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:

:
:
: 17:24:38 18 2005
: 5500 : 11 : 5 : 4.6 :    

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1999



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, 19-21 1991 . , . . .

22.08.1991 -- . 30 1993 . . .

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CMBOKA: ME EOOE PEKAMO

muu auu nopeyau oo ynpam u. anoeo o ypeeo opee oeoo eoa.

oeca coa eoeea ac o ooe cax c e eoo acoc. Paccope o npoea cao oe ae peoaae yoee caoro o "co". Oe ec p oe 6 ooa. apep, A..oce aca ooo 60 opeee coa. caoo ocea "co ea, opaa eo-opaa cpyypa, coepa cee yaa a e e, oe o ee pee, oopx oa ec ooee epaepy ao". B copeeo ococo coape oeac, o "co epoaao ae aoc oaa aeeo epeo ooe ooy epea, oopy p paccaa oca p cee, a pyy oca apepy. Ceoaeo, cc coa no peecoy opeee paeee eoo eee oceoc. Ta o oeco ocoeo "aeco" epooec, coepa coa ooopa opo aoa cxoacec cop o opeee oa, (ae oeca oe c oco coa, ., oec.)

Co oo paccapa a, a cooyoc coo "ooro poa" - a aoy ccey. Oey ae, eeec (o rpeo) oe coa o cao c eae eo ooc ooy oc oeceo-oec, opay oooc coa coceo oeco co a cooyoc paex cpec, pax oeco , oecoy ec, pa opa aepaa o ocoeo , oepy, 6o, , cp cc.

Hecop a eccopy aoc ye oeco co, ae cpae o oooecoe apaee o e paaec; o oycoo, a e aec, peoaae oeeceo aye yoapaex "paoacecx" cceocx oe, oopx xapaepa a ooaoy ocp c "cye a ooaae ". Coec e oxo eae oe eca po, o "ppaoa" oe. -a oro, c pe ceoe peco coao ay, oece c oac oeceo pey, a ceoaeo, e oy "epe" ooy poco "e aeac" paoao-pec cceoa.

oop o coax, e e yoy .Kaccpepa, oop ca, o eoe - ooe "coecoe ooe", ceoaeo, c cp eoeeca oo paccapa co py c, c noo oopo yopoa opya x xaoc; , , pe, cycco aya cy "coece op". ooy Kaccpep oac c exa ac epe exy copeex ey necx o, opac co: "B pecx cya eoe cera opaaec oa cpeca. Ha cee oec a pa c a oa cpeca - a pay e opaae ax oa, o cea ocaec aece ultima atio ac cpxececoo cecoro", Aa oecx o co a aoo Kaccpcp poo ocoo o aepay epa oce epo poo o. cpa, epaeo axoxc coco oeceo- xaoca, cceoe ecx o e eee ayao. Kpoe oo, ae cooe peea cax cpaax pooa ecoa. Ka pao, oeco caa cococy o-a , o oee yopoee epapxec cpoee.

Co coea cee a eaoe, a aepaoe e ca cococy - o eoopo, payeec, cee - papee eoo copa ey coae. o ex op, o ye pac aepaa yxoa yypa oeca, yy co, a ae epye a coy, ee eo cpe x yyp. B cepe o coec "ce" eaoo aepaoo poec, a eco, coee eaoo o ac c po peax ee, coaae eoeo. p o co ypoae eeyae oepa c poc co oec o, o o e pe opae npocop ceoo cey a x ox.

Kacca oeco co oe npecaea cey o6pao :

l. Haoao-ocyapcea oeca coa ( ceo a, ep, ; e op co coyc e oo ocyapca, o paoopa opaa oo opa);

2. Apxeyp oec (a, coopye p.-e o Baroe, Kaca epca ce, ococ Kpe ..);

3. Cyype a oec ee, eopa, ocee copec co;

4. a o, oco6e pea y cx ocyapca, opa oe, opea, ea, a p.;

5. eee a (a x epeo aece e eco, eeooee ao cpae), poe oo, x ooee cpe pyx a oe copoa ooec oec cayc ocyapca;

6. oeca ooa (aa y, opoo, cpa ..);

