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Реферат: Билеты для сдачи кандидатского минимума по английскому языку аспирантам специальностей правовед, бухгалтер, экономист, философ

Название: Билеты для сдачи кандидатского минимума по английскому языку аспирантам специальностей правовед, бухгалтер, экономист, философ
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аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The need for enforcement

As the Court of Justice said in 1963, in the landmark case of Van Gend en Laos NederlandseAdministratiederBelastingen (case 26/62), the European Community

constitutes a new legal order in international law, for whose benefit the states have limited their sovereign rights ... and the subjects of which comprise not only the member states but also their nationals.

Whilst some may dispute the unique nature of this new legal order (see Wyatt, D., 'New Legal Order or Old?' (1982) 7 EL Rev 147) there is no doubt that the law stemming from the three EC treaties comprising the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty 1951, the Euratom Treaty 1957 and the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty 1957, renamed the Economic Community (EC) by the Treaty on European Union 1992, differs from traditional international law in a number of important respects. First, the Treaties, particularly the EC Treaty, are much more extensive in their scope than most international agreements, embracing many areas of activity normally reserved to national law alone; secondly they created a strong framework of institutions, endowed with the power to make laws, binding on states and individuals, on all matters within their scope; and thirdly, and as a result of the first two factors, EC law is exceptional in the extent to which it penetrates domestic law, creating rights and obligations enforceable by and even against individuals before their national courts. These characteristics, taken together, have resulted in an immense and ever-growing body of Community law, existing alongside and often conflicting with domestic law, and enforceable, directly or indirectly, within domestic legal systems.

Because of its 'special' nature the enforcement of EC law raises particular problems for English lawyers. It requires a new approach to interpretation; the application of new techniques and principles; the modification of national actions taken by the institutions of the Community. They shall facilitate the achievement of the Community's tasks.

They shall abstain from, any measure which could jeopardise the attain­ment of the objectives of this Treaty.


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Accordingly, judicial activity is essentially the last link in the chain of the crystallisation of the rule of law ... it is the bridge between the necessarily abstract legal rule and the necessarily indi­vidual nature of the particular case. Every case is individual and every rule abstract.

This doctrine obliterates any distinction between law and obligation or, more pre­cisely, legal relationships. The latter constitute only the specific application of the former. This assimilation of legal material has a peculiar consequence for the pres­entation of international law:

The actual content of international law is even more meagre than may appear from its presentation in text-books, when we consider that most rules of international law are con­cerned with a definition of subjective rights established by particular or general treaty. Rights of this nature would hardly appear in a presentation of a system of municipal law which is composed of abstract rules of an objective nature.

There is thus an apparent tension at the heart of Lauterpacht's concept of law. On the one hand, law lies in the legal relationships established by the parties inter se, while yet equally on the other hand, law comprises precepts which exist independ­ently of the parties' will.

Further, Lauterpacht sees law as an imperative system, that is as a series of com­mands directed at the subjects of the legal system to regulate their behaviour. Given his adhesion to pacta sunt servanda as the fundamental presupposition underpinning the system, once a state's agreement is given, whether tacitly or expressly, to a norm then the resulting rule binds the state independently of its will. Regardless of whether pacta sunt servanda is a customary norm or initial hypothesis, it constitutes a command, i.e. a rule existing independently of the will of the parties. It is of no consequence that in the international sphere the command does not issue from a po­litical superior. Law may be a command without being the command of an organized po­litical community ... law may be a command merely by virtue of its external nature.

Moreover, Lauterpacht's array appears to be conditioned by that of Kelsen, for whom 'the legal duty is the central and only essential element of the legal sys­tem'. It must be conceded that, albeit in the context of a discussion of the Permanent Court' competence, Lauterpacht stated that 'like the bulk of the rules of private law, the rules of international law are primarily of a permissive character.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

At present, only Germany and Portugal have a coherent group law, while other states make do with a few isolated rules scattered in their national company laws. The draft will define when a group exists. The decisive factor in this will be the parent company's controlling influence in law or de facto. Based on the German model, the draft will also state that dominance agreements must be drawn up between the parent company and the subsidiary, whereby the parent company directly takes over the management of the subsidiary. The 'price' for this is to be a closely defined indemnification of the subsidiary's minority shareholders and creditors. It is regrettable that it has proved impossible so far to establish a uniform group law in the Union, because the uncertainty surrounding the state of law for a transnational group is considerable. Development in European group law is virtually at a standstill, and many would welcome the adoption of the Ninth Directive, perhaps in yet another, even simpler form. Until then, group law will continue to develop in an ad hoc manner.

It is, however, an interesting aspect of this development that in its case law, the European Court has undertaken a de facto further development of group law albeit only in certain areas. One of the core questions of group law that national and/or Community law provisions ought to decide is the extent to which the group has a right, or perhaps an obligation, to be considered as an entity. This means that the plurality of legal persons making up the group will be deemed to be one with regard to rights and obligations. In a number of situations, the core area of group law is the important factor when looking at whether the group should be treated as an entity or as a plurality. Subsequently, the choice arises between separate or joint treatment of the group's legal persons. In this area, the Court has demonstrated a flexibility and a will to develop which is scarcely evident in national legislators. I shall mention only a couple of examples from the Court's work.

Clearly the dominant principle within group law, as a branch of company law, is that the individual group company is deemed to be an independent entity with regard to both rights and obligations. Group companies are not liable for one another, no set-offs are allowed between one company's trade debtors and another company's debts, etc. This principle is no obstacle, of course, to the individual group companies accepting liabilities or finan­cial guarantees for one another.


European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference

" New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London, 8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competition authorities representing foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Law and the Rule of Law

Lauterpacht located the International Court at the centre of the international legal order, arguing that the Court's original and primary purpose was to decide disputes between States and, by fostering the rule of law among them, to contribute to international peace. That purpose has not wholly materialized owing to the political conditions prevailing after the Second World War and to the reluctance of Governments to confer upon the Court the requisite jurisdiction. These conditions are not necessarily of a permanent character ... It is that purpose which, notwithstanding temporary setbacks, must remain the abiding purpose of the judi­cial organization of the community of nations under the rule of law.

Within this structure, legal officials, such as judges, play an indispensable role in securing the Rule of Law as when they apply the necessary abstract rule of law to the concrete case, they create the legal rule for the individual case before them.

The object of law to secure order must be defeated if a controversial rule of conduct may remain permanently a matter of dispute ... it is essential for the rule of law that there should exist agencies bearing evidence, and giving effect, to the imperative nature of the law. The law's external nature may express itself either in the fact that it is a precept cre­ated independently of the will of the subjects of the law, or that it is valid and continues to exist in respect of the subjects of the law independently of their will.

The importance of the judicial function permeates Lauterpacht's concept of law. This is expressed in his argument for obligatory jurisdiction that is itself a conse­quence of the emphasis which Lauterpacht gives to the gradual concretization of law. Apart from the search for a basic norm, this is the most prominent aspect of Lauterpacht's concept of law which is primarily associated with Kelsen. Norms are relatively indeterminate as they cannot specify all the conditions for their application.

The actual operation of the law in society is a process of gradual crystallization of the ab­stract legal rule, beginning with the constitution of the State, as the most fundamental and abstract body of rules, and ending with the concrete shaping of the individual legal rela­tion by a judgement of a court, or by an adjudication or decision of an administrative authority, or by an agreement of the interested parlies.


lain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal of International Law. Vol. 8 No 2, 1997.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL & PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Handicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greece supervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existing nformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnational co-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all the available information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g. current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

THE SCOPE OF COMMUNITY LAW

If the goals of the original EEC Treaty were, as its name implied, primarily economic, they were so in the widest sense. The treaty was from the beginning much more than a free trade agreement. The Community's activities, outlined in Article 3 EEC, were to include the elimination of all internal barriers to the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital (the common or single 'internal market', see now Article 7a EC); the approximation of the laws of member states to the extent required for the proper functioning of the common market (Article 100 EEC); the harmonisation of indirect taxation (Articles 95-99); the establishment of common policies in the spheres of agriculture and transport and the creation of a Community competition policy. States were to co-ordinate their economic policies 'in order that disequilibria in their balances of payments might be remedied'. In the field of external affairs the Community was to establish a common customs tariff and a common commercial policy towards countries outside the EEC ('third countries') and to 'associate with overseas countries in order to increase trade and to promote jointly economic and social development'. The Community thus had extensive internal and external competence in economic matters.

But even at the outset the goals of the EEC were not purely economic. The preamble of the EEC Treaty expressed the resolve of member states 'to ensure the economic and social progress of their countries'; their essential objective being the 'constant improvement of the living and working conditions of their peoples'. Articles 117-128 provided for action in the field of social policy, requiring states to promote improved working conditions and improved living standards for workers. Article 119 provided a principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women, the purpose of which, according to the European Court, was both economic, to remove the competitive advantage of a (normally) cheaper workforce in states which failed to provide for equal pay.

If the sphere of Community competence was large even at the Community's inception, it has been greatly extended since then, either by action by the EC institutions under Article 235, which allows the institutions to 'take the appropriate measures' if action by the Community 'should prove necessary to attain ... one of the objectives of the Community and this Treaty has not provided the necessary powers', or by amendments to the EEC Treaty provided by subsequent treaties, the Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty (1992)).

________________________

EC European Community

EEC European Economic Community


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

In relation to the EU's tender regulations, the Court has established that when a parent company submits a tender for a public contract and must document expertise and experience in the relevant area (eg building and construc­tion work), the parent company may also include the expertise possessed by one or more of its subsidiaries rather than by the parent company itself, provided that it is proved that the parent company 'actually has available the resources of those companies which are necessary for carrying out the works'.

With regard to the EU's non-competition rules, when a competitor has complained of competition distorting group agreements and practices, the Court has deemed several companies acting as one entity to be one entity under the non-competition rules. The Court ruled that when subsidiaries are completely unified with the parent company in their polices, they and the parent company constitute a single economic unit in the sense of Art 85 of the Treaty. It follows they the group's policy (eg co-ordinated price policy) does not constitute distorting agreements or practices among undertakings for the simple reason that these are not undertakings, but a single undertaking irrespective of the formal division into a number of companies.

With regard to the EU's Television Broadcasting Directive, the Court has ruled that a television group is domiciled, and thus governed, by the television legislation in the state where the centre of its activities is located [programming etc). This means that the Court identifies all group companies and considers them as a single entity, irrespective of whether or not the broadcasting activities are formally divided among a number of companies across a number of states. In practical terms this means that each subsidiary is seen as a branch, and this makes the Court's decision worthy of note. See also the Court's Decision of 10 September 1996. These judgments (and there arc more) are all identifica­tions to the advantage of the group. But a small number of cases where the identification disadvantaged the group may also be mentioned. The Court has affirmed that legal action may be brought against a parent company in another state where its subsidiary was domiciled, because the Court deemed it to be the parent company which in real terms was conducting its business in another state, using its subsidiary merely as an extension of itself.

___________________

EU European Union


European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965 BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue of our last conference.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers –


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences, a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Despite Article 5, states, sometimes deliberately, sometimes inadvertently, not infrequently failed to fulfil their Community obligations. Whilst pro­cedures were provided under the Treaty for action by the Commission or by member states before the Court of Justice against states which had 'failed to fulfil their obligations' under Community law (Articles 169 and 170, see Chapter 11), these provisions proved insufficient on their own to secure the effective enforcement of EC law, for a number of reasons.

First, the Commission (or member state) may simply be unaware of breaches of Community law by member states. In a Community of twelve it is not possible for the Commission, with limited resources, effectively to monitor the laws and practices of all member states.

Secondly, although any person may complain to the Commission of suspected infringements of EC law by member states and request the Commission to act under Article 169, and the majority of Article 169 proceedings have been found to result from such complaints, an individual has no power to compel the Commission to act under Article 169. The Commis­sion has a complete discretion in this matter. The enforcement of EC law against member states by Community institutions is a sensitive matter. The Commission may choose not to proceed against insignificant failures. Where the breach is clear, and significant, the Commission can, and often does, achieve compliance-by-negotiation at the preliminary stages of the Article 169 procedure; it will not then be necessary to proceed to the final stage before the Court. Yet Individuals may have suffered damage as a result of member states' prior actions in breach of EC law. They may have paid levies which were wrongfully imposed; or deprived of rights, for example under Directives, which they would have enjoyed had states fulfilled their Community obligations.

Thirdly, even where the Commission proceeds to action before the Court under Article 169 and obtains a judgment under Article 171 that the state has 'failed to fulfil its Community obligations' the Court has no power to impose sanctions to guarantee compliance. The state is simply required to 'take the necessary measures' to comply with the Court's judgment. If the State fails to take the necessary measures the Commission must resort to fresh Article 169 proceedings for the state's failure to comply with the Court's judgment under Article 171.

_________________________

EC European Community


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in the Political and Economic Leaders Summit of 7-8 February, in Thessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceed also to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the Business Meeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May. We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises and businessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

A Protocol on Social Policy attached to the treaty, from which Britain opted out, declared as its objectives the promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions, proper social protection, dialogue between management and labour, the development of human resources with a view to lasting high employment and the combating of exclusion (Article 1).

The Community was required to develop trans-European networks (Article 129b EC) and to contribute to the development of education and vocational training and the flowering of European culture (Articles 126, 127, 128 EC), albeit in these latter cases in a supporting role, 'supplementing' and 'encourag­ing' the actions of member states, pursuant to the principle of subsidiarity.

As well as amending the EC Treaty the treaty on European Union provided for co-operation with a view to the framing of common policies in the fields of foreign and security policy, and eventually defence, and in justice and home affairs. These matters remain strictly intergovernmental, in the nature of a 'normal' international agreement and outside the institutional framework of the EC treaty; as such they will not be subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court, nor will they be the concern of the British courts. When member states are acting under these provisions they are acting as members of the European Union. The term 'European Community' will continue to apply to matters pertaining specifically to the EC treaty.

It is clear from the above brief outline that the scope of the law stemming from the EC treaty, and of Community competence, is now extremely wide. Within this area of competence the Community institutions have power, subject only to the limitations provided by the treaty, to pass laws, binding on states and individuals. As well as provisions of the EC Treaty which may be enforced by national courts, there now exists a substantial body of EC secondary legislation in all the areas of activity outlined above, fleshing out the basic principles of the treaty. Much of this law is directly enforceable within national legal systems. Where it is not it may be necessary for national courts to take it into account in interpreting national law. The Index of Community Activities listed in the Directory of Community Legislation in force. Official Journal (OJ) of the European Communities, indicates the range of Community law. All EC secondary legislation is published in the Official Journal (L) series; it is listed, analytically (Volume I) and chronologically (Volume II), with the appropriate OJ reference, in the Directory itself.

________________________

EC European Community


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The Task of the International Judge

Lauterpacht argues that in avoiding a declaration of non liqiiet by filling material gaps in the law the judge is necessarily creative:

The rejection of the admissibility of non liqiiet implies the necessity for creative activity on (the part of international judges. Legal philosophy in the domain of municipal jurispru­dence has shown the possibilities and, indeed, the inevitability of the law-creating func­tion, within defined limits, of the judge within the State.

The development of international law by the International Court, its secondary function, is, for Lauterpacht, clearly and expressly connected with the doctrine of gradual concretization. In exercising this function, the Court is not bound to base its decision simply on the arguments and considerations raised in the parties' pleadings as in interpreting and applying concrete legal rules the Court does not act as an automatic slot-machine, totally divorced from the social and political realities of the international community. It exercises in each case a creative activity, having as its background the en­tirety of international law and the necessities of the international community. The dis­tinction between the making of law by judges and by the legislature is upon analysis one of degree ... judicial activity is nothing else than legislation in concreto ...

But this is legislation within limits. The creativity of international judges must stop short of interference with established rights. If these are a cause of friction, then they might be a fit object for legislative change, but legisiation cannot be let in by a backdoor by transforming the nature of the judicial function'. Moreover, even where the judiciary is creative, its rulings are themselves relatively indeterminate: Judicial legislation is not - and ought not to be - like legislative codification by statute. It cannot attempt to lay down all the details of the application of the principle on which it is based. It lays down the broad principle and applies it to the case before it. Its elaboration must be left in. addition to any doctrinal elucidation of the law by writers, to ordinary legislative processes or to future judicial decisions disposing of the problems as they arise.

