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:

:
:
: 19:43:55 02 2005
: 1061 : 2 : 0 : 0 :    

, .


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.

, , ., 1987 .

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. . , . , , . , ..

. .

" ", 250 , " ", " " " ". , , .

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.

, , . . , , ., , , , , 10 - 1,5 . , , , 10 . . . , , . , , " ", " ", " " , , . . :

  1. , . , ?

  2. , .

  3. . ? ? " ". 1982 . 1987 ., " " 450 , 11 . . "" , " ". , . "" , - . , "", "", "" "". . , , , .


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. . , , , , ", ". , . . , , - , . , , . . , : " ?" " ?" , . , .

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:

  1. .. “ ”; - “, , ” 1997.

  2. “ ”;

  3. . “”; - 1998.

  4. .. “ -”; - “ ”, 1998.

  5. / “ ”; - 1997.


:

1. Ņ

2. ,

߅..

3. ȅ..

4. Ƞ...

5. ȅ

6. ɠ...

7. Ʌ...

8. ..

9.

10. ...

11. ۅ..

12. ΅...

13. , ߅

14. ҅

15. , ȅ

16.

̅..

17. ۅ.



- 2 -

_2, .

⥣᪮ ஢  ⥬ -
, 뢠 ࠢ᪨ 㭪樨. ᯮ २-
⢠ ⥣᪮ ஢,࣠樨 楫 ⤥
 襭 ⪮ ᯮᮡ 業 楫 ࠢ ௮-
⨢ ।. ⥣᪮ ஢ ᯥ稢
᭮ ࠢ 童 ࣠樨.
_⥣᪮ ஢ ।⠢ .ᮡ ⢨ -
襭,।ਭ 㪮⢮, ࠧࠡ⪥ ᯥ᪨
⥣,।祭 ⮣,⮡ ࣠樨 ᢮-
楫. ᭮ ࠭, ⥣᪮ ஢
 㬥⮬,騬 ਭ⨨ ࠢ᪨ 襭.
-ᯥ ࣠樨 筮
⥯.筥 , ᭮ ࠢ᪮ -
⥫쭮 ࠬ ⥣᪮ ஢. ⭮-
:। ᮢ, 譥 ।,७ न-
࣠樮 ⥣᪮ ।.
_। ᮢ.. 砥 ᥡ ।
࠭祭 ࣠樮 ᮢ,⠪ 䮭, ࠢ-
᪨ ⠫ 孮᪨ ._ਬ.,ᥭ 1987 .
"" "" ਭ﫠 襭 ८࣠ ᢮ ⤥,""-
ࠫ 㤧"", 祬 㢨 楫ࠢ ᨫ 祭
ਡ뫥 饢 ஬諥, ਮ-
⥭ 1985 .᭮ , "" "" ࠧ
""ࠫ 㤧"" ⤥쭮 騥 ७ ᮪-
讥 ᫮ ஢ ଥ ᮭ.,
⥬ ᪫祭 ࠢ᪨
᫮, ஢ ⤥.
_ 譥 ।.. ᫥ ஢ -
ப ᫥ ᫮. 墠뢠 ⢨ ⥣᪮ ࠪ-
, ⭮襭 㦥. -
஢ 譨 ,⠪ -
, ᮮ⢥騥 ਠ ᯥ 䥪⨢ ᯮ-
ᮡ ⥣ 㦠騬 ᫮.⥣᪮ ஢
ᯥ ᮧ -
⥩ ।⢮ ࠧࠡ⪨ ᮢ襭 ந⢥ -
⥬,⥬ ⢨ ࠢ⥫⢮ ⢮ 楫 ..

