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Учебное пособие: Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку

Название: Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку
Раздел: Рефераты по педагогике
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Федеральное агентство по образованию

ФГОУ СПО «Моршанский текстильный техникум»

Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку

Составитель:

преподаватель английского языка

Скаткова В.А.

2010


В данной методической разработке рассматриваются вопросы грамматики английского языка, а также приводятся примеры правил и разнообразных упражнений, которые проверяют знания студентов по основным грамматическим темам. Правила и упражнения предназначены для студентов, продолжающих изучение английского языка на базе знаний, приобретенных ими в средней школе.

Правила и упражнения могут быть использованы на занятиях групп второго и третьего курса со студентами разного уровня знаний.


Содержание

1)Глагол. Общиесведения.

2) Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

3) Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense.

4) Types of questions.

5) Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

6) Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

7) Present Perfect Tense.

8) Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

9) Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense

10) Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense

11) Past Perfect Tense

12) Future Perfect

13) Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

14) Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

15)Сопоставлениевремен

16) Adding. Приложение

методика грамматика правило английский язык


ГЛАГОЛ ( The Verb ) ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ

Глагол - это часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета.

Не works as an engineer. Онработаетинженером.
The child is sleeping now. Ребенок спит сейчас.

1.Глаголы бывают простые, производные, сложные и составные.

К простым глаголам относятся глаголы, не имеющие в своем составе ни префиксов, ни суффиксов: to sit , to go , to eat , to come .

Производные глаголы имеют в своем составе суффиксы или префиксы: todeepen, torewrite.

Наиболее характерные суффиксы глаголов :

-ate: to decorate, to separate, to educate,

-en : to widen, to strengthen, to brighten,

-ize : to memorize, to organize, to dramatize,

-fy: to purify, to satisfy, to justify.

Наиболее характерные префиксы глаголов :

re-: to build- to rebuild (строить-перестроить), to read- to reread, to pay- to repay,

dis-: to like- to dislike(нравиться- ненравиться), to appear- to disappear, to prove- to disprove,

un- : to wrap- to unwrap(запаковывать-распаковывать), to pack- to unpack, to limit- to unlimit,

mis- : to understand- to misunderstand(понимать-непонимать), to trust- to mistrust,

under-: to underline(подчеркивать), to undergo(подвергаться), to undertake(предпринять).

Сложные глаголы в английском языке состоят из двух основ, но выражают одно понятие: tobroadcast-вещать(о радио), towhitewash-ретушировать, tokidnap-похитить

Составные глаголы состоят из глагольной основы и предлога или наречия, которые могут отделяться друг от друга другими словами. Местоимение в объектном падеже всегда стоит между глаголом и предлогом (наречием).

Ring me up, please.Позвонимне, пожалуйста.

Switch on the radio, please Включите, пожалуйста, радио.

Многие английские глаголы совпадают по форме с существительными (реже с прилагательными).

to work - работать work - работа

to play – игратьplay - пьеса

to dry – сушитьdry - сухой

2.По своему значению и выполняемой в предложении функции глаголы делятся на

смысловые, вспомогательные, модальные глаголы и глаголы-связки.

Смысловые глаголы ( Notional Verbs ) имеют самостоятельное лексическое значение и употребляются в предложении в роли глагольного сказуемого.

He lives in Minsk. Онживет вМинске.

She left school last year. Она закончила школу в прошлом году.

Вспомогательные глаголы ( Auxiliary Verbs ) не имеют самостоятельного значения и служат для образования сложных глагольных форм сказуемого. Книмотносятсяглаголы: to be, to have, to do, shall, should, will, would.

He is working now. Он работает сейчас.

I have answered all the questions. Я ответил на все вопросы.

Do youspeak Spanish? Вы разговариваете на испанском языке?
Shedoesn'tteach English. Она не преподает английский язык.
They will discuss the plan Ониобсудят этотплан,

Не said that he would buy a car Онсказал, чтокупитмашину.

Модальные глаголы ( Modal Verbs ) can , may , must , should , ought ( to ) употребляются в сочетании с инфинитивом, образуя в предложении составное модальное сказуемое.

You may go home.Выможетеидтидомой.

Can you help me? Можете ли вы помочь мне?

You must not do it. Вы не должны делать это.

Глаголы-связки ( Link Verbs ) служат для образования составного именного сказуемого. Основным глаголом-связкой служит глагол to be . В функции связки могут выступать также, глаголы to become , to get ,
to grow , to turn (в значении становиться), to look - выглядеть и др.

Неis an economist. Он экономист .

She became a lawyer. Онасталаюристом.

It gets dark early in autumn. Осенью темнеет рано.

Все глаголы (за исключением модальных) имеют личные (FiniteForms) и неличные формы (Non-FiniteForms или Verbals).

Личные формы глагола имеют категории лица, числа, наклонения, времени и залога. Они служат в предложении сказуемым и согласуются с подлежащим в лице и числе

Не knowsEnglishwell. Он знает английский хорошо.

They are playing chess. Онииграютвшахматы.

She has seen this film.Онавиделаэтотфильм.

Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив (TheInfinitive), герундий (TheGerund) и причастие (TheParticiple) не имеют категории лица, числа и наклонения и не употребляются в предложении в функции сказуемого.

Английские глаголы, также как и русские, делятся на переходные (требующие после себя прямого дополнения: totake, totell) и непереходные (после которых не употребляются прямое дополнение: togo, tolive).

В английском языке выделяются четыре основные формы глагола, которые в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами образуют все времена в действительном и страдательном залогах:


В зависимости от способа образования второй и третьей форм все глаголы делятся на правильные (RegularVerbs) и неправильные (Irregular.Verbs).


Infinitive

Past Indefinite Past Participle Present Participle
Инфинитив

Прошедшее

неопределенное время

Причастие

прошедшего

времени

Причастие

настоящего

времени

ask
speak
asked
spoke
asked
spoken
asking
speaking

Правильные глаголы образуют формы PastIndefinite и ParticipleII при помощи суффикса -ed, который прибавляется к основе глагола, причем соблюдаются определенные правила произношения и правописания:

tostop - stopped - stopped Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком

totravel - travelled - travelledконечной букве 1 предшествует краткий гласный

topermit - permitted - permitted ударение падает на последний слог

Неправильные глаголы образуют формы прошедшего времени (PastIndefinite) и причастия прошедшего времени (ParticipleII) различными другими способами. Формынеправильныхглаголовнужнозаучивать: to go - went – gone, to become - became – become, to be - was/were – been, to have - had - had to hope - hoped - hoped [t], послеглухихсогласных

toclose - closed - closed [d], после звонких согласных и гласных

to visit - visited - visited [id], to study - studied - studied

toplay - played – playedбукве у предшествует согласная

Present Simple ( Indefinite ) Tense

Настоящее простое ( неопределенное) время.

PresentSimple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения обычного, постоянного, регулярного действия, свойственного подлежащему. Констатация факта.

Слова-определители времени:

Always -всегда, often - часто, usually - обычно, every day (week, month) – каждый день (неделю, месяц), sometimes - иногда, seldom - редко.

1) Утвердительная форма PresentSimple (Indefinite) образуется из первой основной формы глагола (инфинитив без частицы to );

в 3-м лице единственного числа она принимает окончание - s или - es . ( V , Vs )

Примечания:

Окончание -s 3-го лица единственного числа произносится после глухих согласных [s], после гласных и звонких согласных [z]:

Не works [wo:ks] He lives [livz] She writes [raits] She knows [nouz]

Если глаголы оканчиваются на согласные -s, -ss, -ch,- tch,-sh, -x, то в 3-м лице единственного числа к ним прибавляется окончание -es, которое произносится [iz]:Не teaches ['ti:t∫iz] Shedresses ['dresiz]

Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на с предшествующей согласной, в 3-м лице единственного числа меняют -у на - i и принимают окончание es :

I carry — he carries Ср .: I play — she plays

Глаголы to do и to go принимают в 3-м лице единственного числа ок. -es :

Не goes [gouz] He does

в)Глаголыto be иto have образуютформы Present Simple (Indefinite) непообщимправилам.

2 ) Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do , does в 3 лице единственного числа, который ставится перед подлежащим, и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме( без окончания) — после подлежащего.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(без окончания) +…..? (общий вопрос)

Do you work at a factory?

Does he take part in the concert?

Вопросы к подлежащему образуются без вспомогательного глагола, к глаголу прибавляется окончание - sили –es:

I take part in the concert. Я принимаю участие в концерте.

