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Топик: Grammar

Название: Grammar
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
Тип: топик Добавлен 06:48:24 15 августа 2005 Похожие работы
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NOMINAL & VERBAL NATURE:

1.Nominal:

-can perform the function of subject(swimming is delightful there), object(I like making people happy), predicative(my favorite sport is figure-skating.

-can be preceded by a preposition(I’m very fond of flying).

-can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun(Is any objection to my seeng her?)

2.Verbal:

-the gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object(I have made a progress in understanding his speech).

-can be modified by an adverb(she burst out crying bitterly)

-has tense distinctions, the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.(indefinite-he can swim without tiring, & perfect-she denies having spoken with him, passive & active-he liked neithe reading aloud, neither being read aloud to)

PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Complex Subject - There is no use you telling me not to worry.

  2. Complex Predicative – My idea of holiday is going to the seaside.

  3. Complex Object – Perhaps you wouldn’t mind his coming in.

  4. Complex Attribute – I like the idea of Michael’s going with us.

  5. Complex Adverbial modifier – I went to the cinema in spite of her having told me her impressions.

All forms are used. The nominal Element may be expressed:

A living being:

  1. By a noun in the Possessive Case. (I like the idea of Michael’s going with us.

  2. By a Possessive pronoun. (The day passed without her resolving this problem).

  3. By a noun in the common case. When the doer of the action is emphasized. -He denied Mary having done this on purpose. When the nominal element consists of 2 or more nouns( I insist on Mary & Kate spending their free-time together.

  4. By a pronoun in the objective case. (Do you mind them going there?)

A lifeless thing:

  1. By a possessive pronoun (he insisted on its (the letter) being sent immediately.

  2. By a noun in the common case(Everything depends on the letters being sent in time).

  3. By pronouns all, this, that, both, each, something(I couldn’t deny both of them having had a nice holiday).

SUBJECT.

All forms are used.

IGA-It’s good your trying to find the right answer.

IGP-Their being late disappointed them.

PGA-His having lost the right way was a great disappointment to us.

PGP-Mike’s having been put in this position irritated us.

The gerund may follow a predicate – the sentence opens with introductory it. It’s no use talking like that to me.

Introductory “there is no” – there is no deceiving him, he can read my face like a book.

Complex

PREDICATIVE:

Only IGA- The only remedy for such a headache is going to bed;& IGP – what annoyed me most of all was his accepting their proposal quite readily.

PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATE:

Aspect: IGA - In the night it started raining.

Modal: IGA – I couldn’t help playing this game, IGP – I couldn’t help being excited when I was told the news.

Verbs with which the g forms a CAP: keep on, go on, give up, leave off, burst out, finish, stop, cease, begin, start, continue.

Modal: with the modal expression can’t help.

DIRECT OBJECT:

After verbs: avoid, be busy, can’t afford, can’t bear, deny, deserve, dislike, enjoy, excuse, fancy, forget, forgive, hate, like, mind, need, postpone (откладывать), prefer, put off, recollect, regret, remember, require, suggest, want.

All forms are used.

IGA – I love reading. IGP – I can’t bear being asked about my family. PGA – he didn’t recollect such a thing having happened to him before. PGP – He denied the message having been sent by him.

PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT:

After: approve of, complain of, accuse of, suspect of, think of, boast of, be aware of, be capable of, be fond of, be pleased at, be surprised at, agree to, object to, confess to, devote to, look forward to, get used to, get accustomed to, rely on, insist on, count on, depend on, feel like, look like, persist in, succeed in, be busy in, prevent from, keep from, thank for, care

of.

IGA - I complained of having my letter returned. IGP – I insisted on the parcel being sent with declared value. PGA-I suspected of his having done the homework. PGP-He complained of having been interrupted by the others.

ATTRIBUTE:

After:

  • Of: chance, habit, idea, trouble, risk, method, way, custom, fear, manner, means, problem, necessity, possibility, pleasure, right, hope, intention, importance, effort, feeling, sound, gift, sign.(he was born with the gift of winning hearts).

  • For: instruction, apology, explanation, reason, preparation, excuse, plan.(I have no instruction for using it).

  • In: experience, use, skill, interest, sense, harm, difficulty. (I have no experience in doing such kind of work).

  • At: Astonishment, disappointment, surprise. He couldn’t conceal his astonishment at seeing them together.

ADVERBIAL MODIFIER:

  • Time (after, before, on, upon, in, at) IGA-Upon waking I found myself much recovered. IGP-After being looked through, the book was left in the library.

  • Manner (by, in): IGA-The day was spent in packing. IGP-He succeeded in finishing the work by being given a helpful hand.