The clear conclusion to be drawn is that Lauterpacht views the international judicial function as one which is law creative, rather than as merely the elucidation of the specific legal relationships which obtain between the parties.


Iain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal of International Law. Vol. 8 No 2, S997.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group 20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you with the following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those not travelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to our representative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Upon your arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv our representative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of the group during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: международное право; европейское право)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The EFTA Court. The EEA Agreement also required the EFTA states to create an EFTA Court, which was created with effect from I January 1994. It consists of five judges appointed for a six-year renewable term. It sits only in plenary session, although it could request the EFTA states to permit it to establish chambers. There are no Advocates-General. The sole working language is English except where the Court directs otherwise and where national courts refer questions for interpretative opinions3. Its seat is in Geneva.

The jurisdiction of the EFTA Court. The forms of process before the EFTA I Court fall into five categories:

(a) Infringement proceedings raised by the. EFTA Surveillance Authority against an EFTA state, analogous to article 169 of the EC Treaty.

(b) Settlement of disputes between EFTA states relating to the EEA, analogous to article 170 of the EC Treaty.

(c) Actions to annul a decision of the EFTA Surveillance Authority, analogous to articles 173 and 174(1) of the EC Treaty. The first such action was raised in April 1994.

(d) Actions against the EFTA Surveillance Authority for failure to act, analogous to article 175 of the EC Treaty.

(e) Advisory opinions to national courts of EFTA states. But it is important to note that there are significant differences between this procedure and article 177 of the EC Treaty. First, because the EEA Treaty does not require the transfer of legislative authority to any EEA institution, advisory opinions of the EFTA Court are, unlike preliminary rulings from the Court of Justice, non-binding. Second, an advisory opinion may be sought only upon the interpretation of the EEA Treaty, and not upon the interpretation or validity of acts of the institutions. Further, there is no obligation to seek an advisory opinion, even for courts of last instance, and national rules may restrict access to the procedure to courts of last instance". The first request for an advisory opinion, from a Finnish cus­toms appeal committee, was lodged in April 1994 and decided in December 1994.

__________________________________

EC European Community

EEC European Economic Community

EFTA European Free Trade Association

EEA European Economic Area


David A.0. Edward & Robert C. Lane. European Community Law. An Introduction. Second Edition. Butterwiths Law Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1995


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Article 1. Basic Principles of Ciil Legislation

1. Civil legislation is based on the recognition of the equality of the participants in the relations regulacd by it, the inviolability of ownership, freedom of contract, the necessity of the unhin­dered realization of civil law rights, enairing the restoration of vio­lated rights and judicial protection of them.

2. Citizens (natural persons) and legal persons shall obtain and exercise their civil law rights by their own will and in their own inter­est. They shall be free in the establishnent of their rights and duties on the basis of contract and in determinng any terms of contract not contradictory to legislation.

Civil law rights may be limited on the basis of a Federal statute and only to the extent to which it is necessary for the purposes of defending the bases of the Constitutional order, the morals, health, rights, and legal interests of other persois, of ensuring the defense of the country and the security of the state

3. Goods, services, and financial assets may be moved freely about on the whole territory of the Russian Federation.

Article 2. Relations Regulated by Civil Legislation

1. Civil legislation determines the legal position of the partici­pants in civil commerce, the grounds for the origin and the procedure for realization of the right of ownership and other rights in things, of exclusive rights to the results of intellectual activity (intellectual prop­erty), regulates contractual and other obligations and also other prop­erty relations and related personal non-property relations based upon equality, autonomy of will and the property independence of the par­ticipants.

Citizens and legal persons are the participants in relations regu­lated by civil legislation. The Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation, and municipal formations may also participate in relations regulated by civil legislation (Article 124).

Civil legislation regulates the relations between persons engag­ing in entrepreneurial activity or with their participation, proceeding from the position that entrepreneurial activity is independent activity done at one's own risk directed at the systematic receipt of profit from the use of property, sale of goods, performance of work, or rendering of service by persons registered in this capacity by the pro­cedure established by a statute.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Recent Trends

I will primarily discuss the criminal responsibility of individuals for violations of international humanitarian law. In the process, 1 will make the necessary distinction between international and internal armed conflicts.

In terms of actual practice, not much had happened since Friedmann's book, since Nuremberg, except for a number of national prosecutions for war crimes and crimes against humanity, until the atrocities in Yugoslavia shocked the conscience of mankind. Within a short time, these events triggered the Security Council, acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, to promulgate the Statutes of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. They also provided the impetus for the ILC to adopt its draft statute for the proposed international criminal court.

In the interim period, despite the lack of ongoing practice, the opinio juris and the international consensus on the legitimacy of the Nuremberg principles, the applica­bility of the principle of universal jurisdiction to crimes under international law, and the need to punish those responsible for egregious violations of international humanitarian law solidified. In addition, many treaties providing for national prosecution of crimes, of international concern were adopted. Universal jurisdiction has been thus recognized with regard to such crimes as attacks on the safety of civil aviation and maritime navigation, and also in case of egregious infringement of human rights, as for example, torture under the 1984 United Nations Convention. This trend is well articulated in the draft basic principles and guidelines on the right of reparation for victims of gross violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which provide that: 'Every State shall provide for universal jurisdiction over gross violations of human rights and humanitarian law which constitute crimes under international law.

The statutes of the two Tribunals represent a major advance over the Charter of Nuremberg. First, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and the crime of genocide occupy the central place in the statutes. Second, the Yugoslav Statute recognizes crimes against humanity for non-international armed conflicts, not only for international wars, and the Rwanda Statute arguably acknowledges such crimes even in peacetime.


European Journal of International Law. Vol. 9, Nol, 1998. Oxford University Press


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Application of Section 45 - the Undueness Test

Section 45 is the general anti-conspiracy provision in the Act and takes the approach that agreements between competitors are unacceptable only where they cause, or are likely to cause, substantial anticompetitive effects in the relevant market if carried into effect. Specifically, the prosecution must show that the agreement does or would affect competition "unduly", which the Supreme Court of Canada has interpreted, as having a serious or significant effect on competition as determined by a two stage examination.

The first stage is to determine if the parties to the agreement have market power in the relevant market, which is the ability to unilaterally affect industry pricing. Market share alone, although a significant factor, is not sufficient to demonstrate market power; other important factors include the number of competitors and concentration of competition and barriers to entry. The Supreme Court has noted that possession of even a moderate amount of market power may support a finding of undueness. If a group of conspiring SME's do not together have power in the relevant market, they will not contravene this provision. The Supreme Court has stated that absent such power, agreements to restrict competition would either benefit the public by allowing small firms to consolidate their position and be more competitive, or dissolve under competitive pressures.

The second stage requires the court to look at the parties' behaviour to determine whether some behaviour likely to injure competition has occurred, or is likely to occur. It is a combination of market power and behaviour that makes a lessening of competition undue; particularly injurious behaviour may trigger liability even if market power is not considerable. This undueness analysis has been characterized' as a "partial" rule of reason approach, since it involves consideration of the anticompetitive effects of an agreement unlike a per se offence, but does not consider efficiencies of the agreement as would a full rule of reason analysis. Therefore, even those forms of cooperation whose sole purpose is to restrict competition, such as price fixing, are not illegal unless they have the requisite economic impact in the relevant market, without which their conduct should be subject to discipline by existing competitors and potential new entrants.

While the general anti-conspiracy provision might not apply to an agreement among SME's in which the participants cannot unduly affect competition, bid-rigging is the one type of conspiracy which is expressly treated as per se illegal under section 47 of the Act. This different treatment is due to the fact that bid-rigging has historically been treated more harshly because it was considered similar to fraud.


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 an International Conference "New Prospects of scientific and technological and production cooperation of Russia with foreign states" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite a representative from your Ministry and two persons representing business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German and English. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

CIVIL AND PUBLIC LAW

Main categories

One important distinction made in all these countries is between private - or civil - law and public law. Civil law concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and public law concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another. The main categories of English civil law are:

Contracts: binding agreements between people (or companies);

Torts: wrongs committed by one individual against another individual's person, property or reputation;

Trusts: arrangements whereby a person administers property for another person's benefit rather than his own Land Law;

Probate: arrangements for dealing with property after the owner's death;

Family Law.

The main categories of public law are:

Crimes: wrongs which, even when committed against an individual are considered to harm the well-being of society in general;

Constitutional Law: regulation of how the law itself operates and of the relation between private citizen and government;

International Law: regulation of relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.

In codified systems there are codes that correspond to these categories, for example, France's Code Civil and Code Penal. Justinian's Roman codes covered such areas of law as contracts, property, inheritance, torts, the family, unjust enrichment, the law of persons, and legal remedies, but said little about criminal law. Consequently, most Continental criminal codes are entirely modern inventions.

Differences in procedure

The standards of proof are higher in a criminal action than in a civil one since the loser risks not only financial penalties but also being sent to prison (or, in some countries, executed). In English law the prosecution must prove the guilt of a criminal "beyond reasonable doubt"; but the plaintiff in a civil action is required to prove his case «on the balance of probabilities." Thus, in a case a crime cannot be proven if the person or persons judging it doubt the guilt of the suspect and have a reason (not just a feeling or intuition) for this doubt. But in a civil case, the court will weigh all the evidence and decide what is most probable.

In Anglo-American law, the party bringing a criminal action (that is, in most cases, the state) is called the prosecution, but the party bringing a civil action is the plaintiff. In both kinds of action the other party is known as the defendant. A criminal case against a person called Ms Sanchez would be described as «The People vs. (= versus, or against) Sanchez" in the United States and «R. (Regina, that is, the Queen) vs. Sanchez» in England. But a civil action between Ms Sanchez and a Mr Smith would be «Sanchez vs. Smith" if it was started by Sanchez, and "Smith vs. Sanchez» if it was started by Mr Smith.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

That law is an effect of lawyers' imagination is nowhere clearer than in the devel­opment of international law from the isolated diplomatic practices of the nineteenth century into a legal order sometime early in the twentieth. Professional jurists took it upon themselves to explain international affairs in the image of the domestic state, governed by the Rule of Law. For that purpose, they interpreted diplomatic treaties as legislation, developed a wide and elastic doctrine of customary law, and described the state as a system of competences, allocated to the state by a legal order. A culture of professional international law was created through the setting up of the first international associations of jurists, doctrinal periodicals as well as the publication of many-volumed presenta­tions of state practice in the form of systematic legal treatises.

It was not a simple task to conceive of diplomatic correspondence and a few arbi­trations as manifestations of an autonomous legal order. In 1935 a sceptic still de­scribed the situation in the following terms:

There is in fact, whatever the names used in the books, no system of international law -and still less, of course, a code. What is to be found in the treatises is simply a collection of rules which, when looked at closely, appear to have been thrown together, or to have been accumulated, almost al haphazard.

Two strategies seemed possible. One could either take whatever materials - treaties and cases - one could find that bore some resemblance to domestic law and explain the inevitable gaps in the system as a result of the 'primitive' character of international law. Otherwise one could try to expand the law's scope by arguing, as Grotius had done, from Roman and domestic law, general principles and ideas about a common morality. Although in fact both avenues were followed, the former seemed to realize better the statism and the objective of the 'scientification' of law that had been the great aim of nineteenth century jurisprudence.


Martti Koskenniemi Lauterpacht: The Victorian Tradition in International Law European Journal of International Law. Vol. 8 No 2, 1997.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister of International Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The Economic Role and Definition of SME's

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises ("SME") play an important role in the Canadian economy, 'providing significant employment, innovation, variety and competition in many different sectors. This role is recognized in section 1.1 of the Competition Act ("Act"), which states that the general aim of the Act is to maintain and encourage competition in Canada in order to ensure, among other things, that small and medium-sized enterprises have an equitable opportunity to participate in the Canadian economy. Although this is a stated goal of Canadian competition law, there are no specific exclusions or special rules applicable to such enterprises. However, because of their relatively small size, SME's may fall below the anticompetitive thresholds necessary to trigger the application of many of the provisions of the Act including the general prohibition against conspiracies in section 45. A further consideration is whether enforcement action against a particular agreement between SME's is justified according to the Competition Bureau's enforcement priorities and case screening criteria.

For the purposes of competition analysis generally, it is not useful to define what is or is not an SME on the sole basis of absolute size criteria (such as annual revenue, personnel or output) below which a firm might be considered an SME. Instead, competition analysis is concerned with the ability of a firm or group of firms to act independently of the rest of the competitors in a particular market. This type of comparative analysis of the relative market power of firms in a particular market make absolute criteria a poor benchmark for determining whether a firm is an SME in a particular market. For instance, a firm that might be considered to be large in terms of revenue, personnel and output in a particular industry and market might be considered to be an SME in comparison to the much larger firms that exist in a different market. Definition of the relevant product and geographic markets is key since the larger the relevant market, i.e. the greater the number of firms producing substitutable products and geographic area in the market, the less likely that a firm will have the market power necessary to cause substantial anticompetitive effects. Markets are typically defined in terms of the smallest group of products and geographic area in which participants could impose a significant and non-transitory price increase (generally a price, increase of five per cent is considered significant and a one year period to be non-transitory). In assessing the relevant markets in conspiracy cases, it is important to note that the parties to the alleged agreement may have already exercised market power and thus any observed willingness by customers to switch or new competitors to enter may overstate their competitive significance.

_________________________________

SME Small and Medium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held in London from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is very the traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importance will be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russian advertising business, we are confident that your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have a positive effect on the further development of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Special treatment of SME under competition law - exemption from general ban on cartels

Reasons for special treatment under competition policy

The survival of SME may be threatened inter alia by processes of structural change, intensifying competition based on efficiency and anticompetitive practices or abusive conduct by large firms, whether competitors, suppliers or buyers. Co-operation agreements among SME are often assessed from the perspective that SME have no chance of survival in competition with large firms if the latter use economies of scale. Where competitive disadvantages result from relatively small size only, attempts are often made to compensate for those disadvantages by other means. Close co-operation among SME is then considered a means of ensuring survival and offsetting structural disadvantages.

While the group of SME is heterogeneous, the following broad statements can be made -although there may be a few examples to the contrary -: One of the purely size-induced disadvantages of SME vis-a-vis large firms is poor access to the capital market. Owing to their relatively small size, SME have little or no access to certain sources of finance. Since SME are often single-product firms, the possibilities of risk-spreading and compensatory pricing are as a rule very limited, which raises their sensitivity to cyclical and structural fluctuations. Owing to their manufacturing conditions, which are marked as a rule by small lot and batch sizes, SME can only take limited advantage of cost savings in the production process. As SME purchase smaller volumes than large firms, their terms and conditions tend to be less favourable. In addition, they are often less likely to attract highly qualified staff. As a result of the above disadvantages, even their international competitiveness is generally thought to be inferior to that of large firms.

By contrast, it is considered the SME's specific advantage over large firms that, being closer to the market, they are more ready to take risks and able to more quickly respond and make adjustments. Time-consuming processes of co-ordination and decision-making can often be dispensed with so that SME can quickly respond to market processes. Direct contact with buyers and greater closeness to the market often allows them to better meet specific customer needs. SME moreover often are firms with a high degree of specialisation.

________________________________

SME Small and Medium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference "10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow, 18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy and competition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Business Cycle Policy as a Matter of Common Concern

Article 103 obligates the Member States to consider business cycle policy a matter of common concern. This means that except to the extent that decisions of the Council based on Article 103 create Community law, business cycle policy remains within the competence of each Member State. On the other hand, the Member States do not remain entirely free, for in its actions each Member State must bear in mind any possible impact on the other Member States. Furthermore, each Member State has a justified interest in watching business cycle developments in all other Member States. Finally, there would seem to be a right to complain if a Member State occasioned unfavorable business cycle developments.

The right to complain poses a difficult problem. Although certain aims of the Treaty, especially those listed in Article 104, do not impose legally binding obligations, it may be questioned whether the same holds true if these aims are significant for business cycle policy and thus become a matter of common concern.

A clear remedy exists if the business cycle policy of a Member State disregards the common interest to such an extent that competitive conditions among the Member States are seriously distorted. Since under Article 101, a qualified Council majority suffices, these distortions can be eliminated by directives pursuant to that Article even against the will of the Member State affected. In any event, the relative autonomy Article 103 leaves the Mem­ber States is not an excuse for ignoring other binding Community rules. Hence a Member State cannot justify a national rule which does not conform to a Community pricing scheme for agricultural products on the ground that the rule is designed as a means of fighting inflation, and Article 103 gives the Member States competence in that area. On the other hand, given the present limited amount of integration, Member States may pursue a general incomes policy, even if that policy affects a group, such as farmers, who are the object of Community policy goals, so long as the national measures do not distort the function­ing of the Community market organization (without mentioning Article 103 probably illustrating how little known article 103 is).