Who takes part in the concert? Кто принимает участие в концерте?

3) Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do или does в 3 лице единственного числа и отрицания not , которые ставятся между подлежащим и смысловым глаголом в первой основной форме.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол + not + основной глагол (без окончания) + … .

I do not work there. (I don't work there.)
He does not take part in it. (Hedoesn ' t take partinit.)

Для справок:

1.Вопросительная и отрицательная формы PresentSimple (Indefinite) смыслового глагола to do образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do .

What do you do on Sunday? He does not do his morning exercises.

2.Вопросительная форма глаголов to be и to have образуется путем постановки этих глаголов перед подлежащим. Отрицательная форма глагола to be образуется при помощи частицы not , а глагола to have — при помощи отрицательного местоименияno , которые ставятся после соответствующего глагола. Are you all right? How many lessons have you today?

I am not a student yet. The postman has no letters for us.

3. No употребляется также для образования отрицательной формы с оборотом there is ( there are ).

There are no tickets left for the performance of the Vakhtangov theatre.

Но: Перед местоимением any в отрицательных предложениях с глаголом tohave и с оборотом thereis (thereare) употребляется not .

I haven't any questions.

There isn't any river in this place.

Ex .1 Поставьте окончание – s или – es , где нужно.

1) Mike like_ coffee. 2) My friends often go_ to the cinema. 3) I make_ dinner myself. 4) Mary wash_ her face in the morning. 5) He go_ to bed at 10 o’clock. 6) Dan speak_ English well. 7) They live_ in Tambov. 8) My mum watch_ TV in the evening. 9) I clean_ my teeth every day. 10) My sister play _ the piano.

Ex.2 Поставьте Do / Does .

1).... you sleep well? Yes I .... 2)..... your sister wash the plates? Yes, she... 3) What ... the teacher give you for homework ? She gives exercises. 4) .... the child read Russian ? No , she ... not. 5) He ... not like cakes.

6) We ...not go to school in August.

Ex . 3 Поставьте в отрицательную форму.

Например : He goes to school by bus . - I do not go to school by bus .

1) We get up at 7 o'clock .- He ... 2) I drink tea in the morning.-You ... 3) You go to bed at eleven . - They ... 4) They play in the yard in the afternoon . - She ... 5) He likes TV.-She... 6) I live with my parents . - He …

Ex. 4 Опровергните утверждения .

1) My mother gets up at 7 o’clock but I ......... .

2) I like cartoons but my dad ........... .

3) We watch horror films but they ...... .

4) My sisters like to read but I ............ .

5) We like apples but my friend ........... .

6) I go to school every day but Tolya ............. .

Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with am, is, are , have got, has got , am not, is not, are not, haven’t got or hasn’ got.

1) I … on the first course. 2) They … got an English class today. 3) He … eleven. 4) They … students.

5) We … English books at home. 6) … you at the college? 7) Where … she? 8) He … got a lot of friends.

9) Mother … got a cake. 10) Paul and Mary … got two children, a boy and a girl. 11) Why … she crying?

12) What … he doing? 13) A dog … four legs. 14) I … not got a camera. 15) … your father got a car?

16) … it a cat? 17) She … very beautiful.18) Tom … in the garden. 19) She … got a nice home.

20) … you got any brothers or sisters? 21) Tom and Mary … playing tennis. 22) The table … in the

middle of the room. 23) Everybody likes Tom. He … got many friends. 24) The books … on the table.

25) The weather … very nice today. It … raining. 26) There … pictures on the wall. 27) The sky … blue.

28) … there any clouds in the sky? 29) You cannot buy anything on Sunday in England. The shops …

open. 30) The cat … grey. 31) The kittens … very funny. 32) English … a difficult language. 33) Jane

wants to go to Moscow, but she … any money. 34) Ann … black hair. Her hair … very beautiful. 35) I

don’t like this book. It … interesting. 36) I can’t open the door. I … the key. 37) John is going to be the dentist. He …got a bad tooth. 38) He … got a good library at home. 39) Be quick! We …got much time.

Ex . 6 Какие слова соответствуют определениям?

1) Customs a) get smth secretly and illegally into/out of the country

2) prohibited article b) person employed in a hotel to receive clients

3) weapon c) smth designed for and used in fighting and struggling

4)smuggle d) smth not allowed (for importing in a country)

5) check in e) department of government that collects duties on goods imported into a country

6) guest f) arrive and register at a hotel

7) receptionist g) make known clearly or formally; announce

8) form h) printed paper with space to be filled in

9) declare i) person staying at or paying a visit to some place

10) key board j) a board where keys are left at a hotel

Ex. 7 Add the sentences with the following words.

Smuggler, restrictions, reception desk, excess, declare, double, checking in, suit, bellboy, cross the border.

1) Have you got anything to … ? Any jewels, objects of art, weapon?

2) Before you … you should go through the Customs.

3) If a person has prohibited articles he can be called a … .

4) Mr. Smith is going to stay at the hotel with his wife, so he’s made a reservation for a … room.

5) If this room doesn’t … you we can offer you a suite.

6) If you don’t want to have any troubles you should know the Customs … .

7) The very first thing a person does at the hotel is … .

8) Where shall I check in? – At the …, over there.

9) (knocking at the door) – Who’s that? – It’s a … ,here’s the message for you,sir.

10) Put your luggage on the scale, please. Oh, you’ll have to pay for the … weight.

Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense. Настоящее длительное время

Present Progressive обозначает длительное действие, которое совершается в настоящее время, в момент речи, процесс.

I am having dinner. (I'm having dinner.) He is waiting for you. (He's waiting for you.)

They are travelling in the south. (They're travelling in the south.)

Слова-определители времени:

Now - сейчас, at this moment - в данный момент, at the present moment - в настоящий момент

Present Progressive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be ( am , is , are ) и к основному глаголу в первой основной форме (V) прибавляется окончание - ing ( V - ing ).

go — going; read — reading

Примечания :

а) На письме при образовании PresentParticiple глаголы оканчивающиеся на немую -е, теряют эту букву: write — writing; take — taking

б) Одна согласная после одиночной гласной в ударном (конечном) слоге удваивается, удваивается также конечная -1: win — winningprefer — preferring

shut — shutting travel — travelling

Ho: sleep — sleeping work — working

wash — washing develop — developing

c) Глаголы, выражающиечувства, желания, восприятияиумственныесостояния, такие, какto like, to want, to love, to wish, to know, to understand, to see, to hear, to feel идр. какправило, неупотребляютсявформе Progressive(Continuous).

При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол (am, is, are) + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме + -ing) + …..? (общий вопрос)

Is he sleeping? What are you doing?

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что , вспомогательный глагол всегда is . I am ringing at the door. Who is ringing at the door?

При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме + -ing) + … .

I am not reading. (I'm not reading.)

He is not taking his examination. (He's not taking his examination. He isn't taking his examination.)

They are not travelling. (They're not travelling. They aren't travelling.)

Для справок

1. PresentProgressive (Continuous) иногда употребляется для обозначения
будущего действия, когда выражается намерение совершить действие.

She is leaving by the five-o'clock train.Онауезжаетспятичасовымпоездом.
We are going to the theatre tonight.Мысобираемсявечеромвтеатр.

2. Для выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенности, вероятности в его совершении в будущем употребляется оборот tobegoing в сочетании с инфинитивом.

Не is going to spend his winter holidays in the mountains.

What are you going to do now? Что ты собираешься делать сейчас?

We are not going to wait for him any more.Мыбольшенесобираемсяегождать.

The weather is going to change. Погодапохожеменяется.

Ex. 8 Open the brackets & put the verbs into Present Progressive. .

1) She (to read) magazines. 2) He (to work) hard at his French. 3) Mr. White (not to give) a lecture. 4) He (to write) a letter to his brother. 5) I (to prepare) for the test. 6) They (to work) at this factory. 7) She (to sit) in an arm-chare and (to watch) TV. 8) I (to have) supper with my friends. 9) Her brother (not to go) to school. 10) He (to stand) at the table.11) What you (to do)?

Ex . 9 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. My sister is playing the piano now. 2. The teacher is explaining the rule. 3. We are learning the new words. 4. Ann is standing at the window. 5. We are going to the park.. 6. John is taking a piece of chalk and writing a sentence on the blackboard. 7. I am doing my homework. 8. Jane is speaking on the telephone. 9. She is cooking supper.

