Kazakhstan Institute of Management Economics and Strategic Research
Topic: USA – Soviet Union Relations beforeandduring the Cold War
economic diplomatic War oppression
From: Azhigaliyev Aibek
To: Gulnara Dadabayeva
The history of Russian-US relations is rooted in the late XVII century, when independent American states did not exist. In 1698 Peter I met in London with William Penn, founder of the British colony, which later became Pennsylvania. It was the first bilateral political contacts. In the first half of XVIII century begins active colonization of America Russian merchants. Many Russian settlements were founded in the Aleutian Islands, mainland Alaska, in what is now the Canadian provinces of Yukon and British Columbia and the U.S. states of Washington, Oregon and California. Gradually the scattered Russian settlement colony were issued legally, over the territory occupied by Russian settlers proclaimed the sovereignty of the Russian Empire. Capital of Russian America was the city New Archangel (now - Sitka). In 1775 the 13 British colonies revolt against economic oppression by the British. George III turned to the Russian Empress Catherine II with the request to assist British troops in suppressing the uprising, to which was refused. July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia, was proclaimed the independence of the colonies. Formally, Russia has not recognized this act, however, supports the desire of the colonies to independence. In 1780, at the height of the war for independence, Russia has announced an armed neutrality, is the actual support for the colonies. In 1809, Russia and the U.S. exchanged ambassadors, initiating diplomatic relations. The first U.S. ambassador to Russia, John Quincy Adams became the first Russian ambassador to the U.S. - Andrew Dashkov. In the XIX century, diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Russia were friendly. Peak closer Petersburg and Washington were 1860 .- Civil War in the U.S. and the Polish uprising of 1863-1864. Then Russia and the northern U.S. states had a common foe - Britain, which supported both southerners and Polish rebels. In 1867 all Russian possessions east of the Bering Strait had been sold for 7,2 million U.S. dollars. Furthermore most of Alaska this includes the entire Aleutian archipelago and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. However, in the middle of the century, the government of Nicholas I drew American engineers in their projects of modernization of the empire. For example, experts from the United States played a crucial role in the construction of the railway between Moscow and St. Petersburg and equipping of its rolling stock, implementation of the first telegraph lines and the rearmament of the army after the Crimean War. However, in the XIX century between Russia and the United States accumulated contradictions. Nota Monroe in 1823 was awarded the first Russian ambassador - in protest against the possible intervention of the Holy Alliance in Latin America and the strengthening of the Russian settlements in California. In the years 1849-1850. leader of the Hungarian revolution Layosch Kossuth visited the United States, and found a sympathetic response in the American West. In 1850, the U.S. Senate on the initiative of Senator Lewis Cass discussed the "Resolution Cashier" on the need to judge the monarchs of Europe for the suppression of the revolutions of 1848 (First of all, as stated in the draft resolution - "the Russian Emperor."). It played an active supporter of Sen. John Parker Hell. Here he writes about the American historian Arthur Schlesinger in "Cycles of American History": "The future historian, according to Hale, could start a chapter devoted to 1850, as follows:" At the beginning of the year the U.S. Senate, the highest legislative body of the world, assembled wise and generous people who have ever lived or will live, pushing in aside trifling local matters relating to their own territories, have formed a kind of tribunal and began to court over the nations of the Earth, for causing most cruel acts of despotism. "Offer Cash, Hale continued, is that" we have acted as judges angry! "We must bring to justice the nations of the earth, they stand before us as defendants, and we will make their sentences." Superior principle. But why be limited to Austria? Hale expressed his hope that the future historian will describe how the United States started" the court is not over any a secondary power, whose trade is negligible and the sanctions which will cost a low price, but first and foremost on the Russian empire, announcing her verdict. "In the end, Kossuth defeated the Russian army." I do not agree to judge Austria, until we are sentenced to some bigger criminals. I do not want our actions to resemble fishing nets frequently to catch small fish, but miss a major. "I want to judge the Russian tsar, said Hale, not only for what he did to Hungary, but also" for what chtb he did long ago, sending poor exiled to Siberian snow ... When we do this, we show that by raising his angry voice against weaker powers, we do so not out of cowardice. " "Resolution Cashier" was not accepted. But in 1880 Congress passed a series of decisions condemning the policy of Alexander III in the Jewish question. In 1880 the U.S. finally established in the Pacific Ocean. In 1886 at the initiative of President Grover Cleveland's Congress held hearings on the subject of future U.S. policy in the Pacific Ocean. At the hearing, it was decided that of all the Pacific countries, only the Russian Empire could potentially threaten U.S. interests. In this regard, the U.S. did not support the Russian-German-French ultimatum to Japan in 1895. In 1899 the U.S. declared policy of "open door", maintaining the territorial integrity of China, primarily - due to containment of Russian advance into Manchuria and Korea. Since 1901 the administration of Theodore Roosevelt provided