The Law of the European Community. A Commentary on the EEC Treaty. Hans Smit, Peter E. Herzog. Matthew Bender, May 1998. Vol 3


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, who is a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February 7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate if you could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Criminalization of Acts of Corporations

Friedmann himself referred to the trend of criminalivzing offences by legal persons, such as corporations. In opposition to the ILC's adoption of the concept of international crimes, many cite the maxim impossibile est quod societas delinquat. However, the increasing departure from this maxim in national laws suggests that opposition to the concept of international crimes stems from state sovereignty rather than from the character of the state as a legal person.

In addition to the individual criminal responsiblity of the officers of a corporation, in the modern business world a corporation itself may be criminally liable for the actions or omissions of agents acting on the corporation's behalf, in the scope of their employment. The movement towards this form of Criminalization began in areas of strict liability, where no mens rea was required, but soon expanded to crimes requiring, a certain mental state. This was achieved through imputing to the corporation not only the acts, but also the mental state, of its employees. Whereas individuals would be punished by imprisonment or even death, corporations have been penalized by fines or punitive damages.

Even though labelled civil rather than criminal, treble damages for anti-trust violations have become a major feature in evaluating the movement of the law towards the imposition of punitive sanctions. The role of parallel developments in many countries, which influence general principles of law and, in many cases, general principles of criminal law, reinforces the impact of such treble damages.

The action for civil treble damages in the United States for violation of the Sherman Act or other anti-trust legislation may be initiated by either the government, private individuals or corporations. This civil action is in addition to governmental enforcement through both criminal and civil action, for example, by enjoining an illegal transaction. Governmental criminal action leads to fines on corporations and their officers and, whenever appropriate, imprisonment of the corporation's officers. Allowing private parties to sue to supplement governmental enforcement means that private parties are allowed to act, in effect, as private attorneys general. I emphasize this point to illustrate that significant sanctions can also be carried out through private agents. Thus, the dividing line between civil and criminal action may be becoming blurred in several areas of the law.


European Journal of International Law. Vol. 9, Nol, 1998. Oxford University Press


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translation service will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: гражданское право; предпринимательское право;
семейное право; мчп)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Forms of and limits to SME co-operation

There are forms of co-operation among SME which do not in any way affect their scope of competitive action and parameters. In the absence of exclusivity arrangements, co-operation in the fields of training, common quality control or the sharing of transport does not necessarily involve restraints of competition. Such co-operation may often take the shape of cartel-free co-operation agreements.

Forms of co-operation whose sole purpose and intent is the restriction of competition are not to be exempt from a general ban on cartels. Therefore, no price agreements - not even among SME - should be permitted. Nor can co-operation among large firms only be permitted on the ground that the co­operation agreement is intended to benefit SME.

Problems do arise, however, when it comes to assessing anticompetitive effects of SME co­operation and weighing them against potential positive effects, or to defining the limits to co-operation and laying down suitable criteria.

Where to draw the line for a particular co-operation agreement in a specific market, however, can only be determined by an examination of every single case.

Inter-company co-operation which covers production, finance, management, administration, purchasing and/or selling as a rule involves diverse types of anticompetitive effects. In practice, the anticompetitive effects have to be weighed against the positive effects to see whether they are acceptable.

Nearly all forms of co-operation may enhance efficiency: conceivable are expansion of production, measures to improve the quality of products, extend the product range, shorten delivery channels and dates, reduce freight cost, share means of advertising or research facilities, streamlined purchasing or selling. Production shutdowns or closure, however, cannot be considered to enhance efficiency. Common purchasing or selling which involves exclusivity arrangements often results in a considerable restriction of the freedom of action and choice of the parties concerned or the opposite side of the market and may amount to a serious restraint of competition in a particular case which may outweigh the positive effects of the co-operation agreement and lead to prohibition.

__________________________________

SME Small and Medium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Trading Commission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


SOMALIA

The downfall in January 1991 of President Siad Barre, the leader of Somalia for 21 years, resulted in a power struggle and clan clashes in many parts of the country. In November, intense fighting broke out in the capital, Mogadishu, between the faction supporting Interim President Ali Mahdi Mohamed and the faction supporting General Mohamed Farah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress.

Fighting spread to other regions of the country, with heavily armed elements controlling various parts of Somalia. Wide-spread death and destruction forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes. Almost 5 million people - over half the population - were threatened by hunger and disease. Nearly one million people sought refuge outside the country.

Despite the turmoil, the United Nations continued its humanitarian effort, and by March 1991 was fully engaged in the country, in cooperation with several non-governmental organizations. The Secretary-General also became increasingly involved with the political aspects of the conflict, in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the League of Arab States (LAS) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).

In December, the Secretary-General dispatched an envoy to Somalia in an effort to restore peace. During that visit, all faction leaders expressed support for a United Nations role in bringing about national reconciliation.

On 23 January 1992, the Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Somalia and urged all parties to cease hostilities.

On 31 January, the Secretary-General invited Interim President Ali Mahdi and General Aidid, as well as the LAS, the OAU and the OIC, to send representatives to attend talks in February at United Nations Headquarters. The talks succeeded in getting the two factions to agree on a cease-fire, and to a visit by a delegation composed of the United Nations and the three regional organizations.

After intensive negotiations conducted by the delegation, the two parties signed in March an agreement on the implementation of the cease-fire. Further talks led to agreements on a cease-fire to be monitored by United Nations observers, and on the protection of humanitarian convoys by United Nations security personnel.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


SOMALIA

On 24 April, the Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM), to facilitate the cessation of hostilities and the maintenance of a cease-fire, and to promote a political settlement.

The Secretary-General appointed a Special Representative for Somalia, who left for the region on l May. In early July, 50 United Nations military observers arrived in Mogadishu, followed by some 500 United Nations security personnel. Meanwhile, humanitarian efforts were being carried out by six United Nations organizations and more than 30 relief organi­zations.

In August, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Councii that the United Nations and its partners were ready to provide much greater assistance, but were prevented from doing so by the lawlessness and lack of security prevailing throughout Somalia. He recommended deploying up to 3,000 security troops to protect the humanitarian efforts. This proposal was endorsed by the Council.

In October and November, the situation continued to deteriorate. As famine threatened some 1.5 million lives, Somalia remained without a central government, Mogadishu was divided by rival militias and the country by a dozen factions.

The delivery of humanitarian aid became more and more difficult. Relief ships were blocked from docking and even shelled. Ports and airports came under fire. Money and relief supplies were being extorted from donor agencies, and the lives of their personnel trying to distribute aid to starving people were being put in danger.

As a result, only a trickle of relief supplies was reaching the needy. According to some estimates, as many as 3,000 people a day were dying of starvation. Unless the security problems were solved, United Nations and relief agencies would be unable to provide the massive assistance needed. On 24 November, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Council on the deteriorating Situation in Somalia and on the factors preventing UNOSOM from carrying out its mandate.

On 3 December, the Security Council accepted an offer, made on 25 November by the United States, to take the lead in organizing and commanding an Operation to ensure the delivery of humanitarian relief. Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, which deals with enforcement measures, the Council authorized the use of all necessary means to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


CENTRAL AMERICA

The United Nations has supported from the start the efforts of Central American Governments to bring peace to the region. The combined action of the Security Council, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General has helped to resolve several protracted conflicts.

In 1987, the Presidents of five Central American countries - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua - signed the Esquipulas II agreement, by which they undertook to launch a region-wide process of democratization and national dialogue, bring about a cease-fire, and promote free and fair elections.

In February 1989, the five Presidents decided to set up a mechanism to verify the agreement with United Nations participation. They agreed to draw up a plan for the voluntary demobilization of the members of the Nicaraguan resistance (also known as "contras"). And Nicaragua announced it would call general elections under international and United Nations supervision.

In August 1989, at Nicaragua's request, the United Nations Observer Mission for the Verification of Elections in Nicaragua (ONUVEN) started operations in the country. It monitored the entire preparation and holding of the elections - the first United Nations-monitored elections in an independent country.

On election day, 25 February 1990, ONUVEN observers visited polling stations in 141 of the country's 143 municipalities and monitored vote counting. ONUVEN concluded that the elections had been conducted "in a highly commendable manner".

On the request of both the President and President-elect, a United Nations team facilitated a peaceful political transition and played a role in various negotiations that followed the elections. The success of ONUVEN helped create conditions for the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguan resistance.

That demobilization was overseen by another United Nations mission, the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA), which had been established in November 1989 as a mechanism to verify the security aspects of Esquipulas II, following a request from the five Central American countries. ONUCA established a presence in all five countries to verify the end of assistance to irregular forces and insurrectionist movements, and the end of the use of one country's territory for attacks on other countries.

In March 1990, the Security Council enlarged ONUCA's mandate to include overseeing the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguan resistance. The operation was undertaken throughout Honduras and Nicaragua. By 29 June, some 22,000 resistance members had turned in their weapons to ONUCA.

The civilian aspects of the demobilization - repatriation, relocation or resettlement - were the responsibility of the International Commission for Support and Verification (CIAV), set up in September 1989 by the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and of the Organization of American States.

ONUCA remained in Central America, contributing to peace efforts in the region, until January 1992.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 an International Conference "New Prospects of scientific and technological and production cooperation of Russia with foreign states" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite a representative from your Ministry and two persons representing business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German and English. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


AFGHANISTAN

Following Soviet military intervention in late December 1979, 52 Member States requested on 3 January 1980 an urgent meeting of the Security Council on the situation in Afghanistan. Following a negative vote from the Soviet Union on a draft resolution deploring the intervention, the Security Council called an emergency special session of the General Assembly. The session in January deplored "the recent armed intervention in Afghanistan" and called for the withdrawal of the foreign troops.

The Secretary-General launched a process of talks involving Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Soviet Union, other neighbouring countries and Security Council members. The talks, conducted by the Secretary-General's Personal Representative, sought to reach a settlement based on four elements: non-interference, return of refugees, withdrawal of foreign troops and international guarantees.

Eight years of intensive negotiations based on those elements culminated in a comprehensive settlement in April 1988. A timetable was established for the withdrawal of the foreign troops.

On 14 April 1988 at a ceremony at the United Nations office at Geneva, the Secretary-General presided over the signing of the settlement, known as the Geneva Accords. The accords were signed by the Foreign Ministers of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as by those of the Soviet Union and the United States as guarantor States.

In line with the Accords, the signatories requested that United Nations military personnel deployed in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) monitored the withdrawal of Soviet troops, which was completed in February 1989. UNGOMAP continued to monitor aspects of the Geneva Accords until March 1990.

In May 1988, in view of the gravity of the humanitarian situation, the Secretary General called for establishing a United Nations common system to deal with the needs of the country. This led to the appointment of the Coordinator of the United Nations Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes relating to Afghanistan (UNOCA). In June 1988, the Secretary-General issued an appeal for $1.1 billion in international assistance. At a pledging conference in New York in October, the Secretary-General and the Coordinator launched Operation Salam, an international effort for relief and rehabilitation in Afghanistan, for which UNOCA became responsible.

In 1989, UNOCA launched the first large-scale mine-clearance programme in the world, which to date has cleared more than 42 million square metres. More than 2.3 million people have received mine-awareness training.

With the continuing internal conflict in Afghanistan, the General Assembly in November 1988 asked the Secretary-General to encourage a comprehensive political settlement with a view to establishing a broad-based government.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


AFGHANISTAN

In May 1989, the Secretary-General appointed a Personal Representative in Afghanistan and Pakistan, who has subsequently, through continuous contact with the various elements involved, sought to find a peaceful solution to the conflict.

In May 1991, the Secretary-General outlined principles for a political solution, which included the need to preserve the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and non-aligned and Islamic character of the country; the recognition of the right of Afghans to determine their own form of government and choose their economic, political and social system; and the need for an intra-Afghan dialogue leading to the establishment of a broad-based government.

On 16 April 1992, following a period of intensifying conflict, the Government of President Najibullah was replaced by a Majahidin Government, which subsequently proclaimed the establishment of an Islamic State. A few days later, the Secretary General travelled to the region and met with the leaders of Pakistan and Iran. He stated that peace and national unity were prerequisites for soliciting financial and humanitarian assistance from the international community, and reaffirmed that the United Nations was ready to assist the Afghan people in the reconstruction of their country.

On 24 April, an Agreement on forming an interim govern­ment was reached among most of the Afghan parties, in Peshawar, Pakistan. These events led to the return of more than 1.5 million refugees, increasing the need for humanitarian assistance. In June, the Secretary-General issued a $197 million appeal for emergency relief aid.

Serious fighting erupted in August, causing many casualties and large-scale damage to the capital city of Kabul, and forcing United Nations staff temporarily to evacuate the city. The Secretary-General appealed for restraint and the resumption of dialogue, and the Security Council issued a statement of concern.

In spite of a cease-fire, which permitted several United Nations fact-finding and technical assistance missions to visit Kabul, fighting and rocketing of Kabul erupted again in December 1992. The hostilities put severe strains on the relief effort. By the end of the year, about $ 87million had been received for humanitarian assistance required in 1992.

In January 1993, UNOCA became the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA), reflecting a new emphasis on emergency programmes. Throughout the year, United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations continued to provide humanitarian assistance. A new appeal was launched, and by the end of the year close to $70 million had been pledged.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held in London from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is very the traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importance will be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russian advertising business, we are confident that your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have a positive effect on the further development of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


CYPRUS

Cyprus became independent in 1960, with a Constitution which was intended to balance the interests of the island's Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. In August 1960, Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom entered into a treaty which guaranteed the basic provisions of the Constitution and the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Cyprus.

Since the outbreak of fighting between the two communities in December 1963, the United Nations has sought to secure a peaceful settlement. The Security Council met on 27 December 1963 to consider a complaint by Cyprus charging intervention in its internal affairs and aggression by Turkey. Turkey maintained that Greek Cypriot leaders had tried for more than two years to nullify the rights of the Turkish Cypriot community and denied all charges of aggression.

In March 1964, the Security Council established the United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), to prevent fighting, help maintain law and order, and promote a return to normal conditions.

The efforts of the Secretary General and his Special Representative in Cyprus led, beginning in 1968, to talks between the two communities, which were held intermittently until early in 1974.

A coup d'йtat in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greek Cypriot and Greek elements favouring union with Greece was followed by military intervention by Turkey, whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island.

The Security Council called for a cease-fire and laid the basis for negotiations between Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, which were held until mid-August, when they broke down. A further Turkish military operation extended the area under Turkish Cypriot control in the north. A cease-fire came into effect on 16 August.

Four days later, the Secretary-General appointed the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as Coordinator of United Nations Humanitarian Assistance for Cyprus. More than 200,000 people needed assistance as a result of the hostilities. The High Commissioner continues to aid displaced persons, and UNFICYP provides support to the humanitarian effort.

In November 1974, the General Assembly called on all States to respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence and non-alignment of Cyprus. It urged the withdrawal of all foreign armed forces, a halt to foreign interference, and the return of refugees to their homes. The Assembly stated that constitutional issues were to be resolved by the two communities, and urged the continuation of contacts which were taking place between the two communities with the help of the Secretary-General.

These contacts broke off after the unilateral announcement by the Turkish Cypriot leadership in February 1975 that a part of the island would become the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus". In March, the Security Council expressed regret regarding this move, and stated that the decision did not prejudge the final political settlement.

Talks started in April under the auspices of the Secretary-General. Agreement was reached that the Turkish Cypriots in the south of the island would be allowed to proceed north with UNFICYP assistance, and that a number of Greek Cypriots would be transferred to the north to be reunited with their families. Greek Cypriots in the north would be free to go south or to remain.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister of International Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


the security council

In 1990, the Security Council reiterated that it foresaw a solution based on the existence of one State comprising two communities, and that the objective was a new Constitution regulating the relations between the two communities on a federal, bicommunal and bi-zonal basis. Both sides affirmed their commitment to the Council's views.

