects by external factors

5.2. Ability to propagate and diffuse own version of religion outside own socio-cultural formation for the purpose of other territories transformation

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses such ability. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS: it promotes own version of religion in a process of assimilation of alien territories and population

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability

5.3. One or several dominant languages

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Within lingual diversity, one or few languages obviously dominate. There may also exist substantial number of stable languages with limited circulation. Language isn't an absolute indicative distinction of the particular SCS from the rest of the socio-cultural formations. SCS's dominant language may widen its circulation quite independently from the SCS itself

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

There is always one clearly dominating language that serves as a basis for singling out this particular socio-cultural formation from the rest of the world. This is an absolute indicative distinction of SCD-s from the rest of the socio-cultural formations

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Essence of this socio-cultural formation is such that considerable number of languages always co-exist there, in a proportion that is characteristic for population of some particular buffer zone. There are no and cannot be whatever dominant languages

Mixed socio-cultural region

Essence of this socio-cultural formation is such that considerable number of languages always co-exist there, in a proportion that is characteristic for population of some particular mixed region. There are no and cannot be whatever dominant languages

5.4. Ability to widen circulation of the own dominant language(-s) as a daily used one(-s) outside own socio-cultural formation

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Able to widen a circulation of own language outside own homeland, and first of all - in the internal buffer zone and among the naturally dependent vassals. Such language begins being used there as a daily mean of communication that is an important element of the process of socio-cultural assimilation of territories and population. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Has no such ability. Language is a unique attribute of the particular SCD's population and may only be diffused together with its bearers. Population of other socio-cultural formations never use this language as a mean of daily communication

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability. Diffusion of a language(-s) may only accompany migrations of a buffer zone's population which, however, easily adopts language(-s) of either a more attractive or dominant SCS

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability. Diffusion of a language(-s) may only accompany migrations of a mixed region's population which, however, easily adopts language(-s) of either a more attractive or dominant SCS

6. ECONOMICS AND PRODUCTIVE FORCES

6.1. Extent of reliability and self-sufficiency of the socio-cultural formation's economy

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Economy is reliable and self-sufficient. It possesses considerable internal reserves, and contacts with other socio-cultural formations do not play determining role in its development, though these contacts are important for solving internal socio-cultural problems such as the neighbouring territories' transformation and competition with alien SCS-s. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Economy is extremely vulnerable and never self-sufficient; in case of isolation becomes obviously poor and mediocre. Contacts with other socio-cultural formations are of most importance for economic prosperity and desired stability those, however, are never really lasting

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Economy is extremely vulnerable and never self-sufficient. It depends mainly on neighbouring SCS-s, and these may both arrange for a periodic destruction in a buffer zone and assist its short-term prosperity if it conforms to their interests

Mixed socio-cultural region

Economy is extremely dependent on SCS-s pretending to control the mixed region. In certain conditions of isolation, it may become self-sufficient (at the level of poverty and mediocrity)

6.2. Ability to generate stable and invent original economic standards and forms

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the ability to generate and invent stable original economic standards and forms which may have no analogues outside this particular SCS. This is the unique quality and indication of SCS

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Able to generate and invent original economic standards and forms, however, quite unstable and aimed only to withstand the competing SCS-s' pressure

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability

6.3. Ability to generate technological innovations for socio-cultural purposes

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the ability to generate and invent technological innovations for solving own socio-cultural problems, and first of all - internal tasks of creating the own homeland and naturally dependent vassals

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Possesses the ability to generate technological innovations for solving own socio-cultural problems. However, invention of these innovations is always very limited and vulnerable due to the nature of this particular socio-cultural formations. Internal market is too small and as such doesn't actually need such innovations. Technological innovations are never associated with, or caused by, the socio-cultural tasks of space transformation

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability

6.4. Ability to conduct wide-scale economic actions of sabotage aimed against socio-cultural competitors

Socio-cultural system (SCS)

Possesses the potential ability and practical possibilities to conduct wide-scale economic sabotage actions directed against alien socio-cultural formations. Such actions may be brought about in a various specific forms

Socio-cultural domain (SCD)

Possesses the potential ability and practical possibilities to conduct economic sabotage actions aimed against other socio-cultural formations. These actions may be brought about in a various specific forms. Characteristically, scales of such activity are considerably smaller compare to those of SCS-s

Socio-cultural buffer zone

Has no such ability as well as possibilities

Mixed socio-cultural region

Has no such ability as well as possibilities

* * *

Below, once more, is the list of the unique qualities and indications of socio-cultural systems:

· Ability to assimilate the new territories into own homeland, as a rule, in regard to territories bordering with the old homeland and extended from its boundaries for any distance;

· Ability to generate complicated internal structure of own space, mainly in order to protect and defend itself from other SCS-s and as a response to respective demands from the outside. This ability expresses itself in creating internal buffer zones along the borders with other SCS-s;

· Complete cycle of the space socio-cultural assimilation. Researches reveal seven principal periods of socio-cultural evolution, and every period may consist of a few particular phases - subperiods and stages;

· Inner logic always prevail over outer factors that are only used in case of strict correspondence with the SCS's evolution internal order. Even successful external spatial expansions are always used for own inner purposes;

· Ability to create enclaves within alien regions to transform and assimilate them socio-culturally;

