What can you tell your
English-speaking partner about Russia as the biggest country in the
world (it’s geographical position, its weather and climate,
What makes you proud of
your Motherland (classic and modern writers, scientists, politicians,
Why does Russia attract
tourists from all over the world? What would you show to your friends
in your country?
What cities, lakes,
rivers is Russia famous for? Talk your partner into visiting them.
Is Moscow really a
political, cultural and scientific center of Russia? Prove it.
What facts from the
history of Moscow could be interesting to your friends from other
Have you ever been to
Moscow? What surprised you most of all?
What places (towers,
streets, squares, churches, museums, concert halls, theatres,
monuments, etc.) is Moscow famous for?
Which of them would you
like to show to your friends coming to Moscow for a visit?
School. My future career.
What would you like to
do after school? Was it your own decision?
Who helped you to make
Have you tried a
part-time or summer job to find out what interests you most of all?
What professions are in demand now?
What are advantages
and disadvantages of your future profession/job?
Which of your personal
characteristics will help you to succeed in your career? Which
qualities of your character would you like to develop? Why?
Those who chose their
career correctly are really happy, aren't they? Did you have "born
teachers" at school?
Why teaching as a
career is so important? I interview your teacher of English.
You've got a lot of
really difficult problems to solve, haven't you? Share them with your
What jobs, attitudes,
looks, arts, books, outfits, hobbies are popular among the teenagers?
Would you like to get a
good education? Why? Where?
Is it easy for a
teenager to get a job and to earn some money? Have you ever tried to?
Say a few words
about your experience.
Do you always
understand your parents? Do they understand you?
What are the reasons of
Do you spend much time
with your friends?
What do you usually
talk about? How do you choose friends?
What do you value in
yourself, in your friends?
Healthy living guide.
How does your health
depend on your life style?
Is sport a hobby or
part of your everyday life?
Why is it important to
exercise every day?
What do you do to keep
Would you like to be a
professional sportsman? Talk about its advantages and disadvantages.
What famous sportsman
do you know?
What questions would
you ask him/her if you were a correspondent?
What sports are popular
in your family?
Do your parents do
sports regularly? Do you do it together? Is sport popular in
Which sports are
especially popular in these countries?
Why is travelling so
Do you (your family)
travel? How often? Where and why?
Speak about the most
interesting trip you have ever made.
Would you prefer to go
abroad or to discover your own country? Explain why.
Why does Russia attract
so many tourists from all over the world?
What would you show to
your friends from other countries? Have you ever been to
English-speaking countries? Anywhere abroad? Share your impressions.
Why are people so
interested in environmental protection?
How does your health
and your life depend on the environment? Give your reasons.
Who needs protection
nowadays (people, animals, plants, oceans, etc.)?
Can you name any
society fighting fog environmental protection? What do they do?
Would you like to join
How do you protect the
Does your school and
your family, your town and your country do its best to solve this
personalities of Russia and English-speaking countries.
Who can be called a
What makes a person
What famous people of
Russia would you tell your British/American friend about?
Why are you proud of
What famous Britons and
Americans do you know? Are they known in your country?
What for? Talk about
the famous politicians who helped nations to get closer in the 20th
Do you regularly read
newspapers and magazines?
Which are your
Do all the members of
your family read the same newspaper/magazine or don't they? Why?
How often do you watch
Which are your
favourite TV programs?
What is good and bad
about the TV programs for youngsters?
What new youth programs
would you suggest? Share your opinion.
and past time.
Have you got much free
How do you spend it?
What kind of rest do
you prefer very active (disco, travelling, doing sports, etc.) or
less active (reading, watching TV. collecting, etc.)?
Are you anybody's fan?
Are your hobbies
connected with your future profession?
What are they? Do you
share your hobbies/activities with your friends?
Do you find
understanding in your family?
What are typical
British/American hobbies and sports?
Are they popular in
countries do you know?
Do the people in these
countries speak the "same English"?
Do they have similar
What do you know about
Why is the UK called an
What is special about
the political system of the UK?
What is important to
know about the UK if you go there as a tourist (cities, towns,
What is the official
name of the USA?
What city is the
capital of the USA?
How many states does
the USA have? Name some of them.
What places of interest
in the United States would you like to visit? Why?
What is a true/typical
Which famous Americans
do you know? Speak about your favourite one.
What parts does London
Why is the central
square in London named Trafalgar square?
What is the West end
What is situated in the
Why is the City called
the business center of London?
What do you know about
the British Museum and the National Gallery?
Have you got many books
in your home library?
Who usually buys books
in your family?
Are there different
reading tastes in your family?
What do you think of
poetry? Is a book the best present for you?
What kind of books do
you enjoy reading? Explain why.
Who is your favourite
Russian/British/ American writer?
Which of his/her books
do you like best of all?
Say a few words about
the writer and the book.
Why do some people
prefer to watch TV
adaptations of novels
instead of reading books?
Do you think reading
books will be
popular in the 21st
century? Share your opinion.
in Russia and English-speaking countries.
What would you tell
your British/American friend about traditional Russian holidays?
holidays do you know?
How are they celebrated
in the English-speaking countries?
Are they celebrated in
Russia in the same way?
British/American holidays and traditions do you know?
What are traditional
Russian/British/ American dishes offered on different holidays?
Why do people give
presents to each other? How do they choose presents?
Do you often listen to
To what kind of music?
Does it make you happy?
Can you play any
Is a special musical
training necessary to understand music?
Are you a fan of any
pop or rock group?
What makes it your
Do you listen to music
at home or at the concert/disco?
Do you think the
theatre and the cinema are modem arts?
Why is video so popular
Who is your favourite
actor (composer/ musician/artist)?
What makes him/her
special for you?
Which do you prefer
ballet, opera, drama or comedy? Explain your choice.
Are you a member of any
drama circle? Do you enjoy it? Why?
system of England and the USA.
What type of economic
system exists in the USA (England)?
What is it
What are traditional
branches of industry in these countries?
Enumerate the biggest
industrial centers of England, of the USA.
developed? In what regions?
system of Russia.
What period is Russia
going through at the present moment?
What measures are being
undertaken to overcome economic crisis?
What factors are the
main obstacles to reform?
Is it possible to make
transition to capitalism by changing only economic structure of
What are the main
branches of industry?