By March 1991, the Secretary-General was able to report to the Security Council that discussions held by his repre­sentatives with both sides in Cyprus and a senior official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey in exploring a set of ideas for an overall framework agreement had been useful. He noted that the clarifications that had emerged should make it possible to bring the two sides within range of agreement, particularly under three of the eight headings of an overall framework agreement, namely, Overall Objectives, Guiding Principles, and Security and Guarantees. The Secretary-General felt that an agreement should be within reach if it was possible to move forward on the issues of Territorial Adjustments and Displaced Persons.

The Secretary-General conferred separately with the leaders of the two communities in New York in January and March 1992. Reporting to the Security Council in April, the Secretary-General stated that the set of ideas would offer a fair basis on which an agreement could be concluded. A week later, the Council endorsed the set of ideas as an appropriate basis for reaching agreement.

In June, the Secretary-General began proximity talks in New York with the two leaders. After a three-week intermission, the talks resumed in July. Joint meetings between the two leaders continued in New York in October-November, focusing on the set of ideas.

At a joint meeting in March 1993, the two leaders agreed to resume negotiations in May, using the set of ideas to reach an overall framework agreement. In April-May, the Secretary-General's Deputy Special Representative undertook preparatory meetings in Cyprus. Both leaders indicated their willingness to pursue agreement on 14 proposed confidence-building measures. The most significant were the transfer of the vacant city of Varosha to United Nations administration and its becoming a special area for bicommunal contact and commerce; and the reopening of Nicosia International Airport, under United Nations administration, for unhindered traffic with both sides.

On the basis of these preparations, joint negotiations resumed in New York in May, chaired by the Secretary-General. The meetings recessed on 1 June to allow the Turkish Cypriot side to undertake consultations in Nicosia and Ankara. The purpose of these consultations was to promote acceptance of the Varosha/Nicosia International Airport package of confidence-building measures. It was agreed that the joint meetings would resume in New York no later than 14 June. However the leader of the Turkish Cypriot community did not promote acceptance of the package and did not return to New York.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference "10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow, 18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy and competition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


United Nations Action for Peace

When the Government of President Samuel Doe was overthrown in 1990, civil war broke out, causing the breakdown of law and order in Liberia. In the following three years, the war claimed the lives of between 100,000 and 150,000 civilians, with some 700,000 refugees fleeing to neighbouring countries. Liberia remained divided: the Interim Government of National Unity administered the capital city of Monrovia; the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) controlled nine counties; and the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) controlled the remaining three counties.

From the outset of the conflict, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), a subregional organization made up of 16 countries, took initiatives towards a political settlement. These included creating a Military Observer Group (ECOMOG) in August 1990, and mediating agreements which became the basis for the peace plan of November 1990. On 30 October 1991, ECOWAS brokered the Yamoussoukro IV Accord, which provided for the disarmament of warring factions under ECOMOG supervision, and the establishment of transitional institutions to carry out free and fair elections.

The United Nations supported from the start the efforts of the ECOWAS member States. It also provided humanitarian assistance through its agencies and programmes. The United Nations Special Coordinator's office opened in 1990 to respond to the needs of Liberians throughout the country. Arrangements were made to assist those who fled to neighbouring countries, mainly Cфte d'Ivoire, Guinea and Sierra Leone.

To establish peace and stability in the country, the Security Council on 19 November 1992 imposed a general and complete arms embargo on Liberia, and requested the Secretary-General to dispatch an envoy. The Secretary-General appointed a Special Representative for Liberia, who visited Liberia and eight other countries in the region.

In March 1993, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Council that the Special Representative's talks with the parties indicated a consensus for a larger United Nations role in the search for peace. The Council asked the Secretary-General to discuss with ECOWAS and the parties the contribution which the United Nations could make.

On 6 June 1993, nearly 600 Liberians, mainly people displaced by the war, were killed in an armed attack near the Liberian town of Harbel. The Security Council condemned the killings and asked the Secretary-General to launch an investigation.

The investigation panel concluded that the killings had been carried out by units of the Armed Forces of Liberia (one of the parties to the conflict), and that NPFL, to which the act of violence had initially been attributed, had had no role in it. The panel added that this finding did not diminish the responsibility of NPFL, ULIMO and others alleged to have engaged in similar atrocities, and recommended investigating such atrocities.

On 25 July 1993, after a three-day meeting in Cotonou, Benin, under the co-chairmanship of the Secretary-General's Special Representative, the envoy of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS, the parties signed the Cotonou Peace Agreement. The Agreement provided for a cease-fire, the disarmament and demobilization of military units, a transitional government, and general and presidential elections. A" Joint Cease-fire Monitoring Committee was set up, comprising the three Liberian parties, ECOMOG and the United Nations.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, who is a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February 7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate if you could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


United Nations Action for Peace

On 22 September, the Security Council established the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), to assist in implementing the peace agreement. Under the agreement, ECOMOG had the primary responsibility for implementation; UNOMIL would monitor and verify the impartial application of the implementation procedures. UNOMIL was the first United Nations peace-keeping mission undertaken in cooperation with a peace-keeping operation already set up by another organization.

The task of UNOMIL comprised monitoring the cease-fire, the arms embargo and the disarmament and demobilization of combatants; assisting in humanitarian activities, including the return of refugees and displaced persons; and observing the election process, conducted by the transitional government.

In accordance with the Cotonou Agreement, ECOMOG was to be reinforced by troops from countries outside West Africa. On the basis of an ECOWAS appeal, the Secretary-General set up a Trust Fund to assist in the deployment and maintenance of the ECOMOG troops. In September 1993, the United States pledged $19.8 million to the Trust Fund, for the deployment and maintenance of the additional troops and for covering some maintenance costs of the existing troops. In January 1994, battalions from Tanzania and Uganda were deployed to Liberia.

After months of stalemate, the Liberian National Transitional Government (LNTG) was installed on 8 March 1994. Elections were to be held in September. But the demobilization proceeded slowly, and came to a halt with the emergence of two new armed factions and accusations that both NPFL and ULIMO had resumed hostilities. Increased fighting forced the UNOMIL observers to move from many of the rural areas to the more secure Monrovia, since the authority of the LNTG could not be extended beyond the capital. Both the NPFL and ULIMO experienced internal divisions, further adding to instability. The elections were postponed indefinitely.

In September, President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana, the ECOWAS Chairman, convened the NPFL, ULIMO and AFL for peace talks attended by the OAU and the United Nations at Akosombo, Ghana. The Akosombo Agreement, signed on 12 September, sought to reinforce and supplement the Cotonou Agreement, recognized as the framework for peace. On 21 December, all warring factions concluded in Accra, Ghana, a peace agreement calling for a cessation of hostilities, the seating of a new transitional government, disarmament of combatants and the eventual holding of elections.

In April 1995, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Council that the peace process remained at an impasse. The Council urged the parties to install a transitional government, re-establish a cease-fire and take steps to implement the Accra Agreement.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translation service will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: уголовное право и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительное право)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The United Nations: STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION

The Charter established six principal organs of the United Nations:

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ. It is composed of representatives of all Member States, each of which has one vote. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new Members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. Decisions on other questions are reached by a simple majority.

Functions and powers

Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the General Assembly include:

  • to consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments;

  • to discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is being discussed by the Security Council, to make recommendations on it;

  • to discuss and, with the same exception, make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations;

  • to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and international collaboration in economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields;

  • to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation, regardless of origin, which might impair friendly relations among nations;

  • to receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs;

  • to consider and approve the United Nations budget and to apportion the contributions among Members;

  • to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council and those members of the Trusteeship Council that are elected; to elect jointly with the Security Council the Judges of the International Court of Justice; and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, to appoint the Secretary-General.

Under the "Uniting for peace" resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanent members, fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat to international peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly is empowered to consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures, including, in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression, the use of armed force when necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Trading Commission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


completion OF FINANCIAL

STATEMENTS AND THEIR PUBLICATION

Introduction

When a company has prepared its annual financial statements in accordance with the provisions of the Act, the directors of the company are required to approve, sign and lay the financial statements and reports before the company in general meeting. A private company, however, may elect to dispense with laying its financial statements and reports before the company in general meeting. The directors of the company are also required to deliver the financial statements and reports to persons entitled to receive them and to the Registrar of Companies. There are also rules that companies have to comply with when they publish their financial statements. In addition, there are provisions for the revision of defective financial statements or reports. These and other requirements are considered in more detail in this chapter.

Directors’ duties

Preparation and approval of financial statements

The directors have a duty to prepare annual financial statements for the company under section 226(1) of the Act, and this obligation is discussed in chapter 2.

The board of directors has to approve the company's financial statements and they must be signed on behalf of the board by a director of the company.

In addition, a director is required to sign, on behalf of the board of directors, a copy of the company's balance sheet that is to be delivered to the Registrar of Companies.

Every copy of the balance sheet that is laid before the company in general meeting, or that is otherwise circulated, published or issued, should state the name of the person who signed the balance sheet on, behalf of the board.

In addition to the legal requirement, SSAP 17 requires that the financial statements should disclose the date on which the board of directors approved the financial statements. The date of approval will normally be the date on which the board of directors formally.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The system of corporation tax

Scope of the tax

Corporation tax ('CT') is charged on the profits (computed as described in the next chapter) of a company for an accounting period. The term 'company' includes an unincorporated body, such as a club, but not a partnership.

A company's residence status determines whether or not it is charge­able to CT in respect of the whole of its profits. If a company is resident in the UK for CT purposes (as explained in chapter 10.1(a)), and this includes most companies incorporated in the UK, it is chargeable to CT on all its sources of income, and chargeable gains, wherever arising and whether or not remitted to this country.

A non resident company will, broadly, only be chargeable to CT on its profits derived from trading operations in the UK and chargeable gains arising from the disposal of UK assets used for such operations, although other income derived from sources in this country will, subject to the terms of any relevant double tax treaty, be liable to income tax. It is a question of fact as to whether a non-resident is trading in the UK. Whilst the fact of contracts being made in the UK is important, probably of more importance is the place where the operations take place from which the trading profits in substance arise; however, this is again subject to any relevant double tax treaty between the UK and the country of residence of the overseas company.

2.2 Rates of corporation tax

(a) Rates

To enable companies to plan ahead, rates of CT are fixed annually, in advance, for a financial year, from 1 April to the following 31 March. Thus the Finance Act 1990 fixed the rate of CT for the period from 1 April 1990 to 31 March 1991 at 35%.

If a company's accounting period straddles 31 March it is necessary to apportion its profits on a time basis to ascertain the amounts subject to the particular rates of CT.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The requirements of both the Act and SSAP 17 will he satisfied if the directors minute their approval of the financial statements at a hoard meeting and include, at the foot of the balance sheet, a note along the following lines:

The pages of the financial statements that are being approved should normally include, where applicable, any supplementary accounts or other financial statements (such as a value added statement or current cost information). The reason for this is that the directors should acknowledge their responsibility for .any such financial information that is presented.

Alternatively, a similar statement may be included in the directors' report (for example, see Table 88). But when this alternative presentation is adopted, the Act still requires a director to sign the balance sheet of the company.

approval OF ACCOUNTS

The accounts on pages 12 to 25 were approved on 11th April, 1989, by the Board of Directors, who authorised two Directors to sign the accounts on behalf of the Board.

The Act also requires the directors' report to be approved by the board of directors and signed by one director or by the company's secretary. The approval and signing of directors' reports are considered further in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.42 to 20.44.

Where a parent company prepares consolidated financial statements in accordance with the Act, it is not required to include its own profit and loss account in the group's consolidated financial statements (see further 'Manual of Accounting - volume II' chapter 4). In this situation, the company's individual profit and loss account must be approved by the board of directors and signed on behalf of the board by a director of the company in accordance with section 233(1).


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference

" New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London, 8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competition authorities representing foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Presentation of financial statements at general meetings.

The directors have a duty to present the financial statements of the company to the shareholders each year at a general meeting of the company.

The financial statements do not necessarily have to be laid before the shareholders at the annual general meeting. Another general meeting will suffice. In practice, however, most companies do lay their annual financial statements before the shareholders at their annual general meeting. The financial statements presented at that meeting should include:

• The company's profit and loss account and balance sheet.

• The directors' report.

• The auditors' report.

• The company's consolidated financial statements (if the company has subsidiaries).

• The statement of source and application of funds (if applicable).

However, a private company may elect to dispense with laying its financial statements and reports before the company in general meeting (see para 25.20).

Delivery of financial statements to the Registrar of Companies

Individual companies

The directors of the company also have a duty to send to the Registrar of Companies a copy of the financial statements of the company (see also para 25.38). Where that copy of the financial statements is not in English, a certified translation of the financial statements also has to be delivered to the Registrar of Companies


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL & PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Handicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greece supervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existing nformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnational co-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all the available information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g. current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Where a company is exempt from the requirements to prepare consolidated financial statements, a copy of the ultimate parent company's financial statements must be appended to the company's financial statements delivered to the Registrar of Companies. This requirement applies where the company is itself a wholly-owned subsidiary of a EC parent or the EC parent holds more than 50 per cent of the shares in the company and no notice has been served on the company to prepare consolidated financial statements. If the EC parent does not prepare its financial statements in English, a certified translation of the EC parent's financial statements into English must be appended (sec further 'Manual of accounting -volume 'H' chapter 2).

Subsidiaries excluded from consolidation

Special rules apply where a parent company has a subsidiary undertaking which is excluded from consolidation under section 229(4) on the grounds that its activities are different from those of the rest of the group, and the subsidiary is either a body corporate incorporated outside Great Britain without an established place of business in Great Britain or an unincorporated undertaking. These provisions are further explained in 'Manual of Accounting - volume II' chapter 3.

A copy of the excluded undertaking's latest individual financial statements and, if it is a parent, its latest consolidated financial statements, should he appended to the company's annual financial statements delivered to the Registrar of Companies. A copy of the 'auditors' report should also he appended if the financial statements are required by law to be audited. Other requirements that must be complied with are as follows:

• The financial statements must be for a period ending not more than 12 months before the end of the financial year for which the parent company financial statements are made up.

• If any document required to be appended is in a language other than English, a certified translation of that document should accompany it.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


As discussed in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.6 to 20.10, the directors' report must give details of any significant events that occur between the end of the financial year and the dale on which the directors approve the financial statements. SSAP 17 contains a similar requirement.

SSAP 17 says that it relates only to those events that occur before the date on which the directors approve the financial statements. However, the standard goes on to say that, "If (events occurring after that dale) are material the directors slould consider publishing the relevant information so that users' of financial statements are not misled". [SSAP 17 para 4]. Also, if the company is either listed on The Internal ional Stock Exchange or traded on the USM, The International Stock Exchange's Continuing Obligations or the USM's General Undertaking (as appropriate) require the company to inform the Quotations Department of The International Stock Exchange of any significant events that occur at any time that affect the company. [CO 5, GU 1].

If the auditors become aware of any significant event that has occurred between the date on which the directors approve the financial statements and the dale of the relevant general meeting, they should consider whether they should advise the company's directors to disclose that event or exercise their rights to speak at the meeting.

Persons entitled to receive the financial statements

Every member of the company, every debenture holder of the company, and every person who is entitled to receive notice of general meetings is entitled to receive a copy of the annual financial statements. A copy must be sent to them not less that 21 days before the date of the meeting at which the financial statements are to be presented. [Sec 238(1)].

A copy must also be given to the company's auditors. (Sec 390(1)]. In addition, the company's bankers may require that they should receive copies of the company's financial statements, and this requirement could he an enforceable term of either a loan agreement or a facility agreement.

In addition to the right that a member has to be sent a copy of the annual financial statements (as mentioned in para 25.31), every balance sheet date is disclosed in the financial statements), the Registrar of Companies will accept, for filing, a UK company's financial statements that have been prepared in a foreign currency.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965 BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue of our last conference.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers –


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences, a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


A public company is incorporated on 1st August 1989, and its first accounting reference period ends on 31st December 1990 (that is, 17 months later). The company must deliver its financial statements to the Registrar of Companies by 31st March 1991. This is because the period allowed is the later of three months after the end of the accounting reference period, that is 31st March 1991 and seven months from the first anniversary of the inception of the company, that is 28th February 1991.

If the directors of a company that carries on part of its business overseas or has interests overseas (that is, the business is carried on outside the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) have notified the Registrar of Companies of this business, or of the interests, before the end of the period allowed for laying and delivering financial statements (see paras 25.39 and 25.41), then they may claim an extension to the period allowed for filing. This extension is for a further three months. [Sec 244(3)].