· Ability to create naturally dependent vassals in a course of socio-cultural transformation of other territories;

· Ability to conduct successive socio-cultural assimilation of alien population, by including it into own structure together with the new territories. This ability manifests itself during periods of creating own homeland and internal buffer zones;

· Ability to generate migrations of population to socio-culturally transform alien territories into homelands, naturally dependent vassals and enclaves within buffer zones. In all the SCS-s, such migrations most often happen as a result of creating "end of the World" (mass starvation, civil wars, unstable state authorities) within traditional homelands;

· Always possesses own world religion or its own unique version;

· Ability to propagate and diffuse own version of religion outside own socio-cultural formation for the purpose of other territories transformation. SCS promotes own version of religion in a process of alien territories and population assimilation;

· Ability to widen circulation of own language outside own homeland, and first of all - in the internal buffer zone and among the naturally dependent vassals. Such language begins being used as a daily mean of communications that is an important element of the process of socio-cultural assimilation of territories and population;

· SCS's economy is reliable and self-sufficient. It possesses considerable internal reserves, and contacts with other socio-cultural formations do not play determining role in its development, though these contacts are important for solving internal socio-cultural problems such as the neighbouring territories' transformation and competition with alien SCS-s;

· Possesses the ability to generate and invent stable original economic standards and forms which may have no analogues outside this particular SCS.

* * *

Here is the list of the socio-cultural formations existing by the end of the XX century. They went through some evolution and are now at the different periods of their development. Morphology of the socio-cultural formations is described in detail by their space-time models.

Socio-cultural systems: Barbarian-Nomadic SCS, Black African SCS, Chinese SCS, Hindu SCS, Muslim SCS, Russian SCS, South-American SCS, Western SCS

Socio-cultural domains (examples): Armenian, Japanese, Judaic

Socio-cultural buffer zones

We're talking here only about external socio-cultural buffer zones located between different SCS-s. External socio-cultural buffer zones are at present at the various stages of their evolution and differ drastically one from another. None the less, they are clearly defined as the formations of a specific socio-cultural type.

Let's cut the vast list of external buffer zones down to just two examples so that do not go deep into extensive explanations regarding complicated structures of these complex socio-cultural formations: 1) East-European buffer zone (Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary); 2) North-European buffer zone (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway)

Mixed socio-cultural regions (examples): Islands of Pacific and Indian Oceans, South-East Asia

APPENDIX 3.

PERIODS OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS' EVOLUTION

BARBARIAN-NOMADIC SCS

1. Initial period of the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS existence, surrounded by neighbours not internally ready to integrate with it socio-culturally (from ancient times until I century AD)

2. Establishing the buffer zone with Western SCS (I century - late IV century AD)

3. Socio-cultural integration of Barbarian-Nomadic and Western SCS-s. Rise of the renewed Western SCS (late IV century - second half of the VII century AD)

4. Creating the buffer zones between Barbarian-Nomadic SCS and all of its neighbouring SCS-s (from second half of the VII century until late XII century)

5. Socio-cultural integration of Barbarian-Nomadic SCS with all the neighbouring, accessible to it SCS-s. Socio-cultural assimilation of the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS's territory and population into these SCS (late XII century - 1380-s)

6. Rise of the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS residual homeland and population. Conflict of various neighbouring SCS-s for its socio-cultural assimilation, with the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS itself marionette participation in the process (late XIV century - mid XX century)

7. Establishing the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS's residual homeland and population on the borders of Russian and Chinese SCS-s as their external buffer zone (from second half of the XX century and for some future)

MUSLIM SCS

1. Initial sporadic colonisation of the homeland territory in the most ancient civilisations and unknown centres of inhabitancy (XXX - VII centuries BC)

2. Initial spatial defining the Muslim SCS's territory and its early acquisition in the form of Empires. Conflict with Western SCS of its second period for buffer spaces (750-s - 330-s BC)

3. Socio-cultural contest in Muslim SCS. Creating the internal buffer zones on borders with Western SCS. Assimilation of the other socio-cultural systems' population within the Muslim territories (from 330-s BC until early VII century AD)

4. Islam as the product of the socio-cultural contest; unification of the Muslim territories based on Islam. Beginning of the Muslim controlled spaces growth, and establishing the buffer zones between Muslim SCS and all of its neighbouring SCS-s (Western, Barbarian-Nomadic, Hindu and Black African) (early VII century - 1258)

5. Socio-cultural integration with Barbarian-Nomadic SCS. Further growth of the Muslim controlled spaces into the territories of Black African and Hindu SCS-s. Creating the military-political vassals and buffer zones with all the neighbouring SCS-s (1258 - early XVIII century)

6. Conflict for buffer spaces with various SCS-s. Loss of the military-political vassals, and the alien socio-cultural systems' permanent presence in the Muslim homeland. Diffusion of the Muslim communities outside the Muslim homeland (early XVIII century - 1970-s)

7. Liberation of the Muslim homeland and its internal buffer zones from the alien socio-cultural systems' permanent presence. Political-geographical transformation of the Muslim SCS's space based on its own socio-cultural standards. Conflict with other SCS-s for control over the external buffer zones (from 1970-s and for some future)

