poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest -
spreading disease of civilization.
pollution and energy consumption have created such planet wide
problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and
the global warming that is believed to be caused by the greenhouse
seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and
nuclear waste, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The Mediterranean
is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is
on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day
nothing will be able to live in the seas.
ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If
nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today
will have become extinct twenty years from now.
pollution is а
very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life
threatening — equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes а
day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former
enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have
disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for
the greenhouse effect and acid rains.
even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all
know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.
People are beginning to
realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They
join and support various international organizations and green
parties. If governments wake up to what is happening — perhaps
we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world
and all of us with it.
country has it’s own great people: scientists, poets and
writers, politicians, musicians, composers and actors. But I would
like to tell you about the great British politician Sir Winston
Leonard Churchill was without doubt the ruling figure in British
politics during the 1st
half of the 20th
century. He was born in 1874. His mother was American, the daughter
of a New York businessman; his father belonged to an English
aristocratic family. He was given the typical education of that
period for the person of his background. From 1895 until 1899 he
combined the jobs of soldier and journalist in Cuba, India and Sudan.
In 1899 he resigned from the army and began his political career. He
was an active and popular member of the Conservative Party, but later
he changed his political views and joined the Liberal Party. He won
many political victories and had as many failures.
In 1910 he
became Home Secretary, but he lost some of his popularity when he
used the army to help the police put down the miners’ strike.
For some years he was out of office and spent his time writing and
painting. In the twentieth he returned to Conservative Party.
In 1924 he
was elected to Parliament. In 1940 Churchill was appointed Prime
Minister. He formed a coalition government with the war cabinet of
five; he was Prime Minister until 1945.
returned once more as Prime Minister in 1951. Highly regarded as a
painter, Churchill also received the Nobel Prize for Literature in
1953 for his account of the Second World War. He predicted that an
“Iron Curtain” would divide Europe from north to south
and this left his mark on the period of the Cold War. He died in
London in 1965.
people say that а
family is very important for them. They like to repeat that families
give them а
sense of tradition, strength and purpose in their lives. ’’Our
families show what we are", they say. Most parents teach their
children to respect elder people and observe holidays. But the most
important thing for а
family is to give an emotional support and security. The right family
values help boys and girls to gain confidence and resist the
influence of bad friends.
often consider their parents old-fashioned, unaware of the latest
style. As for their parents they do their best to give their children
better chance than they had themselves. After
school children often try to get complete independence, they leave
their homes and sometimes even their native towns. Staying with
parents has its negative and positive aspects but children must
understand that parents don' t want to do them
harm. That's why sometimes young people have to listen to criticism
from their parents.
people often speak about the so-called "generation gap"
that is а
gap in views between parents and teenagers, but the majority of
people think that this generation gap is sometimes exaggerated. Very
often children feel neglected in their families. When they find
cruelty, indifference and misunderstanding in their families they
become divide and heartless themselves. As а
result children feel hurt and some of them try to escape from the
reality by tuning to alcohol and drugs. So all of us should pay more
attention to family problems, we must avoid quarrels and look for
must remember about spiritual values and all people should live in
peace and harmony.
роль в нашей
нам везде: на
и радио, дома,
и даже в школе.
Куда бы мы ни
в кафе или бар,
в клуб или на
везде нас встретит
музыка. В таких
их частью, потому
что она поднимает
уютней и главное
я с удовольствием
Когда я скучаю
или у меня плохое
и делает все
когда у меня
веселое и заводное
и чувствую себя
У меня большое
кассет и CD-дисков
с самой различной
рока. Из музыки
все, что хорошо
звучит, но больше
всего мне нравится
что я современный
человек и стараюсь
идти в ногу со
что она энергичная
что в них говорится
всем, что волнует
Моцарта. Я восхищаюсь
на скрипке и
5 лет тогда, когда
еще не умеют
читать. За свои
34 года жизни
он написал 18
опер, 50 симфоний,
сонат и песен.