  • Attendant circumstances (without, besides, instead of):IGA- I passed by without noticing him. IGP- Without being looked through the documents were signed.

  • Purpose(for): IGA-One side of the hall was used for dancing. IGP-He thanked them for being given a good advice.

  • Condition(without, in case of): IGA-You can get tickets without booking them. IGP- You can’t see me without being invited.

  • Cause(for, for fear of, owing to, trough, because of): IGA-I decided to miss my classes for fear of making a fool of myself. IGP-Through being read to, he understood the topic. PGA-I felt better for having spent a good deal of my time abroad. PGP-He was in hospital for having been run by a car.

  • Concession(in spite of/despite): IGA-In spite of being busy, he did everything to help me. IGP-In spite of being looked through, the documents were not signed. PGA- In spite of having visited his parents, he missed them very much.

G & Participle:

G may be preceded by a preposition, may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun, can be used as a subject, object, predicative. As an adv mod is always preceded by a preposition. If we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person denoted by the noun doesn’t perform the action expressed by ing-form: dancing hall-hall for dancing. If we have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the pronoun performs the action expressed by the ing-form: a dancing girl-girl who dances. 2 interpretations: hunting dog, sewing machine.

G & VERBAL NOUN:

  • G has double character, verbal noun only nominal.

  • G can’t be used without article, verbal noun-can(I want you to give my hair a good brushing).

  • G has no plural form, vn-our likings are regulated by our circumstanses.

  • G of a transitive verb takes a direct object: He received a lot of letters & had given up in reading them.

  • VN can’t take a direct object, it takes a prepositional object with of: She was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper.

  • G can be modified by an adverb(drinking, even temperately, was a sin. VN may be modified by an adjective:Hi took a good scolding aout clodding Sam.




Subject

  1. It’s always easy to

  2. It’s hard to

  3. It’s important to

  4. It gives him pleasure to

  5. It’s dangerous to

  6. It’s wise of him to

  7. It does people a lot of good to

  8. It won’t do you any harm to

  9. It has become his habit to

  10. It surprised me to

  11. It made me feel awkward to

  12. It was natural to



Part of a compound verbal modal predicate.


Part of a compound verbal aspect (вид) predicate.

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be to, to have to, should, ought, will, would, shall, need.

2. Modal expressions had better, would rather.

The verbs expressing the beginning, the duration, the repetition, the end of the action: to begin, to start, to commence, to continue, to cease, used to+Inf, would + Inf.



Part of a compound nominal predicate.

  1. predicative

  2. part of a predicative

  1. It is hard to please.

  2. She is easy to deal with.

  3. She is pleasant to look at.

  4. The article is difficult to translate.

  5. He was difficult to convince.


Object(дополнение).
  1. To order, to agree, to forget, to remember…

  2. To be glad, to be happy, to be delighted…

  3. To order, to teach, to ask. To help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to encourage…

  4. To find, to consider, to think, to make, to feel

It

{Interesting, necessary, impossible, cruel, useful, hopeful, hopeless} to do smth.


Attribute(определение).
  1. Class nouns.

  2. Abstract nouns

  3. Experience of quantity (much, little..)

  4. Indefinite pronouns (smb, anybody…)

  5. The adjective last.

  6. Ordinal numerals ( the 1st, 2nd..)



Adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)

  1. of purpose.


  1. of result


  1. comparison (manner) (сравнение)

  2. attendant circumstances (сопутствующих обстоятельств)


  1. By the conjunctions in order, so as.

  2. Without any conjunction.

  1. Too hot (skilled, excited, shocked, frightened, impressed, angry) to do smth.

  2. Clever (experienced, skilled, strong, old, sharp, brave) enough to do smth.

  3. So cruel (impressed, careless) as to do smth.

  4. Such a man ( a fool, a woman, a son, a student, a sportsmen) as to do smth.

By the conjunctions as if, than, as though.

The adverb never, the particle only.



Parenthesis (вводные слова).
  1. To cut a long story short, to put it in a nutshell (короче говоря).

  2. To say the least (чтобы не сказать больше).

  3. To tell you the truth – to speak the truth (по правде говоря).

  4. To put it mildly (мягко говоря).

  5. To say nothing of (не говоря уже)

  6. To be frank (откравенно говоря).


A complex object.

Without the particle to:

  1. after verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel)

  2. After verbs of compulsion (принуждение) (то make, to have).

  3. After the verb to let.

Without particle to:

  1. After verbs denoting mental ability (интеллектуальные): to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to understand.

  2. After the verbs denoting declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report; wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, should like, to intend, to mean; after verbs denoting feeling & emotion: to like, to dislike, to love to hate, cannot bear.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow.