CHINESE SCS

1. Initial period of the Chinese population existence and Chinese SCS creation (from legendary Hsia Dynasty 1800 - 1500 BC to Eastern Chou Dynasty 770 BC)

2. Socio-cultural contest for creating the most efficient socio-cultural standard for Chinese SCS (from 770 until 221 BC - Eastern Chou Dynasty)

3. Unification of the Chinese SCS's territory based on the chosen socio-cultural standard. Beginning of the homeland growth and establishing the naturally dependent vassals (221 BC - 317 AD)

4. Creating the internal buffer zone on the North, new naturally dependent vassals on the West, and new homeland on the South (317 - 1211 AD)

5. Socio-cultural integration with Barbarian-Nomadic SCS. Creating the internal buffer zones, naturally dependent vassals and homeland growth on the South. Unification of the socio-culturally transformed territories into the united state (from 1211 until 1840-s)

6. Defining the buffer zones' territories through conflict with various SCS-s. Military, political and economic presence of alien socio-cultural systems in the Chinese homeland. Beginning of the Chinese population intensive diffusion around the World (from 1840-s until the Great Cultural Revolution)

7. Creating the integral internal buffer zone and liberation of the Chinese homeland from the alien socio-cultural systems' presence. Establishing the Chinese enclave-communities within Western SCS and the mixed socio-cultural regions (as from the end of the Great Cultural Revolution and for some future)

WESTERN SCS

1. Initial period of the Western population existence and Western SCS creation. Initial sporadic colonisation of the homeland territory in the most ancient civilisations (from ancient times until 770 - 750-s BC)

2. Greek-Roman times. Western homeland growth. Rise of the first Empires and Greek-Roman communities outside the homeland. Establishing the buffer zone with Barbarian-Nomadic SCS (from 770 - 750-s BC until 380-s AD)

3. Socio-cultural integration with Barbarian-Nomadic SCS. Transformation and further expansion of the homeland. Creating internal buffer zones. Defining the new ideological grounds of Western SCS, based on Roman Catholicism (from 380-s AD until the Crusades beginning)

4. Socio-cultural contest in Western SCS. Transformation of the Pyrenees Muslim enclave into internal buffer zone. Creating naturally dependent vassals in the East-European buffer zone. Expansion outside own homeland into the mixed socio-cultural regions (from the Crusades beginning until the discovery of America)

5. Global overseas colonial expansion of Western national states. Growth of the homeland in the mixed socio-cultural regions with Western predominance (1490-s - 1918)

6. Global war against other socio-cultural systems headed by Russian SCS. Losing the control over colonies. Reversion of Western population into own homeland and its redistribution between the mixed socio-cultural regions with Western predominance and traditional Western territories (1918 - 1990-s)

7. Transformation of the European homeland and stimulating further population redistribution between the territories of old homeland and mixed socio-cultural regions with Western predominance. Creating the American and South-Eastern (Asian) internal and external buffer zones (from 1990-s and for some future)

RUSSIAN SCS

1. Initial period of the Slavonic world existence, with undeveloped socio-cultural differences (from ancient times until 882 AD)

2. Period of the socio-cultural differences defining in the Slavonic world. Early accumulation of the Russian SCS territory and population, plus establishing the internal and external buffer zones (from 882 until mid - late XI century)

3. Socio-cultural contest for creating the most efficient socio-cultural standard for Russian SCS. Socio-cultural integration with Barbarian-Nomadic SCS (from late XI century until 1572)

4. Creating the united Russian state, with utmost homeland, based on Moscow socio-cultural standard (from 1572 until 1700)

5. Imperial program of the Russian SCS: creating naturally dependent vassals and further homeland growth; expansion into neighbouring SCS-s as resistance to Western SCS pressure onto these SCS-s (from 1700 until 1917)

6. Communist program of the Russian SCS: defining boundaries of own socio-cultural spaces (especially internal and external buffer zones); leading the global war against Western SCS's expansion outside its homeland (1917 - 1991/93)

7. Nationalist program of the Russian SCS: re-structuring own socio-cultural spaces; maintaining balance of socio-cultural powers in the World (from late XX century and for some future)

HINDU SCS

1. Initial period of the Indian population existence; rise of the ancient Hindu civilisations as a form of sporadic colonisation of the territory. Rise of the Hindu SCS religious, cultural and social foundations (2500-s - 327 BC)

2. First contacts with Muslim SCS. Beginning of the homeland growth and establishing the North-Western buffer zone (327 BC - 711 AD)

3. Muslim SCS's attacks withstanded. Creating the buffer zone on the joints with Muslim SCS (711 - early XIII century)

4. Muslim SCS intervention and establishing the vassal military-political control over the Northern and Central regions of the Hindu homeland. Further evolution of the Hindu homeland (early XIII century - 1658)

5. Military-political control of the Great Britain and co-operation with it to withstand the Muslim SCS's expansion. Adaptation of Western innovations; Hindu population diffusion into other socio-cultural formations as a vassals of British colonists. Creating the internal buffer zones; conflict with Muslim and Chinese SCS-s for control over the external buffer zones (1658 - 1945)

6. Transition to an indirect forms of co-operation with Western SCS in the struggle against Muslim and Chinese SCS-s. Extreme point of the conflict with Muslim SCS for control over buffer zones. Further developing the internal buffer zones; efforts to transform the external buffer zones into naturally dependent vassals (from 1945 and for some future)