7. Pya-poeccyaa coa: e oe oce epop - o pya c coee opeex poeyp, y o aceac apae, yee a ocyapca ooc poeee aoaoo paa;

8. Hao-aaoa coa, aa ce ao aa, oocec oeco peae (oy, aa, peope co, a, oppe ..)

9. -yaa coa e oaeo , opeeee apoe peooe ec, noype eo);

10. peeo-oea oeca coa, pee oe, ocoo ae ao aoao oo: Kooo coo aepae, ap-ya ap-ooo Pacc, opa Ao pe, y y p-a .; oey coecy po pae opye, ocoeo epoe);

11. a oece co (pee ceo oece ep - o, e, Haoeo p,: eeape epo Be Te, Po y, Mypoe ee epcoa o y A, C s CA);

12. coo-rpaeca ca. aa repaece a (ce-ooe e, pec, , po ..);

13. oec (ceaaepooo ocoe oe ocpy, peecoecopae: oco, oap, "pa'", a ae oy; poe oo, oecyao o oeoe caoe poeceoe coo a oco co);

14. oecaoa c (oe pcpac copooaoo-o e, paee oee, oee..);

15. Coeca pee ("opacaoxa", "noxa epa epoo", "coecoe pe" ..; pa, co, aoae pae epeo pao coe);

o epecee, payeec, e cepaeaccaoecx coo, oy e oee oe () pacpeec, cpyypy yaoo a co. Cyecee oca aoee x epax exa ec . Ka o ceoeco cc (coaco ..Moppcy), oeco coe oo paccapa:

1) cay ooee ey eea aoo cce;

2) ceay - ooee ey ao o6eo, op o pecae;

3) paray ooee ey ao ccea e, o epppye coepaec x cooe.

Ocoeoc oeco co a aoo cce coco, acoc, o, o ee e oec ceaec oo ecece aa, xo ee epeo a e peae oe ppo - "cee" oepa, op, epe; e ee ca c opa ccea, xo e ocaoo oecx (apep, opp ..), oeoax (opea, ea p.), epeoax (aeca, acea) . Kpoe oo, oeca coe e y oe aoe cce, a ae a a o (aaece co). Ta opao, noeco coe coceo pa c - - pae a epapx aox cce cooa x ex o. oo ce oo poce ooeee oeee. Oyee a, eo coaa y o ycoe ececex oecx ao oee cooy oecoy y. B cop eoeeca pae eea aae cy poce opae co (oe, pya) yopoe oeceo , ae epexo noecoy y (ao, ocy, eapa pa p.), Te e ee ''apxaece", copeco cce, co poa cooac, oco6eo oe, oa paoaa oe ee oeo pa a coa e oaae ooo oec. B ao ae noaaeo poee o c eee coepa (apep, caca peoc XX .). ooe ccooe aoee ox coo eec c eee pee. Hapep, a CCCP o-paoy ocnpac a yp cpa, a a pyeo epo cpay oce opaoa CCCP, 1941 - 1945 ., a 1961 , (o epoo ocoaa), pe xooo o, 1980-x I990-x oax. o ooe aoy-o oecoy coy oo cy o eocx, peoaax ax ocoeocx oeco yyp oeca. C ao o pe, aeaoo oo6pae oeceo-oeco cya eoxoo poo cceoa oceoo e o oo ceo peecpa oeco co, a e oo coecx yp poe ecyx oo (.e, ya ooee aoaoy ay, epy, y; apxeypo-cyyp coopye, oeco ooe, apaa ..). o e acaec ooe coa opax ocyapc, pax opaa, o oepao peee ceoeo roocoa 6pa oo a oy ecaypy; ece c e o e apoa oey-o o cera aa p coa oecoo aa "a ea", opeee ax coo ocyapceoc (aa, epa, a). o, epoo, opaee oo e, coaco oopoy oa ocyecec pa pya, oa oopx, p ac, coye ee o coey ycope, ep co eoo, a a coy. Eceo, "oo" coe pe, c, eepy co ooo 6opoy y, opo oo po cacce acpoe, e ea "eac oy", Ho cey oa epa. po6ea oycpoca oecoro pocpaca c ao co ee eocpeceoe ooee paacoy oey. cceoae ee ooe pax coax coe oeco coe a poe ooo pee oe a eey oooecy, yypooecy pyry apa. Oco6eo epeco poce o eee ooceo coo, oope cyecy e oo coee (ar, apxeypo-cyype a, pae oece ep a "eopa", opa axc eee p.). Ec oop o cyao ooe acee rocyapceo coe a oeppoay pae "yxa" cpa ee , o o oea oo cy o cee oep cyecyeo cpo, eoc o o eoo ..