Objective infinitive construction

1. After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, etc.

(only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II)

Note: to see=to understand: we don’t use the construction.

To hear=to lern, to be told: we use a clause of a gerund.

2.After verbs denoting mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc. After them- to be( not after expect). Perfect Infinitive is seldom used.

3.After verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

  1. After verbs denoting wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose.

  2. After verbs denoting feeling & emotions: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear, etc.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc. !!! Only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive( not for to suffer & to have.

  4. After verbs denoting compulsion: to to make(заставить), to cause(заставить, распорядиться), to get(добиться), to have(заставить, сказать, чтобы).

  5. With the preposition for, on & upon(after to rely)


The Subjective Infinitive construction.
  1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.(If a process is expressed Participle I is used).

  2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to know, to believe, to suppose.

  3. With the verb to make.

  4. With verbs to say & to report( translation-неопределённо-личное предложение).

  5. With the verbs to be likely, to be sure, to be certain.

  6. With pairs of synonyms: to seem & to appear, to happen & to chance(случайно), to prove & to turn out(оказалось).

The For-to-Infinitive Construction
  1. The Subject(often with the introductory it)

  2. Predicative

  3. Complex object.

  4. Attribute.

  5. Adverbial modifier

a)of purpose

b)of result



Subject

  1. It’s always easy to

  2. It’s hard to

  3. It’s important to

  4. It gives him pleasure to

  5. It’s dangerous to

  6. It’s wise of him to

  7. It does people a lot of good to

  8. It won’t do you any harm to

  9. It has become his habit to

  10. It surprised me to

  11. It made me feel awkward to

  12. It was natural to



Part of a compound verbal modal predicate.


Part of a compound verbal aspect (вид) predicate.

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be to, to have to, should, ought, will, would, shall, need.

2. Modal expressions had better, would rather.

The verbs expressing the beginning, the duration, the repetition, the end of the action: to begin, to start, to commence, to continue, to cease, used to+Inf, would + Inf.



Part of a compound nominal predicate.

  1. predicative

  2. part of a predicative

  1. It is hard to please.

  2. She is easy to deal with.

  3. She is pleasant to look at.

  4. The article is difficult to translate.

  5. He was difficult to convince.


Object(дополнение).
  1. To order, to agree, to forget, to remember…

  2. To be glad, to be happy, to be delighted…

  3. To order, to teach, to ask. To help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to encourage…

  4. To find, to consider, to think, to make, to feel

It

{Interesting, necessary, impossible, cruel, useful, hopeful, hopeless} to do smth.


Attribute(определение).
  1. Class nouns.

  2. Abstract nouns

  3. Experience of quantity (much, little..)

  4. Indefinite pronouns (smb, anybody…)

  5. The adjective last.

  6. Ordinal numerals ( the 1st, 2nd..)



Adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)

  1. of purpose.


  1. of result


  1. comparison (manner) (сравнение)


  1. attendant circumstances (сопутствующих обстоятельств)



  1. By the conjunctions in order, so as.

  2. Without any conjunction.

  1. Too hot (skilled, excited, shocked, frightened, impressed, angry) to do smth.

  2. Clever (experienced, skilled, strong, old, sharp, brave) enough to do smth.

  3. So cruel (impressed, careless) as to do smth.

  4. Such a man ( a fool, a woman, a son, a student, a sportsmen) as to do smth.

By the conjunctions as if, than, as though.

The adverb never, the particle only.


By the conjunctions as if, as thought, than


Adverb never, the participle only


Parenthesis (вводные слова).
  1. To cut a long story short, to put it in a nutshell (короче говоря).

  2. To say the least (чтобы не сказать больше).

  3. To tell you the truth – to speak the truth (по правде говоря).

  4. To put it mildly (мягко говоря).

  5. To say nothing of (не говоря уже)

  6. To be frank (откравенно говоря).


A complex object.

Without the particle to:

  1. after verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel)

  2. After verbs of compulsion (принуждение) (то make, to have).

  3. After the verb to let.

Without particle to:

  1. After verbs denoting mental ability (интеллектуальные): to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to understand.

  2. After the verbs denoting declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report; wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, should like, to intend, to mean; after verbs denoting feeling & emotion: to like, to dislike, to love to hate, cannot bear.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow.

Objective infinitive construction

1. After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, etc.

(only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II)

Note: to see=to understand: we don’t use the construction.

To hear=to lern, to be told: we use a clause of a gerund.

2.After verbs denoting mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc. After them- to be( not after expect). Perfect Infinitive is seldom used.

3.After verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

  1. After verbs denoting wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose.

  2. After verbs denoting feeling & emotions: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear, etc.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc. !!! Only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive( not for to suffer & to have.