7. Prognostic stage: Retention of the indirect forms of co-operation with Western SCS to withstand the Muslim and Chinese SCS-s' expansion. Final stages of creating the internal and external buffer zones. Political-geographical transformation of the Hindu homeland based on its own socio-cultural standards (more distant future)

SOUTH-AMERICAN SCS

1. Initial existence of the South-American population and sporadic colonisation of the territory in form of the most ancient civilisations (from ancient times until late XV century)

2. Socio-cultural integration with Western and Black African SCS-s. Spatial colonisation / assimilation of the territory and creating the renewed basis for South-American SCS (from 1490-s until the 1823 Monroe Doctrine)

3. Establishing the internal buffer zones and re-structuring own territory based on the national states principles. Permanent military-political and economic presence of Western SCS (represented by the USA) (1823 - 1918)

4. Operative involvement of the USA into South-American SCS's rising. Introduction of economic, social and military innovations. Further generating the internal buffer zones. Co-operation of South-American and Russian SCS-s in the struggle against permanent presence of the USA (1918 - 1980-s)

5. Liberation of the South-American SCS homeland from military, economic and political presence of all the alien socio-cultural systems. Creating the buffer zone with Western SCS (in the mixed socio-cultural region with Western predominance in North America). Operative conversion of the submitted Western economic and social innovations (from 1980-s and for some future)

6. Prognostic stage: Socio-cultural contest in South-American SCS and its re-structuring according to the own renewed socio-cultural standards (this period may last for a 100 years and more)

7. Prognostic stage: Further intensive development of the South-American SCS's territory based on its own socio-cultural standards (quite distant future)

BLACK AFRICAN SCS

1. Initial period of the Black African population existence on the territory of its homeland, at the level of clan-tribal organisation (from ancient times until IV century AD)

2. Beginning of the contacts with Muslim SCS, rise of the early States; creating the Northern and Eastern internal buffer zones (IV century - 1490-s)

3. Beginning of the contacts with Western SCS, creating the Western and Southern internal buffer zones. Overseas diffusion of the Black African population and establishing the enclave-communities within alien socio-cultural formations. Participation in the evolution of South-American SCS, of its 2nd period (1490-s - 1880-s)

4. Spatial seizure of Black African SCS by Western SCS. Introduction of the superficial economic, social and military innovations. Co-operation of Black African and Russian SCS-s in the struggle against Western SCS's control over the Black African homeland (1880-s - 1960)

5. Liberation of the Black African SCS homeland from military, economic and political presence of all the alien socio-cultural systems. Operative conversion of the submitted economic and social innovations (from 1960 and for some future)

6. Prognostic stage: Socio-cultural contest in Black African SCS and its re-structuring in accordance with the own renewed socio-cultural standards (this period may last for a 100 years and more)

7. Prognostic stage: Further intensive development of Black African SCS based on its own socio-cultural standards. Establishing connections between the Black African homeland and its overseas enclave-communities (quite distant future)

APPENDIX 4. PERIODS AND SUBPERIODS

OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS' EVOLUTION

Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

Muslim SCS

Chinese SCS

Western SCS

Russian SCS

Hindu SCS

South-American SCS

Black African SCS

From ancient times until the Christian era beginning
1.1. - from XXX century until VII century BC 1.1. - from ancient times until 770 - 750-s BC
2.1. - from 750-s until 559 BC 1.1. - from 1800 - 1500-s until 770-s BC 2.1. - from 770 - 750-s until 500-s BC
2.2. - from 559 until 330 BC 2.1. - from 770-s until 403 BC 2.2. - from 500-s until 323 BC
1.1. - from ancient times until I century BC 3.1. - from 330 until 50 - 40-s BC 2.2. - from 403 until 221 BC 2.3. - from 323 until 113 BC 1.1. - from 2500-s until 320-s BC
2.1. - from I century BC until 175 AD 3.2. - from 50 - 40-s BC until 175 AD 3.1. - from 221 BC until 25 AD 2.4. - from 113 BC until 175 AD 2.1. - from 327 BC until 50 AD 1.1. - from ancient times until IV century AD
From the Christian era beginning until VI century
2.2. - from 175 until 375
3.1. - from 375 until early V century 3.3. - from 175 until 380 3.2. from 25 until 317 2.5. - from 175 until 380-s 2.2. - from 50 until 320
3.2. - from early V century until middle of the VI century 3.4. - from 380 until early VII century 4.1. - from 317 until 580-s 3.1. - from 380-s until middle of the VI century 2.3. - from 320 until 711 2.1. - from IV century until IX century
From VI century until X century
3.3. - from the middle of the VI century until second half of the VII century
4.1. - from the second half of the VII century until IX century 1.1. - from ancient times until 882 3.1. - from 711 until 999
4.2. - from IX century until late XII century 4.1. - from early VII century until 750 4.2. - from 580-s until early X century 3.2. - from the middle of the VI century until middle - end of the X century 2.1. - from 882 until 988 3.2. - from 999 until early XIII century 2.2. - from IX century until late XI century
X - XI - XII - XIII centuries
4.3. - from early X century until 960-s 2.2. - from 988 until 1097