A company may shorten its accounting reference period by notifying the Registrar of Companies. Section 225 of the Act sets out the procedures a company must follow to shorten its accounting reference period (see chapter 2 para 2.38). Where a company takes advantage of section 225 and shortens its accounting reference period, the period it is allowed for filing its financial statements dial cover this shortened period will be the longer of:

• The period allowed as described in paragraphs 25.39 and 25.41 above.

• Three months after the date on which the notice was given to the Registrar of Companies to change the accounting reference date.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in the Political and Economic Leaders Summit of 7-8 February, in Thessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceed also to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the Business Meeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May. We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises and businessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Probably the main tax considerations when raising finance are to ensure that the interest is tax deductible in the country where tax rates are highest (profits permitting) and, where loans are raised in the capital markets, to ensure the lender receives gross interest. Overseas exchange control regulations must also be borne in mind.

Depending on how overseas tax rates compare with those in the UK, consideration should be given to borrowing in the UK and onlending at higher rates of interest, or alternatively borrowing in the UK and using the funds to subscribe for shares in the overseas company. Sometimes it may be sensible for the overseas company to borrow direct from the third party lender. However, local management may not be happy if they are loaded with too much debt, especially if this results in the creation or augmentation of losses; on the other hand interest-free loans to overseas subsidiaries suffer from the disadvantage referred to in 10.3 above.

The following are some of the other factors which should be taken into account in deciding the method of financing overseas companies:

(a) loan interest is often allowed as a deduction from profits for overseas tax purposes (subject to the satisfaction of any debt/ equity ratio test under the overseas country's 'thin capitalisation' rules), whereas dividends are not;

(h) in many cases there is a withholding tax on dividends, but often not on interest;

(c) the raising of finance locally may be advisable from the standpoint of local political considerations;

(d) loan finance has the advantage of flexibility (e.g. monies can be remitted to the UK by way of loan repayments and debt can be converted into equity);

(e) it is sometimes easier, from a local exchange control viewpoint, to remit interest than dividends;

(f) the country where the burden of any exchange risk on foreign currency borrowings should, lie should be considered; and

(g) it may be advisable in some cases for the UK parent company to acquire and lease (at an arm's length rental) trading assets to an overseas subsidiary. Normally capital allowances of 10% on a writing down basis would be available for plant and machinery leased abroad on this basis.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The requirements of both the Act and SSAP 17 will he satisfied if the directors minute their approval of the financial statements at a hoard meeting and include, at the foot of the balance sheet, a note along the following lines:

The pages of the financial statements that are being approved should normally include, where applicable, any supplementary accounts or other financial statements (such as a value added statement or current cost information). The reason for this is that the directors should acknowledge their responsibility for .any such financial information that is presented.

Alternatively, a similar statement may be included in the directors' report (for example, see Table 88). But when this alternative presentation is adopted, the Act still requires a director to sign the balance sheet of the company.

approval OF ACCOUNTS

The accounts on pages 12 to 25 were approved on 11th April, 1989, by the Board of Directors, who authorised two Directors to sign the accounts on behalf of the Board.

The Act also requires the directors' report to be approved by the board of directors and signed by one director or by the company's secretary. The approval and signing of directors' reports are considered further in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.42 to 20.44.

Where a parent company prepares consolidated financial statements in accordance with the Act, it is not required to include its own profit and loss account in the group's consolidated financial statements (see further 'Manual of Accounting - volume II' chapter 4). In this situation, the company's individual profit and loss account must be approved by the board of directors and signed on behalf of the board by a director of the company in accordance with section 233(1).


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group 20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you with the following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those not travelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to our representative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Upon your arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv our representative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of the group during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: бухгалтерский учет; статистика)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


As discussed in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.6 to 20.10, the directors' report must give details of any significant events that occur between the end of the financial year and the dale on which the directors approve the financial statements. SSAP 17 contains a similar requirement.

SSAP 17 says that it relates only to those events that occur before the date on which the directors approve the financial statements. However, the standard goes on to say that, "If (events occurring after that dale) are material the directors slould consider publishing the relevant information so that users' of financial statements are not misled". [SSAP 17 para 4]. Also, if the company is either listed on The Internal ional Stock Exchange or traded on the USM, The International Stock Exchange's Continuing Obligations or the USM's General Undertaking (as appropriate) require the company to inform the Quotations Department of The International Stock Exchange of any significant events that occur at any time that affect the company. [CO 5, GU 1].

If the auditors become aware of any significant event that has occurred between the date on which the directors approve the financial statements and the dale of the relevant general meeting, they should consider whether they should advise the company's directors to disclose that event or exercise their rights to speak at the meeting.

Persons entitled to receive the financial statements

Every member of the company, every debenture holder of the company, and every person who is entitled to receive notice of general meetings is entitled to receive a copy of the annual financial statements. A copy must be sent to them not less that 21 days before the date of the meeting at which the financial statements are to be presented. [Sec 238(1)].

A copy must also be given to the company's auditors. (Sec 390(1)]. In addition, the company's bankers may require that they should receive copies of the company's financial statements, and this requirement could he an enforceable term of either a loan agreement or a facility agreement.

In addition to the right that a member has to be sent a copy of the annual financial statements (as mentioned in para 25.31), every balance sheet date is disclosed in the financial statements), the Registrar of Companies will accept, for filing, a UK company's financial statements that have been prepared in a foreign currency.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Ideal-types are conceptual abstractions that we employ in trying to get to grips with the complexities of the social world. Weber properly points out that we cannot grasp social phenomena in their totality. Patterns of behaviour and institutional forms like capitalism, or Protestantism, or bureaucracy, are each composed of a large number of interconnected elements, both normative and struc­tural. In order to comprehend any such institution or social formation it is necessary to reduce it to its core components. We do this by singling out and accentuating the central or basic features of the insti­tution in question and suppressing or downgrading those features that could be considered marginal to it. This means that our ideal-type of capitalism, or the bourgeois revolution, or whatever, is unlikely to be an accurate representation of the real thing. It is almost bound to be a somewhat slanted or exaggerated version rather in the way that a cartoonist's caricature is an exaggerated version of a still recognizable face. Thus, an ideal-type of the bourgeois revolution will not conform exactly to the features of any one particular bourgeois revolution; rather, it will be a kind of distillation of the principal features that are characteristic of these revolution in general: in other words, ideal-types only approximate to social reality, they do not and cannot mirror it faithfully.

Situations change

Sometimes, the experience of other people can furnish us with facts we need, but we must remember that situation is not situation, and what works or does not work in one place may turn out differently somewhere else - or at another time. We must learn to observe what particular kinds of mistakes in thinking we make most often. Is it from not seeking the advice of others? Or is it from not using adequately our own experi­ences and our own ideas? Is it from not testing our ideas in a small way before relying upon them in a large way? Each one of us must act as his own judge in finding out his own particular weakness in thinking.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The point that Weber is touching upon here is that it is illusory to imagine that we can somehow capture the 'real essence' of social reality. Social reality does not possess a real essence because it is always capable of being constructed or represented in various different ways. What counts as social reality depends pretty much upon the conceptual apparatus through which we view it in the first place. Weber's stance on this is, again, noticeably different from that of Marx and Durkheim. Marx was inclined to distinguish between the mere appearances of reality and the essence of reality. Surface reality was never quite the same as the deeper, underlying reality. Hence his celebrated dictum that "…all science would be superfluous if the outward appearance and the essence of tilings directly coincided." As far as Marx is con­cerned there is some ultimate and irreducible level of reality that is not a mere artefact of our own conceptual making. Although there might be different ways of depicting capitalism, the state, and so forth, these different constructs were certainly not to be granted equal validity. There were false constructions and true constructions, bourgeois or ideological conceptions and scientific conceptions.

Some thoughts on creativity

Any individual can acquire the tools of a trade. As he learns to use these tools he becomes technically competent. It is, however, only when he contributes of himself that the individ­ual becomes more than a technician. This giving of oneself is essentially what we mean by creativity.

The ability to create exists in every individual in varying degree and according to inclination. The domains where one may exert his effort are sufficiently varied to offer each individ­ual an opportunity to exhibit originality. The growth of mental potentialities through experimentation with the creative proc­ess broadens the individual's capacity of original contribution.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Durkheim's view is broadly similar. In his analysis of collective behaviour he is not proposing one possible interpretation among others; he is claiming to reveal the very stuff of social life. In reducing religion to its 'elementary forms' he is seeking to lay bare the substance of supernatural belief, the substance that is found in all religions from the simplest to the most complex. Durkheim's standard working assumption is that the quintessential nature of any social phenomenon can be identified by showing what is common to its various manifes­tations. The task is to uncover what is universal to all religions, to all systems of morality, to all legal institutions, and so on. What is it that apparently disparate things actually share in common? For Durkheim the point of the exercise is not to set up ideal-type constructs that are only weak approximations of social reality, but to penetrate to the fundamental core of reality.

Seen from Weber's angle, even if it were possible to pinpoint some quintessential substance of religion or morality or law, this would still leave all the interesting questions unanswered. In the case of religion, for example, it would still be necessary to show how the doctrinal expressions of the sacred varied from one religion to another. For Durkheim, "The details of dogmas and rites are secondary".

Miracles Do Happen

G. K. Chesterton

The most incredible thing about miracles is that they hap­pen. A few clouds in heaven do come together into the staring shape of one human eye. A tree does stand up in the landscape of a doubtful journey in the exact and elaborate shape of a note of interrogation. I have seen both these things myself within the last few days. Nelson does die in the instant of victory; and a man named Williams does quite accidentally murder a man named Williamson; it sounds like a sort of infanticide. In short, there is in life an element of elfin coincidence which people reckoning on the prosaic way perpetually miss. As it has been well expressed in the paradox of Рое, wisdom should reckon on the unforeseen.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 an International Conference "New Prospects of scientific and technological and production cooperation of Russia with foreign states" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite a representative from your Ministry and two persons representing business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German and English. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Whatever the content of the ideal-type ... it has only one function in an empirical investigation. Its function is the comparison with empirical reality in order to establish its divergencies or similarities . . . and to understand and explain them causally.

However, Weber never really makes clear what kind of explanatory pay-off this procedure actually yields. Merely to show that there is indeed a lack of correspondence between ideal-type and empirical reality is not a discovery guaranteed to set the pulse racing. In the first place, there is almost bound to be such lack of fit, given the way that ideal-types are constructed. If we are required to select a few key components from among the possible range of components, and to give these what Weber calls a "one-sided accentuation", then it follows that almost any empirical case will diverge from the pure type. More­over, it is by no means obvious what possible causal inferences could be drawn from this fact. Indeed, the very notion of causality seems out of place here. Any divergences between ideal-type and reality are a direct function of the manner in which the ideal-type was originally con­structed. Had we chosen to select and emphasize a different set of elements we should have discovered a different set of discrepancies. How could we be sure that the discrepancies we found were not 'caused' simply by the sloppiness of our original construct?

Material research

Material research is not new, but the interdisciplinary as­pects of materials research now are receiving considerable emphasis. It has been only since chemists, physicists, metallurgists, ceramicists, polymer chemists, and other scientists began studying the detailed structure and properties of materials that the fundamental relationships underlying basic materials phe­nomena have begun to be understood.

It was not until recently that it has become increasingly evident that the rapid exploitation of new discoveries and their incorporation into the technology depends largely on the com­bined effects of research scientists and engineers drawn from several different disciplines.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


What counts as a social fact is very much determined by the moral spectacles through which we view the world. Weber is sca­thingly dismissive of those theorists who urge us to evacuate our minds of all presuppositions in order that we might perceive social reality in all its purity. This was a doctrine that even Durkheim, of all people, occasionally espoused. In his own treatise on method, Durkheim says that when investigating social life "All preconceptions must be eradi­cated. [This is] ... the basis of all scientific method." His repeated emphasis on the need to treat social facts as 'things' also implies a sturdy, no-nonsense approach to the problem.

For Weber, on the other hand, since the eradication of all pre­conceptions was not humanly possible, the social construction of facts was extremely problematic. Because social facts only existed by virtue of the concepts employed to define and organise them, we could in effect bring new facts into being and dispose of others simply by altering our conceptual frame of reference. Entities like social classes, for example, could be abolished at a single conceptual stroke. Now you see them, now you don't.

Weber's insistence that all theoretical constructs are shot through with biases of one kind or another is not easy to reconcile with the explanatory claims he makes on behalf of ideal-types.

The overwhelming problems of today are forcing the disciplines to seek advice from one another.

Not only does the blending of various disciplines result in enhanced research, but modern materials systems themselves often are created from the integration of two or more materials. These systems do result in new materials having properties not previously available.

It is the lack of materials that are adequate to meet the needs imposed on them that many of the holding problems in our technological development stem from.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister of International Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Suppose, for example, we wished to construct an ideal type of 'democracy'. One possibility would be to highlight features such as free elections, competing political parties, legal right of opposition, the separation of powers, and the guarantee of civil liberties. Using this as our ideal-type of democracy, we would find that communist or socialist systems diverged considerably from it. Western political systems, by contrast, would show a much closer approximation to it. On that basis, we could conclude that western capitalist systems were more democratic than socialist systems. However, it would be quite feasible to construct an ideal-type of democracy that gave one-sided emphasis to a different set of criteria. The key features could be regarded as the absence of a property-owning or exploiting class, and the absence of those gross inequalities of wealth that effectively concentrate power in the hands of the few at the expense of the many, notwithstanding the latter's purely formal liberties and rights. Measured against this conceptual yardstick, western capitalist states would tend to show greater divergence from the pure type than many socialist states. Socialist states could thus be judged more democratic. Because both constructs are morally slanted, and inevitably so, it is hard to see how either of them could claim explanatory superiority over the other. This is the problem with all ideal-types.

Design for decision

Throughout this book I must have been critical of people who produce beautiful thoughts with little or no data behind them. Some readers may have felt that the decision-maker is a cold-hearted, even grim, method of making decisions. These readers might admit that a machine may be all right for making the scientific decisions or even commercial decisions, but they may have felt that Statistical Decision had no place in their world, that it is meaningless insofar as personal, governmental, or international decisions are concerned.

I disagree with this point of view. I think that Statistical Decision must have played a useful role in a wider class of decisions which have a direct influence on all of us.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held in London from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is very the traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importance will be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russian advertising business, we are confident that your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have a positive effect on the further development of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


It is at least arguable that ideal-types tell us less about social reality than about the inbuilt preconceptions of the investigator. Weber virtually says this much himself. To pit one version of reality against another involves, ultimately, a conflict of moralities.

It must be recognized that general views of life and the universe can never be the products of increasing empirical knowledge, and that the highest ideals, which move us most forcefully, are always formed only in the struggle with other ideals which are just as sacred to others as ours are to us.

This being the case, Weber would not seem to be the most likely candidate to champion the cause of 'value-free' social theory. How could sociology ever attain neutrality if its operational tools were saturated with the observer's own values and preconceptions? Given his views on the status of knowledge as an inescapably social and moral construct, it is at first blush puzzling that Weber should have raised such loud and insistent demands for the exclusion of value-judgements from sociological observations.

The puzzle is only partly resolved when it becomes apparent that Weber's demands on this score were rather modest and limited in scope. All he really asked was that scholars should refrain from openly pro­claiming their personal views on matters of social fact.

I certainly do not consider Statistical Decision to be a panacea. It is one method among many methods of reaching decisions. It is not necessarily the best method; there are situations in which intuitive procedures lead to more effective decisions than any existing Decision-Maker. In fact, I think that most people must have already used many of the principles in making their decisions. You may have felt that such con­cepts as mathematical expectations were new and unfamiliar. However, I am sure that you have had to make decisions on the basis of expectations, when you have had to combine probabilities and desirabilities (though you may not have used these names).


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference "10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow, 18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy and competition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The question Weber never really faced up to was whether ethical neutrality could be violated unwittingly, despite the sociologist's willingness to abstain from openly proclaiming his own views. His belief in the capacity of social scientists to "distinguish between empiri­cal knowledge and value judgements" is not dissimilar to the belief of newspaper editors in their capacity to distinguish between news and comment. In presenting the news they stick scrupulously to the facts, recording events without bias or favour. Judgement on the facts is reserved for the editorial columns. However, there now appears to be a small army of sociologists — the 'media theorists' — whose principal activity is to pour cold water on this notion. They tell us that what counts as 'news' is in fact the end product of a very selective social process. In recording some events and suppressing others, as well as in the moral vocabulary employed in the manufacture of news, certain biases and preconceptions are quietly at work. What purports to be an impartial recitation of factual events is thus a thoroughly loaded presentation. The biases may operate in a more subtle and subterranean fashion than they do in the case of editorial comment, but that makes them all the more effective.