  4. After verbs denoting compulsion: to to make(заставить), to cause(заставить, распорядиться), to get(добиться), to have(заставить, сказать, чтобы).

  5. With the preposition for, on & upon(after to rely)


The Subjective Infinitive construction.
  1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.(If a process is expressed Participle I is used).

  2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to know, to believe, to suppose.

  3. With the verb to make.

  4. With verbs to say & to report( translation-неопределённо-личное предложение).

  5. With the verbs to be likely, to be sure, to be certain.

  6. With pairs of synonyms: to seem & to appear, to happen & to chance(случайно), to prove & to turn out(оказалось).

The For-to-Infinitive Construction
  1. The Subject(often with the introductory it)

  2. Predicative

  3. Complex object.

  4. Attribute.

  5. Adverbial modifier

a)of purpose

b)of result




PARTICIPLE I

1.Attribute (Participle I Indefinite Active & Passive).

  1. If we have a participle used as an attribute to a noun (in pre-position), the noun performs the action expressed by the –ing form.(a touching story-a story that can touch, a laughing girl-a girl who is laughing).

  2. Participle I Perfect can be used only as an adverbial modifier & never as an attribute. To express priority an attribute clause is used: The student who has shown the countries of America on the map is going to his seat.

  3. Sometimes the Participle I Indefinite denotes an action referring to no particular time: Taiga is a thick forest stretching to the south of tundra.

2.Predicative (Participle I Indefinite Active).

To be astonishing, to be disappointing, to be exciting, to be humiliating (оскорбительно, унизительно), to be inviting (заманчивый), to be tempting (привлекательный), to be terrifying (ужасный), to be touching.

3.Parenthesis.(Participle I Indefinite Active)

Generally speaking, judging by appearance (words)(судя по внешнему виду), mildly speaking(спокойно), speaking frankly, strictly speaking, saying nothing of, roughly speaking.

4.Adverbial modifier of clause(reason) (PI Indefinite Active,

PI Indefinite Passive;


PI Perfect Active, PI Perfect Passive).


Not knowing the topic well, he got confused.


Being impressed by the duel scene in ”Hamlet”, they were silent on the way home.

Having lost the book, the students couldn’t prepare for the topic.

Having been left alone, the child felt miserable & lonely

5.Adverbial modifier of comparison.

PI Indefinite Act


She shivered with fright as if realizing the danger.

6.Adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances(manner)

Participle Ind Act


I spent the morning on the cliff reading.


7. Adverbial modifier of time.

PI Ind Act

PI Ind Pas

PI Perf Act

PI Ind Pas


  1. The action expressed by a participle in the function of an adv. mod always refers the to the subject of the whole sentence.

  2. With such verbs as to see, to hear, to notice, to come, to arrive, to seize, to look, to enter, to turn, to close, to open, to cross. PI Ind Act is used to express a prior action when the action expressed by the finite verb closely follows the action expressed by the P: Seeing that it was useless to argue with him, I dropped the subject.

  3. The conjunctions ”when” & “while” are often used with PI Ind Act to express an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb: While making a tour of England, we were impressed by its beauty.

  4. PI Ind of the verb “to be” is not used as an adverbial modifier of time: “Когда я был в Москве»=”When in Moscow”


tThe functions of participle II in the sentence.

  1. Attribute

PII of transitive verbs corresponds to the Russian страдательное причастие or действительное причастие of some verbs ending in –ся a broken chair (сломанный стул), a newspaper published in Moscow (газета, издаваемая в Москве). PII can be used in post-position & in pre-position (without any accompanying words). He answered through the locked door. (Он ответил через открытую дверь). They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. (Они свернули в небольшую оранжерею, красиво освещённую китайскими фонариками)

PII of intransitive verbs, which denote passing into a new state, corresponds to the Russian действительное причастие or to an adjective. Only in few cases PII of an intransitive verb may be used attributively, mostly PII of the verbs to fade(увядать), to wither(искушать, губить),to retire, to fall/ to vanish(исчезать). Faded leaves (увядшие листья).

An attribute expressed by the PII may be detached (отделён); in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier: The housekeeper had come out of her room, attracted by the violent ringing of the ball. (Экономка вышла из своей комнаты, привлечённая неистовым звоном колокольчика.)

Adverbial modifier.

  1. Of time


  1. Condition


  1. Comparison


  1. Concession (уступка)


PII preceded by the conjunctions when, while, if, as thought, etc.

When guestonied Annie had implied vaguely…that she was anxious about her brother-in-law. (Когда Энни стали расспрашивать, она дала понять, что беспокоится о своём шурине).