Ex. 10 Измените предложения по образцу .

Например:: My friend is sitting at the desk. - I am sitting at the desk too .

1) The children are reading the text.- I ... 2) The teacher is working in the school garden .- The pupils...

3) The father is sleeping. His daughter ... 4) The mother is cleaning her room . - Her son … 5) I am putting on my coat. You ... 6) Our teacher is speaking English.- We...

Ex . 11 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например: He is going home .- I am not going home.

1)He is sleeping .-You ... 2) The women are standing in the street.- We... 3) You are doing your exercises .-He ... 4) He is putting on his suit.- I ... 5) She is washing socks and stockings . - Her friends ... 6) The bus is turning to the right. - The car...

Ex . 12 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например : I go to school. - I am not going to school now .

1) You read English newspapers after dinner . 2) I drink milk. 3) We play ball. 4) 1 sleep well. 5) They work at a factory . 6) I have breakfast with my father . 7) We get up at 7 o' clock . 8) They go there by bus .9) You do your homework in the evening.

Ex. 13 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Pre sent Progressive

1.The man who (to speak) with my mother (to be) our neighbor who (to live) across the street. 2. It (to be) a very interesting scientific film. In it you can see how the plants (to grow) right before your eyes. 3. Where you (to hurry)? — I (to hurry) to the railway station. My sister (to come) from Moscow. 4. You (to hear) the speaker well? — Yes, I (to hear) him clearly. I (to listen to) very attentively, but still I (not to understand) the main point of his speech. 5. Don't come into this room. Father (to work) there now. 6. Where are you going this Sunday? — This Sunday I (to go) to the country, but usually on Sundays I (to stay) at home.

Ex. 14 Put the words into three columns according to the types of syllables.

a)Sit, her, we, term, bed, market, test, cart, duck, dark, plate, farmer, due, part, harm, luck, port, large, take, burn, make, girl, pot, broke, hum, see, sir, men, nurse, then, can, pine, toss, sate, sad, first, plane.

b)Dress, his, pupil, student, much, nice, milk, music, name, myrtle, hill, tack, stock, bone, cosy, curly, phone, clock, sun, from, middle, first, smart, far, but, big, has, that, like, go, long, hot, funny, happy, as.

Ex.15 Choose the right answer.

1. Our manager …………. in the office all day. a)stay b) stays c) is staying

2. As a rule I ………… customers in the evening. a) meet b) meets c) am meeting

3. We usually ………… … our work at 6. a) finishes b) finish c) are finishing

4. He often ………… to London. a) go b) goes c) is going

5. They ………….. customers in different cities. a) have got b) has got c) are having

6. We don’t ………. out at weekends. a) goes b) go c) are going

7. After lunch the secretary … letters to different companies. a) write b) is writing c) writes

8. I ……….. my chief tomorrow. a) meet b) am meeting c) meets

9. My boss … with your enquiry now but you won’t get a rapid answer. a) is dealing b) deals c) deal

10. The office ………… at 6 p.m. on weekdays. a) is closing b) closes c) close

Ex. 16 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Present Progressive

1.Where is John? He (to play) football in the yard. 2.I not (to like) the picture you (to look) at now. 3. He (to read) books in three languages, and now he (to read) a French novel. 4. She usually (to do) her homework at home, but now she (to do) it at the library. 5. In autumn many birds (to fly) to the South. 6. What that woman (to do) there? She (to sell) vegetables. 7. What you (to buy) here? I (to buy) an English text-book. 8)Look! How many birds (to fly) high up in the air! 9)There are many children in the garden. Some of them (to run) about, others (to sit) on the benches and (to laugh)! 10. Where you (to go) now? I (to go) to the library to prepare for my examination.

Ex. 17 Open the brackets

1)Let ( I, me) introduce you to my family. 2) Ken knows ( he, him) very well. 3) This is Ann. Jane and I go to school with ( she, her). 4) My grandmother and grandfather do not live with ( we, us). 5) Aunt Helen often comes and stays with (they, them). 6) Peter Brown and I saw ( he, him) and ( she, her) in town. 7) How often do you write letters to (they, them)? 8) Will you stay with (we, us) long? 9) We saw ( they, them) at the theatre. 10) Please give (my, me) that book. It’s on the table. 11) We like (our, us) English teacher. She is very kind to ( we, us). 12) Jane is very pretty.( She, her) eyes are blue and (she, her) hair is black. 13) I don’t know this man. What is ( him, his) name? 14) Thank you for (you, your) letter. 15) Tom is a very nice boy. I like ( his, him). 16) I know Ted and Ann and ( they, their) children.17) They are very nice people. I like (them, their). 18) I am fond of reading. It is( my, me) hobby. 19) Do you see that boy? Give (my, me) an apple. 20) Tennis is (me, my) favourite sport.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS Типы вопросов

I. The General Question (Yes/No questions) ( Общийвопрос)

относится ко всему предложению в целом;

требует ответа, начинающегося с yes или по;

начинается с вспомогательного глагола (глагола-связки);

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?

Р r е sent Simple Do you live in Saratov? Does he study at the University?

Present Progressive Is the child drawing? Are they going home now?

Future Simple Will you come tomorrow? Will he go there next week?

Past Simple Did your sister come to you yesterday?

Present Perfect Have you already been there? Has she done it ?

II. The Special Question (Wh-questions) (Специальныйвопрос)

относится к части предложения;

в качестве ответа требует конкретную информацию;

начинается с вопросительного слова, за которым следует вспомогательный глагол (what-что, какой, whom- чей, which- который, какой, whose- чей, how- как, when- когда, where- где, why- почему);

Вопросит, слово + вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?

Р r е sent Simple Where do you live?

Present ProgressiveWhat is the child doing?

Future Simple When will you come tomorrow?

Past Simple Where did he find it?

Present PerfectWhy have you been there?

Вопрос к подлежащему.

- Начинается с вопрос. слова who (для одушевленных) и what (для неодушевленных предметов)

- Прямой порядок слов .

Р r е sent Simple We know her address. Who knows her address?(без вспом. глагола,к основному глаголу прибавляется окончание -s или –es)

Present Progressive You are going home . Who is going home ?( вспом . глагол to be в форме is , подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Future Simple You will come tomorrow. Who will come tomorrow?( вспом . глагол will,

подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Past Simple You asked me about it. Who asked me about it? ?( без вспом . глагола ,

подлежащее заменяем на Who)

Present Perfect We have been there. Who has been there? ( вспом . глагол has, подлежащее заменяем на Who)

III Alternative Question ( Альтернативныйвопрос)

- представляет собой вопрос выбора между двумя действиями, предметами, явлениями и т.п.;

- повышение тона перед союзом or- или;

Вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + or + …?

Р r е sent Simple I prefer skating. Do you prefer skating or skiing?

Present Progressive I am keen on reading. Are you keen on travelling or reading?

He is studying Maths. Is he studying Maths or Physics?

Future Simple He will come tomorrow. Will he or she come tomorrow?

Past Simple He studied at a lyceum. Did he study at a gymnasium or at a lyceum ?

Present Perfect She has already done this task. Has she done or started this task?

IV. The Disjunctive Question (Tag-question) (Разделительныйвопрос)

— состоит из двух частей:

- первая часть- повествовательное предложение с прямым порядком слов

- вторая часть так называемый вопросительный "хвостик"

если первая часть имеет утвердительную форму, "хвостик" строится как отрицание, и наоборот (+ - или - + )

Утвердительное предложение , вспомогательный глагол + not +

подлежащее, выраженное личным местоимением?

Отрицательное предложение , вспомогательный глагол +

Подлежащее ,выраженное личным местоимением?

Р r е sent Simple Kolya prefers skating, does not he?He doesn't go in for sports, does he? John is a driver, isn't he? He isn 't a painter, is he ?

Present Progressive I am keen on reading. I am keen on reading, am not I?

Future Simple He will not come tomorrow. He will not come tomorrow, will he?

Past Simple Mary went to school. Mary went to school, did not she?

Present Perfect You have sent the parcel. You have sent the parcel, haven't you?

Употребление различных типов вопросов

Great Britain consists of three parts.

I. Does Great Britain consist of three parts?
II. How many parts does Great Britain consist of?

III. Does Great Britain consist of three or two parts?

IV. Great Britain consists of three parts, doesn't it?
Great Britain doesn't consist of two parts, does it?

V. What island consists of three parts?

Ex .18 Задайте вопросы к предложениям.