What does Russia
What are the richest
areas of Russia?
When does the history
of Russian industry go back to?
system of Russia.
What kind of political
system is there in Russia?
What does the federal
government consist of?
What are the
responsibilities of the President?
What is the judicial
branch represented by?
What is state symbol of
What is the origin of
the national emblem?
system of the USA and England.
What are the three
branches of the U.S. government?
What are their
What is the system of
checks and balances?
What power does the
President have under this system?
What are the major
political parties of the USA?
What does the
legislative branch consist of?
Great Britain is a
constitutional monarchy, isn’t it?
What is the name of the
Queen of Great Britain?
Is her power limited by
How many chambers does
the British Parliament consist of? What are they?
What are the main
political parties in Great Britain?
Which political party
does he represent?
was the largest Republic in the former USSR. But now it has become an
is situated in the Eastern part of Europe and in the Northern part of
country is washed by 12 seas of three oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic
and the Atlantic oceans. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents
Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.
climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental in
the central part of the country and subtropical in the South. Winters
are cold, windy and snowy, especially in the northern part of the
country. The coldest point of the northern hemisphere, where
temperatures are minus 70*C, is located in Siberia. Summers are hot
and dry, especially in the South region of the country, in such
cities like Sochi, Anapa and others. Autumn usually brings rains and
land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high
peaked mountains to deep valleys. There are two great plains in
Russia: they are the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain.
There are some mountain chains. The biggest mountain chain, the
Urals, separates Europe from Asia. In Asian part of Russia we can
find another big mountain chain, the Altai. There are about 150
volcanoes in Kamchatka Peninsula, 30 of which are active. One can
find deserts in the Far East, Arctic zones of tundra in the North.
These territories are inhabited by various animals, birds, insects.
In the north of Russia live the walrus, seal, white bear, polar fox
and reindeer. In the forest zone live the bear, wolf, fox, linx,
sable, ermine, elk, roe, wild bear and in the Far East the tiger and
leopard. Among the trees growing in the European part of Russia are
birch, pine and oak: in Siberia – cedar, larch and fir trees
and in the Far East – iron and cork trees, lotus, ginseng and
are very many rivers in Russia, the longest of them are the Volga in
Europe and the Yenissei and the Ob in Asia. The world’s deepest
lake - Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 metres, is situated in
Russia, too. Its water is the purest in the world.
borders on many countries: Norway and Finland in the north-west,
Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the west, Georgia and
Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China in the
capital of Russia is Moscow and it is also one of the main political,
scientific, industrial and cultural centres. It’s population is
about 10 million people. Other big cities are St. Petersburg,
Sverdlovsk, Samara, Omsk, Novosibirsk and many others.
has population of about 150 million people of over a hundred
nationalities. Nearly one hundred languages are spoken in the
country. The European part of the country is densely peopled, and
most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts.
is a highly-industrialized-agrarian
country. Its vast mineral resources include oil, natural gas, coal,
iron ore, nickel, zinc, lead, aluminium, gold, diamonds, zinc and
almost all other minerals. Russia has the world’s largest oil
and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the country’s
mineral wealth are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of
the region’s grain, meat, milk and other dairy products. The
largest granaries are located in the North Caucasus and the Volga and
the Amur regions.
has very long and rich history. That’s why we have many
different customs and traditions. For example, there are many
villages in Russia famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in
Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Log
houses, usually decorated with wood carving are typical for Russian
villages. People in Russian villages performed traditional Khorovods
(a kind of round dance) and chastushki (folk chanted rhymes) and rode
in troikas (carriages drawn by teams of three horses abreast) and, of
course, village residents still prefer to drink tea from samovars.
Traditional Russian Cooking includes porridges, pancakes, various
aspics, cabbage, chiken and fish soup, pirozhki (tuknovers) and kvass
(a beverage made from fermented rye bread). Siberian causine has such
dishes as stroganina(frozen fish) and pelmeni(meat-filled dumplings).
country has always played one of the leading parts in the world
politics and economics. But, at present, there are a lot of problems
in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial
production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate
of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many
factories and plants are going bankrupt.
Russian Federation, or the Russian Federative Republic, is set up by
the Constitution of 1993.
the Constitution Russia is a presidential republic. The federal
government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and
judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.
legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of
two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation: the
Lower Chamber is the State Duma.
chamber is headed by the Speaker. Legislature may be initiated in
either of the two Chambers. But to become a law a bill must be
approved by both Chambers and signed by the President. The President
may veto the bill.
President is commander-in chief of the armed forces, he makes
treaties, enforces laws, appoints ministers to be approved by the
executive power belongs to the Government headed by the Prime
Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to
form the Cabinet.
judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the
Supreme Court and the regional courts.
members of the Federal Assembly are elected by popular vote for a
the state symbol of Russia is a three-colored banner. It has three
horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes
the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one
symbolizes liberty. It was the first state symbol that replaced the
former symbols in 1991. The hymn of Russia was written by Alexandrov.
A new national emblem is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient
symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the
Ruricovitches. All these symbols are official. They have been
approved by the Federal Assembly.
love my motherland and I am very proud of it as it has great history.
Russia is famous for great scientists such as Lomonosov, Mendeleev,
Tzyolkovskii, Popov, Sacharov, Korolev, writers – Pushkin,
Tolstoy, Dostoevskii, Lermontov, Chekhov, painters, actors. And also
is famous for the great discoveries suck as the first man in the
space, the discovery of the vodorodnya bomba which contributed to
the development of society and world.
in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, I think, that
there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of
the leading countries in the world again.
the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and
It was founded 8 centuries ago
by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1147. Gradually the city became more and
more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the
struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In
the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of
the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St.
Petersburg Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That's why it became
the main target of Napoleon's attack. After the October revolution
Moscow became the capital again.
Now Moscow is
one of the largest cities in the Europe. It stands on the bank of the
Moskva-River. More than 10 million people live in the city. Moscow is
famous for its historical and architectural monuments that were built
by outstanding architects and sculptors.
one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The historical centre
of Moscow is Red Square. The best starting point of the tour around
the city is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in
Moscow. It is the place of parades, meeting and demonstrations. Here
one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, or St. Basil’s
cathedral, erected to commemorate Russia’s conquest of the
Kazan Kingdom in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture.
