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:

:
: ,
: 19:10:06 12 2002
: 88 : 3 : 1 : 3 :    

KOMMHKAOHHE KAHA

C ex op, a eoe c, o e oe e e po, o ocoo e ocpoe eae oa c o o opa. Hecoeo, ep oepe oa a eoe eo oo, o oac, e e paoopo, oce. oe opae oa cax, a o , ax cocax ace copeeoo oeca.

epeaa opa, cao coo, ocecec p oo opaox, e oaox aao pecca, pao, eeee. K p ao ceo oe oocoao oo oec e po oep ce epe. Bce ece e oce opa coo o oe, a cce cpec accoo opa, coppoac e ooace, a caac (o poecc pooaec o cx op, p oa-o ocaoc) oa. Bo a c poco oo.

He a poc opoc peoe ooo oaooo aaa po. Koop x e? Booo ceoe ooo aao? Coe ooe pocecoa oeo oao aa e cox copae? He ec co peee epe pecc, pao eeee?

Moeco peooe, oope e e eee coc, a e caa, peoe.

pee e ooao ( eooao a e oc) pa pope, o paopac, a opao coac copeea ccea cpec acc-ea. Be o , oop oa pa ceac, o pea ooeooo oeca, eo opeoce oooce, eo p coao opaa. Meco, oopoe a cpeca accoo opa oece, po, oea , eccopo e opeee ceece ocoeoc.

Koa oa ccea cpec acc-ea? Moo ca, o o opo ooe 20-x oo aeo xoeo ea, o ec cpa oce o, oa papoee oaoe aa coc ooaa cce.

o opa e accox ae, a eco, cecoaa o oe pao eee (e oee o ooe epea), a eo e 19-o coe. Ec oec o pao pa e accoo pecco aea peecx eo, o oo ca ooee accoo opa c oee eao ae, a oee, poco e e acco pecc a aeceo o a pa pac.

Oao aea oa eaco o ea pooaa cecoa ooe pe poco e oce oo, a exa ea caa cooac pacpocpae . oo ec ce ocoa ca epo aeo o co ooce, oop poaac XVI ee Bee a e oe gazzetta, oa, coceo, o ca ep aea.

Oeo, oeco cea pacoaao e cpeca pacpocpae opa (a e e oo?). c e opeoac ea, pee e pooe eeapaeoe pacpocpaee opa pepaoc, a o , oo ax cocoo pae oeco. Caa opa caa accoo , a oae aa e e.

oo ao opee, oa ea, pao, eeee epe pope co ceece aeca, oope x oa ceo, oe e opa a epeco.

ea

ea, a e c, ec ca pe oa aao a aee. B pa opeoc e pace ceac cceoae e ecoo ao.

ep, oa ec o cox oeco opoe peaae pae epxe. Ha o ae cecoa poce ae. K pep, Pocc aa aea aaac Kpa, cape ep oopo oocc 1621-o o. Coca e ococoo paa ceao ap, p e e pccoao ecoo px op.

Bopo a aac o pe, oa p e, epecxc co, pacpc a c oaeoc opca. O aeec ooee e eao ae. B o e Pocc eaa aea oa 1702-o o o a epa I, oopo eoxoo o poaapoa co peop, aoea oeceoe ee pe a co copo opco.

cceoae pac . . Ec cpaeo cae ooee ae c oco ao pa oeca, a eo, oa caac aoae ocapca, oa pooee c oca opeeoo po pa, oa oppc ocoe oecee acc oap oe caaae c e apoa oaoo pa.

pepaee pecc cpeco accoo opa oe cceoae co ca c ao-exec oce oac ex ea pacpocpae (oee eo a, pcoeee eao ca apooo ae ..). Tae o oao opacae po pox paa, e cpee coao poco oeceo oeceoo e a cpeca coao-oecoo pae (apep, oe ocee peee ax-o opoco).

oo accoa aea c caoo aaa coeo oe ep oepe caa e oa aao, oop oo aa ope oeco op pae, ocec pooeo o aaa: paoeae eeee. (epe o cce co ocoo; o, a o , ae aac ooae a paee).

Pao

opeoc oaoo aae, cocoo cpo a oe pacco epeaa opa, cecoaa cea, o o epe pa oeca eo coe popeaa c oee aee. e ocp, ooe o, cae oap o oo e peoc c e coo opa a oo cpee a oo ae.

opeee eepaa 1844 o aepae Ce Mope o ep cep ao a oeo accoo oa. Bop e eee cece ao oc opeee 1876 o Aecapo eo eeoa.

Oao o epea cooe o eepa eeo, e a poo, o c a paao a epoax o oeco x c ea . Mace, . ep, . Mapo pe. Ho 25 ape (7 a o oo c) 1895 oa Aecap oo a acea Pccoo o-xecoo oeca oo o opee poooa poopaa paopa.

poea epea oeo oepao opa a pacco a papeea. paec o oa Bopo poo o pao o ae e eo cee pax.

oce o, oao, oce cpa aao Epo pao ea coc c o opeo eeee. Maccooe eee a aae oa pee, aaoc, aca a paop. eceo, paop oop pacoo a epecec a x, aoo, a eepo. Oao aee eo o pee ee e oo c epeoc ocapoa a paopeeccaca.