1) Mike goes to the theatre every month. 2) My sisters get up at 6 o’clock. 3) Kate plays on the computer every day. 4) My parents work in a bank. 5) He reads interesting books in the original.6) Tom usually plays in the garden. 7) Sometimes we eat at a restaurant.8) School year begins in September.9) She is cooking a Christmas dinner now.

Ex . 19 Make 5 questions to the following sentences.

1. Sandra always gets up early in the morning. 2. He is dancing with his girl-friend at the disco now.

3. Peter has some problems with Maths.4. They are climbing the mountains without a guide. 5. Mike says that school is the best thing in the world. 6. I am doing well in lot of subjects.

Ex. 20 Read the following words. Прочитайте следующие слова:

a) количественные числительные:1, 2, 11, 12, 13, 27, 69, 248, 1000;1,008; 1,096; 2,355; 3,579;

b) порядковые числительные: 17, 20, 24, 149, 83, 56, 150, 178, 209;

c) хронологические даты: 1975, 1982, 1990, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2500, 2903.

Ex.21 Say in English.Скажите по-английски:

а) 1 сентября 1984 года, 8 мая 1861 года,7 ноября 1990 года, 21 января 1824 года, 9 октября 1947 года, 22 апреля 1907 года, 11 марта 1951 года, 27 июля 1990 года, 5 июля 1945 года, 10 февраля 1972 года.

b)1 325 543 книги, первый автобус, 1 325 учеников, вторая страница, 266 дней, сороковой размер, около 18 000 студентов, часть первая, более 1 500 000 человек, номер десятый, менее 1000 страниц.

Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

Будущее простое время

Future Simple ( Indefinite ) употребляется для выражения однократных или повторяющихся действий, которые совершатся в будущем.

We shall see you tomorrow.

They will be glad to meet you.

Слова-определители времени:

Tomorrow - завтра , next week – на следующей неделе,

in three years – через 3 года

Future Simple ( Indefinite ) образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall (для первого лица единственного числа) и will (для всех остальных лиц) и первой основной формы смыслового глагола. В разговорной речи употребительны сокращения вспомогательных глаголов.( shall , will + V )

I shall ring you up. (I'll ring you up.) She will be twenty next month. (She'll be twenty next month.)

You will find him in the library. (You'll find him in the library.)

В вопросительной форме вспомогательные глаголы shall и will ставятся перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)

Shall I read? What will you do in the evening?

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что , вспомогательный глагол всегда will .

I shall go on the excursion.

Who will go on the excursion?

Отрицательная форма Future Simple ( Indefinite ) образуется при помощи частицы not , которая ставится после вспомогательных глаголов shall или will (возможны сокращения shan ' t , won ' t ).

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .

I shall not be able to join you on your trip. Я не смогу присоединиться к вам в вашей поездке.(Ishan ' t beabletojoinyouonyourtrip.)
He will not receive the telegram in time.Оннеполучиттелеграммувовремя.
(He won't receive the telegram in time.)

Примечания :

а) Вопросительнаяформатипа Will you sit down? используетсядлявыраженияпросьбы.

Will you please take off your coat?

Won't you go with us to the concert?

Чтобы общий вопрос ко 2-му лицу не воспринимался как просьба, в Англии вместо вспомогательного глагола will употребляется глагол shall .

Shall you be at home at 9?

В США в этих случаях обычно употребляется will .

б) FutureSimple (Indefinite) не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В них для выражения будущего действия глагол ставится в PresentSimple (Indefinite).

I shall give him a letter when he comes. The children will go for a walk if it stops raining.

Ex . 22 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple .

1.I (to think) about this information. 2 According to the forecast it (to be) raining tomorrow. 3. We (to come) to see you on Monday. 4.I (to prepare) to my examinations next week. 5. You (to show) me your new picture? 6. I think he (not to come) tomorrow. 7 I don't think she (to answer) all the questions. 8. We (to work) in our garden tomorrow. 9. How you (to pack) your things? 10. Her mother (to buy) her a silver chain for her birthday.

Ex . 23 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. My sister will graduate from the University next year. 2.I shall go to the cinema tomorrow. 3. They will play tennis on Saturday. 4. We shall translate this text the day after tomorrow. 5. He will write a letter to his sister tomorrow. 6. My parents will go to the South next year. 7.I shall finish this work in a week. 8.He will come back on Friday. 9. We shall meet our friends tomorrow.

Ex. 24 Переведите на английский язык , употребляя глагол to be в Future Simple.

1) Я буду завтра в институте. 2) Она будет зубным врачом. 3) Где ты будешь завтра? — Я. буду дома. 4) Мы будем в Москве на следующей неделе. 5) Его не будет на работе завтра. Он будет в командировке. 6) Позвони ему позже. Может быть, он будет дома. 7) Завтра никого не будет в офисе.

Ex. 25 В предложениях описаны события, которые происходили прошлым летом. Представьте , что эти события произойдут будущим летом .

1.I was in America a year ago. 2.Where were your parents last summer? 3. It was in July. 4. There was no fruit in May. 5. Did you roller-skate? 6. She bought a new dress, didn’t she? 7. Mymomtaughtmybrothertoswim.

В придаточных предложениях времени и условия после союзов

If -если, when -когда, as soon as - как только, till -до тех пор, before - перед, after - после, until - до тех пор, как, while – во время.

Future Simple заменяетсянаPresent Simple .

Ex . 26 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple .

1. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 2. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 3. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 4. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 5. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 6. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 7. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 8. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 9 .I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 10. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 11. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 12. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.

Ex. 27 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Present Simple.

1.We (to begin) as soon as Tom (to be ready). 2. I (stay) here until it (to get) warmer. Mother (to bring) us cakes when she (to go) out. 3. If he (to have) time he (to come) to us. 4. Don't leave until I (to send) you a message. 5. She (to be) very happy if you (to take) her to the theatre. 6. We (to go) swimming as soon as school (be) over. 7. She (to be) a good actress if she (to work) hard. 8. I (to open) the door when father (to ring). 9. I (to see) him again if he (not to come) today.10.I (to notify) you as soon as I (to hear) from her.11.You (not to go) until I (to know) the truth. 12. He (to come) every day to help you with your work while I (be) away. 13. You (to have) a chocolate if you (to be) good. 14. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 15. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 16. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 17. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 18. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 19. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 20. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 21. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 22.I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 23. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 24. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 25. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.

Ex. 28 Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных:

a) tall, long, short, hot, cold, nice, large, big, wide, happy, warm, high, heavy, low, hard, busy, easy,bright;

b) interesting, comfortable, important, necessary, beautiful, famous, pleasant, popular, wonderful, active, careful.

c) old, tall, thin, thick, fat, red, warm, high, short, black, small, light, late, large, fast, rich, dark, quick, sad, weak, pretty, bright, dry, full, nice, wet, early, strong, ugly, quite, funny, lazy, far, expensive, good, difficult, helpful, many, heavy, dirty, clean, near, little, famous, much, clever, cheap, pale, early, practical.

Past Simple ( Indefinite ) Tense .

Прошедшее простое ( неопределенное) время.

Past Simple (Indefinite) обозначает действия или состояния, происходившие в какой-то период в прошлом и не связанные с моментом речи. PastSimple (Indefinite) — форма, типичная для описания прошедших событий.

В предложениях с PastSimple (Indefinite) часто указывается время совершения действия.

Слова-определители времени:

Yesterday - вчера, two days ago – два дня назад, last year – в прошлом году .

Victor hurried to the station, went to the booking-office and bought two tickets.The show finished at 11 o'clock.

Past Simple (Indefinite) образуется : (V2, V-ed)

Если глагол неправильный используется еговторая форма( смотри таблицу неправильных глаголов) , которая не изменяется по лицам и числам, за исключением глагола to be (was – единственное число, were - множественное). I spent a lot of time at the library last month.

Если глагол правильный (т.е. его нет в таблице неправильных глаголов) к его первой форме прибавляется окончание - ed : ask – asked

He worked hard at his composition.

Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did , который ставится перед подлежащим.

Смысловой глагол употребляется в первой основной форме.


Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)

I liked the match. Did you like the match? When did the train arrive?

Вопросы к подлежащему образуются, без вспомогательного глагола did .

Подлежащее заменяем на who –кто или what – что.

It happened yesterday. We were absent today.