Tourists can see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in memory of the
Russian victory over the Polish invaders. The heart of Moscow is the
Kremlin, a wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 magnificent
cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great palaces, fortress walls
and 20 towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower
with a big clock. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see the
Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the
world.The Kremlin with golden domes and tower makes a strong
impression on tourists. The Alexander Garden with the Tomb of the
Unknown Soldier is the place of memory. One of the well-known Kremlin
museums is the Armoury Chamber. The famous golden cap of Monomach,
the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine the Second and many
other historical items are exhibited there.
Some skyscrapers decorate Moscow
including Moscow University, a palace of knowledge and students.
Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre where there are a lot of
institutes, universities, libraries, museums. The city leads a varied
cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more
than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi Theatre,
the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov Theatre. The
magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre
Square in Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is
the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and
choreographers in it's company.
of Moscow are proud of their museums : the Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin
Museum of Fine Arts, literary museums. The State Tretyakov gallery is
one of the best-known picture galleries in Russia. It takes its name
from it's founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant. In the 19'th
century Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings, and before his
death he donated the collection to the city of Moscow. Since then
the gallery has received hundred paintings from other museums and
private collections. The Tretyakov gallery reflects the whole history
of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the present day. Crowds
of people visit the Tretiakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of
The citizens of Moscow enjoy
spending their weekends in parks and gardens - the Park of Culture
and Rest, Izmailovo, Sokolniki.
Moscow is the seat of the
Russian Parliament and the centre of political life of the country.
Moscow is a place where thins
are happening in all spheres of life.
Choosing a career.
When you leave school
you understand that the time to choose your future profession has
come. It’s not an easy task to make the right choice of a job.
I have known for a long time that leaving school is the beginning of
a far more serious examination of my abilities and character.
As the years passed I
have changed my mind a lot of times about which science or field of
industry to specialize in. It was difficult to make up my mind and
choose one of hundred of jobs to which I might be better suited.
Everyone needs at least
one profession in his life. So when you begin spending sleepless
nights thinking about a job and money, when you think longingly of
the plans for the future it’s no doubt about it you’re
ready to choose most suitable career for you.
So in the world there
are very and very many different professions: you can work with
people as a doctor, a lawyer, a receptionist, a teacher, etc.; on the
enterprise, bank, school, state institution. And what kind of a
profession you choose is mainly depend on yourself. And I think it’s
very difficult task for everybody.
And now there is such
situation in the life that it is very difficult to find some worthy
job especially suitable for you. So if you want some-how to get a
gob, you can make plans for the future when you study still at
school. It’s a good idea to take different factors into
account: job satisfaction – your future job must satisfy you;
money – it’s important that your future profession must
be well-paid or you must have a high salary to support the family,
etc; good conditions; training; travelling and so on; the place of
work -in the office, from home, in the open area, abroad, etc.
In the past, when I was
at age of 10, I dream of becoming a lawyer.Because a lawyer should be
very energetic, talkative, inventive, enterprise, creative,
adventurous and enthusiastic. I wanted to work with people and help
them. But now I can say that I made up my mind what to do in the
future. I think I have an aptitude for working with figures and
solving financial problems and I am interested in knowing how money
is made. So I think I can work as an economist in the financial
field. I think that it is more in demand now especially in banks
where a really good specialist can have a lot of money. The success
of this profession depends on mainly my education. So I want to enter
to the Vyatka State Technical University on the social-economics
faculty in spite of the very high competition. I think I’ll be
able to enter there because I have a good knowledge of English and
mathematics to pass the exams. So when I’ll finish the
University I’m going to work in the father’s office as a
financial consultant and specialist in this field. I think I will not
disappoint my father about this job because I’m energetic,
communicative, enterprise and quick by nature.
Our society is made up of
all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government
departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries and the like. They
are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of
living and our quality of life. In all the organizations there are
people carrying out the work of the manager although they do not have
that tittle. The vice- chancellors of a university, the president of
a students union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have the
responsibility to use the resources of their organization effectively
and economically to achieve its objectives.
Managers are to forecast,
plan, organize, coordinate, control and motivate other workers. In
most companies the activities of managers depend on the level at
which he (she) is working. Top managers such as the chairmen and
directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy
making and the relations of the company with the outside world. They
will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of
product lines it should develop, the way it should face up to the
competition, the means of diversifying, etc.
On the other hand, middle
management and supervisions are generally making the day- to-day
decisions, which help an organization to run efficiently and
smoothly. They must response to the pressure of the job, which may
mean dealing with unhappy customers, chasing up supplies, meeting an
urgent order or sorting out technical problems. Managers at this
level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and
making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.
In carrying out
management functions, such as planning, organizing, motivating and
controlling, a manager will be continually making decisions.
Decision-making is a key management responsibility. Some decisions
are often the routine kind. They are decisions, which are made fairly
quickly and are based on judgement. Other decisions are often
intuitive ones. Before making a decision the manager will carefully
assess" the options, considering the advantages and
disadvantages of each one. Thus any manager is to be a bit
Sport and healthy
They say, "Health is above
wealth." One of the first duties we owe to ourselves is to keep
our bodies in perfect health. If your body suffers from any disorder,
our mind suffers with it, and we are unable to make much progress in
knowledge, and we are unfit to perform those duties, which are
required of us in social life.
There are certain laws of health
which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that even a
child can learn them. A certain amount of exercise is necessary to
keep the body in perfect condition. All the powers (mental and
bodily) we possess are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse.
Moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and
study, enough sleeping time (not less than 7-8 hours a day),
regularity in exercise, recreation and rest, cleanliness lay the
foundations for health and long healthy happy life.
of people consider sports to be very helpful in gaining good health.
That's why every country pays much attention to developing sports. It
is sport that helps to bring up physically strong, strong-willed,
courageous and energetic people.
the last ten years recreational sport has become extremely popular,
and, according to doctors is absolutely essential for a long and
The reasons of this enormous
interest in sport of all kinds are varied. When you ask people why
they spend so much time, effort, and sometimes money, they will talk
about the physical benefits (feeling fit, increasing stamina,
sleeping better, the chance of living a more active life),
psychological benefits (self-discipline and respect, a sense of
personal achievement, relaxation, getting rid of aggression), and the
social advantages (meeting people with similar interests, the team
spirit). However, the social aspect seems to be more important for
men than for women. Very often, enjoying a drink with friends after
the match is as important for the former as a physical activity
itself. The latter generally see sport as a way of keeping fit rather
than anything else.
