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Топик: Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)

Название: Сравнительные степени прилагательных и наречий (Comparison) Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) Цепочки существительных (Атрибутивная, номинативная группа) (Chains of nouns)
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Добавлен 08:57:22 16 сентября 2005 Похожие работы
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1. Определение – это член предложения, указывающий на признак предмета и отвечающий на вопрос «какой?». Оно относится к существительному. В английском языке наиболее типичными являются атрибутивные группы A+N (прилагательное + существительное), например, an important problem – важная проблема. Однако очень распространёнными являются номинативные атрибутивные группы, где определение выражено существительным N1+N2, например, space missions – космические полёты или полёты в космос.

Трудность номинативных групп N1+N2 для перевода заключается в том, что нужно уметь найти основное слово в цепочек существительных с тем, чтобы предшествующие ему слова перевести как определения. Случаи, когда N1 эквивалентно существительному в именительном падеже, например, signal-generator – (сигнал-генератор) очень редки. Зачастую даже двухкомпонентные атрибутивные группы нужно переводить целым придаточным предложением, например, pay pocket – конверт, в котором выдаётся заработная плата.

В научно-технической литературе наиболее употребительными являются двухкомпонентные атрибутивные группы типа N1+N2.

Номинативные атрибутивные группы в технической литературе могут включать до шести существительных. При переводе таких цепочек существительных, несущее большую смысловую нагрузку, ставится на первое место. Например, water energy pressure – давление за счёт энергии воды.

На уровне предложения выделение атрибутивных групп облегчается наличием ряда признаков. Так суффикс у основного (последнего в цепочке) существительного помогает найти стоящие перед ним определения.


2. В атрибутивной группе, независимо от её количественного состава, основным существительным является последнее слово, а предшествующие ему – определениями.


3. Эквивалентном атрибутивной группы N1+N2 является сочетание двух существительных, соединённых предлогом «of», причём они могут подвергаться взаимной трансформации, например, the structure reliability = the reliability of the structure = надёжность конструкции.


4. В атрибутивных группах типа A+ N1+N2, где А – прилагательное, и N1+N2+N3 основным является последнее существительное, а остальные – определения к нему.

Перевод A+ N1+N2 может совпадать с порядком следования слов в атрибутивной группе, например: narrow vacuum vessel – узкий вакуумный сосуд. Однако во многих случаях при переводе A+ N1+N2 и N1+N2+N3 необходимо, как правило, сначала перевести основное (последнее существительное), а затем – определения к нему. Порядок перевода слов в атрибутивных группах может быть различным и определяется по смыслу, например: Low temperature physics – физика низких температур.


5. Выделение атрибутивной группы N1+N2 облегчается наличием различных суффиксов существительного N2 (-er (-or), -ment, -ion (-tion, -sion)), например: We compare the levels of machine vibrations with biological systems.


6. Наличие явного сказуемого (is, are, was, were, have, had, has, must, can, may) – облегчает поиск атрибутивной группы N1+N2, выступающей в функции подлежащего, например: Sound waves are analyzed by the computer every one-hundredth of a second.


7. Атрибутивная группа N1+N2 может входить в состав подлежащего и вводиться при помощи различных предлогов (of, at, in), например: A new type of laser beam has been developed by Byelorussian scientists, где, N1+N2 /laser beam/, стоящее перед явным сказуемым «has been developed», вводится в группу подлежащего при помощи предлога “of” (новый тип лазерного луча).


8. За атрибутивной группой подлежащего N1+N2 может стоять неявное сказуемое. Оно может быть выражено словом без предлогов, местоимений и т.д., согласующимся с подлежащим по правилу противоположности окончания s, или словом с –ed, например: Microwave energy enters the cavity through a hole in the wall. Слово enters согласуется по правилу противоположности “s” со словом energy и образует пару подлежащего-сказуемого (energy enters), следовательно, слово microwave (N1) является определением к слову energy (N2) и переводится «энергия микроволн».


9. Атрибутивная группа N1+N2 может входить в состав второстепенных членов предложения – определения, дополнения, обстоятельства и находиться в его правой части после сказуемого, например: The glue is already used in the production of car tires, где N1+N2 (car tires) входит в состав предложного дополнения.


10 sentences:


1) Liquid nitrogen can be contained only in a special vessel.

2) Long range rockets were used in war since 1934.

3) Steel pipes are more reliable than plastic pipes.

4) Atomic power station Chernobyl exploded in 1986.

5) Electric chair has been used in execution.

6) Space ship is very expensive.

7) Electric lamp is used in every house.

8) Rock crystal is not a rare mineral.