What happenedyesterday? Who was absenttoday?( to be всегдавформе was)

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола did , частицы not и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .

I did not know you were ill.

В разговорной речи в отрицательной форме обычно употребляется сокращение didn ' t [didnt]. I didn't know you were ill.

Для справок :

1. Глагол to be в Past Simple (Indefinite) меняетсяполицам.

I was ill. We were absent.

You were right. You were at school at that time.

He (she, it) was late. They were at the theatre.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы PastSimple (Indefinite) глагола to be образуются без помощи вспомогательного глагола.

Where were you at eight yesterday?

Was he at home at 8 o'clock?

It was not very cold.

2.С оборотом there was ( there were ) употребляется отрицательное местоимение no , как и в PresentSimple (Indefinite).

There was no rain for two months.

3. При образовании отрицательной формы PastSimple (Indefinite) глагола to have используется отрицательное местоимение no .

I had no letters for many weeks.

Ex . 29 Вставьте глагол was или were .

1) I .......at the stadium last Sunday. 2) Dam and Mary .......in America a year ago.3)We .....in Moscow yesterday. 4) Mike ........at school last Monday. 5) We .........in Tambov a week ago.

Ex .30 Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple.

1. Yesterday (to be) the third of October.2) It (to be) warm, and we (to play) ball in our yard. 3)Our dog (to be) with us too.4) It (to like) the game. 5) It (to jump) and (to jump). 6) We (to have) five lessons yesterday. 7) After the lessons the pupils on duty (to wash) the flowers and (to clean) the blackboard and other things. 8)When everything in the classroom (to look) clean, they (to go) home. 9)It (to be) half past three then, and they (to be) very hungry.10) The children (to work) on a collective farm last summer.11) We (to play) football and other interesting games at the pioneer camp a year ago.12) Mike (to go) to his circle early yesterday.13) It ( to snow) in last winter. 14) The Ninth Form pupils (to clean) the street in front of the school.15) She ( to answer) questions well yesterday.16) Yesterday evening I (to watch) TV. 17) He (to be) tired and (to go) to bad at half past ten.18) My brother and I (to be) at camp from the first of July to the twentieth of July.19) We (to take) warm things with us, because it (to be), cold. 20) My father (to give) us good ideas for our pictures. 21) Everything in the country (to look) beautiful when we (to be) there last spring. 22) Mike (to show) her how to take off her skis.

Ex.31 Поставь глаголы в Past Simple .1.My sister … to England last summer (to travel).2. Ann … an interesting book yesterday (to buy).3.Helen … French last year (to study). 4. Kate … dinner two days ago (to cook).5. Не … to the south last year (to go).6. My friend … a letter yesterday (to write).7. I … English ten years ago (to study). 8.They … coffee yesterday morning (to drink).9. I and my friend … to France, last year (to travel).10. Tom …me a telegram two days ago (to send).11. Is Kate at home? Yes, she … 5 minutes ago (to arrive).12. Yesterday I … early and …a shower (to get up, to have) 13. She … yesterday afternoon (to come).14.My granny … a chocolate cake last Sunday (to make).15. I … TV yesterday (to watch)

Ex. 32 Поставь вопросы к предложениям .1. Lena lived in Moscow in 1998. 2. She walked to the station. 3. The cat liked fish. 4. The students worked in the garden. 5. They went to the cinema yesterday. 6. She told us a very interesting story. 7. A strange woman came to our house yesterday. 8. I played piano when I was a boy. 9. Last year I began to write a book.10. Yesterday I had five lessons at school.

Ex.33 Put into negative form. Сделай предложения отрицательными .

1) I had six lessons last Tuesday.2) The first lesson was Russian.3)We wrote a dictation. 4) My friend went to the blackboard and wrote the date.5) I went to the canteen after the third lesson. 6) I ate a salad and a sandwich.7) After school I took a bus and went to the library.8) In the library I read a book.9)Then I played snowballs in the yard.10) In the evening I cleaned my teeth and went to bed.

Ex.34 Put the sentences into Past Simple, Present Progressive and Future Simple.

1)We like our trip to Spain. 2)They bathe in the sea every day in summer. 3) Mike lives in the country. 4) He knows well every subject.5) I get good marks in English.6) Helen dances every evening. 7) They play football every Sunday. 8) I like to play chess in my childhood. 9) The teacher writes new words on the blackboard. 10) We study English every evening.

Ex . 35 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple .

1.She (to make) tea for her guests. 2. We (to know) everything about that event. 3. He (to think) much about this problem. 4.I (to be) wrong and apologized to him. 5. He (not to realize) his mistakes. 6. When you (to speak) to him? — I (to speak) to him only yesterday.7.She (not to get) letters from her son last month.8.He (to go) to the airport to meet his brother. 9. What you (to do) yesterday evening? — Nothing in particular. We (to watch) TV and (to look) through newspapers.

10. I understand the article well. 11. I listen to this music. 12. I find many good stories in this book. 13. The students spend must time in the library. 14. She makes many mistakes in her test. 15. They read many English books.

Ex. 36 Переведите на английский язык , употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.

1. Ей понравилось представление. 2. Было очень холодно на прошлой неделе. 3. Я встретил их у моего друга дома. 4. Кто-нибудь звонил мне пока меня не было? 5. Мы не получили ее ответ вчера. 6. Я отправил вчера письма моим друзьям. 7. У меня не было времени делать эту работу. 8. Я читал этот журнал вчера. 9. Ему не понравился фильм. 10. Он звонил тебе вчера? 11. Они провели каникулы в Лондоне. 12. Он сдал экзамен по английскому в понедельник. 13. Я навестил бабушку и дедушку на прошлой неделе. 14. Я разговаривал с ним вчера. 15. Я починил свою машину в воскресенье.

Ex .37 Поставьте предложения в Past Simple .

1. There is a large forest near our city. 2. There are many berries and mushrooms there. 3. There is always much work to do about the house. 4. There is no need to begin all over again. 5. There is nothing to do but to wait. 6. Are there any museums in your home town? 7. There will be no vacant seats in the stalls. 8. There will be an interesting lecture on literature tomorrow. 9. There is a sofa and two armchairs in our living-room. 10. There is always much light in this room.

Ex . 38 Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Simple .

Образец : There is a park near our school. There was a park near our school. There will be a park near our school.

1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are not any German books in our library. 3. There is one theatre and five cinemas in this town. 4. There is no lift in our house. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are few shops in this district. 7. There are three rooms in our flat. 8. There is a new film on at our local cinema. 9. There are not many difficult exercises in this text-book. 10. There are two hospitals in this town.

Ex. 39Put the nouns in plural.

a) a dish, a fork, a knife, a pen, a desk, an armchair, a land, a house, a house, an Indian, a dog, a game, a lion, an eagle, a road, a wolf, a watch, a glass, a city, a country, a day, a party, a bush, a box, a bus, a class, a potato, a foot, a tomato, a tooth, a child, a deer, a solo, a roof, a goose,

b) a chief, a man, a woman, a mouse, an Englishman, a form, a tie, a page, a bench, a bird, a bag, a copy, an apple, an enemy, a photo, a cherry, an army, a toy, a loaf, a comedy, a dining- room, a mother-in-law, an ear-ring, an ear-phone.

Ex. 40 Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных :

Train, seat, tie, shop, fork, forest, game, lesson, name, week, page, bag, bird, class, box., bush, bus, birch, bench, inch, copy, hero, cake, knife, wife, wolf, tomato, fly, piano, leaf, safe, victory, roof, watch, form, roof, room, pen, lamp, arm, tram, book, apple, day, ship, toy, university, chief, photo, style, handkerchief, enemy, match, bush.

TEST. THREE TENSES.

Ex. 41 Choose the write form of the verb.