It was a dreadful thing that he now proposed, a breach of the law which, if discovered, would bring them into the police court. То, что он предлагал, было ужасно: это было нарушение закона, и, если бы оно открылось, их отдали бы под суд.

As if torn with inner conflict & indecision, he cried.Он плакал, словно его мучили внутренняя борьба и сомнения.

Her spirit, though crushed, wasn’t broken-хотя она и не была подавлена, но не была сломлена.


Predicative

In spite of himself, he was impressed. На него это произвело впечатление, помимо его воли.

Part of a complex object

She has found me unaltered; but I have found her changed. Она нашла, что я ничуть не изменился, а я нашёл, что она изменилась.


The Objective Participle Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.

It may be found:

  1. After verbs denoting sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to find, etc): Then he looked out of the window & saw clouds gathering. I heard my wife coming. She could feel her hands trembling exceedingly. I saw the pony harnessed myself. You will probably find your sister grown.

  2. After some verbs of mental activity: to consider, to understand: I consider myself engaged to Herr Klemser.

  3. After verbs denoting wish, such as to want, to wish, to desire. In this case only Participle II is used. The governor wants it done quick.

  4. After the verbs to have & to get, only PII is used. In this case the Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the subject of the sentence: Thus I had the piano tuned means “I made someone tune the piano”. He had several bottles of wine brought. Ему принесли несколько бутылок вина. In interrogative & negative sentences the auxiliary verb to do is used: Why don’t you have your hair waved? (Почему вы не сделаете завивку?).

The subjective Participial Construction.

The construction in which the participle (mostly the PI) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or to a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence.

In rendering this construction in Russian a complex sentence is generally used; the principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called «неопределённо-личное предложение».

The peculiarity of this construction is that it doesn’t serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate:

They were hard talking together.

This construction is chiefly used after the verbs of sense perception:

The horse was seen descending the hill-Видно было, как лошадь спускалась с холма.



PARTICIPLE I

1.Attribute (Participle I Indefinite Active & Passive).

  1. If we have a participle used as an attribute to a noun (in pre-position), the noun performs the action expressed by the –ing form.(a touching story-a story that can touch, a laughing girl-a girl who is laughing).

  2. Participle I Perfect can be used only as an adverbial modifier & never as an attribute. To express priority an attribute clause is used: The student who has shown the countries of America on the map is going to his seat.

  3. Sometimes the Participle I Indefinite denotes an action referring to no particular time: Taiga is a thick forest stretching to the south of tundra.

2.Predicative (Participle I Indefinite Active).

To be astonishing, to be disappointing, to be exciting, to be humiliating (оскорбительно, унизительно), to be inviting (заманчивый), to be tempting (привлекательный), to be terrifying (ужасный), to be touching.

3.Parenthesis.(Participle I Indefinite Active)

Generally speaking, judging by appearance (words)(судя по внешнему виду), mildly speaking(спокойно), speaking frankly, strictly speaking, saying nothing of, roughly speaking.

4.Adverbial modifier of clause(reason) (PI Indefinite Active,

PI Indefinite Passive;


PI Perfect Active, PI Perfect Passive).


Not knowing the topic well, he got confused.


Being impressed by the duel scene in ”Hamlet”, they were silent on the way home.

Having lost the book, the students couldn’t prepare for the topic.

Having been left alone, the child felt miserable & lonely

5.Adverbial modifier of comparison.

PI Indefinite Act


She shivered with fright as if realizing the danger.

6.Adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances(manner)

Participle Ind Act


I spent the morning on the cliff reading.


7. Adverbial modifier of time.

PI Ind Act

PI Ind Pas

PI Perf Act

PI Ind Pas


  1. The action expressed by a participle in the function of an adv. mod always refers the to the subject of the whole sentence.

  2. With such verbs as to see, to hear, to notice, to come, to arrive, to seize, to look, to enter, to turn, to close, to open, to cross. PI Ind Act is used to express a prior action when the action expressed by the finite verb closely follows the action expressed by the P: Seeing that it was useless to argue with him, I dropped the subject.

  3. The conjunctions ”when” & “while” are often used with PI Ind Act to express an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb: While making a tour of England, we were impressed by its beauty.

  4. PI Ind of the verb “to be” is not used as an adverbial modifier of time: “Когда я был в Москве»=”When in Moscow”


tThe functions of participle II in the sentence.