- 3 -
_७ न.. 砥 न ⥣᪮ -
⥫쭮 ⮡ࠦ ᨫ ᫠ 17஭ 楫 -
䥪⨢ ⥣樨 ७ 権. ஫
४஢ ""譫 䮭 "", ⢥砫
ꥤ ⥫쭮 祬 250 ࠧ ।⨩, ⠢
६ 室 ""ਭ ⨭"",""
࠭"" "" "".ᯥ祭 䥪⨢ ७ 権 -
, , ꥬ ࠢ᪮
⥫쭮.
_ᮧ ࣠樮 ⥣.. ⥫쭮 ।ᬠਢ-
⢫ ⥬᪮ ࠧ 襭 ஢ ⥬ -
஢ ࣠樨, ⥣᪨
襭.ᮡ ࣠樨 -
쭮 ᪮४஢ ᢮ ⥣᪮ ࠢ -
ᨮ ⥣᪮ ࠢ.ன ᯥ -
, " "," ","⬥ " "-
३⥤ ⬥ ",㪠뢠 ﭭ ६ 㪮-
⢠ 諮 ண஢ 饥.
_⥣ .।⠢ ᮡ ⠫ ஭
,।祭 ⮣, ⮡ ᯥ ⢫ ᨨ -
樨 ⨦ 楫.᪮쪮 ᭮ ⥧ᮢ,⭮
⥣, , ,ਭ 訬 㪮-
⢮.० ᥣ,⥣ 襩 㫨 ࠧࠡ뢠-
訬 㪮⢮, ॠ ।ᬠਢ ⨥
஢ ࠢ. ࠢ ࠧ ௮樨 <<ࠩ᫥>>
뫮 㬠 ⢫ - .୮ -
,७ ⥫쭮 થ⨭ ⠭ ⮩稢
ਢ쭮 ⭥ ᯥ譮 㫨஢ ॠ樨
⥣.
_⥣᪨ . ࠧࠡ뢠 ᪮॥ 窨 ७
ᯥ⨢ ᥩ ௮樨, ⭮ . ।-
᭮⥫ । ᥡ ⭮⥫ ᪮
⥣ ࣠樨. 設⢥
ப ﬨ ᪮ . ६
௮樨,, ॠ⨢ ᠬ-
,ᮡ直 ०,᪮ ⮬ ,-
ᠬ ࣠樨 ਢ 訬 ࠧ 㦨
.
_⥣᪨ . ᭮뢠 묨 ᫥ﬨ

- 4 -
䠪᪨ 묨.⮡ 䥪⨢ ஢ ᥣ譥
,ଠ ﭭ ᡮ஬ ஬ -
⢮ ଠ樨 ᫨,뭪,७樨 㣨 䠪.
_⥣᪨ .ਤ ଥ ।,㠫-
, ਢ । ⨯ ࠡ⭨,,
६, ਢ ࠡ⭨ 㣨 ⨯. 뢠 ᯥ-
⨢ ࣠樨, ࠢ 㤭,ਢ
ࠡ⭨ த 㣨. ,⥣-
ࠧࠡ⠭ ,⮡ ⮫쪮 ⠢ 楫-
묨 祭 ⥫ ਮ ६, 筮 -
,⮡ 室 ⢨ 䨪 -
ਥ.
_騩 ⥣᪨ .᫥ ᬠਢ ணࠬ,-
ࠢ ⥫쭮 祭 த⥫쭮 ਮ
६, ᥡ ⮬, 䫨⭠ ﭭ
樠쭠 ⠭ ﭭ ४஢ -
묨.

2Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ
2 0 2 業 .᫥
2࣠-樨>࣠-樨>譥 । >ᨫ..᫠.
2
2
Ŀ Ŀ 2Ŀ0 2Ŀ
業 2 02롮 0 2
⥣< ⥣2<0 2 ⥣ < ୠ⨢
20 2
1.1. ⥣᪮ ஢.

_஢ ᯥ ࣠権.. ࣠権, -
, । ஢ ᯥ, 稢 讣 -
ଠ쭮 ஢. ⮣,⥣᪮ ஢ -
ᥡ ࠭ ᯥ. ⮬
樥 ⥫ ᬮ ,᫨ ࠢ
⢮,⠪ ࣠,ᮧ ⥣᪨ ,
௥ 㤠 - 訡 ࣠樨,⨢樨 ஫.
,ଠ쭮 ஢ ᮧ -
䠪஢ ࣠樨. ६ ⥬
㢥祭  ⮫쪮 訬, ⥣᪮ -

- 5 -
஢ ।⠢ ⢥ ᯮᮡ ଠ쭮 ண஢
஡ ⥩. ᯥ稢 襬 㪮
।⢮ ᮧ ⥫ ப.⥣᪮ ஢
⠪ ᭮ ਭ 襭. ⮣,祣 ࣠ -
, 筨 室騥 ⢨.ଠ-
஢ ᯮᮡ ᭨ ᪠ ਭ⨨ 襭. -
᭮ ⥬⨧஢ 襭,㪮⢮
᭨ ਭ ࠢ쭮 襭 - 訡筮 -
୮ ଠ樨 ࣠樨 譥 樨.-
஢,᪮ 㦨 㫨஢ ⠭ -
, ᮧ ⢮ 饩 楫 ࣠樨.
஬諥 ⥣᪮ ஢ ⠭ ᪮॥ ࠢ-
,祬 ᪫祭.
<< >> 2 0㭠த
᫮. .⢨ ⥣ (<<>>) ⢨ (<<>>)
ᯥ .
Ŀ
। ⥣ । ⥣
Ĵ
2䥪.:0। - । ⥣,
䥪⨢ ⢨ 䥪⨢ ⢨
ਢ ᯥ 諮 ਢ ᯥ 諮,
ᯥ ᯥ 饬 ᯥ 饬 뢠
ᮬ.