Of course, some people don’t
consider sport to be a hobby, it is an everyday work for them. Much
is spoken now about problems in professional sport. There is a lot
drug taking in sport. There is too much pressure on young sports
people. Mountaineering and air sports such as hang-gliding, each kill
at least 16 people every year. In one Sports Council study of 28,000
people, football was found responsible for more than a quarter of
2,000 injuries seen every year. But still many people are involved in
professional sport and millions of people can not live without it.
They prefer watching sporting events rather than taking part in them.
They are so-called sport-fans. They pack stadiums during sport
matches and competitions, they sit glued to the TV, they are ready to
give every moral support to their favourite sportsmen or teams.
the meantime thousands of ordinary people devote their spare time to
going in for sports. They play indoor and outdoor games: volleyball,
basketball, table tennis, hockey, lawn tennis. The number of
participants and spectators show that the most popular games are
basketball, hockey and, of course, football. A lot of people go in
for track-and-field athletics, cycling, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics
and so on.
Hockey, figure skating, skiing
and skating are among the most popular winter sports. In summer
swimming is enjoyed by millions of people. There are also many indoor
swimming pools, which makes swimming possible all the year round.
Cycling is a useful exercise, too, because it takes you out into the
fresh air and gives much work to all the muscles. So if you arrange
your day correctly you can find an opportunity for sports.
Physical training is an
essential part of young people's development. All pupils and students
have regular training at PT lessons. These classes are enjoyed by
everybody as they give a lot of energy, develop muscles, make pupils
strong, quick and healthy. From time to time different kinds of
competitions are organized at school or between schools. The most
popular sports at school are basketball, football and volleyball.
Besides, pupils and students attend a lot of sports clubs and sports
sections after classes, where they take up their favourite kind of
Indeed, sport is a part of
everyday life of many generations all other the world. So if you
think that physical fitness and health are important you are to go in
who live in the country like to find themselves in large cities with
their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like a
quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but
walking and bathing, lazying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday
makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that
interests them - beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual
plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time
life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest way of
travelling is by plane. But many people make their choice on
travelling by train as with a train you have speed, comfort and
pleasure combined. Travelling by train is of course slower than by
air but it also has its advantages.
you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats
beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by train. There
are some reasons why people choose railroad. Train is the cheap means
of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of
your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is,
you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds
of people hurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot of time
standing near the booking-office trying to buy a ticket.
trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger cars, and there
are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journey
enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and third-class
sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before the train
starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up
and down the platform. Some people forget when and from which
platform and track their train will be off. They can always ask for
the track, platform and train numbers at the railroad station
information bureau and also get information about next trains and
their schedules. There are express, slow and long-distance trains. If
you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly as possible you’d
better know that express trains only stop at the largest stations
while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countries
only by a long-distance train.
you are in your compartment you have to ask the guide to bring in the
bedding. There are usually two lower and two upper berths in a
third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy upper
berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel. During
your way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of the
window, drink the tea, communicate with your neighbors or sleep. I
prefer to look out of the window, because you can see the country you
are passing through, and not only the clouds as when you are flying.
You can have something to eat at the stations when the train makes
are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship, on foot.
Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by
plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I
also like traveling by train. I’ve traveled this way a lot.
When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature.
envy the tourists because I think that they study geography traveling
and visiting different parts of the world. They can tell you many
things which you didn’t know before.
are interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself.
Any kind of travel helps you to understand many things that you can
never see or learn at home. Though you may read about them in books
for me I’d like to have a coach tour to some foreign country.
Coach tours are planned and I’ll have a chance to do a lot of
sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time.
SAVE ©UR PLANET BEFORE IT'S TOO LATE!
Since ancient times nature ha& served Man, being the source of
his life. Humans have been living on this planet fer two million
years and in the last tw® hundred years humans have made a mess
©f the planet; chopped trees^ killed animals, polluted air^
land, water, etc. Because efthat we new have a let of problems I'll
name just a few of them: 1. the greenhouse; 2. killing forests and
animals; 3-. water, air, land pollution; 4. rubbish problems;
S. nuclear power.
The earth has been getting hotter because we are producing too many
greenhouse gases. These gases hold heat. Trees and plants help to
take gases, such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but we have
now destroyed too many trees. There aren't enough trees and plants to
do this job. We make carbon dioxide when we burn wood or drive cars.
Other dangerous gases are in refrigerators and spray cans. Polluting
gases fall as acid rains Acid rain is a kind of air pollution. It is
caused-by factories that bum-coal or oil or gas. These-factories send
smoke high into the air. The wind often carries the smoke far from
The ram in many places isn't natural and clean any more. It's full of
acid chemicals. When it falls in lakes, it changes them too. The
lakes become more acidie. Acid water is like vinegar or lemon Juice.
It hurts when-it gets in-your eyes. It also kills the plants and
animals that usually live in lake water As a result of air pollution
only 2-3 per cent of healthy babies are born in Yaroslavl and people
cannot bathe-in the Volga river.
The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of ozone
layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature^ a-sign
of ecological crises.
As a result of man's careless interaction with nature some rare
species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever. For
example, the-Blue Whale, the Panda, the California-Big^ Tree are on
the verge of extinction now. Many animals have gone forever, as their
habitats have been destroyed at-an alarming rate, 340i miles a day!
The truth is that we use animals or parts of animals for jewellery,
clothes, soaps, etc. All the moment weare using lOOdof animals-every
year for tests of things, like shampoos to find-out if they cause any
irritation. Some of the animals go blind or ever die from these
tests. We kill whales for their oil, which weuse for cosmetics and
soaps. A lot of expensive jewellery are made from ivory, from the
horns of elephants and rhinos. African elephants are disappearing
fast. People continue to kill animals to wear fur coats. Some of
these animals like fox are in danger or extinction.
Believe it or noty but every ten- minuter one kind- of animal or
plant dies out forever. If nothing is done about it one million
species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years
the most important problems now is the rubbish problem. Many people
find it easy to drop anything on the ground. They think that it is
very little, but very big garbage heaps appear from small wrappers.