Only God knows all

So far as I know, no human being knows all about anything. Can you think of anything about which your knowledge is complete? Large or small, old or new. Can you answer every question about an automobile or a grain of sand, a pencil or an inch of thread, or a human being?

Suppose you wanted to devote your lifetime to the study of a single lead pencil. Could you learn all about it? You might pick out a nice yellow one with a rubber eraser. You could then sit down and try to describe it as thoroughly as possible, giving exact measurements and telling all you could about its construction and its uses. But to know everything about the pencil, you would have to learn about the wood and the individual tree from which it was made.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, who is a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February 7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate if you could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Instead of bureaucratic impartiality . . . based on the abstract validity of one objective law for all ... the opposite principle prevails. Practically everything depends explicitly upon personal considerations: upon the attitude toward the concrete applicant and his concrete request and upon purely personal connections, favours, promises and privileges.

Weber contrasts patrimonialism not only with bureaucracy but with another important sub-type of traditional domination — feudalism. Feudalism differed from patrimonialism in that the relationship between a lord and his vassals was a freely contractual one. The vassal swore fealty to his Lord and was no mere dependent. In addition, "Vassalage does not diminish the honour and status of the vassal; on the contrary, it can augment his honour ...". The vassal identifies his fortune with that of his lord, and in the glory of his master he sees the reflection of himself. Most importantly, the vassal's claim to legitimacy vis-a-vis his own local subjects and dependents flowed directly from the legitimacy of the feudal lord.

The fact that the lord-vassal relationship was a reciprocal and contractual affair meant that rights and obligations were far more formalized under feudalism than under patrimonialism.

In order to assure that the research results are carried out as intended, it is necessary to develop a detailed plan for their implementation. This need is generally acknowledged where the action ultimately to be taken is to be performed by a computer. In such a situation the researcher recognizes his responsibility for developing a program for the computer. What is not so well recognized is that almost as detailed a program is required for human operators. It is necessary to specify exactly who is to do what, when they are to do it, and how. The who and when can normally be shown on a flow chart which indicates the way that the relevant operations are to be conducted.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translation service will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: онтология и теория познания)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


What counts as a social fact is very much determined by the moral spectacles through which we view the world. Weber is sca­thingly dismissive of those theorists who urge us to evacuate our minds of all presuppositions in order that we might perceive social reality in all its purity. This was a doctrine that even Durkheim, of all people, occasionally espoused. In his own treatise on method, Durkheim says that when investigating social life "All preconceptions must be eradi­cated. [This is] ... the basis of all scientific method." His repeated emphasis on the need to treat social facts as 'things' also implies a sturdy, no-nonsense approach to the problem.

For Weber, on the other hand, since the eradication of all pre­conceptions was not humanly possible, the social construction of facts was extremely problematic. Because social facts only existed by virtue of the concepts employed to define and organise them, we could in effect bring new facts into being and dispose of others simply by altering our conceptual frame of reference. Entities like social classes, for example, could be abolished at a single conceptual stroke. Now you see them, now you don't.

Weber's insistence that all theoretical constructs are shot through with biases of one kind or another is not easy to reconcile with the explanatory claims he makes on behalf of ideal-types.

The overwhelming problems of today are forcing the disciplines to seek advice from one another.

Not only does the blending of various disciplines result in enhanced research, but modern materials systems themselves often are created from the integration of two or more materials. These systems do result in new materials having properties not previously available.

It is the lack of materials that are adequate to meet the needs imposed on them that many of the holding problems in our technological development stem from.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Trading Commission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt

Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


It is often pointed out that the social sciences are "inexact" sciences, as compared with the "exact" physical sciences. It is al­so sometimes indicated that management is perhaps the most inexact of the social sciences. It is true that the social sciences, and management in particular, deal with complex phenomena about which too little is known. It is true, likewise, that the structure and behavior of the atom are far less complex than the structure and be­havior of groups of people, including both those inside and those outside an enterprise.

But we should not forget that even in the most exact of the exact sciences - physiсs - there are areas where scientific knowledge does not exist now and must be developed through speculation and hypothesis. As much as is known of bridge mechanics, bridges still fail as a result of such things as vibrations set up from wind currents. And as we move from the longer-known areas of physics into the biological sciences, we mind that areas of exactness tend to diminish.

Since virtually all areas of knowledge have tremendous expanses of the unknown, people working in the social sciences should not be defeatist. A scientific approach to management cannot wait until an exact science of management is developed. Had the physical and biological sciences thus waited, we might be living in caves.

Progress and Problems.

Great progress has been made in industry, science and medi­cine. Widespread mechanization, the introduction of com­pletely automated lines and computerized management are advancing in every sphere of our economy. New remote areas in the North, beyond the Polar Circle, in the Far East and Siberia are being opened up and developed. To tap their huge natural resources, pipelines and electric power stations, new railroads and highways are being built. The vast territory beyond the Urals produces most of the oil, gas, coal and minerals extracted in Russia. From the deposits in Western Siberia, oil and gas are piped to the European part of the country and, even farther, to countries of Eastern and Western Europe.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scienti­fic management is the task idea. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance, and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, descri­bing in detail the task which he is to accomplish, as well as the means to be used in doing the work. And the work planned in advance in this way constitutes a task which is to be solved, as explained above, not by the workman alone, but in almost all cases by the joint effort of the workman and the management. This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. And whenever the workman succeeds in doing his task right, and within the time limit specified, he recei­ves an addition of from 30 per cent to 100 per cent to his огdinary wages. These tasks are carefully planned, so that both good and careful work are called for in their performance, but it should be distinctly understood that in no case is the workman called upon to work at a place which would be injurious to his health. The task is always so regulated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous, instead of being overworked. Scientific management consists very largely in preparing for and carrying out these tasks.

It cannot be denied, however, that the price for rapid industrial development is very high: natural resources are exhausted, the ecological balance of the planet is disturbed, some species of flora and fauna disappear. Progress can be blamed for all these environmental problems.

To preserve Nature and keep the air and water clean, strict control is necessary. In Russia numerous purifying systems for treatment of industrial wastes have been installed; measures have been taken to protect rivers and seas from oil wastes. Wildlife reservations, models of undisturbed nature, have developed all over the country.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group 20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you with the following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those not travelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to our representative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Upon your arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv our representative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of the group during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Perhaps the most important law belonging to this class, in its relation to scientific management, is the effect which the task idea has upon the efficiency of the workman. This, in fact, has become such an important element of the mechanism of scientific management, that by a great number of people scientific management has come to be known as "task management".

There is absolutely nothing new in the task idea. Each one of us will remember that in his own case this idea was applied with good results in his school-boy days. No efficient teacher would think of giving a class of students an indefinite lesson to learn.

Each day a definite, clear-cut task is set by the teacher before each scholar, stating that he must learn just so much of the sub­ject; and it is only by this means that proper, systematic progress can be made by the students. The average boy would go very slowly if, instead of being given a task, he were told to do as much as he could. All of us are grown-up children, and it is equally true that the average workman will work with the greatest satisfaction, both to himself and to his employer, when he is given each day a definite task which he is to perform in a given time, and which constitutes a proper day's work for a good workman. This furnishes the workman with a clear-cut standard, by which he can throughout the day mea­sure his own progress, and the accomplishment of which affords him the greatest satisfaction.

What Is a Manager?

A number of different terms are used for «manager», including «director», «administrator» and «president». The term «manager» is used more frequently in profit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely in government and non-profit orga­nizations such as universities, hospitals and social work agencies.

What, then, is a manager?

When used collectively, the term "management" refers to those people who are responsible for making and carrying out de­cisions within the system.

An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people in an organization.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


No workman has the authority to make other men cooperate with him to do faster work. It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and wor­king conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and of enforcing this cooperation rests with the management alone. The management must supply continually one or more teachers to show each new man the new and simpler motions, and the slower men must be con­stantly watched and helped until they have risen to their proper speed. All of those who, after proper teaching, either will not or cannot work in accordance with the new methods and at the higher speed must be discharged by the management. The management must also recognize the broad fact that workmen will not submit to this more rigid standardization and will not work extra hard, unless they re­ceive extra pay for doing it.

The science which exists in most of the mechanic arts is, how­ever, far simpler than the science of cutting metals. In almost all cases, in fact, the laws or rules which are developed are so simple that the average man would hardly dignify them with the name of a science.

In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle. That products pass through various stages between life and death (introduction - growth - maturity - decline) is hard to deny. Equally accepted is the understanding that a company should have a mix of products with representation in each of these stages. Companies can make far more effective marketing decisions if they take time to find out where each of their products stands in its life cycle.

However, the concept of the product life cycle seems frequently forgotten in marketing planning, which leads to wrong decision-making. This may well be seen in the following story.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in the Political and Economic Leaders Summit of 7-8 February, in Thessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceed also to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the Business Meeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May. We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises and businessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Managers tend to be problem oriented. Managers need a great de­al of knowledge. Yet managers are really people of action. They don't just talk about doing things, they get them done. So we now outline just what they do. Management books usually concentrate on management functions and processes. In fact, the subject of manage­ment frequently is defined in terms of the types of things managers do.

1. Managers make decisions, that is they develop a process by which a course of action is consciously chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving a desired result.

2. Managers focus on objectives, set objectives.

3. Managers plan and set or make policies.

4. Managers organize and staff the positions, that is, they use a process by which the structure and allocation of jobs is determi­ned and then place people in these jobs.

5. Managers communicate with subordinates, colleagues, and superiors, in other words, managers transmit ideas to others for the purpose of effecting a desired result.

6. Managers direct and supervise, that is, they secure actual performance from subordinates toward common goals and objectives.

7. Managers control activities, that is, they utilize processes that measure actual performance and guide it toward some predetermi­ned goal.

Marketing management refers to a broad concept covering organization of production and sales of products, which is based on consumer - requirements research. All companies must look beyond their present situation and develop a long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in their industry. Marketing manage­ment, therefore, consists of evaluating market opportunities, se­lecting markets, developing market strategies, planning marketing tactics and controlling marketing results.

Strategic planning includes defining the company's long-term as well as specific objectives, such as sales volume, market share, profitability and innovation, and deciding on financial, material and other resources necessary to achieve those objectives.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965 BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue of our last conference.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers –


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences, a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


The concepts of "management" and "managers" are often viewed upon, to a great extent, as synonymous. Management presupposes the people at the top who direct the work of others, do their work by getting other people to do theirs. Management is an organ, and or­gans can be described and defined only through their function. Management is the specific organ of the business enterprise. The enterprise can decide, act and behave only as its managers do; by itself the enterprise has no effective existence. Any business enterprise must have a management to be alive and functioning.

Ever since people began forming groups to accomplish goals they could not achieve as individuals, managing has been essential to as­sure the coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely increasingly on group effort and as many organized groups have become large, the task of managers has risen in importance. This is easy to understand, that it is the task of every manager to design and maintain an environment in which people working together in groups are led to perform effectively and efficiently toward the attainment of group goals.

To study managers is to study how they perform their task - and to summarizе knowledge useful for understanding managing so that this job may be done better.

Talented people flock to the organization and aren't tempted to leave. Self-regulation has a trickle-down ef­fect. No one wants to be known as a hothead when the boss is known for her calm approach. Fewer bad moods at the top mean fewer throughout the organization.

The signs of emotional self-regulation, therefore, are not hard to miss: a propensity for reflection and thoughtfulness; comfort with ambiguity and change; and integrity—an ability to say no to impulsive urges.

The third component of emotional intelligence is mo­tivation, one trait that virtually all effective leaders have. They are driven to achieve beyond expectations—their own and everyone else's. The key word here is achieve. Those with leadership potential are motivated by a deeply embedded desire to achieve for the sake of achievement.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Thus the goal of managers, as managers, is fundamentally the same in business and non-business enterprises. It is also the same at every level. The corporation president, the city administrator, the hospital department head, the government first—line supervisor, and the university president or dean, all, as managers, have the same goals. The purposes of their enterprise or their department may vary, and these purposes may be more difficult to define in one situation than in another, but their basic managerial goal remains the same.

Not all groups believe that they need managing. As a matter of fact, certain critics of modern management feel that people would work together better and with more personal satisfaction if there were no managers. They prefer to refer to the ideal group operation as a "team" effort. They apparently do not realize that in the most rudimentary form of team play, individuals, playing a game, have clear group goals as well as personal ones, are assigned to positions, fol­low-play patterns, allow someone to call the plays, and follow cer­tain rules and guidelines. Indeed, a characteristic of every effec­tive group effort, designed to attain group goals at the least cost of time, money, material, or discomfort is that it adopts the basic process, principles, and techniques of management.

Social skill, the last component, is not as simple as it sounds. It's nor merely friendliness, although people with social skill are rarely mean-spirited. Rather, social skill is friendliness with a purpose: moving people in the direc­tion you desire, whether that's agreement on a new mar­keting strategy or enthusiasm about a new product.

Socially skilled people tend to have a wide circle of ac­quaintances, and they have a knack for finding common ground with people of all kinds—a knack for building rapport. That doesn't mean they socialize continually; it means they work according to the assumption the noth­ing important gets done alone. Such people have a net­work in place when the time for action comes.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL & PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Handicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greece supervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existing nformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnational co-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all the available information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g. current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Managing is essential in all organized cooperation, as well as at all levels of organization in an enterprise. It is the function not only of the corporation president and the army general but also of the shop supervisor and the company commander. In working with many enterprises and organizations, one can hear it said repeatedly that the "trouble" with the enterprise is the "management", meaning persons at a higher level in the organization. Even vice-presidents of a company have made this observation. While weaknesses and dif­ficulties may appear at any level of management, effective and per­ceptive management demands that all those responsible for the work of others, at all levels and in any type of enterprise, regard themselves as managers.

There is no basic distinction between managers and executives, administrators, or supervisors. To be sure, a given situation may differ considerably between various levels in an organization or va­rious types of enterprise, the scope of authority held may vary, the types of problems dealt with may be considerably different, and a person in a managerial role may also be a salesman, engineer, or financier but the fact remains that, as managers, all who obtain results by establishing an environment for effective group endeavor undertake the same functions.

Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations; they include hard work on a variety of acti­vities, preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships.

Almost everything a manager does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.

Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be done and relatively little time to do it. The engineer can finish a design on a particular day, and the lawyer can win or lose a case at a certain time. But the manager's job is like «Old Man River» — it just keeps going.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference

" New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London, 8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competition authorities representing foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


MANAGERS AND MANAGEMENT

Every activity involving human effort possesses an element which to some degree bгings unity and cohesiveness to the underta­king. We call this element management.

The manager, in contrast to management, is an individual who provides the appropriate environment conducive to the performance of acts by others to accomplish the undertaking. In the case of a uni­lateral undertaking, management is self – contained and the manager is involved with self-management.

When two or more individuals are engaged in a joint endeavor, however, management is no longer self-contained, and providing unity and cohesiveness to the undertaking is an external (versus self-con­tained) managerial function that varies widely in complexity. A ma­nager in a simple situation may be little more than a receiver, sto­rer, translator, and communicator of information pertinent to the effective performance of the undertaking. This receiving storing-translating, nevertheless effects the cohesiveness desired and as such, causes the communicator to be known as a manager.

Many managerial undertakings, on the other hand, are rather complex and require more than mere communication, a basic knowledge and understanding of perhaps the technical aspects of an operation may be needed and the act of managing may also involve a more comp­lex decision-making process.

I have found, however, that the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way. They all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. It's not that IQ and technical skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but mainly as "threshold capabilities"; that is, they are the entry-level requirements for exec­utive positions. But my research, along with other recent studies, clearly shows that emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership. Without it, a person can have the best training in the world, an incisive, analytical mind and an endless supply or smart ideas, but he or she still won't make a great leader.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социология управления)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Under scientific management the "initiative" of the workmen (that is, their hard work, their good-will, and their ingenuity) is obtained with absolute uniformity and to a greater extent than is possible under the old system; and in addition to this improvement an the part of the men, the managers assume new burdens, new duties, and responsibilities never dreamed of in the past. The managers as­sume, for instance, the burden of gathering together all of the traditional knowledge which in the past has been possessed by the work­men and then classifying, tabulating, and reducing this knowledge to rules, laws, and formulae which are immensely helpful to the workmen in doing their daily work. In addition to developing a scien­ce in this way, the management take on three types of duties which involve new and heavy burdens for themselves.