  1. Attribute

PII of transitive verbs corresponds to the Russian страдательное причастие or действительное причастие of some verbs ending in –ся a broken chair (сломанный стул), a newspaper published in Moscow (газета, издаваемая в Москве). PII can be used in post-position & in pre-position (without any accompanying words). He answered through the locked door. (Он ответил через открытую дверь). They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. (Они свернули в небольшую оранжерею, красиво освещённую китайскими фонариками)

PII of intransitive verbs, which denote passing into a new state, corresponds to the Russian действительное причастие or to an adjective. Only in few cases PII of an intransitive verb may be used attributively, mostly PII of the verbs to fade(увядать), to wither(искушать, губить),to retire, to fall/ to vanish(исчезать). Faded leaves (увядшие листья).

An attribute expressed by the PII may be detached (отделён); in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier: The housekeeper had come out of her room, attracted by the violent ringing of the ball. (Экономка вышла из своей комнаты, привлечённая неистовым звоном колокольчика.)

Adverbial modifier.

  1. Of time


  1. Condition


  1. Comparison


  1. Concession (уступка)


PII preceded by the conjunctions when, while, if, as thought, etc.

When guestonied Annie had implied vaguely…that she was anxious about her brother-in-law. (Когда Энни стали расспрашивать, она дала понять, что беспокоится о своём шурине).

It was a dreadful thing that he now proposed, a breach of the law which, if discovered, would bring them into the police court. То, что он предлагал, было ужасно: это было нарушение закона, и, если бы оно открылось, их отдали бы под суд.

As if torn with inner conflict & indecision, he cried.Он плакал, словно его мучили внутренняя борьба и сомнения.

Her spirit, though crushed, wasn’t broken-хотя она и не была подавлена, но не была сломлена.


Predicative

In spite of himself, he was impressed. На него это произвело впечатление, помимо его воли.

Part of a complex object

She has found me unaltered; but I have found her changed. Она нашла, что я ничуть не изменился, а я нашёл, что она изменилась.


The Objective Participle Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.

It may be found:

  1. After verbs denoting sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to find, etc): Then he looked out of the window & saw clouds gathering. I heard my wife coming. She could feel her hands trembling exceedingly. I saw the pony harnessed myself. You will probably find your sister grown.

  2. After some verbs of mental activity: to consider, to understand: I consider myself engaged to Herr Klemser.

  3. After verbs denoting wish, such as to want, to wish, to desire. In this case only Participle II is used. The governor wants it done quick.

  4. After the verbs to have & to get, only PII is used. In this case the Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the subject of the sentence: Thus I had the piano tuned means “I made someone tune the piano”. He had several bottles of wine brought. Ему принесли несколько бутылок вина. In interrogative & negative sentences the auxiliary verb to do is used: Why don’t you have your hair waved? (Почему вы не сделаете завивку?).

The subjective Participial Construction.

The construction in which the participle (mostly the PI) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or to a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence.

In rendering this construction in Russian a complex sentence is generally used; the principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called «неопределённо-личное предложение».

The peculiarity of this construction is that it doesn’t serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate:

They were hard talking together.

This construction is chiefly used after the verbs of sense perception:

The horse was seen descending the hill-Видно было, как лошадь спускалась с холма.


  1. Suddenly they heard a shout & the noise of falling stones.

Falling is an attribute in preposition expressed by PI Ind Act used to denote an action performed by the noun stones.

  1. A channel is a stretch of water, joining two seas of separating two bodies of land. Joining & separating are attributes in postposition expressed by PI Ind Act used to denote an action referring to no particular time.

  2. The soil being cultivated now is rich & fertile. Being cultivated is an attribute in postposition expressed by PI Ind Pas used to denote an action in progress simultaneous with that of the finite verb.

  3. The children sat round the fire, Friendly stars ere twinkling overhead, but dark hills round the valley seemed frightening. Seemed frightening is a compound nominal predicate which consists of the link verb to seem in its Past Ind tense form & the predicative frightening expressed by PI Ind Act.

  4. Judging by their happy faces they enjoyed the scenery. Judging by their faces is a participial phrase used as parenthesis.

  5. The party who had settled everything with Bob set off North-West towards the hills & the mountains of the Lakeland. Who had settled everything with Bob is an attributive clause in which the finite verb denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb of the principal clause, that’s why PI is not used here.

  6. While walking to the pond across the meadow, the two friends saw a lot of funny grasshoppers hopping here & there. Walking is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PI Ind Act used to denote an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb.

  7. When in Lake District, the tourists saw lots of lovely lakes. PI Ind of the verb to be is not used as an adverbial modifier of time. The clause of time when in Lake District is used instead.

  8. Being asked to give his impressions of the Lake District he did it willingly. Being asked is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PI Ind Pas.

  9. Hearing the drumming of the rain on the roof of the house in the night, the children woke up. Hearing is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PI Ind Act of the verb of sense perception to hear used to denote an action prior to that of the finite verb as the actions expressed by PI & the finite verb closely follow each other.