№ 39, в ней показана
с ее трудностями
№ 40, в ней показана
души, и это симфония
№ 41 (Юпитер), в ней
мир, вся Вселенная
с ее контрастами
plays a very important role in our daily life. We are accompanied by
it everywhere: on TV and radio, at home, and even at school. Wherever
we go in the evening to cafe or bar, to club or to a disco
- everywhere we will be met by music. In such places music is their
integral part, because it raise the spirit of the visitors, makes the
atmosphere more comfortable and more cheerfully.
for me, I listen to music with pleasure. Music always helps me. When
I am bored or have a bad mood, I always listen to music, it always
raises my spirit and makes entourage more cheerful, when I have an
excellent mood, I turn on music, something cheerful and active and I
feel myself on the top of bliss. I have a lot of cassettes and CDs
with the different music from classics to rock. From music I like
everything, that sounds well, but most of all I like modern music,
because I am a modern man and I try to go together with the time.
the modern performers I like the American group " The Offspring
" most of all. I like their music, because it is energetic and
dynamic, but most of all I like the texts of songs of this group,
they are sometimes sad, sometimes ironic, but never boring, because
it is spoken there about problems of youth, about everything, that
troubles a modern society. I dream of visiting sometimes a concert of
classics I like Mozart most of all. I admire the talent of this great
musician and composer. He composed music, played on a violin and
clavecin, when he was 5 years, when other children are not able to
read yet. During the 34 years of life he wrote 18 operas, 50
symphonies, 30 concerts for a piano, a lot of sonatas and songs.
Especially I like three most famous Mozart’s symphonies. It is
the symphony № 39, it shows there the life of the man with her
difficulties and pleasures, it is the symphony № 40, it shows
there the deep, lyric and poetry of human soul, and it is the
symphony № 41 (The Jove), it shows there all world, all
universe with its contrasts and contradictions.
in 0ur Life
fond of reading. In my opinion, books аre
source of emotional inspiration and romantic feelings. Reading is
very useful, because books enrich our experience with that of the
other people. Besides, books help me to continue my own education.
sure that а
reader lives а
richer life than а
non-reader. The time spent on а
good book is never wasted. Reading is а
rewarding pastime. But some people think, that the tempo of modern
life is too fast to waste time on reading. They are sure that books
have begun to lose their prestige and value. I disagree.
enjoy books of different genres: love and detective stories,
thrillers and historical novels, tales, works after
and modern writers. I’m а
great lover of the English and American literature. Among my favorite
writers are W. Shakespeare and Ch. Dickens, J. Galsworthy and А.
Cronin, J. London and Е.
Hemingway to name only а
few. I read them in translation and try to read in the original.
read books after Russian and Belarusian writers, too. We can say that
D. Dostoevsky, А.
are as popular as they used tо
be. Their works
stood the test of time. My favorite modern writers are V.Karatkevich
get acquainted with popular works and best-sellers. Luckily there is
big choice of various books in book shops and stalls.
can' t imagine my life without reading.
living man there is nothing more
book», said one clever man. And I share his opinion. Books
teach us what is right and what is wrong, to understand the world and
people in it, they mould our character and at the same time tell us
Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies
about one- seventh of the earth' s surface. It covers the eastern
part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about
17 million square kilometers. 12 seas of 3 oceans wash the country:
the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders
on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the
west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia,
the Ukraine. It also has а
sea- border with the USA.
is hardly а
country in the world where such а
variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in
the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the
north, highlands and deserts in the east.
are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West
Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory
of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The
largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the
Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers —
the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena— flow from the south to the
north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean. Russia
is rich in beautiful lakes. The world' s deepest lake (1,600 meters)
is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is
in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that
if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the
European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of
the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the
north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the
climate is temperate and continental.
is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and
other mineral resources.
parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The
legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.
capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific,
cultural and industrial center. It is one of the oldest Russian
present, the political and economic situation in the country is
rather complicated. There are а
lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation.
The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly
rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their
jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are а
lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading
countries in the world. I’m
that we, the younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as
strong and powerful as it used to be.
over the world people of different ages are fond of sport and games.
Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop
physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined
in their daily activities. In every town there are amateur clubs and
keep-fit centers, where people can do aerobics, body-building or work
with different training devices.
are a lot of different kinds of sport: football, basketball,
volleyball, tennis, track-and-field, water polo and many others. The
main sport competition is the Olympic Games.
Olympic Games have а
very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place
every four years. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped.