Littering isn't very dangerous, but trash in the streets looks ugly,
on the nature it spoils the view. Littering is very awful when wind
carries scraps of paper and cans go under one's feet, rotting food
attracts birds and rats, which carry disease. There are many
countries, which have a law against littering. But in Russia there
isn’t such a law. That is why many cities in our country are as
One of the most horrible ecological problems is nuclear power,
because nuclear weapons could destroy the world. Nuclear weapon tests
increase the amount of radiation in the atmosphere. Nuclear power
produces high-level radioactive waste, which can be dangerous for
thousands of years. Nuclear explosions on the ground caused
irreversible changes in the chemical composition C^y of the upper
As a result of the Chemobyl tragedy in April 1986^ about 18 per cent
of the territory of Belarus were polluted with radioactive
substances. A great damage has been done to the republic's
agriculture^ forests and people's health. The consequences of this
explosion at the atomic power station are tragic for the Belarussian
Some scientists^are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that
we-havealrear reached the point of no return. Others are more
optimistic and believe rh;-n n
Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle was
born in the capital of Scotland, Edinburgh. His father, Charles E.
Doyle, was an artist and architect by profession, but he worked as a
clerk in an office. The father died young and the Doyles were very
was a very good story-teller and he remembered her fantastic stories
all his life. The talent of story-telling was inherited by Arthur
from his mother and it helped him as a writer.During his school years
he read much, and he often told his school friends long and
interesting stories, getting cakes and sweets for that.
After leaving school
Conan Doyle became a student of the medical faculty at the university
of Edinburgh. In this third year of studies he went as a ship doctor
to the Arctic and upon graduating from the university, he again went
in a ship to western Africa.
He began his medical
practice in a small English town Southsea, where he spent eight
years. In 1887, he published his first detective story “A study
in Scarlet”. Its main characters were Sherlock Holmes and Dr.
Watson, and they became the most popular characters of a great many
of Conan Doyle’s stories.
“A scandal in
Bohemia” opened a collection of detective stories under the
title “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes”. The story was
published in 1891 and soon after that Baker Street became the
well-known address of Sherlock Holmes.
The readers asked for
more and more stories about Sherlock Holmes and for two years Conan
Doyle wrote them. When he had written about twenty stories with
Sherlock Holmes as the main detective, he was so tired of these
stories that he decided “ to kill Sherlock Holmes”. He
wrote a story, which he named “Holmes’s last case”
(1893). In this story Holmes was killd during his struggle with
Professor Moriarty. The writer hoped that after that he could begin
writing other books.
But the readers did
not wish to lose their favourite character and ten years later the
famous detective appeared again. In 1901 –1902 one of Conan
Doyle’s best stories “The hound of the Baskervilles”
In 1891 Conan Doyle
gave up his medical work and devoted all his time to his literaty
activity. He also travelled much. He visited Europe, the USA and
Egypt. In Norway he met Jerome K. Jerome, who wrote about that fact
in one of his books.
stories, Conan Doyle also wrote historic novels, war books and an
anticolonial book about the Belgian Congo. His two fantastic stories
“The lost world” (1912) and “The Poisoned Belt”
(1913) were quite successful.
All his life Conan
Doyle liked sports, he skied played golf and went in for boxing.
He died in 1930, After
his death, the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, together with his
friend Dr. Watson, continued to live on the pages of Conan Doyle’s
books. They are amound the favourite characters of English
Tourists coming to
London always go to visit Bakers street to see the house where
Sherlock Holmes lived.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
The world is rich in
remarkable authors, but I think that Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was one
of the greatest authorities. He is my favourite writer. In my
opinion, he is the greatest Russian dramatist and short-story writer.
I’m never tired of reading and rereading his plays and humorous
Chekhov was born in
1860 in Taganrog. In 1879 he went to Moscow, where he studies
medicine. Though he practised little as a doctor in his lifetime, he
was prouder of his medical knowledge than of his writing talent.
While in college,
Chekhov wrote humorous sketches for comic papers to support his
family. He collected the best ones into a volume, Motley Stories, in
1886. The book attracted the attention of the publisher of the Novoje
Vremja, Russia’s largest paper, and Chekhov was asked to
contribute stories regularly.
Chekhov, as an
established writer, was able to develop a style of his own. Though he
never gave up writing comic stories, he began working in a more
serious vein. In 1887 Ivanov, his first play, established Chekhov as
a dramatist. From then on, he concentrated on writing plays, as well
as short stories.
Chekhov was seriously
ill. He had tuberculosis and knew what it meant. By 1892 his health
was so bad that he was afraid to spend another winter in Moscow. He
bought a small estate near a village Melikhovo, 50 miles from Moscow.
He spent 5 years there, and those were happy years in spite of the
illness. He wrote some of his best stories there, including Ward
No.6, several well-known one-act comedies and two of his serious
dramatic masterpieces, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya.
The Seagull was
first staged in the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Petersburg. It was a
complete failure because of the dull and clumsy production. It was a
cruel blow to Chekhov. However, the play was successfully performed
as the first production of the Moscow Art Theatre in 1898. From then
on, Chekhov was closely connected with this theatre and with its
founder, K.S. Stanislavsky. In 1901 he married an Art Theatre
actress, Olga Knipper, who acted in his play The Three Sisters the
went from bad to worse and he had to spent the remaining years in the
Crimea and other health spas.
The Cherry Orchard,
his last play, was produced in 1904. Soon after the first night
Chekhov died. He was 44.
had an immense influence on the 20th
drama. Besides, several generations of writers both in Russia and
abroad studied and imitated Chekhov to perfect their own literary
Mass media are one of the most
characteristic features of modern civilizations. People are united
into one global community with the help of mass media/ People can
learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass
The mass media include
newspapers, magazines, radio, TV.
The earliest kind of mass media
was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman called «Acta
Diurna» started in 59 B.C.
Magazines appeared in 18
The most exciting and
entertaining kind of mass media is television. It brings moving
pictures and sounds directly to people’s homes. So one can see
events in faraway places.
Radio is widespread for its
portability. It can be easily carried around. People like to listen
to the Radio in the park, on the beach, at the seaside, in the car,
while driving a car, on the picnic. The main kind of radio
entertainment is music, news, musical quiz.
Newspapers can present all
comment on the news in much detail in compares on to radio and TV.
Magazines are designed to be
kept for a long time. So it have cover and binding. They are printed
on better paper then newspapers.