9) Laser printer can print about 20 pages per minute.

10) Computer revolution began in 80s.


Text:

The first man-made satellite was launched on October 4, 1957. It demonstrated to the whole world the boundless opportunities of our country in science and technology. People everywhere in the world now know the Russian world “Sputnik”.

It was Juri Gagarin’s flight in 1961 that began an era of manned space flights on orbital space stations.

The Soviet Union did much in the exploration and use of outer space for the benefit of man. Highly qualified specialists performed scientific experiments aboard space stations. They used the latest automatic instruments and computers in their work.

The USSR made great contribution to extensive interna­tional cooperation in space research and to the use of outer space for peaceful purposes.

Some years ago nine socialist countries adopted a joint space research program.

The Soviet and international crews performed a large number of astrophysical, geophysical and other research experiments. Space flights are no longer regarded as being experiments by brave people or even by individual countries. The Intercosmos of the socialist community countries proves the advantages of joint efforts.

The Soviet Union is also successfully cooperating in space research with France, India, the USA and Sweden.

It pays great attention to the manned flights program which helps to solve a number of scientific and applied economic problems.


Comparative Adjectives

When we talk about 2 things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways.

A       B

We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. "A is bigger than B."

Formation of Comparative Adjectives

There are two ways to form a comparative adjective:

  • short adjectives: add '-er'

  • long adjectives: use 'more'

Short adjectives

  • 1-syllable adjectives

old, fast
  • 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y

happy, easy

Normal rule: add '-er'

old > older

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -r

late > later

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant

big > bigger

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i

happy > happier

Long adjectives

  • 2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y

modern, pleasant
  • all adjectives of 3 or more syllables

expensive, intellectual

Normal rule: use 'more'

modern > more modern
expensive > more expensive

Tip. With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-er' or 'more':

  • quiet > quieter/more quiet

  • clever > cleverer/more clever

  • narrow > narrower/more narrow

  • simple > simpler/more simple

Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms:

  • good > better

  • well (healthy) > better

  • bad > worse

  • far > farther/further


Use of Comparative Adjectives

We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1,000,000 things, only 2 things).

Often, the comparative adjective is followed by 'than'.

Look at these examples:

  • John is 1m80. He is tall. But Chris is 1m85. He is taller than John.

  • America is big. But Russia is bigger.

  • I want to have a more powerful computer.

  • Is French more difficult than English?

If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars, we can compare them like this:


Earth

Mars


Diameter (km) 12,760 6,790

Mars is smaller than Earth.

Distance from Sun (million km) 150 228

Mars is more distant from the Sun.

Length of day (hours) 24 25

A day on Mars is slightly longer than a day on Earth.

Moons 1 2

Mars has more moons than Earth.

Surface temperature (°C) 22 -23

Mars is colder than Earth.


Superlative Adjectives

Comparison is between 2 things: "A is bigger than B."

A       B

But the superlative is the extreme between 3 or more things. "A is the biggest."

A       B       C

Formation of Superlative Adjectives

As with comparative adjectives, there are two ways to form a superlative adjective:

  • short adjectives: add '-est'

  • long adjectives: use 'most'

We also usually add 'the' at the beginning.

Short adjectives

1-syllable adjectives old, fast
2-syllable adjectives ending in -y happy, easy

Normal rule: add '-est'

old > the oldest

Variation: if the adjective ends in -e, just add -st

late > the latest

Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant, vowel, consonant, double the last consonant

big > the biggest

Variation: if the adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i

happy > the happiest

Long adjectives

2-syllable adjectives not ending in -y modern, pleasant
all adjectives of 3 or more syllables expensive, intellectual

Normal rule: use 'most'

modern > the most modern
expensive > the most expensive


Tip With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-est' or 'most':

  • quiet > the quietest/most quiet

  • clever > the cleverest/most clever

  • narrow > the narrowest/most narrow

  • simple > the simplest/most simple

Exception! The following adjectives have irregular forms:

  • good > the best

  • bad > the worst

  • far > the furthest


Use of Superlative Adjectives

We use a superlative adjective to describe 1 thing in a group of 3 or more things.

Look at these examples:

  • John is 1m75. David is 1m80. Chris is 1m85. Chris is the tallest.

  • America, China and Russia are big countries. But Russia is the biggest.

  • Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

If we talk about the three planets Earth, Mars and Jupiter, we can use superlatives like this:


Earth

Mars

Jupiter


Diameter (km) 12,760 6,790 142,800

Jupiter is the biggest.

Distance from Sun (million km) 150 228 778

Jupiter is the most distant from the Sun.