These new duties are grouped under four heads:

First. They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.

Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best as he could.

Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed.

Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.

Every business person knows a story about a highly intelligent, highly skilled executive who was promoted into a leadership position only to fail at the job. And they also know a story about some­one with solid — but nor extraordinary — intellectual abil­ities and technical skills who was promoted into a simi­lar position and then soared.

Such anecdotes support the widespread belief that identifying individuals with the "right stuff" to be leaders is more art than science. After all, the personal styles of su­perb leaders vary. And just as important, different situa­tions call for different types of leadership.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. I was encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving ahead to assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be in contact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202) 565-3500 fax (202) 565-3513

811 vermont avenue, N.W. washington, D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Gibbon writes of 'the love of pleasure and the love of action':

... To the love of pleasure we may therefore ascribe most of the agreeable, to the love of action we may attribute most of the useful and respectable qualifications. The character in which both the one and the other should be united and harmonized would seem to constitute the most perfect idea of human nature.

Gibbon recognizes quite clearly that the most deplorable manifestations of aggression share identical roots with valuable and essential parts of human endeavour. Without the aggressive, active side of his nature man would be even less able than he is to direct the course of his life or to influence the world around him. In fact, it is obvious that man could never have attained his present dominance, nor even have survived as a species, unless he possessed a large endowment of aggressiveness.

It is a tragic paradox that the very qualities which have led to man's extraordinary success are also those most likely to destroy him. His ruthless drive to subdue or to destroy every apparent obstacle in his path does not stop short at his own fellows; and since he now possesses weapons of unparalleled destructiveness and also apparently lacks the built-in safeguards which prevent most animals from killing others of the same species, it is not beyond possibility that he may yet encompass the total elimination homo sapiens.

What follows are the reflections of a psychotherapist upon the aggressive component in human nature. The views which are put forward are anything but dogmatic. All psycho­therapists suffer from the fact that, although their knowledge of a few people may be rather profound, their conclusions are necessarily drawn from a limited and highly selected sample of the population. Moreover, many of the theories which are available in the practice of psychotherapy are difficult to substantiate scientifically, because the psychotherapist is endeavouring to deal with the person as a whole. Psychologists working in laboratories can construct experiments in which, for example, aggressive emotions can be more or less separately aroused and studied: and the conclusions which they reach can be statistically expressed. The disadvantage of nearly all such experiments is that the situations upon which they are based are so restricted that they are far removed from life as it is lived. Aggression, for example, is inextricably mingled with fear and sex in many situations. It is very much to be hoped that, in time, there will be a rapprochement between the precise but limited viewpoint of the experimentalist, and the less denned but wider conceptions of the psychotherapist. In the meantime, we must do the best we can with incomplete and unproved hypotheses.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The book opens with a broad survey, in Part I. of the historical literature on technical change. It attempts to provide a guide to a wide range of writings, including those by some social historians and social theorists as well as economic historians and economists, that illuminate technological change as-a; historical phenomenon. It should not be necessary to belabor two points: (i) that past history is an indispensable source of information to anyone interested in characterizing technologies, and (2) that both the determinants and the consequences of technological innovation raise issues that go far beyond the generally recognized domain of the economist and the economic historian. The first chapter discusses aspects of the conceptualization of technological change and then goes on to consider what the literature has had to say on (i) the rate of technological change. (2) the forces influencing its direction, (3) the speed with which new technologies have diffused, and (4) the impact of technological change on the growth in productivity.

A separate chapter is devoted to Marx. Marx's intellectual impact has been so pervasive as to rank him as a major social force in history as well as an armchair interpreter of history. And yet, curiously enough, I argue that Marx's analysis of technological change opened doors to the study of the technological realm through which hardly anyone has sub­sequently passed.

Part II is, in important respects, the core of the book. Each of its chapters advances an argument about some significant characteristics of industrial technologies, characteristics that are typically suppressed in discussions of technological change conducted at high levels of aggregation or lacking in historical specificity. Chapter 3 explores a variety of less visible forms in which technological improvements enter the economy. Each of these forms, it is argued, is important in determining the connections between technological innovations and the growth of productivity lowing from innovation. Chapter 4 explicitly considers some significant characteristics of different energy forms. It became a common practice in the 1970s, following the Arab oil embargo, to treat energy as some undifferentiated mass expressible in Btus which it was in society's interests to minimize. This chapter examines some of the complexities of the long-term interactions between technological change and energy resources. It emphasizes, in particular, the frequently imperfect substitutability among energy sources in industrial contexts and the consequent suboptimality of criteria for energy utilization that fail to take specific characteristics of different energy forms into account.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Chapter 5 "On Technological Expectations," addresses an issue that is simultaneously relevant to a wide range of industries - indeed, to all industries that are experiencing, or are expected to experience, substantial rates of technical improvement. I argue that rational decision making with respect to the adoption of an innovation requires careful consideration of prospective rates of technological innovation. Such a consideration will often lead to counterintuitive decisions, including slow adoption rates that, from other perspectives, may appear to be irrational. Expectations about the future behavior of technological systems and their com­ponents are shown to be a. major and neglected factor in the diffusion of new technologies.

The last two chapters of Part II are primarily concerned with issues of greatest relevance to high-technology industries -industries in which new product development involves large development costs, long lead times, and considerable techno­logical uncertainty (especially concerning product performance characteristics) and that rely in significant ways upon knowledge that is close to the frontiers of present-day scientific research.

Chapter 6. "Learning by Using," identifies an important source of learning that grows out of actual experience in using products characterized by a high degree of system complexity. In contrast to learning by doing, which deals with skill improvements that grow out of the productive process, learning by using involves an experience that begins where learning by doing ends. The importance of learning by using is explored in some detail with respect to aircraft, but reasons are advanced suggesting that it may be a much more pervasive phenomenon in high-technology industries.

The final chapter in Part II, "How Exogenous Is Science?" looks explicitly at the nature of science-technology interactions in high-technology industries. It examines some of the specific ways in which these industries have been drawing upon the expanding pool of scientific knowledge and techniques. The chapter also "considers, however, a range of much broader questions concerning the institutionalization of science and the manner in which the agenda of science is formulated in advanced industrial societies. Thus, a major theme of the chapter is that, far from being exogenous forces to the economic arena, the content and direction of the scientific enterprise are heavily shaped by technological considerations that are, in turn, deeply embedded in the structure of industrial societies.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 an International Conference "New Prospects of scientific and technological and production cooperation of Russia with foreign states" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite a representative from your Ministry and two persons representing business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German and English. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Chapter 9. examines the ongoing technological revolution embodied in very-large-scale integration. It points out that there are a variety of mediating factors that stand between an expanding technological capability and commercial success. The growth in circuit-element density, with the resulting dramatic improvement in the capability of a single chip, offers a great potential for the application of electronic techniques in many fields. The success of such applications will turn upon developments internal to the industry, but also upon the creation of mechanisms that will translate this new technological capability into tangible economic advantages. Chapter 10 focuses not upon an individual industry but upon a number of recent empirical studies of technical change. These studies, which share an emphasis upon the dominant role marked demand in the innovation process, have been widely cited as providing an adequate basis for a successful government innovation policy. It is argued that these studies are, analytically and conceptually, seriously incomplete. The chapter attempt' to provide a more comprehensive framework for both analysis and policy formulation.

Finally, the two chapters of Part IV place the discussion of technological change in an international context, with the first chapter oriented toward its long history and the second toward the present and the future. Chapter II pays primary attention to the transfer of industrial technology from Britain to the rest of the world. This transfer encompasses a large part of the story of worldwide industrialization, because nineteenth-century industrialization was, in considerable measure, the story of the overseas transfer of the technologies already developed by the first industrial society. Particular attention is devoted to the conditions that shaped the success of these transfers, but a central concern is their eventual impact upon the technology-exporting country. The last chapter speculates about the prospects for the future from an American perspective, a perspective that is often dominated by apprehension over the loss of American technological leadership, especially in high-technology industries. By drawing upon some of the distinctive characteristics of high-technology industries, an attempt is made to identify possible elements of a future scenario. I am confident that the world economy of the 1990s will be powerfully shaped by the international distribution of technological capabilities: but it will also be shaped by economic and social forces that strongly influence the comparative effectiveness with which the available technologies are exploited.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


That man is an aggressive creature will hardly be disputed. With the exception of certain rodents, no other veterbrate habitually destroys members of his own species. No other animal takes positive pleasure in the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind. We generally describe the most repulsive examples of man's cruelty as brutal or bestial, implying by these adjectives that such behaviour is characteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. In truth, however, the extremes of 'brutal' behaviour are confined to man; and there is no parallel in nature to our savage treatment of each other. The sombre fact is that we are the cruellest and most ruthless species that has ever walked the earth: and that, although we may recoil in horror when we read in newspaper or history book of the atrocities committed by man upon man, we know in our hearts that each one of us harbours within himself those same savage impulses which lead to murder, to torture and to war.

To write about human aggression is a difficult task because the term is used in so many different senses. Aggression is one of those words which everyone knows, but which is nevertheless hard to define. As psychologists and psychiatrists use it, it covers a very wide range of human behaviour. The red-faced infant squalling for the bottle is being aggressive; and so is the judge who awards a thirty-year sentence for robbery. The guard in a concentration camp who tortures his helpless victim is obviously acting aggressively. Less manifestly, but no less certainly, so is the neglected wife who threatens or attempts suicide in order to regain her husband's affection. When a word becomes so diffusely applied that it is used both of the competitive striving of a footballer and also of the bloody violence of a murderer, it ought either to be dropped or else more closely defined. Aggression is a portmanteau term which is fairly bursting at its seams. Yet, until we can more clearly designate and comprehend the various aspects of human behaviour which are subsumed under this head, we cannot discard the concept.

One difficulty is that there is no clear dividing line between those forms of aggression which we all deplore and those which we must not disown if we are to survive.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held in London from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is very the traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importance will be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russian advertising business, we are confident that your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have a positive effect on the further development of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


As narrative 1917 fills a surprising gap in the literature on the subject. There are a large number of detailed studies of different aspects of the revolution, some of them brilliant works of scholarship. But no simple, comprehensive account of the two revolutions and the civil war exists. Schapiro's book is brief, but covers all the main points with absolute clarity. It also incorporates the conclusions of the most important recent research on the subject. The reader gets both an excellent introduction to the Russian revolution and an idea of how new material is causing thinking about it to change.

The value of Schapiro's analysis is more questionable. Schapiro was old and rigid, an adherent of the cold war/totalitarianism school. His interpretation of the Russian revolution is crude and unashamedly biased. He hates the Bolsheviks. He looks at the Russian revolution purely from the point of view of political power.

Schapiro's thesis goes roughly as follows. After the disintegration of the monarchy in February 1917, there was general support in the country for a broad-based socialist coalition. This quickly came to mean support for the Soviets, rather than for the Provisional Government. However, support for the Soviets did not mean support for the Bolsheviks, but for the 'traditional ideals of Russian socialism', represented by the SRs and, especially, the Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks were a small band of disciplined fanatics. They were able to seize power in October because no one organised to stop them. They held on to it by annihilating their opponents, ruthlessly manipulating public opinion and militarising the economy. Right up to 1924, they were 'a largely unpopular party'. The first choice of a majority of the population would have been 'some form of moderate socialism'.

While it is undoubtedly true that the Bolsheviks were unscrupulous in their choice of methods and that they were not supported by a majority of the population when they seized power, Schapiro's thesis is prejudiced, one- sided and out-dated.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister of International Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


What do we mean by the economy of the country? In assessing a country's standard of living or comparing the standards of living of different countries it is common practice to use statistics of the Gross Domestic Product. The gdp measures incomes earned, and the goods and services produced, in the official "formal" economy. But this tends not to account for the mass of productive activity outside the formal economy—moonlighting, diy. voluntary work and so forth, which may well not be reflected in the indicators of gdp. And since the balance between the shadow and formal economy varies from country to country, comparisons on the basis of gdp may be quite misleading.

The problems in assessing the economy of a single country are much the same. Our understanding of the distribution of income, and hence much of our thinking on poverty and inequality, derives from what we know about people's incomes from work in the formal economy. Is it possible that by relying on statistics of the formal economy alone, we may be misled about the extent of poverty in the UK?

In a research project at the Institute for Fiscal Studies we have been exploring the interaction of the formal and shadow economies. Two issues struck us as important. Firstly, does the shadow economy reinforce or offset the inequalities which are observed in the formal economy? Secondly, what scope does the shadow economy provide for households to compensate for a temporary decline in earnings and employment opportunities in the formal economy?

The wide range of activitiesin the shadow economy can be divided into two broad categories. There are monetary transactions concealed to avoid tax—people doing odd jobs for cash payment, a businessman failing to declare part of his turnover, and so forth— which, following popular usage, we have called the "black economy." Then there is a wide range of productive activities which do not involve monetary payment—housework, diy, voluntary work—which we have simply called the "wider shadow economy." There are important similarities between activities in the black economy and some parts of the wider shadow economy—especially in the role that the tax system can play in encouraging alternatives to formal economy goods and services.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference "10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow, 18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy and competition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


But there is the important difference that attempts are already made to adjust certain official statistics—most notably the national accounts—to include an estimated amount for the black economy. Productive activity in the rest of the shadow economy is almost entirely excluded from gdp by convention: official statistics are confined to measuring transactions where money changes hands. The amounts included in gdp for the contribution of the black economy are not large— they have generally been between 1 and 3 per cent of total gdp. And our own estimates do not suggest that it is much larger—perhaps in total some 3 to 5 per cent of gdp.

The black economy is, however, highly concentrated in particular areas. Certain types of taxpayer are in a better position than others to evade income tax. In particular, self-employed people have control over the amount of income they declare for tax in a way that most employee taxpayers, who pay tax through paye, do not. Through econometric analysis of employee and self-employed households' expenditure patterns, we found evidence of substantial under-declaration of income by householders where the head was self-employed. We estimated that on average self-employed households were failing to declare some 10 to 20 per cent of income for tax, making tax evasion by the self-employed much the largest part of the black economy. Second job earnings may also escape the paye net—but survey evidence suggests that incomes earned in second jobs may well be less than 1 per cent of incomes earned in main jobs.

The kinds of business most involved in the black economy are likely to be smaller businesses selling labour-intensive services to private households and individuals—building, decorating, cab driving, for example. Larger businesses are likely to experience control and management problems if they try to conduct business "off the books" on a large scale; and the structure of the tax system— especially of vat—means that it is a high value-added business where the greatest competitive pressures to trade "off the books" may arise.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, who is a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February 7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate if you could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Given this uneven distribution of the black economy across the economy, who benefits from it? On the face of it, it would seem that the people who work in the black economy, and do not pay the income tax or vat that they are supposed to pay, are the gainers, and that the "honest taxpayers" are the losers. But in fact the answer is more complex than this. Each transaction in the black economy involves a buyer and a seller; the gains to be made for evading tax may accrue to either—or may be split between them. How the gains from evasion are divided between buyers and sellers of black economy goods and services depends on the prices at which they are sold. If customers get a discount off black economy work, or if black economy traders try to undercut the prices of formal economy traders to gain business, then some of the gains from tax evasion will flow to the customer.

Indeed, in sectors where black economy business forms a high proportion of the total, customers may receive all the gains from evasion, and the seller none. In parts of the building industry, for example, evading tax may be the price for business survival; competition from other black economy businesses may hand all the gains to customers.

Where the black economy is small, the gains from evasion are likely to be reaped by the businesses involved. This does not necessarily mean that they flow to the rich; the earnings of many self-employed people are surprisingly low. But we believe by far the largest part of the black economy to be concentrated in a relatively small number of areas—in building and decorating in particular. Here competitive pressures may transfer most of the gains to the customers, through a lower level of prices for these services. Typically the customers will be owner occupiers, and relatively well off. The black economy may well reinforce inequality.

How does the pattern of production in the wider shadow economy affect the relative living standards of different sections of the population? There are few households which do not perform some unpaid productive activity, but those households that can afford labour-saving domestic equipment may use their domestic labour time more productively than those who cannot.

The need for expensive equipment and materials may also prevent poorer households participating effectively in areas of shadow economy production such as diy. The unemployed, whilst having plenty of free time, can rarely buy the materials and equipment necessary for home maintenance and home improvements.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translation service will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: социальная философия)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Too relaxed to read?