So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship. In
394 AD the Games were abolished. In 1894, а
Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed all the sports
governing bodies and pointed out the educational value of sports. Two
years later the first modern Olympic Games took place in Greece to
symbolize the centuries old tradition. Russia joined the Olympic
movement in 1952. In 1980 Moscow hosted the Twenty-Second Olympic
Games. The latest Olympic Games were held in Sydney. Sydney
was the host for the Games of the 27th Olympiad in 2000. About 200
countries took part in the competitions. There were 10000 athletes
and 5000 officials. There were 27 sports on the program for the 2000
Olympic Games. Triathlon and Taekwondo were included in Sydney for
the first time at any Olympic Games. Our Russian team took part in
the Olympic Games too, we were the second in the overall count of won
medals, after the USA team.
for me, I like sport very much, but I like sport not only as a sport
fan, but also as a sportsman. I had been training judo for 9 years,
until I came to 11 form, I had to stop training because I had a lot
of homework and I had not much time to train. But I don’t stop
to go in for sport: sometimes in the morning or in the evening I run
and sometimes I visit keep-fit center (trainer hall).
Study and plans for the future
school year is very important for us, because we must decide what to
do after leaving school. There different ways for us to choose. Those
who like technique can become engineers and work in the field of
industry. Those who like nature can become agronomists and work in
agriculture, school-leavers who want to work directly with people may
become doctors and teachers.
people follow the examples of their parents and choose their
professions. I think it is not bad, as they know these professions
better. There are school-leavers who choose only modern professions
such as an economists and lowers. I don’t think that it is bad,
but in nowadays there are a lot of economists and lowers and it is
not easy for them to find work.
main thing for us is to choose our future profession correctly to
satisfy our own fasts and needs and to work with the best results.
As for me,
I want to be an expert in foreign relations (diplomat), but it is
very difficult to enter the university, there I can study foreign
relations. What’s why, most likely, I will have to become an
economists, it is not bad profession and I try to get at once two
specialty: marketing and finances and credit.
problem of spare time.
doubt that the problem of spare time is one of the most important
problems. Speaking about grownups we should say that they have to
work much to survive in such difficult economic situation.
have to study much if they want to get good knowledge and later to
enter a prestige educational institution.
when people have some spare time they prefer to spend it on their
differ like tastes. If you have chosen а
hobby according to your character and taste you are lucky because
your life becomes mоre
are divided into four large classes: doing things, making things,
collecting things, and learning things.
most popular of all hobby groups is doing
things. It includes а wide variety of
activities, everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to
grown-ups and children are fond of playing different computer games.
This is а relatively new hobby but it
is becoming more and more popular.
things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing
costumes, handicrafts. Two of the most famous hobby painters were
President Eisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. Some hobbyists write
music or play musical instruments. President Bill Clinton, for
example, plays the saxophone.
everyone collects something at some period in his life: stamps,
coins, match-boxes, books, records, postcards, toys, and watches.
Some collections have nо real value.
Others become so large and so valuable that they are housed in
museums and galleries. Many world-famous collections started in а
small way. People with а good deal of
money often collect paintings, rare books and other art objects.
Often such private collections are given to museums, libraries and
matter what kind of hobby а person
has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it. By reading
about the things he is interested in. Learning things can be the most
exciting aspect of а hobby.
me, I study in the 11 form and what’s why I don’t have
much time to hobbies. But when I have it, I usually read the books or
I work on the computer. I am fond of computers and reading books.
problems of Modern Cities and Villages.
We can’t say that the problems of villages
and cities are the same. If we speak about problems of any city first
of all we should speak about the problems traffic is heavy, numerous
enterprises emit tons of harmful substances and to breath is often a
real threat to people’s health. A problem of transport is also
important. There are few cities with underground stations. People of
many cities and towns have to spend much time in buses, cars, and
trams getting to their offices, schools, colleges, and plants.
serious problem of nowadays existed in cities is unemployment. The
economical situation in the country is rather complicated: many
factories are going bankrupt, close and as a result of it many people
loose their work.
One of the
problems is lock of fresh water. People can’t use running water
all day long. Besides, the quality of water is often bad.
problem is the problem of education. New types of schools are the
private schools have appeared lately.
that the level of education in high schools is higher than in
ordinary schools. But only children of well-paid parents can attend
problem of using drugs is mostly the problem of cities.
living in the countryside have much work to do. They are busy from
morning till night working in the fields, looking after poultry and
which they do, is not always mechanized. So countrymen don’t
have enough time to rest.
the houses in villages haven’t got modern conveniences, what
makes the life of people living there more difficult.
can’t go to museums or theatres, they can’t go to
concerts of pop singers.
villages are situated far from cities and it takes much time to get
there. As a rule there are no good hospitals in villages and medical
services in the countries leave much to be desired.
of Mass Media.