Length of day (hours) 24 25 10

Jupiter has the shortest day.

Moons 1 2 16

Jupiter has the most moons.

Surface temperature (°C) 22 -23 -150

Jupiter is the coldest.

When we compare one thing with itself, we do not use "the":

  • England is coldest in winter. (not the coldest)

  • My boss is most generous when we get a big order. (not the most generous)


Comparison of Adverbs

There are 2 ways how the adverbs form their comparative and superlative.

1. Adverbs in -ly form their comparative and superlative with more and most. (But not early)

Could you say that more slowly, please?
Tom can shoot the most accurately.
You will just have to get up earlier.

2. Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form their comparative and superlative with -er and -est.

Sarah run the fastest.

Some adverbs form their comparative and superlative irregularly.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

badly worse worst
well better best
little less least
far farther, further farthest, furthest
much more most


Comparison as...as, less etc.


We use as...as to compare 2 things that are the same in the same way.
I cannot do crosswords as quickly as you.

Less and least are the opposites of more and most.
The old man's son visits him less often nowadays.

We can repeat a comparative after and to talk about a change in something else.
They went faster and faster down the hill.

We use the+comparative to talk about a change in one thing which causes a change in something else.
The more you practise, the better you will play.


Ten sentences:

    1. I am not the tallest student in our group.

    2. James Hetfield plays electric guitar much better than I.

    3. I think that tomorrow it will be colder than today.

    4. On my girlfriend’s birthday I bought the most expensive present I could afford.

    5. Sevastopol is the most picturesque city in Crimea.

    6. T-1 line Internet connection is much faster than dial-up one, however it is more expensive.

    7. The more I study, the better will be results.

    8. On average, people eat about twice as much proteins as they need.

    9. Calculus is simpler than statistics.

10) Mice are smaller than elephants.


Text(~1500 symbols):

The first computers with their electronics filled more room than up-to-date computers do. Photographs of early computers show men and women in business suits and laboratory coats standing in the middle of a room surrounded by a U-shape machine. In reality, people operating and developing the first computers did not wear suits. Air-conditioning was poorer than people needed and they dressed in T-shirts and tennis shoes.

The development of the transistor in 1948 made it possible to build smaller electronic devices. Computers became smaller and smaller and in our days personal computer can easily be fitted on the desk. Notebooks have less size than personal computers and they widely used by businessmen. For the most pretentious people engineers created a Pocket personal computer that can find room in pocket. Pocket PC is the smallest PC, on the other hand, it is the slowest and the least powerful than other personal computers. For people who do not need features like Infrared or Bluetooth connection or color display that offers Pocket PC, Palm designed small electronic organizer. It has fewer features and it is less powerful than Pocket PC, but it is also less expensive.

Computer designers are trying to create more friendly interface computer, because it is sold better. The one of the most important factors is a noise uttered by computer. Nobody likes noise and people are ready to pay more to buy quieter PC.

The progress never stops and smaller, more powerful and quieter computers will appear soon.



Can, Could, Be able to

Can and could are modal auxiliary verbs. Be able to uses the verb "to be" as a main verb. It is not an auxiliary verb, but we look at it here for convenience.


Can

Can is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use "can" to:

  • talk about possibility and ability

  • make requests

  • ask for or give permission

Structure of Can

subject + can + main verb

The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to").


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb


+ I

can

play tennis.
- He

cannot

play tennis.

can't

?

Can

you play tennis?

Notice that:

  • Can is invariable. There is only one form of can.

  • The main verb is always the bare infinitive.

Use of Can

can: Possibility and Ability

We use can to talk about what is possible, what we are able or free to do:

  • She can drive a car.

  • John can speak Spanish.

  • I cannot hear you. (I can't hear you.)

  • Can you hear me?

Normally, we use can for the present. But it is possible to use can when we make present decisions about future ability.

  1. Can you help me with my homework? (present)

  2. Sorry. I'm busy today. But I can help you tomorrow. (future)

can: Requests and Orders

We often use can in a question to ask somebody to do something. This is not a real question - we do not really want to know if the person is able to do something, we want them to do it! The use of can in this way is informal (mainly between friends and family):

  • Can you make a cup of coffee, please.

  • Can you put the TV on.

  • Can you come here a minute.

  • Can you be quiet!

can: Permission

We sometimes use can to ask or give permission for something:

  1. Can I smoke in this room?

  2. You can't smoke here, but you can smoke in the garden.

(Note that we also use could, may, might for permission. The use of can for permission is informal.)

Could

Could is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use "could" to:

  • talk about past possibility or ability

  • make requests

Structure of Could

subject + could + main verb

The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to").


