Банк рефератов содержит более 364 тысяч рефератов, курсовых и дипломных работ, шпаргалок и докладов по различным дисциплинам: истории, психологии, экономике, менеджменту, философии, праву, экологии. А также изложения, сочинения по литературе, отчеты по практике, топики по английскому.
Полнотекстовый поиск
Всего работ:
364150
Теги названий
Разделы
Авиация и космонавтика (304)
Административное право (123)
Арбитражный процесс (23)
Архитектура (113)
Астрология (4)
Астрономия (4814)
Банковское дело (5227)
Безопасность жизнедеятельности (2616)
Биографии (3423)
Биология (4214)
Биология и химия (1518)
Биржевое дело (68)
Ботаника и сельское хоз-во (2836)
Бухгалтерский учет и аудит (8269)
Валютные отношения (50)
Ветеринария (50)
Военная кафедра (762)
ГДЗ (2)
География (5275)
Геодезия (30)
Геология (1222)
Геополитика (43)
Государство и право (20403)
Гражданское право и процесс (465)
Делопроизводство (19)
Деньги и кредит (108)
ЕГЭ (173)
Естествознание (96)
Журналистика (899)
ЗНО (54)
Зоология (34)
Издательское дело и полиграфия (476)
Инвестиции (106)
Иностранный язык (62792)
Информатика (3562)
Информатика, программирование (6444)
Исторические личности (2165)
История (21320)
История техники (766)
Кибернетика (64)
Коммуникации и связь (3145)
Компьютерные науки (60)
Косметология (17)
Краеведение и этнография (588)
Краткое содержание произведений (1000)
Криминалистика (106)
Криминология (48)
Криптология (3)
Кулинария (1167)
Культура и искусство (8485)
Культурология (537)
Литература : зарубежная (2044)
Литература и русский язык (11657)
Логика (532)
Логистика (21)
Маркетинг (7985)
Математика (3721)
Медицина, здоровье (10549)
Медицинские науки (88)
Международное публичное право (58)
Международное частное право (36)
Международные отношения (2257)
Менеджмент (12491)
Металлургия (91)
Москвоведение (797)
Музыка (1338)
Муниципальное право (24)
Налоги, налогообложение (214)
Наука и техника (1141)
Начертательная геометрия (3)
Оккультизм и уфология (8)
Остальные рефераты (21697)
Педагогика (7850)
Политология (3801)
Право (682)
Право, юриспруденция (2881)
Предпринимательство (475)
Прикладные науки (1)
Промышленность, производство (7100)
Психология (8694)
психология, педагогика (4121)
Радиоэлектроника (443)
Реклама (952)
Религия и мифология (2967)
Риторика (23)
Сексология (748)
Социология (4876)
Статистика (95)
Страхование (107)
Строительные науки (7)
Строительство (2004)
Схемотехника (15)
Таможенная система (663)
Теория государства и права (240)
Теория организации (39)
Теплотехника (25)
Технология (624)
Товароведение (16)
Транспорт (2652)
Трудовое право (136)
Туризм (90)
Уголовное право и процесс (406)
Управление (95)
Управленческие науки (24)
Физика (3463)
Физкультура и спорт (4482)
Философия (7216)
Финансовые науки (4592)
Финансы (5386)
Фотография (3)
Химия (2244)
Хозяйственное право (23)
Цифровые устройства (29)
Экологическое право (35)
Экология (4517)
Экономика (20645)
Экономико-математическое моделирование (666)
Экономическая география (119)
Экономическая теория (2573)
Этика (889)
Юриспруденция (288)
Языковедение (148)
Языкознание, филология (1140)

Реферат: Culture of Kazakhstan

Название: Culture of Kazakhstan
Раздел: Рефераты по культурологии
Тип: реферат Добавлен 00:14:32 20 сентября 2005 Похожие работы
Просмотров: 17222 Комментариев: 16 Оценило: 140 человек Средний балл: 2.3 Оценка: 2     Скачать

Kazakh Yurt

Culture of KazakhstanCulture of KazakhstanA YURTAIS transportable collapsible dwelling that came to us from ancient times.
It consists of wooden framework, covered with felt. The framework ("kerege") forms walls of the dwelling made of latticed wooden poles; "uyuk" - long wooden poles serve as a cover for the upper spherical portion of the yurt; "shanrak" is the top most open part of the yurt, serving as an outlet for the smoke raising from the hearth, for purposes of ventilation and scanty lighting of the yurt’s interior. Depending on the air temperature the yurt is covered with two if not more layers of felt. The outermost layer is coated with flat for it to be impenetrable for rain or snow.