The youngest kind of mass media
is global computer net called Internet. I think that Internet is
kind of mass media of the future. People can find on word wide web
whole information about all things from sport to travel, from music
to shopping. Internet is the most advanced and fast-growing kind of
digital media. It gives people the freedom of speech and
self-expression unavailable before, at the same time allowing many
new and unforeseen combinations of different media types. Internet is
also the foundation of new technologies that will impact the society
in numerous ways, such as e-commerce and virtual multi-user
The name «Television»
comes from Greek word meaning «far» and Latin word
meaning «to see» so it means «to see far».
There are commercial stations,
they sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to
make profit/ The public stations are nonprofit organizations.
Commercial TV stations
broadcast mostly entertainment programs to attract lager number of
These programs include light
dramas called situation comedies, action-packed dramas about life of
detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors, show dancers and
singers, movies, quiz shows, soap operas, cartoons, talk shows. On
talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV, movie stars athletes.
There are also sport programs, brief summaries of local, national and
Advertising is an important
part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most
programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products –
from dog food to hair spray, from cars to insurance polices.
Public TV focuses mainly on
education and culture. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets,
symphonies as well as programs about art and history. It attract less
viewers then commercial TV.
TV. Past and Future.
In just half a century,
television has covered the planet. TV affects our daily life is a way
that no other media can. It was simply an idea of a machine able to
broadcast both sound and vision.
First TV-sets were in black
Since 1980 there have been
four major developments of TV. The first is video, which has given
viewers the power to control what they watch and when they watch it.
These days, fifty percent of homes have a video-cassette-recorder
(VCR) and millions more are being sold every year.
The second is satellite TV.
Thanks to direct broadcast satellites (DBS) dozens of new channels
are now available to everyone who buys a receiving «dish».
Many of these new channels specialize in one kind of program –
only news, sport, cartoons, music and movies.
The third development is cable
– a system of hi-tech wires, which provides even more channels.
So, TV has come a very long
way in a very short time.
People live a
very busy life nowadays, so they have little time to spare. Still
they try their best to make use of those rare hours of leisure. A
hobby is a favorite pastime of a person.
Hobbies differ like
tastes. Peoples choose their hobbies according to their taste and
character. Someone likes simply to watch TV, lying on a sofa, when
someone climbs to the mountains.
If you have chosen a
hobby to your liking, lucky you are: you have made your life more
interesting. But many people have nothing to do during their spare
time, though there are many different hobbies: reading, collecting,
going in for sports, traveling and others.
If a person
collects something, he does it according to his financial abilities:
someone collects cars or pictures of world-known painters, while
another one collects beer cans or stamps. But no matter what they
collect, it gives them pleasure. Many collections started in a small
way with one or two items. Some private collections are really
No matter what
kind of hobby a person has, he always has an opportunity of learning
people find it a pleasure to go to the theatre. The theatre is one of
the most ancient kinds of art. For centuries people have come to the
theatre for the different aims: to relax, to be amazed or
entertained, to have a good laugh, to enjoy the acting of their
favorite actors and actresses.
Modern life is
impossible without traveling. Many people travel by rail, by air, by
sea or by road for pleasure.
like to read very much, but I think, that it’s the most useful
If a person
likes to read, he can take many useful information and life
experience from the books. By reading about the things, a hobbyist is
interested in, he is adding to what he knows.
A relatively new
hobby is watching TV. But I don’t think that television is a
hobby at all. As for me, it’s the way of getting information.
There are two viewpoints on television. Some people think that TV is
going a lot of harm. People begin to forget how to occupy their free
time. It prevents them from communicating with each other, from
visiting friends or relatives. And indeed, people are used to have
hobbies, to go outside for amusements, to the theatres, cinemas,
sporting events. They are used to read books and listen to music. But
TV gives wonderful possibilities for getting information, for
education. TV brings world in our rooms.
Computers are a
new hobby too. Many young people all over the world like to sit glued
to the monitor all day long, playing their favorite computer games.
As for me, the
first hobby, I had in childhood, when I was 5 or 6 years old, was
collecting pictures from the bubble gums. Later on, when I was 8, I
collected beer cans. Afterwards, my grandma had thrown them away,
‘cause they occupied a lot of space.
And now I’m
interested in cars. I always read all available magazines about the
cars, ‘cause I want to know everything about their construction
Also I like to
listen to music, especially heavy metal. Some people think that it is
impossible to listen such music and they call metal fans
“headbangers” or “metalheads”, but I don’t
And, of course,
like all teenagers, I like to work with computer, watch video and to
go in for sports.
So as you can
see there are a lot of things to do during your free time.
United kingdom of Gr. Britain is a capitalist country. England,
Wales, Scotland are made in Gr. Britain. Peoples in countries outside
the British Isles often call the inhabitants of United kingdom
English. There are four main nationalities: English, Wales and Irish.
population of the United kingdom of Gr. Britain is almost fifty six
million Gr. Britain is highly industrialized. The United kingdom is a
parliamentary monarchy. But it is well known that the monarchy today
has no power.
USA is situated in the central part of North American continent. The
USA is an English speaking country. Many people of this country speak
English. But here we can hear French, German and other languages too.
is the capital of the USA. The population of the USA is about 256
million people. There are 50 states in this country.
is to the north of the USA. It is very large country? Larger then the
United States. The people who live in these parts came to Canada
from France. Canada has to official languages – English and
Fresh. In Canada many people speak English, because they also came
from England many years age. But in some part of Canada they speak
is also an English – speaking country Australia the hottest
summer month is January, and the coldest winter month is June. But
June is not very cold. Snow falls only on the mountain there. And
there are not many mountains in Australia.
Zealand is not far from Australia, but it is great distant from
Britain. The seasons in New Zealand are also different from what they
are in Britain from January to February. It is summer, from march to
may it is autumn; From June to August it is winter, from September to
November it is spring. The national language is New Zealand is also
English. Many people from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland came
to live in Australia and New Zealand many years ago.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its
political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the
largest cities in the world (together with Tokyo and New York) and
the largest city in Europe.
The city is very old. It has more then 20 centuries
old history. Once, London was a small Roman town on the north bank
of the Thames, but slowly it grew into one of the world’s major
cities with population of about 8 million. Fewer people live in the
centre now, but the suburbs are still growing.