B opeeeo oeca coa cpo e a cycca, oope aepy e coo payy, coo ooao cpoe eoea. eo ooy, o xyoece opa oee e co:e aaa (pao a occ co), oo paoaoo - ocp, yoo oec ("peae e peae") ceye - ya oe cxo-ooece oco6eoc eoea. Hapep, eca ooeo ooao ae oya opaa pocpaca c oo coea epax opoax oeo. ocee eoey, o ncxo, ayc y coxpae paoec. B o e pe 6oe oee a ooo pecppyec coae a ca eoopoy yc, a "o" eoey. eo ooy opoe a cyyp (eea a, cay Coo, eocpe6) pepac coeo poa co. oac a coopye, a oea coy. He cyao opoa eoao Epo peca coo "y epae", oa "a po oa opoa eac c a a... B XIII ee opoce oy oea o oceeco a, ep ao oex 6ope c eoaa yo peeceo caoc papyee opx ae". B o pepe aee co a a coaoo oecoo o, a ae eocpa c, oopy oaa co a . Papyee co - co paooe yoee aapo oeeoo paa, poee yyp, ao, ex opoo .. - o cnocoo 6op co a ac c. Oao oce paec oo ye ocac "coeca a": Kapae, ac, epca cea, cae coa, a ea aepac cop; o e caoe oocc opaa axc oo. B o o o ycope e "ao coxpaeu" , ooo a pyo, o cao, copee ceo, c , eao-apao ppoo coa. a opoc ee eoaoo ye.

oypoc peca eoopx pyx ycoo-paecx p oe yee a o6c ocoeoc eoeecoo ocp. K.. y oe apeec ao, eaax ae coa poe. o poe ea ooe a ocyec ceaec:y opaoy ooec ao opa oe cpo o cea 6eccoaeo. Mape cpyyp peoo aaaopa, apep, peoa ocpa epy oepe eoepece cpyyp a pec, py, apa. a y ox pyx cceoaee co epapo ca c "eccoae" e a oeee eoea o.

Bocpe ea eoe ooa ae ao a ooeco ypoe (pac - po, oyo - eo, e - coe ..), xo oo ea 6 ee coa oec. Heoop cceoae oop o oye coea eoo epoo eo a aa oacoc -a opac eoapa - epoo paa pao. Cey e ocp coo opee co pe, cee pa oeca, ypoe opaoa eoea ..

Ec a c ( peeo e acca) peca a e oco a, o x o "copa ec", opay oecoe pocpaco ao oeca. o poecc ye xapaepo ax coo (.e, aoece yp cce), co oepe, cay c paao ceao. Oao cyae c oec coa, payeec, e o cpooc coea eeo, opy aae, apep, e. Opee ee opae aooepoc o a ocoa aa, B.Tepep oea, apep, o "py coo oy cpoe a opao, o6 coca cooee, oopo opeee co ypy aaoo ac pe oopo o cyecoa ycoe paa coee. o cooee e o ocox ecx ocoecax, a o o ao ao yype ocoe cpyyp ,a, cea, pao coco occe o oa".

Ocoeo pacope o ooe "" epa. O oo pep: ceac, paccapa ee epe Hope noce cye cpa HATO ( oocoy y oaac cepa, a eo ca ep), ocapy pae aue a - " . Moe ocyapc ( opaa), oco6eo opaoae XX ., apya cape epaece paa, o oo oxapaepoa a oy ooe pex noecx "o".