5.1. - from 1180 until 1205

4.2. - from 750-s until late XI century 4.4. - from 960-s until 1211 3.1. - from 1097 until 1169
5.2. - from 1205 until 1270-s 4.3. - from late XI century until 1258 5.1. - from 1211 until 1280-s 4.1. - from the middle - end of the X century until 1291 3.2. - from 1169 until 1237
5.3. - from 1270-s until 1380-s 5.1. - from 1258 until 1360 5.2. - from 1280-s until 1368

4.2. - from 1291 until 1490-s

3.3. - from 1237 until 1380-s 4.1. - from early XIII century until 1340-s 2.3. - from late XI century until 1490-s
XIV - XV centuries
3.4. - from 1380-s until 1478
6.1. - from 1380 -s until 1570-s 5.2. - from 1360 until 1502 5.3. - from 1368 until 1644 5.1. - from 1490-s until 1660-s 3.5.1 - from 1478 until 1564 4.2. - from 1340-s until 1526 1.1. - from ancient times until 1490-s 3.1. - from 1490-s until 1820-s
XVI - XVII centuries
3.5.2. - from 1564 until 1572
4.1.1.- from 1572 until 1598
4.1.2. - from 1598 until 1640-s
4.2.1. - from 1640-s until late 1680-s 4.3. - from 1526 until 1658 2.1. - from 1490-s until 1650-s
6.2. - from 1570 -s until late 1650-s 5.3. - from 1502 until early XVIII century 5.4. - from 1644 until late 1760-s 5.2. - from 1660-s until 1760-s 4.2.2. - from late 1680-s until 1700 5.1. - from 1658 until 1763 2.2. - from 1650-s until 1780-s
XVIII century
5.1.1 - from 1700 until 1756
5.1.2. - from 1756 until 1772
6.1. - from early until late XVIII century 5.2.1. - from 1772 until 1795
6.3. - from 1660-s until 1800 6.2. - from late XVIII until 1880-s 5.5. - from late 1760-s until 1840 5.3. - from 1760-s until 1820-s 5.2.2. - from 1795 until 1815 5.2. - from 1763 until 1818 2.3. - from 1780-s until 1820-s
XIX century
5.4.1. - from 1820-s until late 1850-s 5.3. - from 1815 until late 1850-s
6.4. - from 1801 until 1896 5.4.2. - from late 1850-s until 1892 5.4.1. - from late 1850-s until 1892 5.3. - from 1818 until 1885 3.1. - from 1820-s until 1870-s 3.2 - from 1820-s until 1880-s
6.5. - from 1896 until 1953 6.3. - from 1880-s until late 1940-s 6.1. - from 1840 until 1911 5.5. - from 1892 until 1918 5.4.2. - from 1892 until 1917 5.4. - from 1885 until 1945 3.2. - from 1870-s until 1918 4.1. - from 1880-s until 1940-s
XX century
6.1.1. - from 1917 until 1924
6.1. - from 1918 until 1939 6.1.2. - from 1924 until 1939
6.2.1. - from 1939 until May 1945 6.2.1. - from 1939 until May 1945
6.2. - from 1911 until 1949 6.2.2. - from May 1945 until late 1980-s 6.2.2. - from May 1945 until late 1980-s 4.1. - from 1918 until 1945 4.2. - from 1940-s until 1960
6.4. - from late 1940-s until late 1970-s 6.3. - from 1949 until second half of the 1960-s 6.2.3. - from late 1980-s until late 1990-s 6.2.3. - from late 1980-s until late 1990-s 6.1. - from 1945 until 1974 4.2. - from 1945 until 1980-s 5.1. - from 1960 until late 1980-s
7.1. - from 1953 and for some future 7.1. - from late 1970-s and for some future 7.1. - from the second half of the 1960-s and for some future 7.1. - from late 1990-s and for some future 7.1. - from late 1990-s and for some future 6.2. - from 1974 and for some future 5.1. - from 1980-s and for some future 5.2. - from late 1980-s and for sone future
XXI century

Subperiod 7.1. continues

Subperiod 7.1. continues

Subperiod 7.1. continues

Subperiod 7.1. continues

Subperiod 7.1. continues

Subperiod 6.2. continues

Subperiod 5.1. continues

Subperiod 5.2. continues

total number of subperiods in the SCS- s evolution

17 18 18 18 17 15 9 10

GENERAL TABLE OF PERIODS AND SUBPERIODS

IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS’ EVOLUTION

PERIODS AND SUBPERIODS

Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

Muslim SCS

Chinese

SCS

Western SCS

Russian

SCS

Hindu

SCS

South-American SCS

Black

African SCS

Average

number of subperiods within a period

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 5 2 3 3 3 2.75
3 3 4 2 2 5 2 2 2 2.75
4 2 3 4 2 2 3 2 2 2.5

5

3

3

5

5

4

4

unknown for the time being unknown for the time being

4

6

5

4

3

2

2

unknown for the time being

prognosis

prognosis

3.2

7

unknown for the time being unknown for the time being unknown for the time being unknown for the time being unknown for the time being

Prognosis

prognosis

prognosis

unknown for the time being
Number of completed subperiods in the SCS’ evolution

17

18

18

18

17

15

9

10

Total

122

Number of completed subperiods by the time when 7.1. begins

17

18

18

18

17

Prognosis

17 - 18

Prognosis

17 - 18

Prognosis

17 - 18

Prognosis

139 - 142

APPENDIX 5. GENERAL MODEL OF THE PROCESS OF SPACE ASSIMILATION WITHIN SCS

THE LEGEND


Examined socio-cultural system

Other (six) socio-cultural systems that are not analyzed in detail in this model, but follow the similar path in a process of creating their own spaces (only Barbarian-Nomadic SCS represents an exception)


Stable enclaves within boundary areas (on the joints of SCS with external buffer zone)

Demarcating socio-cultural formations of an enclave type

within internal buffer zone


SCS's homeland


SCS's internal buffer zone


SCS's boundary areas during its expansion

Directions of the socio-cultural colonization / assimilation and space control expansion






Appendix 7.