The yurt’s area ranges from 6-7 m. to 30-40 m. Spherical form makes it an exceedingly heat-consuming dwelling. They would enter the yurt through folding carved doors made of pine or birch-tree. They were a sort of touchstone testifying to aesthetic taste, social status and well being of its master. In real fact, fretwork motifs reflected Kazakhstan’s flora and fauna.

Culture of KazakhstanRight in the center of the yurt one finds a hearth with a cauldron ("kazan") suspended there above. The place at the hearth is regarded as that of honor meant for particularly respectable, distinguished guests.Culture of Kazakhstan

The main decoration of the yurt is no doubt carpets ("tekemets") made mostly of felt.
Besides the interior looks quite bright owing to a multitude of colorful carpet-strips and ribbons manufactured of wool (by filling), of felt (by in-laying), of such other materials by weaving, embroidery, wicker-work and all.

Every little corner in the yurt has a purpose of its own - a part for men, a respective portion of the area - for women, for clothes. Besides there is enough room for a "shop" where they repair harness, accomplish other works, room for preparing meals, for bed, for horse's gear, for children, for the son and the daughter-in-law.

Simplicity and feasibility of manufacture, easy and quick assembly, use of natural materials and high transportability turned yurt into an ideal dwelling of a nomad. Even now you may encounter a yurt in the steppe.

Culture of Kazakhstan

Kazakh National Games

Culture of KazakhstanKYZ KUU ("Overtake the girl") - young boys and girls are participants in this game. The girl on the horse does her best to gallop from the young man but as soon as the latter tries to overtake (approach) her she lashes him with a whip. If - up to a certain place - the young boy fails to overtake her she would "reward" him with whipping again. If he is a success he earns a kiss.

AUDARYSPAK ("Wrestling on horseback") - this kind of national sports requires skills both in hand-to-hand fighting and in trick riding. In fact two men fight while on horseback. Wins the one that brings his adversary down of his horse.

KUMIS ALU ("Pick up the coin"). The essence of the game is that while galloping at full speed a young man should pick up a silver ingot off the ground - such had been condition of the game in old days. Nowadays a handkerchief replaces the ingot. This contest particularly impressed Alexander the Great when he visited Central Asia. According to historians' evidence on watching kumis alu he exclaimed "That's a sort of training worthy of a warrior on horseback".

KOKPAR ("Fighting for a goat's carcass"). A most popular game. It stems from an ancient custom according to which one, who wants to get rid of all evil, should sacrifice a goat. Not infrequently taking part in the game is up to 1,000 horsemen. The game unfolds on an almost infinite steppe range. On the opposite ends of an immense field they arrange goals of teams - adversaries. It is into them that the symbolic carcass of the goat should be thrown, while the throw proper is preceded by a desperate flight between the teams to get hold of the carcass.

Culture of Kazakhstan

Traditional Holidays and Entertainments

Culture of KazakhstanNAURYZ - a holiday of spring, it is the most momentous and ancient festivity of Oriental nations.

In fact, it is a New Year's eve according to the ancient Oriental calendar. It has yet another name "Ulys Kuni"("The first day of the New Year") or "Ulystyn uly kuni" («The great day of the people").

They say that the more you are in celebrating the Nauryz holiday, the greater success will attend you throughout the year. Hence abundance of festive rites and attributes.

When the holiday comes, Kazakhs would put on festive clothes, pay visits to each other, exchange congratulations, best wishes of well-being and good luck in the coming year.

Universal merry-making, games, traditional horse races, and various amusements accompany festivities.

Traditionally they cook and roast and make all sorts of tasty meals during the holidays, for they should symbolize well-being and abundance in the coming year. The feast is usually timed to the noon; it is preceded and followed by a prayer in honor of the forefathers read by the mullah. In conclusion the eldest of those present gives his blessings (bata) so that year in year out prosperity be part and parcel of the family.

When Kazakhs celebrate Nauryz, presence of the figure of "7" is indispensable - it embodies 7 days of the week - time units of universal eternity: in front of aksakals ("white beards» or old men) they would put 7 bowls with the drink of "Nauryz-kozhe", prepared of 7 grades of 7 types of cereals.

Culture of KazakhstanBERKUTCHI - hunting with a golden eagle.

A tradition that has already been practiced for ten centuries.

They say that presenting a youngster with a fledgling of a hunting bird is tantamount to wishing him to be brave and strong young fellow.

Virtually training of a golden eagle is a rare and painstaking art. The bird just caught is being slowly trained to its master (a berkutchi). For the purpose the man doesn't get a wink of sleep for several nights with the bird being subjected to similar discomfort. The bird must take food (pieces of raw meat) from its master's hand only. When the eagles has got used to the hunter, its horse and its dog, it undergoes training: first it "hunts" stuffed foxes and only then proceeds with real hunting.