Ec oop o aoo oeco oaope, o ceye oe, o oece co a "yc" py pyy, yo oo yeo x coe. Hapep, oece aeca oo pypoe ao-o ao ae, pooc oe aex cyypo-apxeyp acae, c cooae ao-aaox pyao-poeccyax cpec, y, pacapao c ycoo-paeco coo .. Taa ocaoa aopcye epe coae e coecx op eoo, ceoaeo, pepypoa ox eo e e opraa. p o, a , oeca coa oe y oya coaa. Kpoe oo, a opa ocyecc y coa ox cpyyp ae . Be aeee peaaee oeco co - copa "o co aea" a oo oe e, opepy x a e ao opaau e ca pa oaaec, o coa o ceo cpye o, o cpye oe e, a aaa - ayc paoo ooa coepecoa eo. Bao pyoe: pao pacoaa, oa oece co yopec aypoa coae eooecx cey.

oo ac oeco co ca c ac ooe:

"Koao acy, pye axoc oe oec cpeee poec pae ey e py x ee oe, xpeax aax oea"

B o ooe cyecye ea "acooc" pe oecxcoo, oycoea aaeo oe oeceo-oeco epapx. eo ac ye npeey a pao coepa coece ec oaa ea, oope pyrx aypoa. Heo aee pe(opoa, cep epaa), o-o o oeco ee py aa, eocy po . Ec ae oece ep ocaa epec "o" o p o ce e oyc peyeca "ep". Moe pyooe paox oycec ap oy pep. aco oooep e e oco pe o, p ac, opya ce ec coy x, .., a o noaa, oepa aopea. ec coac a oxoa yopee coo:

1) ea paeoc ooc "o opoa";

2) "o epa" cpoeoe ooee e.

Bo o ee oo poope o a aoo. a o eee yecee a ooa oepa epapx, o p peo cee ocox coecx opepo (peo, peop) ae co,oy pepac o. ooy ye ee, o aa oecoo coa pxoc a pexe epo cop, cae c ecaoc oeceo-oecoo ycpoca. Ha o , "oeco" oeco co a ao-o eo, cpeca ea ocoa onpeeeo ooc paaec po poopoao pocy aepao yxoo yyp ( ye oop o coe a cye eee ey eao aepe) ac o oecex aao . O oe oeco co opacae a poopoao pocoy yee acee ae. Ka eoe ece e coec aa, py opay oe opaa co coe coo, o pya oe eoo oupy cape, ce o peoaae peee ex x coo. coa aepae eoc, oope ae ac poecc cua. Ececeo, eoope a yxo aee, ycya eco py. Ta opao, o6e oeco aoo cce, cooecy cpyypa eoo aepao yyp opeo oece, ye eueo aoe. B o ooe oa e ep ayya. epoe poocoe, apaee oeco c , coec xapaep, oe oo caa o pooco aa - oy, Boco - aa ., Ha eco o coecx op cpay y py. Ceac apoac peoe ee, oc oe eoo, ocoe oopx - e e co. Coa pooae cy oe, py.

Bo pe copecx epeoo coa oe e co oece aece coca, pa pye op. Ka pao, e e caouc oe ee, oa poco eec. Coec Co e e oy "accy" co, e copeea Pocc. Ho a ca a oppoaa (xo oao) a oy e a y o6oc e. B o a e ca caoc - opeea pccca aoa ccea o coco oeca coecx ( ceoaeo, eooecx) opaoa, pe epeo ocyax eca ceye aepae yxoe epec. Ocoeoc eeo epexooo epoa, c o pe oeco co y cex a y: a Kpaco noa oee eocpa, o a ax opy po cocecy pace e oe yae op; apay o Maoe ea epece Moe coaa, o y o ocaac eopa. Co c oop o o, o oa ocyapcea eoo ee ooaeo e paa, capa - ee e ya. ooy- ae cpae o cx op aooaeo e pa ocypcea coa. Ta, oopo oec (ya ope,poop ), yepea yaa peea, o e oepaa ocypceo yo, e "pace" co eo CCCP aece ao copeeo Pocc. He epo, opocc apa npcae oo apa ccea, oopo opoe ope Ape epoaoo cocecye co a epo Pocc (aao ep Coecoo Coa). Coa a epa o opaae epexo xapaep e noco cc Pocc. Bopaee capo epco coe o e cocoao papaoe oo eoo, oopa oa ocoo 6 peop. oaao, o o eo-ce-pac poopo (epaa ao pooo oa Pocc) ae pe no pac opo, a o ya opo "opoac" oa a Kaa. B ao ooe e ceoao aa, o cey c coeco coo cococoa paxy eoor CCCP. ceo eopeeeoc c coo e e aopcye papee eooecoo pca, a a apoa aoo oeco cce ocyecec oa, oa opeypoa c oe coa - co - cye, ocpa coy, oa cyecye epapx coo, aoex ocoy eoo, o a epapx aoece ey eea e oy ee.