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb


+ My grandmother

could

speak Japanese.
- She

could not

speak Chinese.

couldn't

?

Could

your grandmother speak Japanese?

Notice that:

  • Could is invariable. There is only one form of could.

  • The main verb is always the bare infinitive.

Use of Could

could: Past Possibility or Ability

We use could to talk about what was possible in the past, what we were able or free to do:

  • I could swim when I was 5 years old.

  • My grandmother could speak seven languages.

  • When we arrived home, we could not open the door. (...couldn't open the door.)

  • Could you understand what he was saying?

We use could (positive) and couldn't (negative) for general ability in the past. But when we talk about one special occasion in the past, we use be able (positive) and couldn't (negative). Look at these examples:


Past

General

Specific Occasion

+

My grandmother could speak Spanish.

A man fell into the river yesterday. The police were able to save him.

-

My grandmother couldn't speak Spanish.

A man fell into the river yesterday. The police couldn't save him.

could: Requests

We often use could in a question to ask somebody to do something. The use of could in this way is fairly polite (formal):

  • Could you tell me where the bank is, please?

  • Could you send me a catalogue, please?

Be able to

Although we look at be able to here, it is not a modal verb. It is simply the verb "to be" plus an adjective (able) followed by the infinitive. We look at "be able to" here because we sometimes use it instead of "can" and "could". We use "be able to":

  • to talk about ability

Structure of Be able to

The structure of be able to is:

subject + be + able + infinitive


subject

be
main verb

able
adjective

infinitive

+ I

am

able

to drive.

- She

is not

able

to drive.

isn't

?

Are

you

able

to drive?

Notice that be able to is possible in all tenses, for example:

  • I was able to drive...

  • I will be able to drive...

  • I have been able to drive...

Notice too that be able to has an infinitive form:

  • I would like to be able to speak Chinese.

Use of Be able to

be able to: ability

We use be able to to express ability. "Able" is an adjective meaning: having the power, skill or means to do something. If we say "I am able to swim", it is like saying "I can swim". We sometimes use "be able to" instead of "can" or "could" for ability. "Be able to" is possible in all tenses—but "can" is possible only in the present and "could" is possible only in the past for ability. In addition, "can" and "could" have no infinitive form. So we use "be able to" when we want to use other tenses or the infinitive. Look at these examples:

  • I have been able to swim since I was five. (present perfect)

  • You will be able to speak perfect English very soon. (future simple)

  • I would like to be able to fly an airplane. (infinitive)

Have To (objective obligation)

We often use have to to say that something is obligatory, for example:

  • Children have to go to school.

Structure of Have To

"Have to" is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a modal verb. It is not even an auxiliary verb. In the "have to" structure, "have" is a main verb. The structure is:

subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with "to")

Look at these examples in the simple tense:


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb "have"

infinitive (with "to")


+ She

has

to work.


- I do not

have

to see

the doctor.
? Did you

have

to go

to school?

Use of Have To

In general, "have to" expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of "have to" is obliged or forced to act by a separate, external power (for example, the Law or school rules). "Have to" is objective. Look at these examples:

  • In France, you have to drive on the right.

  • In England, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.

  • John has to wear a tie at work.

In each of the above cases, the obligation is not the subject's opinion or idea. The obligation is imposed from outside.

We can use "have to" in all tenses, and also with modal auxiliaries. We conjugate it just like any other main verb. Here are some examples:


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb "have"

infinitive


past simple I

had

to work

yesterday.
present simple I

have

to work

today.
future simple I will

have

to work

tomorrow.
present continuous She is

having

to wait.


present perfect We have

had

to change

the time.
modal (may) They may

have

to do

it again.

Must (subjective obligation)

We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example:

  • I must go.

Structure of Must

"Must" is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure is:

subject + must + main verb

The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").

Look at these examples:

subject

auxiliary verb
"must"

main verb


I

must

go

home.
You

must

visit

us.
We

must

stop

now.

Use of Must

In general, "must" expresses personal obligation. "Must" expresses what the speaker thinks is necessary. "Must" is subjective. Look at these examples:

  • I must stop smoking.

  • You must visit us soon.

  • He must work harder.

In each of the above cases, the "obligation" is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. In fact, it is not a real obligation. It is not imposed from outside.

We can use "must" to talk about the present or the future. Look at these examples:

  • I must go now. (present)

  • I must call my mother tomorrow. (future)

There is no past tense for "must". We use "have to" to talk about the past.


Must Not (prohibition)

We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, for example:

  • Passengers must not talk to the driver.