2䥪..0। । ⥣
⥣, 䥪⨢ 䥪⨢ ⢨
⢨ ࠡ뢠 ਢ 㤠 諮,
諮, 饬 ⠪ १ -
ᨫ ७樨. 饬.


_2 . .0 , ,ᠬ ⢮ 襭
஢ 㤥 롮 楫 ࣠樨.᫥⢨ ᢮ ࠧ-
,뢠 室 ஢ ⥬,㦤 ⠪
᪮쪨 ப 㫨஢ 楫,⠪ -
,易 騬 楫ﬨ ࣠樨. ᭮ 楫 ࣮-
樨 - ⪮ ࠦ 稭 ⢮ - 砥
. ࠡ뢠 ⢫ ⮩ ᨨ.

- 6 -
_ .2. 0祭 ᮮ⢥饩 ᨨ, ଠ쭮
ࠦ 䥪⨢ ।⠢ 㤭 ࣠樨,
㢥.ࠡ⠭ ᭮ 楫 㦠 ⢥ ਥ
ᥣ ᫥饣 ਭ ࠢ᪨ 襭.᫨ -
⥫ , ᭮ 楫 ࣠樨, -
᪮ 窨 롮 襩 ୠ⨢._-
_.,᫨ 㪮⥫ , ᭮ 楫 -
।⠢ ண, ਣ⮢ ,
ᬮ ᪨ ,⮨ 10 - ஢
⥪ᮬ । ଥ 1,5 .
㡥⥫ 㬥 뫮 ਢ ⥪,ᯮ-
, 騩 ꥬ த 㤥 ,᫨ ଠ ᬮ
10 . . । ᨨ ਥ 㪮-
⥫ ⢥ ᭮ ਭ 襭 ⮫쪮 ᢮ -
㠫 業.⮬ ᪮॥ ஬ ࠧ -
, ⢮ 楫,饥 ⢥ 祭 ᯥ ࣠-
樨.㤨⥫쭮, ⠪ ᪫⥫쭮 ᯥ騥 ࣠-
樨," "," ","⬥ " ࢠ᪨ 㭨-
, ଠ쭮 ࠦ,᭮ 㫨஢ ᢮ -
. ᨨ ⠫ ᯥ稢 ࠢ ਥ-
। 楫 ⥣ ࠧ ࣠樮
஢.㫨஢ ᨨ ࣠樨 ঠ ᫥饥:
1. 窨 ७ ᭮ , ᭮
뭪 ᭮ 孮. , ।ਭ⥫᪮ -
⥫쭮 ଠ? 2. । ⭮襭 ଥ,-
। ࠡ稥 ਭ樯 . 3. ࣠樨. -
ࠡ稩 ? ⨯  ਢ
? ᭮ ଥ ᨨ
".. ".稭 1982 . 1987
.," "४ 450 ᢮ 㯭 ,⨢
11 .. ᫮ ।ᥤ⥫ ࠢ "" 줠 .-
,楫  "襭 ࠧ". 襩 ⥯ 易 -
७ 㦥 ந室饩 樨 ,祬 ।
. ⨬ "" 뫨 ᪫祭 ᪨,ᠤ-
-த ᪮ ⮢. 﫨 -
業,⢨ "",ண "-
","""⮭". ଥ ᨨ 뫮 -
. ᫥ ਡ뫨 ᭨ ७樨 -
, ᭨ 業, ஭, 㭨ᠫ

- 7 -
.
_ .. 㪮⥫ 롮
㫨஢ ᨨ ᢮ ࣠樨.
祢.᫨ ⨯筮 ।⠢⥫ ।ਭ⥫-
⢠, 祬 ,⢥⮬,⭮,㤥:"筮, -
". ᫨ ⥫쭮 㬠 ,  ⢥
楫. ਡ ।⠢ ᮡ ७ ஡ ।-
.᪮ ࣠  ⮩ ⥬, 릨
筮 ⮫쪮,᫨ 㤥 㤮⢮ - ॡ,-
室 ᠬ.⮡ ࠡ ਡ,室 릨-
,ଠ ᫥ । 㭪樮.⮬ -
㦠饩 । 㪮⢮ ᪨ 楫 ࣠樨.⮡ -
ᮮ⢥ ,㪮⢮ ⢥ -
:" ?" " ॡ ⮢
㤮⢮?"⮬ ⥪ 㤥 , ᯮ
१ ⥫쭮 ࣠樨.⠬ ᪮ ࣠樨
, ᯮ 㣨 ᯥ稢 ᠬ.
室 롮 ᨨ 뫠 ਧ 뤠騬 㪮⥫-
ࠧࠡ⪨ ⥮ਨ ⥬. ,㪮⥫,
騩 祭 ਡ뫨,। "" ।-
⠢ 襢 ࠭ᯮ. ࠢ쭮 ⬥砫,,᫨ -
, ਡ ன . 롮 ⠪ 㧪 ᨨ -
樨, ਡ,࠭稢 㪮⢠ -
⨬ ୠ⨢ ਭ⨨ 襭. १ 祢 䠪
ᬮ७ ᫥騥 襭 ਢ
஢ 䥪⨢ ࣠樨._ਬ., ।,
ண ᬮ ࠭ ᮪ ७ᯮᮡ -
쭮,⮬ 㪮⢮ । ᢮ -
஦, ࠭ᯮ⭮ ।⨥. 㢨 竨 -
孮 ७樨,_ਬ.,ࠧ⨥ 㧮 ࠭ᯮ-
, ࠭ᯮ ⥩ ᪨ ॢ.
㣨 䠪, ᭮ 稭 ⢠ " ࠫ
" ⠫ ਥ ⮫쪮 ஦ ॢ.
_ .2. 0 ᪨ ࣠-
樨 ⠪ ࠧ "⮢", 㤭 ।⠢ -
室 㫨஢ 楫.訥 ਬ ० 䥤-
ࠫ쭮 ࠢ⥫⢠.।, ⢮ ࣮
ᯮᮡ⢮ ࣮., 㤮⢮७ ॡ⥩
ਪ᪮ ।ਭ⥫⢠,⢮ ࣮ ⠪