1) Kate ... to the shop yesterday. a) go b) went c) will go

2)He ... interesting books in the original, a) read b) reads c) will read

3)John ... his leg last year. a) broke b) breaks c) will break

4).... he like cats? a) Does b) Do c) Doesn't

5) Tom usually ... in the garden. a) played b) will play c) plays

6) They ... to the cinema yesterday, a) have gone b) go c) went

7)Mum ... the washing up yesterday, a) does b) is doing c) did

8)She ... got two brothers. a) have b) has c) will have

9) They always ... fruit for breakfast, a) will buy b) buy c) buys

10) He ... to school because he was ill. a) doesn't go b) didn't go c) won't go

11)Every summer she ... holidays at her grandmother's, a) spent b) spend c) will spend

12)I ... this film 3 years ago. a) see b) saw c) shall see

13) He never eats eggs. He ... them. a) doesn't like b) didn't like c) won't like

14)We ... a trip to Italy next summer, a) made b) make c) shall make

15)I think they ... the exam tomorrow. a) do pass b) will pass c) shall pass

16) He ... a minute ago. a) leave b) left c) leave

17) Yesterday I ... in the library. a) work b) worked c) shall work

18)I ... my English lessons on Fridays. a) took b) take c) shall take

19)Nancy ... her teeth now. a) brushes b) is brushing c) brushed

20)Sometimes we ... at a restaurant. a) eat b) are eating c) ate

21)She ... a Christmas dinner now. a) cooks b) is cooking c) cooked

22) It often ... in autumn. a) rains b) is raining c) rained

23) School year ... in September. a) begins b) begin c) is beginning

24)Bob ... television, he can't answer the call. a) watches b) is watching c) watched

25)John ... adventure books. a) liked b) like c) likes

Ex . 42 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present , Past и Future Simple .

1. Моя сестра сейчас в магазине. 2. Моя сестра была в театре вчера. 3. Моя сестра будет в библиотеке завтра. 4. Сегодня мы в Москве, а завтра будем в Туле. 5. Вчера он был за городом, а сегодня он дома. 6. Она была учителем в прошлом году сейчас она переводчик. 7. Она на работе сейчас, а вечером она будет у родителей. 8. Твоя сестра будет учителем? — Нет, она будет журналистом. 9. Нас будет дома завтра.10. Кто будет здесь завтра? — Я буду.

Ex. 43 Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в прошедшем и будущем временах.

1.There are many trees in our garden.2.There is a trolley-bus stop near my office.3.There are some mistakes in his dictation.4.There is a piece of chalk on the table.5.There is much snow in the street. 6. There are many flowers in the vase. 7. There are two pens in my bag.

Ex.44 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени Simple (Present, Past или Future): 1.Не (come) to school tomorrow. 2. Ann not (come) to the park.3. He not (go) to the cinema every day. He (go) last Sunday. 4. Peter (write) a letter in two days. 5. The teacher says that the boys (speak) English next year. 6. When he (come)? I think he (come) next Tuesday.7. Where the teacher (go) last summer? 8. I (take) the book to the library tomorrow. 9. They not (see) the film because they were very busy. They (see) it in the near future. 10. When we (do) it? Tomorrowornextweek?

Ex . 45 Задайте альтернативные вопросы своему собеседнику.

A. Образец: I’m a pupil (a student).

Are you a pupil or a student?

1. Kate is at home (at school). 2. They are in England (Scotland). 3. Oxford is far from (near) London. 4. She is a writer (a painter). 5. She is interested in music (drawing). 5. I am seventeen (eighteen) years old. 6. The ice was thick (thin) on the river. 7. That was Jane (Ann) on the phone.

8. He was rude (polite) with you. 9. It will be cold (warm) tomorrow. 9.The weather will be fine (rainy) next week.

B. Образец: You have many (few) friends at school?

Have you many or few friends at school?

I had dinner at home (at school) yesterday.

Did you have dinner at home or at school yesterday?

They have a house (a flat) in Minsk. 2. My friend has a lot of English (French) books. 3. Our family had a rest in the countryside (abroad) last summer. 4. I usually have coffee (tea) in the morning. 5. We have meals three (four) times a day. 6. You will have five (six) lessons tomorrow.

Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время

Present Perfect употребляется для описания событий, которые произошли в еще неистекший период времени, или который продолжался вплоть до настоящего времени, а также при наличии наречий неопределенного времени: today - сегодня, this week / year / month -на этой неделе, already - уже, ever – когда-либо, never - никогда, yet - еще (в отрицательных предложениях со значением еще и в общих вопросах со значением уже), just - только что, for ( a long time )- долгое время, for two hours - в течение 2 часов, up to now - до сих пор, since – с тех пор; при наличии слов it is the first ( second ) time ...- в первый раз; вписьмах, в первом вопросе и ответе, начинающих беседу о прошлых событиях.already- уже, ever – когда-либо, never- никогда, just- только что ставится между вспомогательным и основным глаголом

She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.

PresentPerfect в отличие от PastSimple(которое выражает действие, свершившееся в истекшем отрезке времени) выражает связь прошлого действия с настоящим благодаря наличию результата сейчас. PresentPerfect никогда не употребляется в вопросах, начинающихся с вопросительного слова when).

Present Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has – в 3 лице ед. числа) , и третьей формы неправильного глагола, а к правильному глаголу прибавляется окончание –ed (причастия прошедшего времени (ParticipleII) смыслового глагола). (have / has + V 3, V - ed ) При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + подлежащее + основной глагол(V3, V-ed) + .? (общий вопрос)

Have you learnt this poem by heart? -Yes, I have,

- No, I haven't learnt it yet.

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who –кто или what – что , вспомогательный глагол всегда has .

We have just left home.

Who has just left home?

При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + not + основной глагол (V3, V-ed) + … .

We have not just left home.

to have + Participle II
Present Perfect have/has done
Past Perfect had done
Future Perfect shall/will have done
Future Perfect in the Past Should / would have done

She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.

She had left for Moscow ОнауехалавМосквудо

beforeIarrived. того, как я приехал.

She will have left for ОнауедетвМосквудо

Moscow before I arrive. того, какяприеду.

Shesaidthatshewould Она сказала, что уедет в

have left forMoscow Москву до того, как я приеду.

beforeIarrived.

Сравните:

а)ThelifthasbrokendownЛифт сломался, (приходится ходить сейчас пешком)

Theliftbrokedown. Лифт сломался, (возможно, он уже снова работает)
Whendidtheliftbreak? Когда сломался лифт?

Не has smoked for two years. (He continues smoking)

He smoked for two years. (and then stopped smoking)

б)I'm sorry I haven't written before because I've been very busy lately. Извините, что я не писал раньше, но я был занят последнее время.

Ex 46 Заполните пропуски глаголом has пли have :

1.Mum … already cooked dinner.2.My friends … not watched this film.3.I … never been to England.4. He ... gone home. 5. ... she come yet? 6. They ... gone home. 7. ... they gone home? 8. The bus ... gone. 9. I ... found it. 10. ... the bus gone? 11. Where ... he been? 12. Where ... you been? 13. I ... got some interesting books.

Ex 47 Поставьте глаголы в Present Perfect.

1.I (clean) ...........the room.2. He (not read)...........this book.3. We (play) .........football.4. She (be) ........to America.5. I ( not see) ..........her yet.

Ex 48 Напишите предложения в Present Perfect , добавив нужные наречия. 1.He is leaving home at the moment.2. She does her homework in the evening.3. They are crossing the road.4. He sends me two letters every month. 5. Mr.Norris finishes the work at 5 p.m.

Ex 49 Задайте 4 вопроса к предложению .

1.We have seen a good film recently.2. I have done a lot of work today.3.He has been in the yard.

Ex . 50 Переведите на английский язык.

1.Они были в Америке в этом году. 2.Я только что встретил Тома. 3.Мы уже перевели этот текст.

Ex . 51 Complete the sentences with how long, since, for, already, yet .

1. My sister has been at the University … six months. 2. ... have you known John and Susan? 3. Haven't you typed those letters ... ? 4. She's ... cleaned the house and it's only nine a.m. 5.I haven't watched TV ... my set broke down.

Ex.52 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.Не (see) just me. 2. They (finish) already the letter. 3. John (find) them. They (be) in the yard. 4. What he (do)? 5. Where he (be)? 6. The car (stop). 7. I never (be) there. 8. We just (be) to the cinema. We (see) a good film. 9. Peter (come) home yet? 10. I (be) to the doctor. 11. I am so tired. I (do) a lot of work today.

Ex 53 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect .

1.I (be) to Paris. 2.I think the director (leave) the town. 3. We (know) her since she arrived to our city. 4.I (forget) your name.5. He (close) the door? 6. He (do) it since we left him. 7. They (leave) Moscow this month? 8. He (not bring) a lot of French papers. 9.I (get) a long letter from father this week.10. She just (come); she will speak to you in a minute. 11. This order (lead) to many misunderstandings.12. He (write) his name on my book.