Structure of Must Not

"Must" is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure for "Must Not" is:

  • Subject + "Must Not" + Main Verb

The Main Verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").

"Must Not" is often contracted to "mustn't".

Look at these examples:

subject

auxiliary "Must" + "Not"

main verb


I

mustn't

forget

my keys.
You

mustn't

disturb

him.
Students

must not

be

late.

NB: like all auxiliary verbs, "must" cannot be followed by an infinitive. So, we say:

  • You mustn't arrive late. (not You mustn't to arrive late.)

Use of Must Not

"Must Not" expresses prohibition - something that is not permitted, not allowed. The prohibition can be subjective (the speaker's opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples:

  • I mustn't eat so much sugar. (subjective)

  • You mustn't watch so much television. (subjective)

  • Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective)

  • Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)

We use "Must Not" to talk about the present or the future:

  • Visitors must not smoke. (present)

  • I mustn't forget Tara's birthday. (future)

We cannot use "Must Not" for the past. We use another structure to talk about the past, for example:

  • We were not allowed to enter.

  • I couldn't park outside the shop.

Shall and Will

People may sometimes tell you that there is no difference between shall and will, or even that today nobody uses shall (except in offers such as "Shall I call a taxi?"). This is not really true. The difference between shall and will is often hidden by the fact that we usually contract them in speaking with 'll. But the difference does exist.

The truth is that there are two conjugations for the verb will:

1st Conjugation (objective, simple statement of fact)


Person

Verb

Example

Contraction

Singular I shall I shall be in London tomorrow. I'll
you will You will see a large building on the left. You'll
he, she, it will He will be wearing blue. He'll
Plural we shall We shall not be there when you arrive. We shan't
you will You will find his office on the 7th floor. You'll
they will They will arrive late. They'll

2nd Conjugation (subjective, strong assertion, promise or command)


Person

Verb

Example

Contraction

Singular I will I will do everything possible to help. I'll
you shall You shall be sorry for this. You'll
he, she, it shall It shall be done. It'll
Plural we will We will not interfere. We won't
you shall You shall do as you're told. You'll
they shall They shall give one month's notice. They'll

It is true that this difference is not universally recognized. However, let those who make assertions such as "Americans never use 'shall'" peruse a good American English dictionary, or many American legal documents, which often contain phrases such as:

  • Each party shall give one month's notice in writing in the event of termination.

Note that exactly the same rule applies in the case of should and would. It is perfectly normal, and somewhat more elegant, to write, for example:

  • I should be grateful if you would kindly send me your latest catalogue.

Ten sentences:

  1. Children have to go to school.

  2. I must go to the university.

  3. People mustn’t drive a car when they drink alcohol.

  4. I needn’t do math today, I can do it later.

  5. I should study harder before exams.

  6. Elephants and mice can’t fly.

  7. I could play snooker much better two years ago than I can now.

  8. I can’t have made a mistake in my calculations because I used a calculator.

  9. Can you run 100 meters in 5.5 seconds? 10)

  10. Students mustn’t eat or drink during the lection.

Texts:

Combinatorial mathematics.

Specialists in a broad range of fields have to deal with problems that involve combinations made up of letters, numbers or any other objects.

The field of mathematics that studies problems of how many different combinations can be built out of a specific number of objects is called combinatorial mathematics (combinatorics).

This branch of mathematics has its origin in the 16th century, in the gambling games that played such a large part in high society in those times. These games gave the initial impetus to develop combinatorial mathematics and the theory of probability.

Italian and French mathematicians were the first to enumerate the various combinations achieved in games of dice. Further advances in the theory of combinations were connected with the names of German scientists.

In recent years combinatorial mathematics has seen extensive developments associated with grater interest in problems of discrete mathematics. Combinatorial methods can be employed in solving transport problems, in particular scheduling; the scheduling of production facilities and of the sale of goods. Links have been established between combinatorics and problems of linear programming, statistics, etc. Combinatorial methods are used in coding and decoding and in the solution of other problems of information theory.

The combinatorial approach also plays a significant role in purely mathematical problems such as the theory of groups and their representations, in the study of the main principles of geometry, some branches of algebra, etc.


Probability.

Probability is a mathematical expression of the likelihood of an event. Every probability is a fraction. The largest probability can be 1. The smallest probability can be is 0, meaning that it’s something that cannot happen. You can find the probability that something will not happen by subtracting the probability that it will happen from 1. For example, if the weatherman tells you that there is a 0.3 probability of rain today, then there must be a 0.7 probability that it won’t rain.

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Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений21:29:18 18 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
11:30:48 24 ноября 2015

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