Backward readers can be helped more by teaching them to read than by teaching them to relax, according to Christopher Sharpley, of Monash University, Australia, and Steven Rowland, of the Scot's School, Australia (British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 56. part 1, page 40).

Previous studies have suggested that backward readers experience stress caused by anxiety at failure, and that their learning can be improved by teaching relaxation.

This study involved 50 nine to eleven year old children, in five small primary schools, in four country towns in New South Wales. The children were divided into five groups. One group were taught to lower their muscle tension by using electromyographic biofeedback (which involves electrodes attached to a forearm and to a visual display dial); the second was given relaxation training; and the third had remedial teaching based on phonics and comprehension. In addition, one of two control groups had daily reading tests (as did the three experimental groups) and the other did not.

The children's accuracy, speed and comprehension in reading were measured for two weeks, then the different treatments were given for five weeks. The results showed that only the group which had received remedial teaching improved in reading accuracy. No group improved in reading speed—and this even decreased for the group which experienced biofeedback.

All the experimental groups showed gains in comprehension, as did the first control group, suggesting that this was an effect of increased reading practice.

The authors suggest that reducing stress may have worked against any improvement in reading (an optimum level of stress being necessary for successful learning), or that teaching the children to relax reduced the attention they gave to their reading.

So while relaxation may be of general benefit, reducing the symptoms of stress seems to be less helpful then reducing its cause— failure.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Trading Commission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


WHAT ECONOMICS IS

As a scholarly discipline, economics is only two centuries old. Adam Smith published his pathbreaking book The Wealth of Nations in 1776, a year notable also for the Declaration of Indepen­dence. It is no coincidence that both documents appeared the same year: Political freedom from the tyranny of monarchy was closely related to emanci­pation of prices and wages from the interfering hand of state regulation.

Adam Smith, of course, represented only a beginning. In more than a century and a half that elapsed between the appearance of The Wealth of Nations and the publication of John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), economics went through many stages of development. Almost at the halfway point, there appeared the massive critique of capi­talism by Karl Marx: Das Kapital (1867. followed by two posthumous volumes). More than a billion people, one-third of the world's population, live in countries where Das Kapital is economic gospel.

Definitions

On first encountering economics, people often want a short definition, in response to this demand, there is no shortage of supply. Here are a few popular definitions:

  • Economics is the study of those activities that involve production and exchange among people.

  • Economics analyzes movements in the overall economy—trends in prices, output, and unemployment. Once such phenomena are under­stood, economics helps develop the policies by which governments can affect the overall economy.

  • Economics is the science of choice. It studies how people choose to use scarce or limited productive resources (land, labor, equipment, technical knowledge) to produce various commodi­ties (such as wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts. roads, missiles and distribute these goods to vari­ous members of society for their consumption.

  • Economics is the study of how human be­ings go about the business of organizing consump­tion and production activities.

  • Economics is the study of money, interest rates, capital and wealth.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visit to Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held in Thesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate if you could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet me and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Eco­nomics certainly does involve all the Moments stressed in these various definitions—and more.

Economists today agree on a general defini­tion something like the following:

Economics is the study of how people and society choose to employ scarce resources that could have alternative uses in order to produce various commodities and to distribute them for consumption, now or in the future, among various persons and groups in society.

Measurement in Economics

We might conclude that economics talks about many of life's practical questions. But it does more than talk: Economics is vitally concerned with the measurement of important phenomena— unemployment, prices, incomes, and so forth.

One important example of such measurement occurs in macroeconomics. As we will see in Parts Two and Three of this text, macroeconomics stud­ies the behavior of the economy as a whole— movements in overall prices or output or employ­ment. Microeconomics, in a sense, looks at the economy through a microscope—studying the behavior of an economy’s individual molecules, like firms or households.

Returning to measurement, one of the most important concepts in all economics is the gross national product (GNP). This, as Chapter 6 will discuss, represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced each year in a nation. The GNP tells us much about the real economic performance of a country. It is the best available summary measure of the quantity of real goods and services—food, clothing, penicillin, ballet, base­ball and so forth—a country is capable of gener­ating. It tells us much about a "country's living standard, its health status, and its educational attainment.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


As mentioned in chapter 2.1. a UK resident company is liable to corporation tax on all its profits, wherever arising, for an accounting period. This chapter describes the meaning of 'accounting period' and how the 'profits' of such a company are computed for tax purposes.

3.2 An accounting period

Broadly, an accounting period is the period for which the annual statutory accounts are drawn up. However, for tax purposes that period cannot exceed 12 months. This means that if statutory accounts are drawn up for a period of, say. 18 months, there will be two accounting periods for corporation tax purposes - one comprising the first 12 months and the second comprising the 6 months up to the date to which the statutory accounts have been prepared.

An accounting period begins when a company first acquires a source of income, starts to carry on business, or becomes UK resident, and if it ceases to trade or to be resident in the UK an accounting period ends. However, these rules do not apply if a trading company commences a further trade during an accounting period, or ceases one trade whilst continuing to carry on another: in both cases the accounting period continues unbroken. An accounting period ends when a company starts to be wound up, and thereafter every 12 months until the winding up is completed. It does not end if an administration order is made.

If a company's accounts cover a period in excess of 12 months, its trading profits are apportioned to the accounting periods on a time basis, whereas capital allowances and capital gains fall into the period in which the relevant acquisitions and disposals occur.

Where a company makes up accounts to slightly varying dates (e.g. the nearest Saturday to a month end) and the terminal date does not vary by more than four days from a mean date, the Inland Revenue will not normally object to the treatment of each account as an account for a period of 12 months ended on the mean date provided the company has agreed in writing to adopt this treatment. The company must also agree to certain other conditions for the purposes of accounting for income tax and advance corporation tax. It is understood that the Inland Revenue has no present intention of bringing this four day period into line with the Companies Act 1985 which allows accounts to be drawn up to any date within seven days either side of the accounting reference date.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 an International Conference "New Prospects of scientific and technological and production cooperation of Russia with foreign states" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite a representative from your Ministry and two persons representing business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German and English. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Definition of profits

The profits of a company on which corporation tax is levied comprise the aggregate of its income from all sources, and capital gains. Whilst a company's accounts normally reflect such profits, unfortunately (or perhaps fortunately!) it does not simply pay corporation tax on the figure of net profit before taxation as shown by its statutory accounts. The profits are specially adjusted for tax purposes, with different rules applying to different sources of income and capital gains.

It is therefore necessary to analyse the profits shown in the accounts to establish the various sources of income and capital gains, and then to apply the special rules for each source in order to determine the company's taxable profits for that period. These rules are described briefly below.

Dividends paid or payable are not of course deductible for tax purposes, but the existence of other 'below the line' items (such as extraordinary or exceptional items) must not be overlooked when computing taxable profits (or losses).

Trading income

(a) General principles

The rules for ascertaining taxable trading income are complex and it is outside the scope of this chapter to describe them in detail.

The basic principles as regards tax deductibility of expenditure are:

(i) it must be wholly and exclusively incurred for trading purposes: and

(ii) it must not comprise capital expenditure. The definition of capital expenditure is perhaps best expressed in the old tax case of Atherton British Insulated & Helsby Cables Ltd. ((1925) 10 TC 155) as . . . expenditure . . . incurred not only once and for all but with a view to bringing into existence an asset or an advantage for the enduring benefit of a trade . . .

Broadly, however, trading income is ascertained by taking the accounts profit before taxation, eliminating any non-trading deductions or sources of income and capital gains, and making adjustments for items of a capital nature (e.g. depreciation, profits or losses on disposals of fixed assets), items specifically deductible (e.g. capital allowances - see chapter 5) or specifically disallowable (e.g. business entertaining, general bad capital where the latter is an integral feature of the trading activity.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of the Brandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. Manfred Stoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany from April 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copy of your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Minister for coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


(b) Foreign exchange gains and losses

In general, exchange gains and losses arising on revenue account from normal trading transactions form part of the taxable trading income, whereas transactions on capital account (i.e. those relating to the fixed asset base or financing structure) either fall outside the scope of the tax system or are treated as capital gains or losses. In other words, the distinction between capital and current liabilities is between loans which add to the capital base of the business and loans providing temporary financial accommodation. The dividing line is often difficult to draw and the answer in any individual case will turn on its particular facts. The House of Lords decided in a recent case (Beauchamp v F. W. Woolworth pie ([1989] STC 510)) that five year loans raised for the general purposes of a company's trade represented a permanent addition to its capital so that exchange differences arising on their repayment were not tax deductible. The position is complex and reference should be made to a Statement of Practice on the subject published by the Inland Revenue in 1987 (SP1/87) and also to a consultative document ('Tax Treatment of Foreign Exchange Gains and Losses') published in March 1989 which discusses how the present tax position might be reformed. The Inland Revenue's views on the tax treatment of transactions in financial futures and options is set out in Statement of Practice 4/88.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister of International Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Payments to charity

To encourage charitable giving, a non close company can make charit­able donations in cash (not in kind) on or after 1 April 1986 of up to 3% of its net ordinary dividends paid in an accounting period and treat them as allowable charges on income, deducting income tax in the normal way. These rules also apply to dividends paid by subsidiary companies.

As regards accounting periods ending on or after 1 October 1990, the above position has been relaxed in that any company can make tax deductible cash donations to charity on or after that date. For a close company, each payment must be at least Ј600 (net of basic rate income tax), must be made without strings attached, no benefit must be received in return for the payment (except certain de minimis benefits), and the total payments for a 12 month accounting period must not exceed Ј5 million (net of basic rate income tax) otherwise the excess is not deductible. This figure of Ј5 million (which also applies to non close companies) is reduced proportionately where there are active associated companies for any part of the accounting period and where it is less than 12 months, but if the company is not close the gross amount allowable cannot be less than 3% of its net ordinary dividends paid in the accounting period. Income tax must, as before, be deducted from each payment, the gross amount of which is treated as a charge on income.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held in London from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is very the traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importance will be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russian advertising business, we are confident that your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have a positive effect on the further development of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Management expenses

An investment company, which is, broadly, a company whose income over a representative period is principally derived from the making or holding of investments, which is the company's purpose or objective, can deduct the expenses of managing its investments, together with any charges on income paid for business purposes, from its total profits for corporation tax purposes. Any excess forms part of the management expenses of the next accounting period. Its management expenses and charges on income (after deducting current profits) can also be sur­rendered by way of group relief.

As in the case of a trading company, remuneration is not deductible as a management expense in the period it is charged unless paid within nine months (18 months in the transitional period) following the end of the period. The rules relating to trading companies in this context apply equally to investment companies.

An investment company cannot obtain tax relief for short interest (i.e. interest paid on a loan not capable of exceeding 12 months), unless paid to a UK bank, although relief is available for discounts on bills of exchange drawn by a company and accepted by a bank and discounted by a bank or discount house. Relief is also available as charges on income for recurrent payments under currency and interest rate swaps (see also 3.8 above).

In view of the somewhat restricted meaning of the term 'management expenses', it is normally preferable for the expenses of a group manage­ment company to be recovered (at an uplift) from the subsidiaries by way of a service fee.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in the International Conference "10th Anniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow, 18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign and international organizations, governmental, academic and business circles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy and competition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Eco­nomics certainly does involve all the Moments stressed in these various definitions—and more.

Economists today agree on a general defini­tion something like the following:

Economics is the study of how people and society choose to employ scarce resources that could have alternative uses in order to produce various commodities and to distribute them for consumption, now or in the future, among various persons and groups in society.

Measurement in Economics

We might conclude that economics talks about many of life's practical questions. But it does more than talk: Economics is vitally concerned with the measurement of important phenomena— unemployment, prices, incomes, and so forth.

One important example of such measurement occurs in macroeconomics. As we will see in Parts Two and Three of this text, macroeconomics stud­ies the behavior of the economy as a whole— movements in overall prices or output or employ­ment. Microeconomics, in a sense, looks at the economy through a microscope—studying the behavior of an economy’s individual molecules, like firms or households.

Returning to measurement, one of the most important concepts in all economics is the gross national product (GNP). This, as Chapter 6 will discuss, represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced each year in a nation. The GNP tells us much about the real economic performance of a country. It is the best available summary measure of the quantity of real goods and services—food, clothing, penicillin, ballet, base­ball and so forth—a country is capable of gener­ating. It tells us much about a "country's living standard, its health status, and its educational attainment.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, who is a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February 7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate if you could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


WHAT ECONOMICS IS

As a scholarly discipline, economics is only two centuries old. Adam Smith published his pathbreaking book The Wealth of Nations in 1776, a year notable also for the Declaration of Indepen­dence. It is no coincidence that both documents appeared the same year: Political freedom from the tyranny of monarchy was closely related to emanci­pation of prices and wages from the interfering hand of state regulation.

Adam Smith, of course, represented only a beginning. In more than a century and a half that elapsed between the appearance of The Wealth of Nations and the publication of John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), economics went through many stages of development. Almost at the halfway point, there appeared the massive critique of capi­talism by Karl Marx: Das Kapital (1867. followed by two posthumous volumes). More than a billion people, one-third of the world's population, live in countries where Das Kapital is economic gospel.

Definitions

On first encountering economics, people often want a short definition, in response to this demand, there is no shortage of supply. Here are a few popular definitions:

  • Economics is the study of those activities that involve production and exchange among people.

  • Economics analyzes movements in the overall economy—trends in prices, output, and unemployment. Once such phenomena are under­stood, economics helps develop the policies by which governments can affect the overall economy.

  • Economics is the science of choice. It studies how people choose to use scarce or limited productive resources (land, labor, equipment, technical knowledge) to produce various commodi­ties (such as wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts. roads, missiles and distribute these goods to vari­ous members of society for their consumption.

  • Economics is the study of how human be­ings go about the business of organizing consump­tion and production activities.

  • Economics is the study of money, interest rates, capital and wealth.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9th International Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and 11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9th International Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlin as a participant at our 9th International Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translation service will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура (канд. экз.)

Экзаменационный билет (на 2 листах) по дисциплине

английский язык

(специальность: экономика и управление н/х)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Management expenses

An investment company, which is, broadly, a company whose income over a representative period is principally derived from the making or holding of investments, which is the company's purpose or objective, can deduct the expenses of managing its investments, together with any charges on income paid for business purposes, from its total profits for corporation tax purposes. Any excess forms part of the management expenses of the next accounting period. Its management expenses and charges on income (after deducting current profits) can also be sur­rendered by way of group relief.

As in the case of a trading company, remuneration is not deductible as a management expense in the period it is charged unless paid within nine months (18 months in the transitional period) following the end of the period. The rules relating to trading companies in this context apply equally to investment companies.

An investment company cannot obtain tax relief for short interest (i.e. interest paid on a loan not capable of exceeding 12 months), unless paid to a UK bank, although relief is available for discounts on bills of exchange drawn by a company and accepted by a bank and discounted by a bank or discount house. Relief is also available as charges on income for recurrent payments under currency and interest rate swaps (see also 3.8 above).

In view of the somewhat restricted meaning of the term 'management expenses', it is normally preferable for the expenses of a group manage­ment company to be recovered (at an uplift) from the subsidiaries by way of a service fee.


Task II. Translate the letter from English into Russian without a dictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on Technical Assistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Trading Commission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward this document to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Best regards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis

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96 Translate into Russian.( Переведите на русский язык. )1. They will have been sitting here for 20 minutes when I come.
1)The contract had been signed by the end of last month.(What)2)The suitcase was being packed when she called.(Was)3)The letter is being translated from Russian into English at the ...
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Text analysis in translation
1. "Extratextual Factors in Translation Text Analysis" Lecture 1. Systematic Framework for External Analysis Introduction Most writers on translation ...
If the text is to be translated, it is the motive for translation (as well as the dimensions of time and place) that has to be taken into account.
If you look up the word clever in any English Dictionary, you will find that the dictionaries are out of date and mislead you on this point.
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Establishing and development of the theory of translation as a science ...
Ministry of Science and Education of Republic of Kazakhstan Colledge of the Foreign Languages Establishing and development of the theory of ...
The text to be translated is called the "the source text", and the language that it is to be translated into is called the "target language"; the final product is sometimes called ...
Such novices may assume that all that is needed to translate a text is to "encode" and "decode" equivalents between the two languages, using a translation dictionary as the ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
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