Process of the socio-cultural assimilation of Crimea:

Atlas of space-time models (kartoids)

The Legend

Mountainous areas


Rivers

CRIMEA AS MIXED SOCIO-CULTURAL REGION

Combination of Barbarian-Nomadic SCS in the inland regions and Western SCS in the coastal regions


Domination of Muslim SCS represented by Crimean Khanate as vassal of the Ottoman Empire


Domination of Russian SCS


Crimea as socio-cultural enclave of Russian SCS


ASIA MINOR AS EXTERNAL SOCIO-CULTURAL BUFFER ZONE

Asia Minor as external buffer zone at the early stages of its evolution


Asia Minor as external buffer zone under control of Western SCS at times of Roman Empire


Asia Minor as external buffer zone under control of Western SCS


Asia Minor as external buffer zone under control of Muslim SCS


CRIMEAN SEA-COASTS

Crimean sea-coasts under control of Western SCS


Crimean sea-coasts under control of Byzantine Empire


Crimean sea-coasts under control of Muslim SCS


Crimean sea-coasts under control of Russian SCS


Crimean sea-coasts under control of Barbarian-Nomadic SCS


CRIMEAN CITIES

Greek ports-enclaves on the Black Sea coasts


Ports-enclaves under control of Byzantine Empire


Ports under control of Muslim SCS


Ports under control of Russian SCS


Crimean cities & towns established under the Russian rule


Crimean cities & towns demonstrated special qualities during wars


FLOWS OF COLONIZATION,

MUTUAL SOCIO-CULTURAL LINKS AND WARS

Connections / links within Barbarian-Nomadic SCS


Migrations within Barbarian-Nomadic SCS at times of its integration with Western or Russian SCS-s


Flows of Western colonization

Mutual links / connections of Western cities-enclaves with their homeland


Mutual links of cities-enclaves in Crimea with Asia Minor as external buffer zone

Directions of diffusion and socio-cultural "processing" / transformations of the territories of and by the Russian SCS


Military conflicts between Polish-Lithuanian state and Crimean Khanate


Military-political domination of the Ottoman Empire in the Black Sea basin and neighboring regions


Actions of the Crimean Khanate as a relic form of State against its Northern neighbors


Military / war actions


Destruction in Crimea caused by wars


Economic destruction of Crimea


STATES & CONDITIONS OF BARBARIAN-NOMADIC SCS

Barbarian-Nomadic SCS during processes of assimilation


Areas of the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS dissemination


Areas of the Crimean Khanate's spatial control


MIGRATIONS

Migrations of Russian population from the homeland of Russian SCS


Migrations of German colonists from Western SCS


Emigrations from and return to Crimea of Turkic population


"Mixing " the population as a result of wars

"Mixing " the population as a result of civil war of 1918/21


Establishing economic and socio-cultural links / connections with Russian SCS


NUMERICAL SYMBOLS: THE MOST IMPORTANT RIVERS

1 – Danube

2 – Dnieper

3 – Don

4 - Kuban

APPENDIX 9.

Comparative analysis

of the European and Asia Minor external buffer zones' evolution

We've performedcomparative analysis of the European and Asia Minor external buffer zones' evolution. The result of the analysis - atlas of the computer generated space-time models (kartoids) that reflects the logic of this space evolution. Geopolitical problems of the region and its conflicts appear as particular consequences of the general evolution. Suggested system of the computer generated space-time models creates a principally new foundation for further geopolitical processes' forecasting / prognosis.

The atlas is now available on http://www.geography.net.ru. It is not unfortunately possible to reproduce it here due to its really big volume. More information on atlas / CD may be found on http://www.ccssu.crimea.ua/homes/emp/ndv/

The atlas serves as a foundation for forecasting geopolitical processes in the entire European external buffer zone. It also reflects and correctly explains the processes in the Balkans, the essence and state of the current crisis there. We insist that these processes don't possess chaotic geopolitical character, but are consequences of the regular evolution of the region.

Some results of such analysis are presented in the papers of my colleague - Tatiana Nikolaenko.

Here is just the periodization for all the European external buffer zone's socio-cultural regions and Asia Minor.


Asia Minor as external buffer zone. General description

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up to VIII century BC.

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century BC until 327 BC.

Subperiod N 3.

From 327 until 180-s BC.

Subperiod N 4.

From 180-s BC until 110 AD.

Subperiod N 5.

From 110 until 380 AD.

Subperiod N 6.

From 380 until 610.

Subperiod N 7.

From 610 until 870-s.