- 8 -
㤮⢮ 㦤 ,१ ਪ᪮ ⢥-
. ࠧ 쭨 ᯥ稢 ᢮ 樥⮢,-
祩,樭᪨ ,孨᪨ ࠡ⭨ ⭮ ᮮ⢮, -
஬ ⢫ ᢮ ⥫쭮.ᬮ 㤭,-
᪠ ࣠ 㫨஢ 室,ਥ஢-
"" ᥡ ᠬ.
_ ..।騥 ਬ ⭮ 㯭 -
, 訥 ࣠樨 ⠪ 㦤 ᮮ⢥饩
㫨஢ ᨨ.ᮬ,稨 ᨨ  稭,-
祬 ⠪ , "","" " ", ⨣ ᢮
ᥣ譥 稭.᭮ ࣠樨 砥 롮-
᫨誮 ᫮ ᨨ. ६ " " -
। ᢮ 㤮⢮७ ଠ樮 ॡ-
⥩,箪 ᫨ ࠭ ᢮ 楫 ᭠砫 ।⠢-
ணࠬ ᯥ祭,ᮢ⨬ " ", 㤮-
ࠡ⪨ ⥪⮢, - ⮢ 楫 ।-
⨩. " த"  -
।⨩ ,ਭ騬 ࠬ. த 65
室 ᠬ ୮ ᥫ ᥬ .୥
ࠩ ଠ ,।⥫ ࣠樨, 訫
⢥ ᨨ ६ 㯭襩 ᬥ᪮ -
., ।竨 ஬ ࠡ ᫨
室 ᠬ,।祭 । ⭨᪮ 㯯.
_2 .0⥣᪮ ஢ ਮ-
⠥ ⮣, ॠ. ⮬ 㪥
⠥, ஡ 㤥 㪮⢠ ।-
믮. ⪨ ।⠢
室 . ᭮ 楫  訬 ⮬ -
䥪⨢ ஢, ᯥ稢 -
஢ ਭ 襭 . ⠭, ࣠-
१.⮤
⨦ 楫--ᬠਢ ⮫쪮 饬 ᫥, -
ᮬ ࣠. 室 ஬ ᢮ -
⢨.⭨,⢥⢥ ⨦ 楫, -
७ﬨ, ⠪ ࠧ ⢨ ᥡ
⠪ ࠧ, 䠪᪨ ᯥ ⨦ 楫.⮡ -
ਥ樨 ࠢ쭮 ⮫,㪮⢮ -
ࠧࠡ뢠 ⥫
㪠 ᯥ祭 楫 ॠ樨 ⥣-