Dastarkhan

Culture of KazakhstanKazakh dastarkhan has a long story of its own, its own traditions, and its specifics inherent to Kazakh nation only, known for a quite particular manner of receiving and serving guests.

The part tea plays in the Kazakh dastarkhan is altogether remarkable. In fact any Kazakh feast invariably starts with a minutely itemized process of tea drinking. The host welcomes his guests, invites them to the table. Incidentally, it is only up to girls and young women to pour the tea. And they do this wonderfully though it is far from easy. For one should see to it that the guests' drinking bowls be always full, there must be no confusing them, there must be no tea leafs remains on the edge of the bowls. Even if the guest gives to understand that he has already quenched his thirst he must not be left unattended - the hostess must offer him a so-called "sui-ayak" - a tea bowl of honor. Tea is normally accompanied with cream, butter, jam, dried and fresh fruit, nuts, cakes, other sweetmeats.

Tea is but an introduction, an invitation to a capital meal - a festive feast. Culture of Kazakhstan

First they serve all sorts of appetizers, mostly meat ones - prepared of horse flesh and mutton. They are quite plentiful and their diversity is just as great, all made of smoked, semi-smoked and boiled meat. Added thereto are flat cakes and such milk tonics as koumyss, shubat and katyk... They are followed with vegetable titbits with invariable flat cakes. Next the guests are treated with a kuyrdak - hot rich roast meat prepared of mutton by - products mostly of liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and tail's fat.

After a small break the guests are treated with all sorts of patties: "samsa"- with meat, "puktermet"- with by- products, "belyashes", "kausyrma" and all...

Culture of KazakhstanFinally there comes the capital treat - besbarmak. First they cover a large round or oval dish with small round flat pieces of boiled paste followed by small bars of boiled horse-meat or mutton, then comes onion cut in rings and scalded with hot broth, all this strewn with a green mixture of fennel, parsley and kinza...

The most honored guest is usually offered a koy-bas (a boiled sheep's head). The guest is to dress it and distribute among the other participants to the dastarkhan. One should mind that each part of the head is attached particular significance and meaning: young men are treated with ears for them to be attentive, girls - with a palate (it is believed that this would make them more diligent). The head having been divided the host proceeds with cutting meat on the main dish and shares it with his guests.

Here too one has to mind certain habits and superstitions. For instance, hipbones and crust are offered to most honored guests while the breastbone goes to the son-in-law or daughter-in-law, cervical vertebra - to marries women, pregnant ones first and foremost.

Certain bans are also to be observed. Thus even the most honored guest may not be treated with a "koy-bas" if his father is present at the table.

Children may not be offered brains (they might become weak-willed), just as an elbow bone - to a young girl (she might be "left on the shelf")...

Culture of KazakhstanThe meat is usually accomplished with flat cakes with onion (ak nan). A rich broth (sorpa) is poured in separate bowls.

However in many areas of Kazakhstan besbarmak on the dastarkhan is replaced with "kespe", Kazakh noodle soup: in a drinking bowl or a soup-plate they put warmed up noodles and pour tuzdyk on them, a gravy consisting of meat, black radish, sweet pepper, onions, Culture of Kazakhstantomatoes and green kinza.

The feast is finalized with a dessert abounding in all sorts of sweetmeats.

Kazakh National University named al-Farabi

Faculty of economics and business

The paper:

« Culture of Kazakhstan ».

Culture of Kazakhstan

Done by: student of 1 course

BU I A 02r2

Safronova Olga

Checked by: Serikbaeva S.Z.

Almaty, 2003.

Оценить/Добавить комментарий
Имя
Оценка
Комментарии:
Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений21:59:25 18 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
11:43:41 24 ноября 2015
super
Madina20:31:23 09 июня 2013Оценка: 5 - Отлично
cool!!!
layla21:17:49 23 апреля 2012
cool!!!
21:12:44 23 апреля 2012Оценка: 4 - Хорошо