Subperiod N 8.

From 870-s until early XI century.

Subperiod N 9.

From early XI century until late XIII century.

Subperiod N 10.

From second half of the XIII century until 1453.

Subperiod N 11.

From 1453 until 1680-s.

Subperiod N 12.

From 1680-s until 1770-s.

Subperiod N 13.

From 1770-s until 1856.

Subperiod N 14.

From 1856 until 1908.

Subperiod N 15.

From 1908 until 1980-s.

Subperiod N 16.

From late 1980-s and for some future.

Subperiod N 17.

Prognosis: more distant future

European external buffer zone. General analysis

Subperiod 1.

As from ancient times up until 113 BC

Subperiod 2.

From 113 BC until 110 AD

Subperiod 3.

From 110 until 380

Subperiod 4.

From 380-s until mid VI century

Subperiod 5.

From mid VI century until mid VIII century

Subperiod 6.

From mid VIII century until late X century

Subperiod 7.

From late X century until 1241

Subperiod 8.

From 1241 until 1380

Subperiod 9.

From 1380 until 1570-s

Subperiod 10.

From 1570-s until 1700

Subperiod 11.

From 1700 until 1772

Subperiod 12.

From 1772 until 1831

Subperiod 13.

From 1832 until 1870

Subperiod 14.

From 1871 until 1917

Subperiod 15.

From 1917 until 1945

Subperiod 16.

From 1945 until late 1980-s

Subperiod 17.

From late 1980-s and for some future

Cycle 5. Subperiods 18 - 19 - 20. Prognosis

Finnish region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early IX century

Stage 1-2.

From early IX century until early XIII century

Stage 2-1.

From early XIII century until late XVI century

Stage 2-2.

From late XVI century until late XVII century

Stage 2-3.

From late XVII century until 1721

Subperiod N 3.

From 1721 until early XIX century

Subperiod N 4.

From early XIX century until 1917

Stage 5-1.

From 1917 until 1920

Stage 5-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 5-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 5-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 6.

From 1991 and for some future

Norwegian - Swedish - Danish region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until late VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From late VIII century until early XI century

Subperiod N 3.

From early XI century until early - mid XIII century

Subperiod N 4.

From early - mid XIII century until 1471

Subperiod N 5.

From 1471 until late XVII century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XVII century until early XIX century

Subperiod N 7.

From early XIX century until early XX century

Stage 8-1.

From early XX century until 1920

Stage 8-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 8-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 8-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 9.

From late XX century and for some future

Latvian - Estonian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early VIII century AD

Stage 1-2.

From early VIII century until early XIII century

Stage 2-1.

From early XIII century until 1370

Stage 2-2.

From 1370 until 1570-s

Stage 3-1.

From 1570-s until 1580-s

Stage 3-2.

From 1580-s until 1700

Stage 3-3.

From 1700 until 1721

Subperiod N 4.

From 1721 until 1914

Stage 5-1.

From 1914 until 1920

Stage 5-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 5-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 5-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 6.

From 1991 and for some future

Lithuanian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early VIII century AD

Stage 1-2.

From early VIII century until early XI century

Stage 1-3.

From early XI century until mid XIII century

Subperiod N 2.

From mid XIII century until 1386

Subperiod N 3.

From 1386 until 1462

Stage 4-1.

From 1462 until 1569

Stage 4-2.

From 1569 until 1650-s

Stage 4-3.

From 1650-s until 1795

Stage 5-1.

From 1795 until 1831

Stage 5-2.

From 1831 until 1861

Stage 5-3.

From 1861 until 1914

Stage 5-4.

From 1914 until 1920

Stage 6-1.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 6-2.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 6-3.

From 1945 until 1991

Stage 7-1.

From 1991 and for some future

Polish region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century until 966

Subperiod N 3.

From 966 until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1386

Subperiod N 5.

From 1386 until 1570-s

Subperiod N 6.

From 1570-s until 1667

Subperiod N 7.

From 1667 until 1772

Subperiod N 8.

From 1772 until 1831

Subperiod N 9.

From 1831 until 1918

Stage 9-1.

From 1831 until 1861

Stage 9-2.

From 1861 until 1914

Stage 9-3.

From 1914 until 1918

Subperiod N 10.

From 1918 until 1980-s

Stage 10-1.

From 1918 until 1921

Stage 10-2.

From 1921 until 1939

Stage 10-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 10-4.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From 1980-s and for some future

Czech-Slovakian region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century until late X century

Subperiod N 3.

From late X century until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1380-s

Subperiod N 5.

From 1380-s until 1485

Subperiod N 6.

From 1485 until 1648

Subperiod N 7.

From 1648 until 1848

Subperiod N 8.

From 1848 until 1914

Stage 9-1.

From 1914 until 1919

Stage 9-2.

From 1919 until 1938

Stage 9-3.

From 1938 until 1945

Stage 9-4.

From 1945 until 1968

Stage 9-5.

From 1968 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 10.

From 1980-s and for some future

Hungarian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until mid VI century AD

Stage 1-2.

From mid VI century until late VIII century

Subperiod N 2.

From late VIII century until early XI century

Subperiod N 3.

From early XI century until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1380-s

Subperiod N 5.

From 1380-s until 1541

Subperiod N 6.