  10. Having crawled into his cozy sleeping bag, he fell fast asleep. Having crawled is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PI Perf Act used to denote an action prior to that of the finite verb.

  11. Having been given two loaves of bread, they left the bakery. Having been given is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PI Perf Pas.

  12. Knowing well the English landscape, she wasn’t struck by its “park-like” appearance. Knowing is an adverbial modifier of cause expressed by PI Ind Act.


  1. Being covered with leaf & flower in summer, the hedges look very beautiful. Being covered is an adverbial modifier of cause expressed by Part I Ind Pas.

  2. Having studied the map of Great Britain, she began to learn the topic. Having studied is an adverbial modifier of cause expressed by PI Perf Act.

  3. Having been joined by the canals, they make it possible to travel by water from one end of England to the other. Having been joined is an adverbial modifier of cause expressed by PI Perf Pas.

  4. They sat down in the heather for a rest enjoying the view. Enjoying is an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances expressed by PI Ind Act.

  5. He went carefully down as if being afraid to get lost. Being afraid is an adverbial modifier of comparison expressed by PI Ind Act.

Participle II:

  1. “Don’t you think your wife & family miss you greatly?” thought ashamed he asked of the unwanted visitor. “I never thought about it,” replied the latter delighted, “but now you put it so nicely, I will wire for them to come down to join us.” Retired is an attribute in pre-position, expressed by PII of the intransitive verb to retire used to denote passing into a new state. Though ashamed is an adverbial modifier of concession expressed by PII. Unwanted is an attribute in pre-position expressed by PII of the transitive verb to want used to denote a passive meaning. Delighted is an attribute in post-position expressed by PII.

  2. Arriving at the Washington Zoo one day just as the monkey house was being closed for the day, the sightseers were surprised when they heard some terrific screams coming from the building. When asked, one of the keepers smiled & said, “The monkeys always act like that when we shut out the visitors. I think they get so much fun of watching people.” Were surprised is a compound nominal predicate which consists of the link-verb to be in its Past Ind tense-form & the predicative surprised expressed by PII. Some terrific screams coming is a complex object expressed by the Objective Participial Construction in which PI Ind Act coming denoting a process is in predicate relation to the doer of the action expressed by the participle. When asked is an adverbial modifier of time expressed by PII used to denote a pas meaning.

  3. I saw Ann playing. Ann playing is a complex object expressed by Objective participial construction. PI Ind Act playing is in predicative relation to the noun Ann in common case(to the pronoun her in the objective case). After the verb of sense perception to see.

  4. She was walking along the street. She walking is a complex Subject expressed by the subjective participial construction in which PI Ind Act is in predicate relation to the pronoun she in the nominative case(to the noun in the common case) which is the Subject of the sentence.



The functions of participle II in the sentence.

  1. Attribute

PII of transitive verbs corresponds to the Russian страдательное причастие or действительное причастие of some verbs ending in –ся a broken chair (сломанный стул), a newspaper published in Moscow (газета, издаваемая в Москве). PII can be used in post-position & in pre-position (without any accompanying words). He answered through the locked door. (Он ответил через открытую дверь). They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. (Они свернули в небольшую оранжерею, красиво освещённую китайскими фонариками)

PII of intransitive verbs, which denote passing into a new state, corresponds to the Russian действительное причастие or to an adjective. Only in few cases PII of an intransitive verb may be used attributively, mostly PII of the verbs to fade(увядать), to wither(искушать, губить),to retire, to fall/ to vanish(исчезать). Faded leaves (увядшие листья).

An attribute expressed by the PII may be detached (отделён); in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier: The housekeeper had come out of her room, attracted by the violent ringing of the ball. (Экономка вышла из своей комнаты, привлечённая неистовым звоном колокольчика.)

Adverbial modifier.

  1. Of time


  1. Condition


  1. Comparison


  1. Concession (уступка)


PII preceded by the conjunctions when, while, if, as thought, etc.

When guestonied Annie had implied vaguely…that she was anxious about her brother-in-law. (Когда Энни стали расспрашивать, она дала понять, что беспокоится о своём шурине).

It was a dreadful thing that he now proposed, a breach of the law which, if discovered, would bring them into the police court. То, что он предлагал, было ужасно: это было нарушение закона, и, если бы оно открылось, их отдали бы под суд.

As if torn with inner conflict & indecision, he cried.Он плакал, словно его мучили внутренняя борьба и сомнения.

Her spirit, though crushed, wasn’t broken-хотя она и не была подавлена, но не была сломлена.


Predicative

In spite of himself, he was impressed. На него это произвело впечатление, помимо его воли.