Смотреть все комментарии (16)
Работы, похожие на Реферат: Culture of Kazakhstan
Сборник экзаменационных билетов по английскому языку
Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ Билет № 1 Translate from English: A contract implied in law is one in ...
In our days when the world has radically changed we, professors, should teach young people a new way of thinking.
One of the most popular English games, played from late August until the beginning of May on a large field with a round leather ball by two teams of 11 players each is soccer.
Раздел: Рефераты по языковедению
Тип: билеты Просмотров: 15125 Комментариев: 5 Похожие работы
Оценило: 3 человек Средний балл: 4 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Практикум з стилістики англійської мови
Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. Вінниця. "Нова книга", 2000 - 160 с. CONTENTS FOREWORD..
Then out of the past would come that picture of a lithe, active young feller who was always good for an argument, always ready to bring company home, especially the kind of company ...
You saw them at the theatres, at the best cabarets and speakeasies, at the good clubs on Long Island - and then you saw the same girls, the same women, dressed the same, differing ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: учебное пособие Просмотров: 3800 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
English topics
The Russian Federation. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth"s surface. It"s total ...
It is played in most of the schools, and there are thousands of amatur teams for young man in all parts of the country.
Million young people today are using drugs, and most of them will die.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Просмотров: 3716 Комментариев: 5 Похожие работы
Оценило: 3 человек Средний балл: 3.7 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
"Christmas stories" by Charles Dickens
Content Introduction Chapter I - Charles Dickens life and career and the role of Christmas stories in his creativity 1) Beginning of literary career ...
Here he entertained his many friends, most of them popular authors, journalists, actors or artists, though some came from the law and other professions or from commerce and a few ...
in these days, when the men of imagination for the most part write novels, or, in other words, when the novelists for the most part do the work of men of imagination, there is no ...
Раздел: Рефераты по зарубежной литературе
Тип: дипломная работа Просмотров: 910 Комментариев: 3 Похожие работы
Оценило: 1 человек Средний балл: 4 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Сборники вопросов и билетов по английскому и немецкому языку за первый ...
Для удобства просмотра и с целью сокращения объёма информации в байтах билеты объеденены. Содержание (сначала идут вопросы к билетам, а затем сами ...
The most amusing thing about this game is that the Joneses and all the neighbours who are struggling frantically to keep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided ...
This means that, in most fields, the views of young people are never heard because there is no one to represent them.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Просмотров: 5077 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 14 человек Средний балл: 2.1 Оценка: 2     Скачать
Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку
Федеральное агентство по образованию ФГОУ СПО "Моршанский текстильный техникум" Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку Составитель ...
5) Aunt Helen often comes and stays with (they, them).
9)It (to be) half past three then, and they (to be) very hungry.10) The children (to work) on a collective farm last summer.11) We (to play) football and other interesting games at ...
Раздел: Рефераты по педагогике
Тип: учебное пособие Просмотров: 17377 Комментариев: 1 Похожие работы
Оценило: 2 человек Средний балл: 5 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Parable thinking in W. Faulner's novel "A fable"
Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University Department of Foreign Philology Parable thinking in W ...
Disappointed that he would not inherit the railroad, Murry took a series of jobs in Oxford, most of them with the help of his father.
Another point to consider is why the Second Coming, if it is that, should be destined to end so far below the first, especially after its author had made a speech in Stockholm four ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: дипломная работа Просмотров: 90 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
W. Shakespear's "Midsummer Night's Dream"
MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIALIZED EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY The English and Literature department ...
Most of Act 5 is superfluous to the main plot, but indispensable as comic comment on the potential for tragedy in the love of passionate young couples.
Hermia"s outrage Helena takes to be part of the game; "she is one of this confederacy".
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: дипломная работа Просмотров: 231 Комментариев: 2 Похожие работы
Оценило: 0 человек Средний балл: 0 Оценка: неизвестно     Скачать
Examination Topics
1. Some people think that school years are the happiest days in people"s lives. Can you say that you have been happy at school? Why? School is the ...
Every year thousands of young people go to Stonehenge to take part in the midsummer Druid festival.
So they should try to understand the child; they should find out about teen problems and help solve them.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Просмотров: 11732 Комментариев: 19 Похожие работы
Оценило: 2627 человек Средний балл: 2.1 Оценка: 2     Скачать
Cultural Values
"Urals State Technical University - UPI" Foreign language department Thesis "Cultural Values" Student: Zaitseva S.V. Group: PП-4 Supervisor ...
Most industrialized societies represent the mastery orientation; the back-to-nature counterculture of young adults during the 1960s and 1970s, the harmonious stance; and many ...
In India, on the contrary, the words are meant literally-that the host is putting himself at the disposal of his guest and really expects him to come.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Просмотров: 1854 Комментариев: 3 Похожие работы
Оценило: 13 человек Средний балл: 3.8 Оценка: 4     Скачать

Все работы, похожие на Реферат: Culture of Kazakhstan (2102)

Назад
Меню
Главная
Рефераты
Благодарности
Опрос
Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



Результаты(150758)
Комментарии (1839)
Copyright © 2005-2016 BestReferat.ru bestreferat@mail.ru       реклама на сайте

Рейтинг@Mail.ru