Teeee

Teeee pao o. O pao oo aceoao opaa, aco oco, p popapoa, o o eo opece oco coa eeepea. oee oo, eeee c pooee pao ae execo ooe.

B 1907-o o poeccop eeppcoo exooecoo ca . . Po aaeoa ep pe epoo-eo eeo p, a epe epe oa coa cao, c oo oopo epea opaee a paccoe. Bce 20-e aao 30-x oo a apea paoa o coepecoa aeca opae. Haoe, oa oe ocoe pea, cpaax ceo pa aa pac a p oce o eeep CA (1933), epa (1935), pa (1936), A (1936), CCCP, Moce epae (1938). Oao, ecop a ac accooc eee, a cee, pep, o eee peea Pea o ca op Bcepo ca H-ope 1940 o ceo ceo ecoo eco eoe.

Teeee e oo aao co oeoe ece, o oa pepaa eo, accooe pooco eeopo aaoc oce e ooa.

Booe, eeooe eae oce cpa accoo acae cao pacpocpac 50-e o, o ec ceo 40 e aa. Paee px accooe pacpocpaee eeee oo A CA, e c 1947 o 1968 oa eeeae paec ooc oxao c aceee, oo o po ace, ocee o a aea ox oee eeopo a pe.

Teeee cao ope aco c pax ex, o ee e oc, oco opao ce ae ae aop ceoeo oaooo aaa a oeaoc, oepaoc opa a c. C eo oo oo aoee eo ep c e, oco ao o e oep aa co. Heoxo pep oo, e aec, aoe ecoe coo cee pox co oe caao o eeop, oo a eae oco e Xoc e coao, e pee, a oe ae o cec-caaa, caoo co coe epcoo, peae epe ae, cp oeooc o. Koo oe paec Aa e, oeo e, o e ocae a oca, o e o pe opoa. Bc eocaoe c opaeo apacoc cpec epeocc a eeee. Kap oeo xpo, ae aace e, pae ap ope ea xa c o e oee, e , oopa, oao, ecea e a. Oa poae cee ae oo eo oo, o aa peaca. e oo, o eoe o coe ppoe e opo e xoec ae aac a e, paa o, o e ac cop c ox pao? He ce ?

o , o e ca opoc o cee paoc oo aa o ooe p oao aaa. Oao, oopc e pa, eeee o oo pa oeae caae opa ao-cxo oece a eoea, aoo cee oae eo o. o, aepoe, a c eee.

epe

epe caoe ceee opoee opaooo ooa opa ce ce ooee (poe, opeaee oe) ep oax aao-cox peeceo: aoc eee, oepaoc pao, oooc oopoo opae e oeo opa oopaoo e occe pecc. Oa e o c? o opo ccpc cxa, e eao co pe cocex coop oep ce, c oo oopo oo o oeac opae oa pae cee, e xo, o aaec, aea. Bc aoe pao oo caoc , oo cope ce, a aoa, caa ocoe oeceoc c ex op ce aa ococ cpee acc-ea.

a, a o , ococo epea po, oopa eae po oep ce pea peeeo a oc aoo oaooo aaa ae, ec eo a coooc x ooex ep cox papoee, o ox o e. Eceoe, o opo oeoocoe ece epea o eo (oa e) e co oo oe oeococ , a o oo ae, aa cpax eoea epe ce o.

ec, oaa, e oo ea oe-ae o pacca o a i.

a, oeo, o aoe ooe cpeco accoo opa, oa aa, pacpocpaoc cpee cox peeceo. Ec pecce, o ca accoo opeoac ea, o eeee aoeao acco aop o oeo a o e e c epeo! a o, o oee oe oae aa a o o ac, accooo opee opa? o cape aa, ooo eo oe, co peee a oaa a eaooc?

pee e oe, oo o, o aa cceoae aa a o, o o opo ooe XX ea pocxo eee o peo-cxooo eea cppe accoo opa. Ceoaeo, pao eeee aoee ope oae aa accoo aop.

o o oa oe pe. poope ec oe a epe, oco o, oe, eccoaeo ocae ac e o peea ococa pecc. Kca caa, eo eccop c (poe, a ea) oooc opaa e poao eo opa e ooeo epepao, a ae oooc opa o o e. o o, eo, , pao, eeee peoca a e oe...

Ta o? o ac co eo oe? o oe ?

o a ce ceoc caa He.

He, oco coepec oo cpec, o oa eo e oc. Coepeoo oaoo aaa, oeo, e ope oa, oo o, opoc, eo e oe . cex cpec acc-ea ec co c, o ec co c, coaco oop pocxo aoo eoea oeoc co paa aao, co coce x-apa. o eo a cooa opa a a aee, e ecee o coa coepeoe cpeco accoo opa.

a o ceac ee ccee acc-ea, a o oe ooe aooepoe paeee pa. Pao, oo eee ce pe cpeca oepa ao ca ooce, cooae TO pocxo pe a oe. Beepo ac epexo eee, oo ax apax eocppe KAK o pocxoo. A a ceee po ae a ocoe aa oo, OEM o pooo.

Cco cooao epap :

1. pco . Teeoa aop, Moca, 1973

2. poc A. . Teeee oc pee, Moca, 1975

3. World Commmunications, UNESCO, 1975

4. Ec . . Pcca opeooa aea, Moca, 1985

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