(that is press, television and radio) play an important role in the
life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also
influence the way people look at the world, in other words, mass
media shape public opinion. No doubt, millions of people watch
televisions programs every day, including the daily program “Time”.
The program informs us about the latest political, culture, art,
sport and other events in our country and in the world. Of course,
one can learn news and some other information from newspapers. An
American humorous writer once said: “ All I know is what I see
in the papers”.
radio we can hear music plays, news and various commentaries and
discussions, called forums. At a form several authorities exchange
and political problems (as well as on books at common interest). A
number of side are represented so, that the listeners can hear
various opinions. Such brood-casts are popular with listeners.
As for me,
I like to watch TV programs better than to read newspapers or to hear
radio. Most of all I like TV program “ Oh, lucky beggar!”,
because this program is very interesting and cognitive, I learn a lot
of interesting things from this TV program.
of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They
travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the
ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or
just for а
change of scene. It is always interesting to discover new things,
different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different
food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
who live in the country like to go to а
big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries,
looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants.
City-dwellers usually like а
quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but
walk and bathe and laze in the sun.
travellers and holiday-makers take а
camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them
— the sights of а
city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys,
plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and
plants, animals and birds.
perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy
time they have had.
travel by train, by plane, by boat and by car. All means of travel
have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one
according to their plans and destinations.
we are fond of travelling, we see and learn а
lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may
read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on
TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to
get to know and understand the people is to meet them in their own
United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations representing
almost all of humanity. It has as its central goal the maintenance of
international peace and security. Additionally, its purposes call for
the development of friendly relations among nations based on equal
rights and self-determination of peoples and, through international
the solution of problems of an economic, social, cultural and
United Nations is the meeting-place where representatives of all
member states — great and small, rich and poor, with varying
political views and social systems — have а
voice and an equal vote in shaping а
common course of action.
United Nations has played and continues to play, an active role in
reducing tension in the world, preventing conflicts and putting an
end to fighting already under way.
There are six main organs of the United Nations —
the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social
Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Secretariat and the
International Court of Justice. The Court has its seat at the Hague,
Netherlands. All other organs are based at the United Nations
Headquarters in New York.
of the General Assembly talk to each other in many languages, but
officially there are only six — Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish.
The Secretariat services the other organs of the
Unite Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid down
by them. Over 20,000 men and women are employed by the United Nations
with about one-third of them at the Head quarters and the other
two-thirds stationed around the globe. Staff members are recruited
primarily from member states and are drawn from more than 140
nations. As international civil servants, each takes an oath not to
seek or receive instructions from' any government or outside
for the United Nations, mostly "behind the scenes" at the
Headquarters, are linguists, economists, editors, social scientists,
legal experts, librarians, journalists, statisticians, broadcasters,
personnel officers, administrators and experts in all the varied
fields of activity covered by the United Nations. They prepare the
reports and studies requested by various bodies of the United
Nations; they issue press releases and produce publications,
broadcasts and films giving information about the United Nations; and
they perform the administrative duties needed to implement
resolutions adopted by the various organs. In addition, there are
stenographers, clerks, engineers and technicians, tour guides and
body of security officers in blue-grey uniforms who are responsible
for the security of
the United Nations Headquarters. At the head of the Secretariat is
main Headquarters of the United Nations are based in New York. The
Nations Organization Secretariat occupies the higher building. The
General Assembly is held in the lower building.
generation has its own culture in music, fashion, and hair-do.
people can’t understand it: they think that girl’s skirts
are too short or too long. They consider our clothes to be too
colorful. They don’t like our hair-do, they think it is a bad
idea to have hair of different colors. Besides they don’t like
when boys have long hair.
makes grownups angry and nervous – is our music. Older people
consider hard-rock, rap and rave not to be music, but combinations of
terrible sounds. Surely it is difficult to compare music of their
times with ours. We think that their music is dull, not energetic
way we dance gets on our parents nerves as well. But we like our
dances as they help us to relax and give optimism. They say that
young people have their own language. It is not so, as we have just a
number of word-combinations having unusual meaning. Our fathers and
mothers say that it is impossible to understand us when we speak that
parents want us to read books and to go to picture galleries. But we
prefer to watch video-films, to raise our cultural level getting
information about cultural treasures with the help of computers.