- 9 -
.
᭮ 祩 ४⨢  ਥ 襭
ॠ ୠ⨢,, 㪮⢠,-
묨 ⨦ 饩 楫.᭮ 砥-
᭮ 離 ⢨, ਬ - ⥫-
쭮 ᬨ⥫쭮 㡠誨.᭮묨 ⠬ ଠ쭮 -
⠪⨪,⨪,楤 ࠢ.
_.. ⮬ 㪮⢮ ࠡ뢠 ⪮
楫,ᮣ騥 묨 騥 ⨦, ⠪
ࠧࠡ뢠 ⪮ ,ᮣ騥 -
묨 . ⪮ ⥣ 뢠 ⠪-
.ਬ, ஢ 室 ।⠢ ᮡ ⠪⨪,ᮣ-
饩 ⥣. "⮬" ⮬ 㤥 ⠪-
,ᮣ饩 ⥣ ,ࠢ 㢥祭 -
뭪 ࠡ⪥ 35- . ࠪ⨪ ⠪-
᪨ : 1.⨪ ࠧࠡ뢠 ࠧ⨥ ⥣. 2. -
⥣ ᥣ ࠧࠡ뢠 ஢ 㪮-
⢠,⠪⨪ ࠡ뢠 ஢ 㪮⢠ । -
. 3.⨪ ⠭ ⪨ १ ६,祬 -
. 4. ६ १ ⥣ -
㦥 祭 ᪮쪨 ,⠪᪨ १, ࠢ,-
 祭 ᮮ⭮ 묨 ⢨ﬨ.
_.. ᫥ ⠢ ⠪᪨ 㪮-
⢮ 㯨 ࠧࠡ⪥ ⥫ ਥ஢,⮡
ਥ樨 ࠢ쭮 ⮫ . -
ॠ樨  ࠡ⪠ ⨪.
।⠢ ᮡ 饥 㪮⢮ ⢨ ਭ-
襭,஥ 砥 ⨦ 楫. ⨪ 筮 㫨-
訬 ࠢ騬 ⥫ ਮ ६. ᫮ ⥩-
:"⨪ ᬠਢ ⢥" -
", ।, ࠢ ⢫ -
⢨...⨪ ࠢ ⢨ ⨦ 楫 믮
. , ࠧ ⨣ 楫,⠭-
, 㦭 ᫥. ।祭 ࠭ -
⢠ 楫, ⠪ ⮣,⮡ ਭ 㪨 -
,᭮ ॡ . ⨪ ।⠢
ࠢ ⥩ 㤮ன⢠ 樮 設 騭
ᯮᮡ,_ਬ.,襭 樠쭮 ᯥ祭 襣
ᯮ짮 㤮 ᮢ.஢ প ⠪ ⨪

- 10 -
७ 砩 ᪫祭 騬
㪮⥫ﬨ 騭 ।⠢⥫ 樮 設 -
⮢ . ⨪ ⢫ ᫨ 롮
ୠ⨢ ᭮ 業⥩ ।⥭ ᪫ -
襭,஥ ᮮ⢥ 楫 ࣠樨. ⬥,, -
ࠢ ਭ⨥ 襭, ⠢ ᢮ -
⢨."ࠫ ",_ਬ.,஢ ⨪ ᭨ ⢠
㬥⮢,室 ந⢠ . -
⥫쭮 ᫥ ⮬ , ⮬
, ⥫.
"襢஫"㤥 ⠫, ਬ﫨 "" "ᬮ-
"।饣 . ᮪ ⥯ ⠭-
⨧樨 ᥬ⢠ ⮬"ࠫ ". ࠧ  -
ᢨ⥫⢮ ᢮ 롮 ਭ⨨ 襭, ᪠
⠪ ⨪. ࠧ,⨪ ࠢ ⥩,㯮-
࠭,।⠢ 㪮⥫ ᢮ 
᫮, 㤥 ⪠ 稭 ,५ .
_.. 㪮⢠ ࠢ᪨ ⢨ﬨ ⨪
뢠 筮. ⮬ 砥 㪮⢮ ࠧࠡ뢠 -
.࣠樨, , 먣,ᯮ
襭. ⮬, 稫 諮,
।। 訡. , 㦭
, १ 㤮⢮⥫쭮 襭; ᡥॣ-
६ ।० 訡. ࠧ, -
⨨ 襭 ⥭ ,㪮⢮
⠥ ࠢ ਬ ⠭ ६ ᯮᮡ ⢨
ࠡ뢠 ⠭⨧ 㪠.ࠦ ଠ -
, 㪠 "楤". 뢠 -
⢨, ᫥ ।ਭ ⭮ 樨.
,楤 ।⠢ ᮡ ணࠬ஢ -
,஥ ᪫砥 室" ".楤
筮 뢠 ᫥⥫쭮 ⢨, ᫥ ।ਭ
⭮ 樨. 饬 砥 ,騩 ᮣ᭮ -
, ᢮ ⢨ 訬 ᫮ ୠ⨢.
_.. ᯥ譠 ॠ 筮 믮-
,㪮⢮ 室 ᪫
᢮ 롮.⮡ 믮 ᢮ ᯥ祭
७ ᭮,,_ਬ., ਭ ᥡ ࠡ
⮫쪮  ᪫⥫쭮 㦨 .⮬