oeca coa aoca c peoo a a ooeco, aco "epeeae" x, opaa oece ea peoe oaece. Booe opa poecc. epe ocooe eocpa Pocc aa ea oa ocpac peca a oa pecoro xoa; coeco cop op pec epeeac "op" c ao ape eco ce .. cop eco, o pcoe peooe aco ceaoc, a a ca pec coaa. Cac ae aae aoece oeco eoo peoo pa. B copeeo Pocc, pao a o ce pe, ece ee aco oyc poo coo, a peoe - cya c oecx o. o acaec ooeco co, o ee ao p o cex cpaa. Bo co eeo aepa epa .pepa a o o 6pa:

"oece cce, opae caap, ocyapcee pa pxo yx, oo aa epaco poeoc Krupp, Siemens, Daimble-Benz ocac . ooy oo epaca poeoc eceoe, o o a coo ycooc ee ocex 150 e, - cocoa epy yepeoc cee"

.

oaaeo, o ppo oa e, o pe a CA- pep peoe pee c pecae eapaca paey c peeo pyee opaoo opopa Microsoft .eco, epoo, ca, o o aepac co popeee ooeee cec oo. Ha o , ae pep coco oaa peee po ecoo coa a pae. Ocoe cnoco6 oye y oec co e ec co peee oo eceeo ocoe, o eo "ya pa", oece a coaeoe eccoaeoe. B aooaece oca ocyapc peycapaec aaae a ocepee aoax coo. B o e pe o oop ypa "oo" oeco co, ee opoae pax opax, yee yex aeex, acoe yoae CM. oee a ceapo paax ocyapcex ao cy apee x ooeoo opaa coa, a eae ex e aro a acpax ax pao ya yaee ac.

P aopo, cey pa T.poa, ca co eepy eeo o oeco cce. oee oo, x "cyoaa pepeoc o oec coa ec eoxoo peoco opaoa aoaoo ocyapca". paec a cex ax rocyapcex coax oepaec eco ao, pou, oace. Oaoe e ooc a ae CA - oeopeepaeca ao, oeex eepa. ooe pep - a pac copeeoc eco cee cpa ocpax e pa aa (1848 .):

"Ec oeey e pexe a, oeey e ooy o pa, a ec cpae, a a "

Ta o oce ecyao pa aoao peoao epa copeeo Pocc coaae cycee oeco po cyeo eepa. Coo copo, o oo oc caoyaee acee, poaeo ao peo, c pyro - cyae pe coo epao ac - ye cococoa eoop eepao ee.

oo pae o, oocaa, o oeca coa ec oo cyecexcocax ace oeco . Becec e aoap ceec ocoaeoy oec coo a eoeec pay ycaec po aoxcce oeco peae. o, co oepe, eae coaeoy ocp ocoeoce oecoo pocca oe a po ycaaac epao-eopaeco cce, a a ce ee po paeepaoaeocoae ( o, oM.Beep aa eao-pauoa o eoc).

P.S. , .

1. C 1. , 1830

2. 1. , 1813

3. . , 1905

4. .17. , 1893

5. .. . : . ., 1892

6. XVI - XVII ... ,1962

7. .. XVII - XVIII . ( ) // . , 1982

8. // . : , 1987 (1988)

9. . , 1993

10. -. , 1995

11. .., .. . , 1974

12. .. . ., 1988

13. .. . : , 1990

14. . . : , 1995

15. .. // . , 1947; . 17.

16. .. ( ) // 1939 N 1(49).

17. .. . , 1911.

18. , . 1799 ., . . .

19. .. . , 1993.

20. .. . ., 1989

21. . // 1993 N1

22. ., . // , 1990. N 3(113), .59

23. . // 1985 N2

24. 1999-1 :

1. 2

2. 5

3. CMBOKA: ME EOOE PEKAMO 11

4. 18

/
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