Traditionally London is divided into several parts:
the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They
are very different from each other.
The city is the oldest part of London, it's financial and
business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are
concentrated here including the Bank of England, the Stock
Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live in the City but
over a million come to work here. Two masterpieces are situated
within the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London.
St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by
Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 11th
century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now
it's a museum.
is the aristocratic official part of London. It includes
Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of
Parliament stretching for nearly 1000 feet along the north bank
of the Thames.
Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its
big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Westminster Abbey is the place where coronation of
nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them
are buried here as well as some other famous people of the
country (G. Chaucer, Tennyson, Newton, Ch. Dickens, T. Hardy, R.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of
London. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best
hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parkland houses are situated
there. English aristocracy lives in this region. One of the
busiest streets in the West End is Oxford street. There are
many various shops in it which attract — customers from
different countries of the world.
By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, the offices are
quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where
Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here,
several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas, and in
nearby Soho the pubs, restaurants and night-clubs are busy half the
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of
London. It was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory at
the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column
stands in the middle of the square.
the Nelson’s monument is the National Gallery and the
National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art
collections in the world. Not far from the National Gallery is
the British Museum famous for its rich library (about
One of the most popular museums in London is Madame
Tussaud’s. Almost every visitor has seen Madame Tussaud, an old
lady of 81 standing at the entrance of her own exhibition. She is
made of wax, like all the models of people in the museum. Madame
Tussaud’s brings together a host contemporary celebrities from
many different walks of life during many centuries. Kings and queens,
politicians and military leaders, presidents and writers, scientists
and musicians, actors and actresses stand, sit and lie in many
different rooms of exhibition. The history of Madame Tussaud’s
goes back over 200 years during which time the exhibition has formed
an integral part of experience of countless million of visitor to
The East End is an industrial district of London. There are
many factories and the Port of London there. The region is
densely populated by working class families, those people who have
built the palaces of the West End. Old residents of the East
End are proud to be called cockneys, which means true Londoners,
hereditary inhabitants of the area. They love the district very
London is situated on the river Thames. A hundred years
ago, the river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and Japan, New
Zealand and New York, but now people travel by air, and London’s
main airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in the world.
The London Underground is the oldest one in the world.
The first line, opened in second middle of XIX century, was like a
tube. That’s why it was called the Tube.
Like all big cities, London has streets and concrete
buildings, but it also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and
grass. Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middle of
Hyde Park or Kensington Gardens, and you will think that you’re
in the countryside, miles away.
London is one of the world’s most enjoyable capital of Europe.
in our life.
the increase in TV watching and the developing of World Wide Web,
is still very important. So I don't think books need to be rescued.
Reading both entertains and educates people. Books help us to
discover new things and explore new ideas.
book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives a unique
chance to link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands years
ago. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different
ages and countries. Through reading books we hear their voices,
thoughts and feelings. Books can tell us a lot about arts and
fashion. From them we can learn about the rest of the world. The book
is the surest way to bring nations together. It gives us an insight
not only into the past, but also into the future.
book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and
at any moment. Reading is the perfect way to relax and spend your
free time. Books portray life in its richness, so they develop
reader's imagination and arouse curiosity, admiration. Sometimes they
even can help to solve difficult problems of life.
become very keen on literature early in life. This probably happened
because we had a very good and widely read library in home. Books
stirred my imagination, expanded the boundaries of the familiar world
and filled my life with great expectations of joy and happiness.
Since childhood I have been enchanted by A. Volkov and his "Magician
of the Emerald City" and its sequels. I also was delighted with
Pushkin's fairytales. Later my heart was won by Chehov, Russian
writer, and J. Ronie, French author who wrote a lot of adventure
novels about ancient times. Luckily this world is rich in remarkable
fond of reading and I've read a lot of books of different genres. And
certainly I have my favorite book. It is the story by Agatha Christie
– "The murder of Roger Ackroyd". Agatha Christie was
born in 1890. She is the famous English detective writer, and almost
everyone knows her as creator of Miss Marple and Hercules Poirot.This
book was written in 1926. Some critics say that Agatha Christie
introduced a novelty in this work, because the murder is a
storyteller. In the "The murder of Roger Ackroyd" the main
characters and environment are typical for 1920th in England. The
action takes place in a country house. The authors shows us it's
owner with his habits, relatives and neighbors. All this is presented
vividly and brightly. One of the main heroes of the book Hercules
Poirot gets over a lot of problems before catching a murder.
suspense, horror, revenge, and extraordinary talent, astounding
of Hercules Poirot fill this book. "The murder of Roger Ackroyd"
has made a great impression on me. And nowadays it makes really
unforgettable impressive reading.
In Russia, the same as in every other country,
there are many holidays: interesting and funny, patriotic and
dedicated to any historical event. For example in Russia there are
such holidays as the Women’s day, the Victory Day, the
Independent Day, the April’s Fool’s day, and many other.
years in Russia some holidays were canceled, among them is the May
Day, the 7th
of October, the birthday of komsomol, and some other. As for me this
resolution was right because when the life of the whole country is
changing the old holidays must also be changed by new.
like all holidays. But everyone of them can be made upset, except
one. It’s the New Year. New Year is a holiday for everyone. The
people all over the world welcome the new year at one moment, that’s
why I think it’s the most uniting holiday in the world, because
in this moment every person can say that he loves everyone. I think
it is an international holiday.
in different countries the New Year is celebrated in different days,
for example it can be celebrated on the 1st of September or …
Also I’ve heard that from 2001 year the New Year will be
celebrated on the 1st of March by all countries all over the world.
As for me, I think that it was a right resolution.
are lots of New Year traditions in Russia. In every home there is a
New Year tree glittering in colored lights and decorations. Children
always wait for Father Frost to come and give them a present. Many
people consider a New Year to be a family holiday. But most of the
young prefer to spend the New Year there own having parties. As for
me I prefer to see the New Year with my family, because I meet these
New Years last times with my family and after some years I’ll
spend it on my own. I must spend as much time as possible with my
family because in some years I’ll have to leave them to begin
my own life and these holidays may be the last.