- 11 -
㪮⥫  祫 ᯥ樠-
祭 䨨.㪮⢮ ⠪ ⠥ 室 ᪫-
롮 ⠬, ⭮⥫쭮 ᮪ ⭮
⮣,  ᥡ ⠪ ࠧ, ਢ
⥫ ᫥⢨. ࣠,_ਬ.,ॡ-
,⮡ 㤭 室 ࠡ祬 ਮ -
,᪠, 9 ᮢ 5 ᮢ . ⮡ -
訥, ஡, ⨦ 楫 ॡ ᮪ -
稭,㪮⥫ ᯮ ࠢ. 㪮⢮
࠭ ⢨ 㤭,⮡ ࠭஢ 믮 -
⢨ 묨 ᯮᮡ, ⠢ ࠢ.
筮 ।, ᤥ ᯥ᪮
筮 樨. ࠢ ⫨ 楤 ⥬, -
࠭祭 .楤 ⠭ -
樨, ᫥⥫쭮 ᪮쪨 易
ᮡ ⢨.
Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ
譥 - ᫥.
௮樨>௮樨> । >. ᨫ.
᫠ ஭

Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ
業 ࠢ- - 롮 祭
-<.ॠ<-<⥣<-
.ॠ ୠ⨢
.

Ŀ Ŀ Ŀ
業  ⨪
-

Ŀ Ŀ
ࠢ ⨪


Ŀ




- 12 -
Ŀ




.1.3.1 ⥣᪮ ஢-७ .

2_, .0⮡ 뫨 ॠ-
,-,祢, 䠪᪨ 믮 ,-
楫 ࣠樨. ⮣ 㪮⢮ 易 䥪-
⨢ ᯮᮡ ⠭ 祢 ६,ࠪਧ -
.⠭ 楫 ᯥ祭 ⨪,⥣,楤ࠬ
ࠢ ᯮᮡ 襭 ⮩ .⨢ ஫ ⠪
⢥ ஫ ᯥ祭 䥪⨢ 믮 -
. ࣠ ।⠢ ᮡ 㭪,
祢 ।⢥ 易 ⥬᪮ न-
樥 ,ᮮ⢥⢥,ଠ ⭮襭 ,
믮.
3_2 .0 ନ,ᯮ㥬 ⥮ਨ ࠢ,砥
। 稩 ,஥ ਭ ᥡ ⢥⢥-
믮. ᪠ ஫ ஢ 祭 -
।. ।⠢ ᮡ ।⢮, ண
㪮⢮ । । 㤭 ᫥ ,
믮 ⨦ 楫 ᥩ ࣠樨.᫨ -
஢ 㣮 祫,㪮⥫ 㦤 -
믮 ᠬ.,筮, ,⠪
६ ᯮᮡ 㪮⥫ ࠭祭. ,
⨫ - થ ,- ᨪ ,-
, 魮 ࠢ 砥 㬥" 믮 -
㣨".⮬, ᫥ ᫮,஢ ।⠢-
ᮡ , ॢ頥 祫 㪮⥫.
஢,ᬮ ᢮ 㭤⠫쭮 祭,
ࠢ쭮 ਬ塞 楯権 ࠢ-
. 室 ஢ ⮣, ॡ-
䥪⨢, 騥 ।ਭ⥫ ௥-
㤠 ६, ࣠樨 ⠭ -
.⮡ ⮫쪮 ਡ ⮣, 䥪⨢ -
஢,- ஡ 稬 ,- 室 -
易 ⨬ 楯樨 ⢥⢥ ࣠樮 -

- 13 -
稩.
2_ .0।⠢ ᮡ 易⥫⢮ 믮 騥-
⢥ 㤮⢮⥫쭮 ࠧ襭.
易⥫⢮ , 믮-
ࠡ ॡ, । -
࣠樨.᪨, 砥 ࠪ ࣠樥
믮 祭 ।
ࠦ.⢥⢥ 砥, ࠡ⭨ ⢥砥 १-
믮 । ⥬, । ._-
_., ଫ ࠡ ⢥ ࠡ祣 ᡮન
""㯠饬 砥 () ⠦
⥫.ਭ ࠡ ࠦ ,ࠡ稩
ᢥ ࠧ ᮣ蠥 믮 ᯮᮡ,㤮⢮⥫
"". ᥡ ⢥⢥,ࠡ稩 ࠧ-
ᮡ ⥫ 砥 ᢮ 訡.᪮ ࠡ稩
⠥ ⢥⢥ 筮 ᯮ ,砫쭨 -
ॡ ᭥ ࠢ ᤥ ࠡ.
ᮧ, ஢ ॠ ⮫쪮 ਭ 稩,
ᮡ⢥ ⢥⢥ ஢.㪮⥫
ࠧ뢠 ⢥⢥,। 稭.
ꥬ ⢥⢥ - 稭 ᮪ -
஢,ᮡ 㪮 㯭묨 ௮ﬨ. 2
..狼 ਢ ஢ ࠢ饣,᫨
㢨 ᯮᮡ ﭨ ⥫쭮 , ᯥ.
2 0।⠢ ᮡ ࠭祭 ࠢ ᯮ짮 -
࣠樨 ࠢ ᨫ 㤭 믮-
। .
1, ,0
. ࠦ ன થ - " ⤠-
㭤, 祫". ࠡ, -
ன 砥 ._ਬ., ࠢ-
騩 "ப "뢠 ᮪ ஢
ࠢ ६饭 ࠢ饣 ⮢୮ થ,
㦥 ਪ ᢮ 訬 稭 ⤥ .-
,᪮ ஢ 祫-
,筮 ஢ 稩 .
Ŀ