Part of a complex object

She has found me unaltered; but I have found her changed. Она нашла, что я ничуть не изменился, а я нашёл, что она изменилась.


Subject

  1. It’s always easy to

  2. It’s hard to

  3. It’s important to

  4. It gives him pleasure to

  5. It’s dangerous to

  6. It’s wise of him to

  7. It does people a lot of good to

  8. It won’t do you any harm to

  9. It has become his habit to

  10. It surprised me to

  11. It made me feel awkward to

  12. It was natural to



Part of a compound verbal modal predicate.


Part of a compound verbal aspect (вид) predicate.

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be to, to have to, should, ought, will, would, shall, need.

2. Modal expressions had better, would rather.

The verbs expressing the beginning, the duration, the repetition, the end of the action: to begin, to start, to commence, to continue, to cease, used to+Inf, would + Inf.



Part of a compound nominal predicate.

  1. predicative

  2. part of a predicative

  1. It is hard to please.

  2. She is easy to deal with.

  3. She is pleasant to look at.

  4. The article is difficult to translate.

  5. He was difficult to convince.


Object(дополнение).
  1. To order, to agree, to forget, to remember…

  2. To be glad, to be happy, to be delighted…

  3. To order, to teach, to ask. To help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to encourage…

  4. To find, to consider, to think, to make, to feel

It

{Interesting, necessary, impossible, cruel, useful, hopeful, hopeless} to do smth.


Attribute(определение).
  1. Class nouns.

  2. Abstract nouns

  3. Experience of quantity (much, little..)

  4. Indefinite pronouns (smb, anybody…)

  5. The adjective last.

  6. Ordinal numerals ( the 1st, 2nd..)



Adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)

  1. of purpose.


  1. of result


  1. comparison (manner) (сравнение)


  1. attendant circumstances (сопутствующих обстоятельств)



  1. By the conjunctions in order, so as.

  2. Without any conjunction.

  1. Too hot (skilled, excited, shocked, frightened, impressed, angry) to do smth.

  2. Clever (experienced, skilled, strong, old, sharp, brave) enough to do smth.

  3. So cruel (impressed, careless) as to do smth.

  4. Such a man ( a fool, a woman, a son, a student, a sportsmen) as to do smth.

By the conjunctions as if, than, as though.

The adverb never, the particle only.


By the conjunctions as if, as thought, than


Adverb never, the participle only


Parenthesis (вводные слова).
  1. To cut a long story short, to put it in a nutshell (короче говоря).

  2. To say the least (чтобы не сказать больше).

  3. To tell you the truth – to speak the truth (по правде говоря).

  4. To put it mildly (мягко говоря).

  5. To say nothing of (не говоря уже)

  6. To be frank (откравенно говоря).


A complex object.

Without the particle to:

  1. after verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel)

  2. After verbs of compulsion (принуждение) (то make, to have).

  3. After the verb to let.

Without particle to:

  1. After verbs denoting mental ability (интеллектуальные): to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to understand.

  2. After the verbs denoting declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report; wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, should like, to intend, to mean; after verbs denoting feeling & emotion: to like, to dislike, to love to hate, cannot bear.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow.

Objective infinitive construction

1. After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, etc.

(only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II)

Note: to see=to understand: we don’t use the construction.

To hear=to lern, to be told: we use a clause of a gerund.

2.After verbs denoting mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc. After them- to be( not after expect). Perfect Infinitive is seldom used.

3.After verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

  1. After verbs denoting wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose.

  2. After verbs denoting feeling & emotions: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear, etc.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc. !!! Only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive( not for to suffer & to have.

  4. After verbs denoting compulsion: to to make(заставить), to cause(заставить, распорядиться), to get(добиться), to have(заставить, сказать, чтобы).

  5. With the preposition for, on & upon(after to rely)


The Subjective Infinitive construction.
  1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.(If a process is expressed Participle I is used).

  2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to know, to believe, to suppose.

  3. With the verb to make.

  4. With verbs to say & to report( translation-неопределённо-личное предложение).

  5. With the verbs to be likely, to be sure, to be certain.

  6. With pairs of synonyms: to seem & to appear, to happen & to chance(случайно), to prove & to turn out(оказалось).

The For-to-Infinitive Construction
  1. The Subject(often with the introductory it)

  2. Predicative

  3. Complex object.

  4. Attribute.

  5. Adverbial modifier

a)of purpose

b)of result


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Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений22:38:41 18 марта 2016
Кто еще хочет зарабатывать от 9000 рублей в день "Чистых Денег"? Узнайте как: business1777.blogspot.com ! Cпециально для студентов!
11:29:09 24 ноября 2015

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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
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