Ex 54 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.I (meet) two of my friends today. I (meet) them on mу way to school. 2. A month ago my uncle (build) a new house in the country. We (visit) it recently and (enjoy) ourselves very much. 3. He (forget) to close the window when he (leave) the house. 4. He (write) several letters this week. 5. Where Helen (go)? I don't see her here. — She (go) home an hour ago. 6. When the concert (to begin)? 7.1 don't think I ever (to see) such a beautiful garden as this one. 8. Jack London (to be born) in San Francisco in an extremely poor family. 9. You (to read) many books by Jack London? 10. How careless you are! You (to break) your mother’s favourite cup.

Ex .55 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1.I never (to hear) this story from my father. 2. He (to be) a reader of this magazine for years. 3. She (to be) ill last week. 4.I cannot tell you whether I like this book, as I not (to read) it. 5. My mother not (to come) home yet. 6. I (to be) there last year. 7. When you last (to see) him? 8.I cannot give you this book as I (to give) it to Ann. When you (to give) it to her? 9. The child (to be) quite all right for the last two weeks. 10. It is cold today. The weather (to change) since yesterday. 11. You ever (to visit) this picture gallery? 12.I (to lose) my textbook and cannot remember when I last (to see) it.

Ex 56 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. Не never (to be) in Germany. 2. He (not to answer) my letter. 3. My mother (to go) to the country a month ago. 4. His brother not (to go) to school yesterday. 5. Where you (to be) last night? 6. You (to receive) a letter from your father this week? 7.I (to see) Ann on Wednesday. 8. My mother just (to go) out. 9. She never (to read) this book. 10.I (not to come) to you yesterday because I (to be) very busy. 11. When you (to write) a letter to your friend? — I (to write) a letter to him this week. 12. How many books you (to read) this week? 13. I (to be) at the theatre five or six times last month. 14. I (to reply) to his letter today. 15. They (to lose) their way. 16. I (to speak) to him about it over and over again. 17. I (to speak) to him about it yesterday. 18. He (to be) in Vienna several times.

Ex . 57 Choose the correct item.

1. We (live/have lived) in Hastinhs. 2. I (got/have got) two brothers and a sister. 3. He (plays/is playing) football once a week. 4. We (are/ have been) here since the shop opened. 5. I always (am drinking/drinks) black coffee. 6. (Has/does) he got a camera?7. When did you (got/get) home last night? 8. (We're/We) going to stay at home today. 9. We (knew/have known) them fora long time. 10. I (worked/am working) there two years ago.

Ex . 58 Put the words in the correct order.

1.I/on Saturday/didn't/you/at the party/see/night. 2. Some/in the library/ we/interesting/books/found. 3.Walked/ around the town/have/I. 4. Every week-end/do/clean/you/the house? 5.Slowly/he/getting/is/better.

Ex . 59 Переведите на английский язык. 1)Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору? – Да. Вам он понравился? – Не очень. 2)Что ты делала в выходные дни? –Я ходила по грибы (to go mushrooms). 3)Когда ты приехал?- Я приехал на прошлой неделе. Ты хорошо (well) доехал?

Ex.60 a) Напишите в каком времени вы бы перевели эти предложения.

Мы играем в прятки сейчас.

Моя тётя только что приготовила завтрак.

Я поеду на море следующим летом.

Мы убираем свою комнату раз в неделю

Гости уехали неделю назад.

b) Соотнесите время и способ его образования.

1. Past Simple

2 Present Progressive

3 Future Simple

4 Present Simple

5 Present Perfect,

V2

V, Vs

to be + Ving

will/shall + V

have + V3

c) Добавьте к каждому предложению подходящий указатель времени.

1. I went to school....... .

2. I go to school .......

3. I am going to school......

4. I have....... gone to school.

5. . I shall go to school......

( next Monday, yesterday, now, already, every day)

Ex .61 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужном времени.

1. I never ( cook) dinner myself.

2. She ( make ) a cake at the present moment.

3. He ( visit ) my granny next summer.

4. They ( see) this film last week.

5. My friend ( phone) me every day.

Ex .62 Измените предложения в соответствии с местом действия.

1. I write letters every day. ------- next month.

2. He has crossed the road.----------- 2 hours ago.

3. They are playing hockey now.------already.

4. She went to the theatre last month.----- once a month.

5. We will eat ice-cream tomorrow. -----now.

TEST . 5 TENSES.

Ex. 63 Choose the right tense.

1) He … newspapers after dinner every day . a) reads b) read c) has read

2) She …. home now . a) is going b) goes c) will go

3) Helen …. her friend in the street yesterday. a) see b) has seen c) saw

4) My brother … just … from work.. a) has come b) will come c) comes

5) I …. at 7 o`clock tomorrow. a) get up b) shall get up c) got

6) They often … to the theatre. a) go b) will go c) have gone

7)We …. an English lesson at this moment. a) have b) are having c) have had

8) My family … to England last year. a) went b) go c) has gone

9) I …. already …my homework . a) shall do b) did c) have done

10) I ….. to you tomorrow. a) shall come b) came c) will come

11) He … to school by bus every day. a)goes b) shall go c) will go

12) What … you … now ? a) are doing b) will do c) have done

13) Where …. you … yesterday ? a) did go b) have gone c) do go

14) I …. just …my breakfast . a) shall have b) had c) have had

15) They … to Moscow next week. a) will go b) go c) went

16) He usually …. coffee in the morning. a) shall drink b) drinks c) drank

17) You ….. for a walk now . a) have gone b) are going c) go

18) She …. you about it a day ago . a) has asked b) asked c) will ask

19) I …. supper next Sunday. a) shall prepare b) prepared c) have prepared

20) I … already … the window. a) have opened b) do open c) will open

Ex. 64 Use the necessary word.

1) Many people go in for … a) take b) beautiful c) sports

2) English helps people in cultural … a) relations b) own c) important

3) I like to watch sports … on TV. a) competition b) kinds c) favorite

4) I want to read foreign literature in the … a) develop b) original c) different

5) Sport is very … a) hear b) go c) useful

6) Today English is the … of the world . a) adventure b) foreign c) language

7) … is the most famous summer kind of sports. a) swimming b) skating c) skiing

8) Books help people in our … a) studies b) important c) often

9) We … many things from books a) learn b) self-education c) nature

10) I think a book is the best … a) often b) present c) favourite

Ex. 65 Choose the right word .

1) The gallery in Moscow is named in honour to … a) Tretyakov b) Surikov c) Rublyov

2) The history … begin in the year 1147. a) Moscow b) St. Petersburg c) Samara

3) The oldest part of London is called … . a) East End b) City c) West End

4) The first American president chose the place where the city now stands to build a capital and the city was named after … .

a) George Washington b) Winston Cherchil c) Abraham Lincoln

5) The … is the home of the president . a) Library of Congress b) White House c) Capitol

6) … is situated on several islands and has 5 districts. a) New York b) Boston c) London

7) Black Americans usually live in … where life is difficult. a) Broadway b) Harlem c) Brooklyn

8) Russia is bounded by … countries. a) four b) thirteen c) ten

9) Our … shows dramas, tragedies and comedies. a) cinema b) school c) theatre

10) The … begins when the third bell has rung. a) performance b) lesson c) competition

Ex. 66 Use the necessary form of the verb.

1) I … to school every day . a) go b) am going c) have gone

2) She … basketball last week. a) plays b) play c) played

3) Look. They … football now . a) had played b) played c) are playing

4) He … to the library every month. a) go b) goes c) went

5) We ….. the book this week. a)are reading b) were reading c)have read

6) Lena …. to the stadium tomorrow . a) was going b) has gone c) will go

7) John … to the cinema yesterday. a) is going b) went c) go

8) She … just … the exercise. a) is doing b) has done c) did

9) He …. his work by 6 o’clock. a) finished b) had finished c) was finished

10) They … a music lesson at 10 o’clock. a) have b) have had c) were having

Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Настоящее завершено - длительное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I have been waiting

He

She has been

It waiting

We have been
You waiting

They

Have I been waiting?

he
Has she been waiting?

it

we

Have you been waiting?

they

I have not been waiting
He has not
She been
It waiting

We have not
You been

They waiting

Типичныепредлогидля Present Perfect Progressive for, since . PresentPerfectProgressiveвыражает действие, начавшееся в прошлом и продолжающееся в настоящем.

Present Perfect Progressive.

Ex. 67 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect Progressive.