Holiday is a day
set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of some
extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public
holidays are days set aside by official government proclamation to
celebrate different occasions.
has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks,
schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are
Memorial Day is
a legal holiday, observed annually on the last Monday in May in most
of the United States, It honours the nation's armed services killed
in wartime. The holiday, originally called Decoration Day, is
traditionally marked by parades, memorial speeches and ceremonies,
and the decoration of graves with flowers and flags. Memorial Day was
first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General John
Alexander Logan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the
American Civil War dead. It was observed on May 30 until 1971, when
most states changed to a newly established federal schedule of
Independence Day is
an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption by the
Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4,
1776, in Philadelphia. Although the signing of the Declaration was
not completed until August, the Fourth of July holiday has been
accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence
and is celebrated in all states and territories of the U.S.
Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and
pageants, patriotic speeches, and organised firing of guns and
cannons and displays of fireworks. Family picnics and outings are a
feature of private Fourth of July celebrations.
a legal holiday in the U.S., was first celebrated in early colonial
times in New England. The actual origin is probably the harvest
festivals that are traditional in many parts of the world. After the
first harvest was completed by the Plymouth colonists in 1621,
Governor William Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.
President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving, and since
then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation,
generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday.
New Year's Day is
the first day of the year, January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. In
the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian calendar and
observed New Year's Day on March 25, called Annunciation Day and
celebrated as the birth to the Son of God. With the introduction of
the Gregorian calendar in 1582, Roman Catholic countries began to
celebrate New Year's Day on January 1.
custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbours on New Year’s
Day is one of the Old World traditions that has taken on a new form
in the United States. A favourite place to see the old year out is
New York City’s Time Square.
Christmas is an
annual festival, held on December 25, to celebrate the Nativity, or
birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed with lights
and other decorations, is derived from the so-called paradise tree,
Saint Valentine's Day,
a holiday honouring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a
custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. The
cards, known as valentines, are often designed with hearts to
symbolise love. The holiday probably derives from the ancient Roman
feast of Lupercalis (February 15). The festival gradually became
associated with the feast day (February 14) of two Roman martyrs,
both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century. St. Valentine
has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.
The Oxford Advancer Learner`s Dictionary of
Current English by Hornby gives us the following definition of the
is the creation or expression of what is beautiful, especially in
visual form. Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture,
literature, music, ballet belong to the fine art”.
Really when something is extremely beautiful or has great cultural
value, we say: “It`s art”. Art has always been occupation
for the few, but has been admired by many. Art reflects feelings and
emotions, brings delight and admiration, makes life pure as it
wakens our best hidden qualities. Speaking about arts, we connect
this notion with culture. According to the dictionary culture of a
community or nation includes all the arts, beliefs and social
institutions characteristic of a community or nation. We can speak
about either material, or spiritual culture. Art is both.
Russia is a country that can rightfully boast its
artistic and cultural traditions, its art galleries attract huge
crowds of tourists from all over the world. St`Petersburg is a
precious stone in the crown of Russian cities. The Hermitage is
famous all over the world for its valuable rare collections of
canvases and other art objects covering a span of about seven
hundreds years and comprising masterpieces of by Leonardo da Vinci,
Titian, Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens. The collections illustrates the
art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Germany, France, Britain, Sweden. The
West – European Department also includes a fine collection of
European Sculpture. People come to admire the collections of
tapestry, precious textiles, weapons, ivory, pottery, porcelain and
furniture as well.
The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, the Russian
Museum should be mentioned by all means. This picture gallery was
founded by a Russian merchant and a connoisseur of art Pavel
Tretyakov in the 19th
century. He was especially fond of the works of Peredvizhniki or
Wanders- the artists who belonged to the Society of Travelling Art
Exhibitions such as Kramskoy, Perov, Ghe and other great Russian
painters. The Tretyakov Gallery reflects the whole history of Russian
Art. It has a rich collection of early Russian painting including
famous icon. The world famous «The
Trinity» by Andrey Rublev is
exhibited in the gallery.
Speaking about art one should not forget about
music, especially classic music. Outstanding Russian composers make
all the world admire their music. One can find a man, who does not
know Pyotr Ilyich Tchaicovsky, Michail Glinka, Nicholai
Rimsky-Korsakov – the prominent composers of 19th
century, and Sergei Rachmaninov, Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitriy
It was Glinka (1804-1857) who laid the foundation
for modern Russian music, his music expressed the temperament of
Russian people. His two best known operas «Ivan
Susanin» and «Ruslan
and Ludmila» were based on Russian
folklore and historical legends.
The most famous ballets «Swan
Sleeping Beauty», «The
Nutcracker» and not less famous
operas «The Queen of Spades»,
are still excellently staged and performed not only in Russian but
in many greatest theatres in the world.
Russia is world famous for its literature. The
of Russian literature began in the 19th
century when such outstanding masters of letters such as Alexander
Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoeyevsky created their
Alexander Pushkin, the father of Russian
Literature was the authors of more than 700 lyrical poems. He wrote
also the volumes of dramatic works, short stories, made adaptations
of Russian fairy-tales.
Russia is famous for its architecture. The real
jewel of architecture is the Moscow Kremlin with its cathedrals,
towers and red brick walls. Just outside the Kremlin walls stands
St.Basil`s Cathedral, one of the world most astonishing buildings
with 8 domes of different designs and colors.
St.Petersburg has great number of real
masterpieces of architecture of different styles and is definitely
worth visiting and being admired.
Russia is rich also in young talents, new Russian
culture is forming. It will appear on the basis of the old one, but
its essence will be new. We can hear new voices in music and poetry,
new canvases of modern artists, great actors and film directors.
All of them will make their contribution into
Russian Culture and Art.
Britain is a highly developed industrial country. This was the
country in which the earliest developments of modern industry took
place. It exports machinery, vessels, motors and other goods. There
are a lot of factories and mines there.
textile industry is also highly developed. Manchester is the center
of the cotton, textile industry, one of the Britain’s most
important producers of computers and electronic equipment. A lot of
British textiles are exported.
is an important industry. The main ship building centers are London,
the same time Great Britain imports some food products and raw
materials from many countries of the world. Because of the weather
only half of the food the country needs is produced by British
agriculture. Vegetables and fruits are grown especially in the south
of England where the temperature is higher and there are more hours
of sunshine than in the northern regions.
is grown in the east of England. English wool is famous in the whole
world. Sheep can be seen in many parts of England, Scotland and there
are a lot of cattle farms and farms where milk, butter and cheese are