Intro To Philosophy Essay, Research Paper
Phil or Sophie?
In philosophy, there are three main worldviews: Scientific Materialism, Spiritualism and Idealism/Realism/Rationalism. Scientific materialism is holds much in what we observe. What we hear, see, feel, taste, and smell, is what s real. It is totally physical. Spiritualism is the opposite of scientific materialism; it says that the physical is not always real and that there is a higher reality that transcends the physical. Idealism/Realism/Rationalism is a broad view that separates what is real and what is known by the mind (Internet intro).
There are also three ethical views: Utilitarianism, Natural Law, and Kant s Deontology. Utilitarianism is based on pleasure; whatever provides the greatest amount of pleasure is right(internet intro). Natural law says that what is good comes from natures design. It asks what is it and what is it used for. Kant s deontology is the idea that we have the duty to follow the rules of logic and language.
When talking about Philosophy, you must start with the famous ancient philosopher, Socrates. During the late 400 s (BC), Philosophy was very serious and could be dangerous. Socrates ignored the seriousness of Philosophy; this made him one of the most interesting and understandable philosophers. He also ignored the dangers of his chosen profession; this cost him his life. Socrates spent most of his days wandering the streets of Athens and simply talking to people. It was his simple and personal approach to discussing philosophy that made him so radical in the eyes of the government. Socrates was a realist. Socrates thought that reason finds truth. Throughout his life, Socrates questioned many people but was never able to come up with a universal truth.
Socrates was always anti-government. He felt that the government had no right to make a person think or act in a particular way. Socrates believed that becoming a politician was the worst career any man could have. The politicians of Athens eventually called Socrates to trial. He was charged with impiety, the corruption of youth and the undermining of religious beliefs. After a brave speech where he neglected to beg for his life and criticized the politics of Athens, he was sentence to death. His last words were: The hour of our departure has arrived, and we must go our ways-I to die, and you to live. Whish is better, God only knows.
Plato was another philosopher who was contemptuous of the corruption of Athenian democracy. In fact, Plato was witness to the trial and execution of Socrates. Unlike Socrates, Plato was interested in the philosophy of politics. Plato wanted to create a perfect or utopian society. Plato was an idealist. He sought to cure the afflictions of both human society and human personality.
Aristotle, unlike Plato was not interested in perfecting society. He wanted to improve existing society until the best system is obtained. He thought that a utopia was an abstract solution, a solution that has no concrete answers. Aristotle, like Socrates was a realist. He believed that you must try and improve the existing society by understanding how it works.
Plato and Aristotle differ in many ways. Plato believed that the essence of something gave you its form. Aristotle believed that the form of something came from its function. Plato used mathematics as a model for his philosophical ideas. Aristotle used flora and fauna or a biology model to convey his ideas on philosophy. Both Aristotle and Plato agree that justice exists in an objective sense: that is, it dictates a belief that the good life should be provided for all individuals no matter how high or low their social status. They just differed on how perfect society should be. Plato said that there were 2 parts to the universe, while Aristotle classified everything into groups. In fact, the modern classification system is based on many of Aristotle s forms.
Two other philosophers who were closely related were Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine. Augustine was obviously very religious and many of his philosophical ideas were based on the bible. Thomas Aquinas was anti-theology and believed in natural law.
Philosophy is simply the way you think about things and adapt them to every day life. It is the aspect which you use to see the world.