From 1541 until late XVII century

Subperiod N 7.

From late XVII century until late XVIII century

Subperiod N 8.

From late XVIII century until 1830

Subperiod N 9.

From 1830 until 1917

Stage 9-2.

From 1848 until 1867

Stage 9-3.

From 1867 until 1914

Stage 9-4.

From 1914 until 1918

Subperiod N 10.

From 1918 until late 1980-s

Stage 10-1.

From 1918 until 1920

Stage 10-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 10-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 10-4.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From late 1980-s and for some future

Romanian - Bulgarian - Moldavian region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until AD

Subperiod N 2.

AD until 370-s

Subperiod N 3.

From 370-s until late VII century

Subperiod N 4.

From late VII century until late X century

Subperiod N 5.

From late X century until late XIV century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XIV century until 1480-s

Subperiod N 7.

From 1480-s until 1774

Subperiod N 8.

From mid 1770-s until 1878

Subperiod N 9.

From 1878 until early XX century

Stage 10-1.

From 1908 until 1914

Stage 10-2.

From 1914 until 1918

Stage 10-3.

From 1918 until 1940

Stage 10-4.

From 1940 until 1945

Stage 10-5.

From 1945 until late 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From late 1980-s and for some future

Balkan region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until mid II century BC

Subperiod N 2.

From II century BC until 370-s AD

Subperiod N 3.

From 370-s until early IX century

Subperiod N 4.

From early IX century until late XII century

Subperiod N 5.

From late XII century until late XIV century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XIV century until late XVII century

Subperiod N 7.

From late XVII century until 1870-s

Subperiod N 8.

From 1870-s until early XX century

Stage 9-1.

From 1908 until 1913

Stage 9-2.

From 1914 until 1918

Stage 9-3.

From 1918 until 1939

Stage 9-4.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 9-5.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 10. From late 1980-s and for some future


3. One of the most essential points here is existence of clear correlation in evolution of the European external buffer zone and Asia Minor as external buffer zone. No detailed description of all these correlations here - only combined general tables.

CHRONOLOGY OF EVOLUTION:

EUROPEAN EXTERNAL BUFFER ZONE

Cycle

Subperiod

Dates

Duration of a subperiod

(years)

Average

duration of subperiods within

a cycle

(years)

Duration of a cycle

(years)

Cycle #1 1 (1.1) From ancient times until 113 BC Indefinite Around 218 years (without 1st subperiod) As far as it's known, around 650 years
2 (1.2) From 113 BC until 110 AD 223
3 (1.3) From 110 until 380-s 270
4 (1.4) From 380-s until mid VI century Around 160
Cycle #2 5 (2.1) From mid VI century until mid VIII century 200 Around 207 years Around 830 years
6 (2.2) From mid VIII century until late X century 230
7 (2.3) From late X century until 1241 260
8 (2.4) From 1241 until 1380 139
Cycle #3 9 (3.1) From 1380 until 1570-s 190 Around 113 years Around 450 years
10 (3.2) From 1570-s until 1700 130
11 (3.3) From 1700 until 1772 72
12 (3.4) From 1772 until 1831 59
Cycle #4 13 (4.1) From 1832 until 1870 38 Around 39 years Around 156 years
14 (4.2) From 1871 until 1917 46
15 (4.3) From 1917 until 1945 28
16 (4.4) From 1945 until late 1980-s 44
Cycle #5 17 (5.1) Is still going on currently -

Current

cycle

Current

cycle

18

19

20

Prognosis

-

Described duration of the buffer zone evolution

- around 2100 years

CHRONOLOGY OF EVOLUTION:

ASIA MINOR AS EXTERNAL BUFFER ZONE

Cycle

Subperiod

Dates

Duration of a subperiod

(years)

Average

duration of subperiods within

a cycle

(years)

Duration of a cycle

(years)

Cycle #1 1 (1.1) From ancient times until VIII century BC Indefinite Around 303 years (without 1st subperiod) As far as it's known, around 910 year
2 (1.2) From VIII century BC until 327 BC 473
3 (1.3) From 327 until 180 BC 147
4 (1.4) From 180 BC until 110 AD 290
Cycle #2 5 (2.1) From 110 AD until 380 270 Around 228 years Around 910 years
6 (2.2) From 380 until 610 230
7 (2.3) From 610 until 870-s 260
8 (2.4) From 870-s until early XI century Around 150
Cycle #3 9 (3.1) From early XI century until late XIII century 260 Around 187 years Around 750 years
10 (3.2) From late XIII century until 1453 Around 170
11 (3.3) From 1453 until 1680-s 227
12 (3.4) From 1680-s until 1770-s Around 90
Cycle #4 13 (4.1) From 1770-s until 1856 86 Current cycle. As per three completed subperiods - 70 years Current cycle. As per three completed subperiods - around 210 years
14 (4.2) From 1856 until 1908 52
15 (4.3) From 1908 until 1980-s 72
16 (4.4) From 1980-s and for some future - is still going on currently -
Cycle #5

17 (5.1)

18 (5.2)

19 (5.3)

20 (5.4)

Prognosis

- - -

Described duration of the buffer zone evolution

- around 2800 years

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Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений22:36:55 18 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
15:52:49 24 ноября 2015
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
10:45:57 24 ноября 2015

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