financial and military-technical assistance to Japan in the preparation of the Russian-Japanese war. In 1900 Russia and the United States played a decisive role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China. Regularly (every ten days) to New York arriving passenger ships, Russian-American Line. In the First World War, Russia and the United States entered the Allies. Turning point for relations between the two countries began in 1917. After the Revolution in Russia, the United States refused to recognize the Soviet government. In 1918-1920 years, American troops took part in a foreign intervention, while supporting the White Army. U.S. has become one of the last states to recognize the Soviet Union. In 1919 the U.S. was deployed against communist and socialist movements - banning the left-wing organization, expelled from the country's dangerous, according to authorities, the person. Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the United States have been set on Nov. 16, 1933. Among other events of this period, important for bilateral relations can note the participation of Americans in the rescue "Chelyuskin in 1934 (two U.S. aircraft mechanics have been awarded the Order of Lenin for that), and Valery Chkalov flight over the North Pole from Moscow to Vancouver in 1937. During the Second World War, relations between the U.S. and the USSR were moderately good. The German attack on June 22, 1941 The Soviet Union has caused among the American people a wave of respect and sympathy for the Soviet Union, almost single-handedly resisting fascist aggression. Solution Roosevelt in November 1941 the USSR had been circulated law the Lend-Lease Act, under which the Soviet Union were supplied U.S. military equipment, property and food prices. But the union treaty between the USSR and the U.S. (as between the USSR and the UK) has been signed. USA and the USSR were allies on the basis of an international instrument - the United Nations Declaration of January 1, 1942. Later on June 23, 1942 was signed by the Soviet-American agreement on deliveries of military technologies. United States, referring to the text of the Atlantic Charter of 1941, refused to recognize the Baltics part of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Congress also regularly raised the issue of religious freedoms in the Soviet Union. Agreement between the members of the anti-Hitler coalition, made during and after the war, is to create a bipolar world in which the union leadership in the West opposed the U.S. unit of the socialist countries rallied around the Soviet Union. At the end of World War II the USSR became a powerful superpower whose influence extended from Western Europe to the Pacific Ocean. Establishment of Eastern European states pro-Soviet communist regime led to a sharp deterioration in relations between the USSR and the USA. American leaders sought to prevent the spread of Soviet influence and leftist ideas (aided by the victory of the Soviet Union in the war) further west, in Latin America, Asia and Africa. In the U.S. started the anti-communist hysteria - the so-called "witch hunt". Very soon, the struggle between two ideologies, went beyond diplomatic relations and developed into a global confrontation with the system now and then flashing armed conflicts around the world - the Korean War, Vietnam War, many Arab-Israeli wars, the wars in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa . An important factor in the relations of the Soviet Union and the United States has become an arms race. Since August 1945 the United States considers itself a monopoly on the possession of nuclear weapons and tried to use this trump card against the USSR. But in 1949 the Soviet Union also got atomic, and in 1953 - a thermonuclear weapon, and then - and the means of delivering these weapons to targets on the territory of his potential opponent (ballistic missiles). Both countries have invested huge funds in the defense industry, the total nuclear arsenal for decades has grown so much that it would be enough to destroy the entire population of the planet than a dozen times. Already in the early 1960's the United States and the Soviet Union on the brink of nuclear war when the Soviet Union in response to placement in Turkey of U.S. medium-range missiles placed its own nuclear missiles in Cuba that led to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Fortunately, thanks to the political will of John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev, military conflict was avoided. But besides the danger of nuclear war, arms race threat carried the U.S. economy and the USSR. Permanent essentially meaningless, the increase in the armed forces threatened the economic collapse on both sides. In this situation, and signed several bilateral agreements that limit the accumulation of nuclear weapons. In the 1970's. conducted negotiations on limiting strategic arms, which resulted in the treaties were signed the SALT-I (1972), which included the ABM Treaty and SALT-II (1979) to limit missile launchers. June 1, 1990 an agreement was signed between the USSR and the USA on the maritime boundary (the Agreement on the lines of the Baker-Shevardnadze) under which the U.S. withdrew part of the exclusive economic zone of the USSR and the area of the continental shelf area of 46.3 thousand square kilometers in the open central Bering Sea, as well as territorial waters in a small area in the Bering Strait between the islands Ratmanova (Russia) and Kruzenstern. Acute political, economic, ideological and ethnic crisis in the Soviet Union by the end of 1980, led to the collapse of the state. Many conservative American politicians are inclined to ascribe this regard; the United States win the Cold War. Anyway, the disintegration of the USSR (and preceding the collapse of the socialist system) is considered to be the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new relationship between.