- 14 -


Ŀ


ᮡ⢥⨳

Ŀ Ŀ

樮 > ४஢


Ŀ
Ŀ
- १

-稩
\ / Ŀ
\ / 㪮⥫
\ / 襣
\ /
\ /
Ŀ
㪮⥫



Ŀ
㪮⥫



Ŀ





2_ . . 0 ⥩, ᯮ -

- 15 -
⨢ ,㭪樨 , ⠪ 뢠-
,࠭ 믮 । .⭮, -
騬 ਬ஬ ᯮ짮 㦨饣 -
 ⤥ ஢,騩 設⢥ 㯭 -
.⤥ ஢ 㤭,室 ஢ -
⥭樠 ⮢ ࠡ ⠢ -
㪮 ॡ㥬 . ਬ 뢠, -
⨢ ᯮ ⨢,⠪ 㦨騥
㭪樨.
㣨 ⢥,થ⨭ ᫥,䨭஢-
,஢,ਠ쭮-孨᪮ ᭠,業 ⢨
- ஥⮢ 㦠 । ਤ᪨ ஡.
㭪樮 ࠧ ।⠢ 㪮 ଠ,-
室 ਭ 䥪⨢ 襭.
_2 .-0 ࠧ 㦨饣 ,ନ-
饣, 㪮⥫ ᥪ 魨. 易
筮 室 ᯮ ⮣, ॡ 㪮⥫. ࣠-
樨 童 ⮣ 稩. -
, 祭 㪮⥫. ⬥ -
稥 筮 אַ㣮쭨 ᡮ 㪮⥫ -
࣠樮 ,⠢ .2.3.1
ĿĿ

१ ô १


Ŀ
-१



Ŀ
ĿĿ Ŀ
魨 ࠢ騩 ⥬
ਤ᪨ ᠬ - ⨪
ᠬ 筮 -

Ŀ
ࠡ稪

- 16 -




. 2.3.1 ⨢, 㦨騩,.(-
⨬, -१,㪮騩 ⮬, 묨 -
ﬨ । ᢮ ୮ ࠧ).
_2, . .0 ࠡ稥 -
ਭ ࠢ 楤 ,饥 ⢨ -
᫥. ࠦ ⨢ ࠢ,஢
ࠦ ࣠樨 㪮⥫, אַ -
. ⮬ 砥 ࠢ ⨦ 楫 - ᨬ
⮣,᭮ . ᥣ ⮬ 砥 뫮 ᪫
直 ࠢ, ,⭮,ਢ ⠪ ஡,
뫨 , ࠭ ।砫 ࠢ.,᫨ -
樨, ࠢ ਭ ।,祬 ,
㢨, 騬 筨 ஡  ࠢ
楤.॥,䫨 - 1ᯮᮡ 㪮⢮
1।⠢ ࠢ 0ࠡ稬.
६ ࠡ稥, ஢ ࣠樨, ⭮-
⥫쭮 襥 ࠧ ࠢ ᢮ ।⢥.-
⮣, ਪ᪮ ᨫ쭮 㪮७ ।⠢ -
᮪ ⥯ 筮 ᢮. ࠧ,ࠡ稥 稭
ਭ ࠭祭, ଥ -
㪠.᫨ - ᫮ ⠫ ᯮਬ, ᥣ
稭 筮 ⮩稢 ॡ ᭥,祬 室 -
ࠡ ⠪, ।ᠭ ࠢ 楤ࠬ.
⮬,ਭ, ᬠਢ ࠢ ᭮ 室-
,訬 ᯮᮡ ⨦ ᮣ 㤥 ନ஢ 稭
楫 ࠢ. 設⢥ 砥,᫨ 稭 ७ -
, 祬 ࠢ ࣠樨 ⢫ -
⥫쭮 䥪⨢, 䫨 ᢥ , -
믮 ஢쭮.᫨ 㪮⥫ ᬮ 㡥⥫쭮 -
ࠡ稬, ࠢ 楤 ,
筮 ᠬ 稭 ६ 㤭. 稬, -
⥫ ᥡ 㡥, ᨫ쭮 ⠢ ࠡ
᫥ ࠢ, 㦨, ᯮᮡ 믮 ࠡ-
뢠 䥪⨢,祬 ࠢ 楤,ࠧ-
⠭ ࠢ騬.

- 17 -
ᠥ 樮 ࣠権,魮 ॠ-
⠪⨪,⨪,楤 ࠢ ⠭ ᫮-
.⢥, ࣠樮 㦠騬
㪮⥫ﬨ,⠢騬 ࠧ , ॠ樨 -
楤 訥 ᫮.
2_ -
_2..
। ࠧ ᭮ 㤥﫮 ࠧࠡ⪥ ॠ-
樨 ⥣᪮ . 饥 ६ ⮤
ᮣᮢ ஢ ஫. ப ਬ塞묨
ࠢ᪨ 㬥⠬, ᯥ祭 ᮪
⥯ ᮣᮢ ஢ ஫ . ப
ਬ塞묨 ࠢ᪨ 㬥⠬ , ᯥ-
祭 ᮪ ⥯ ᮣᮢ,  ࠢ
楫.
_2

᭮ ஢  䥪-
⨢ । ᮢ. । ⢨,⭮-
騥 ᯮ짮 ᮢ, ࠢ,, 㪮-
⢠,ᯮᮡ ⨦ 楫. -
襭묨 㭤⠫ -
᫥ ᯮ짮 ⨦ 楫. ⠪ -
஢ ⢥ ᭮ - 楫  ᭮ -
⨦묨 . ஭ ࠣ᪮
᫥ ।⠢ ᮡ" " ஢.
⮡ , ,㪮⥫ ᯮ
,㬥 ஢ ᮢ襭 㪫뢠
᫥⥫쭮"楫-⥣-ࠢ", ᭮ 易.
 ।⠢ ᮡ ⮤ । ᮢ,ࠪ-
⢥ ଥ, ⨦ 楫,⠪ ।⠢
⢥.
  ᫮ ப ᯮ㥬 -
⮬ ଠ쭮 ஢. ࣠樨 ଠ-
᭮,.. 쬥 㫨 楫 ⥣,-
設⢮ ⠢  ⤥ 㬥⮢. ⢨-
⥫쭮 ,⭮, 㦥 ⠬,᪮
ᥬ ⤥  ⠢ ᢮ , । -
訩 ᯮᮡ 室 ࠭祭 ⢠ ਮ⥭

- 18 -
।⮢ ࢮ 室 ।⮢ ᪮.
. 蠣 -
⠢ , 㪠뢠 ।,㤥 ࠦ
᫮ ଥ ᮢ,⠪ 㫨㥬 楫. ⠪,
ﭭ ,ᯮ짮 ६-
,⠪ , ⥫ 㤮, ࠫ
⥫,᪠,6000 ., ࠪ⨪ ꥪ, ஬
⠢ . ࠭ ன  -
,- ⭮ .
뫮 㤭,᢮ ᫮ 祭 ᥬ -
ᠬ 楫 ।⠢ 業,筮 쬠 ⢥ ᯥ -
஢ ࣠.⢥ ⥫ 㪮⥫
㢨 ࠢ ꥤ ࠧ ᯮ
࣠樨.
⢥ । ।⠢,
楫-ࠡ 3000 ஢. ⨯쭮 䮭 ⥬
஢ .
⭮, ॡ ⮫,த⢨,४ ⪨
⠭ . ।⠢ ⭮⥫쭮 ⮨ -
ᮢ, ⮫쪮 뢠 室饩 業 ⮢ ⮬ ⢥
஥ த.᭮뢠 襭 ⠪ ᮢ
,,ᮬ,⥫쭮 ᭨ 蠭 ⨦ 楫--
3000 ஢.,᫨ ⠭, 室 ⠢()

७ ⮫ 200,00
த⢨ 2,00 ( 祫)
100,00

, 業 2,00 .
訢, 5 .-室 業, ,᪮쪮 -
⮢ ᫥ த,⮡ ࠡ 3000 .:

3000 .=(N x 3 .) - 300 .,
.
- 19 -
N - ⢮ , 3 .- ਡ ᫥ ⠭ ⮨
⠭ . 祢,⮡ 믮 ,㦭 த
1100 ⮢.
।⠢ 䠪஢ 㤮 饯ਭ⮩ -
,⠪ ,砥 ⠪ ⢥ 㣨 ⢥-
। ᮢ 楫. ᫨ ⭮,᪮쪮,-
ਬ, , ।,᪮쪮 த樨
ࠧ প. த ਢ ਬ - ᫨ -
⮫쪮 900 . ன⢮ , ।-
⠭ 뫮 ⮫쪮 600 祫. ,㦤 -
⭮, ।,᪮쪮 㦭 믮 襩 -
.⮡ ࠡ 3000 .,ॡ 襩 2500
. 樨 থ. ⠪ ।,᪮쪮
ࠡ⠫ ࠧ ஢ ꥬ த. ਡ த 600
⮢ ⠢ 1500 .
/
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