1.John is in his room, he (to sit) there since the morning. 2. For two hours now we (to talk) about it and we haven't come to any conclusion yet. 3. John, do you know where my bag is? I (to look) for it for half an hour and I can't find it. 4. Look, your brother (to dance) with that red-haired girl since she came into the room. 5.He (to try) to solve this problem for several months now but he hasn't found a solution yet. 6. She (to teach) at school for twenty years. 7. Mr. Brown (to work) in his room since early morning. 8. Thechildren (tosleep) forsixhours.

Ex . 68 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. Mr. Smith has been staying with them for a fortnight. 2. It has been raining all the morning. 3. He has been writing this exercise for two hours. 4. The boy has been fishing since early morning. 5. For a week you have been promising to take me for a walk. 6. The children have been playing in the garden since their mother came.

Ex. 69 Выпишите конструкции с Present Perfect Progressive.

1.No, I wasn't thinking of Martin's cottage. I must have been thinking of another one — perhaps your own. 2. Surely you must have known that Martin took it. You can't have been thinking all this time that I did. 3. And I've not been thinking about it — I've been torturing myself with it. 4. You've been living in a fool's paradise, and now ... you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in.

Ex. 70 Переведите на русский язык

1.I have been waiting for you since 12 o'clock. 2. She has been working here for 2 hours. 3. For how long have they been sleeping? 4. What have you been doing? — I have been marking essays. 5. I have been pruning my roses. 6. I've been waiting here since three o'clock. 7. I've been drinking too much. 8. That noise has been going on since they came home. 9. The telephone has been ringing for five minutes, why don't you answer it? 10. Look at my hands I've been cleaning your shoes. 11. He has been coming here day after day for years. 12. I suppose you have been telling lies again.

Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее длительное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма

I

Не was
She walking
It

We

You were

They walking

I

Was he walking?

she

it

we

Were you walking?

they

I

He was not

She (wasn’t)

It walking.

We were not

You (weren’t)

They walking

PastContinuous выражает действие, которое совершилось в определенный момент времени в прошлом (at 6 o'clockyesterday) или в определенный период времени в прошлом (from 5 till 8 o'clockyesterday).

Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее длительное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма

I shall be waiting

He will be

She waiting

It

We shall be waiting

You will be
They waiting

Shall I be waiting?

he
Will she be waiting
it

Shall we be waiting?

Will you be wait-
they ing?

I shall not be waiting

He

She will not be waiting

It

We shall not be waiting

You will not be
They waiting.

FutureProgressive выражает действие, которое будет происходить в определенный момент в будущем (at 5 o'clocktomorrow) или в определенный период времени в будущем (from 2 till 5 o'clocktomorrow)

Present Progressive, Past Progressive & Future Progressive

Ex. 71 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Progressive или Past Progressive.

1.Why you (to look) at me in that way? 2. He (to skate) yesterday from five till nine o'clock. 3. Why you (to smoke) in the room? 4. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 5. What you (to look) at? I (to look) at this monument. 6. He (to write) the article all the week. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) us for two hours about his trip to India. 8. I (to learn) to ride a bicycle now. 9.We (to work) at this problem during three months. 10.Be quiet, he (to write) a composition now.

Ex. 72 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive. 1. Не (not to wait) for us at 6 o'clock tomorrow. 2.I (to translate) this article, when my mother come. 3. The conference (to take place) from 2 till 6 o'clock on Monday. 4. How long you (to stay) at your parents?
Ex. 73 Переведите на английский язык , употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.

1.Завтра я буду работать весь вечер. 2. Мы встретим их, когда они будут идти в институт. 3. Когда я приду сюда, мои дети будут играть. 4. Завтра мы будем проводить опыты с 2 до 5 часов. 5. Когда мы приедем в лабораторию, они будут показывать свои опыты. 6. Я буду гулять в парке с 7 до 8 часов. 7. Она будет делать уроки в 8 часов? 8. Мы не будем играть в шахматы весь вечер.

Ex . 74 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Future Progressive .

1.Don't ring him up at 11 o'clock tomorrow. He (to work) at that moment. 2. At this time tomorrow my brothers (to play) football. 3. Maybe we (to play) football tomorrow. 4. They (to come) soon. 5.I am afraid it (to rain) all day tomorrow. 6. When the train (to come) my parents (to wait) for me at the station. 7. I (to finish) this book very soon; I (to read) it all day tomorrow. 8. I must tell John that Nick (to wait) for him at ten o'clock tomorrow. 9. He (to be) busy tomorrow. He (to put) electric light in our country-house. 10. What you (to do) all day tomorrow? 11. I (to listen) to the radio till you come back. 12. Don't come tomorrow, I (to write) my report. 13. This time tomorrow, I (to leave) Moscow for Tula.

Ex. 75 Fill in the gaps with : will start , is finding out, has been , have been studying, lasted, were eating , came.

1) Natasha … never … in an American school. 2) The second class … 30 minutes yesterday. 3) Homeroom class … at 8 p. m. tomorrow.4) They… American History for a year.5) The teacher … which students are absent at the moment. 6)The guests … cake when he … home.

Ex. 76 Choose the proper form of the verb .

1) A . Pushkin .... a lot of books

a) wrote b) have written c) has written

2) She .... her first book fifteen years ago .

a) writes b) has written c) wrote .

3) ..... you ever ...... Italian food ?

a ) do try b) did try c) have tried .

4) I ..... in Glasgow for six years now and don’t want to move .

. a) live b) have lived c) lived .

5) He ...... in Paris for thirteen years , and then in 1988 he .... to Lion .

a) lived , moved b) has lived , moved c) lived , has moved .

6) They usually ..... to the south for the summer , but this year they .... abroad .

a) go , will go b) goes , are going c) go , are going .

7) “ Why you ...... ? “ - ,, I ..... my watch “.

a) cry , lost b) do you cry , have lost c) are you crying , have lost .

8) ,, ......... you ........ the book ?’’ - ,, Yes , I ..... it yesterday .”

a) did found , bought b) have found , bought , c) do find , have bought .

9) She ...... very nice with her hair up .

a) looks b) is looking c) look .

10) You always ...... the same mistake . I ..... it several times already .

a) make , correct b) are making , is correcting c) are making , have corrected

Ex. 77 Put in who ,what , which or that .

1) Do you know that gentlman ..... is talking to Peter ?

2) I visited the museum ..... is very famous .

3) A book .... was left on the table belongs to John .

4) Have you got back the things ...... were stolen ?

5) Jane works for the company .... sells washing machines .

6) I have lost all .... makes life pleasant .

7) The holiday was not at all ..... I expected .

8) The police haven`t found the man ..... stole my car .

9) Do you know a shop .... sells good coffee ?

10) You misunderstood - that isn`t ...... I meant .

Ex. 78 Choose the right answer .

1) How much ..... ? a) it costs b) does it cost c) it cost d) is it .

2) When ....... him last ? a) you saw b) have you seen c) you see d) did you see .

3) Who ....... the window ? a) break b) did break c) broke .

4) I hope she ...... come. a) will b) is going to c) comes d ) is coming .

5) I ` ll meet you ...... Wednesday . a) at b) on c) in .

6) You ..... touch the switch. It`s dangerous . a) can`t b) must not c) may not d) don`t have to .

7) He left without ..... goodbye . a) to say b) saying c) say d) he says .

8) I`ve know him ..... we were at school . a) since b) when c) for d) as .

Ex. 80 Ask all kinds of questions to the sentences .

1) After breakfast he goes to the university . 2) She is giving a lecture now . 3)You have had a tape-reorder. 4)He has been learning English for 5 years. 5)She studied very hard .

6)They were taking notes at the lecture at this time yesterday.7)We had done the translation by the time he came.

8)He had been doing the homework for two hours when she came.9)We shall have the exam tomorrow.10)I hope , I`ll have finished it by next Sunday.1 1)Tomorrow at this time you will be looking for it .12)He will have been writting a letter for three hours when you come.

Past Perfect Tense Прошедшее завершенное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I

He

She had
It

We broken

You

They

I
he

she
it
Had we broken?

you

they

I
He

She
It had not

We (hadn’t)
You broken.

They

PastPerfect выражает действие, которое совершилось раньше другого действия в прошлом или к определенному моменту в прошлом. Отсюда его название: "прошедшее законченное".

1. Момент прошедшего времени выражается обстоятельством времени с предлогом by , часто в сочетании с наречием already .

2. Момент прошедшего времени выражается другим прошедшим действием в PastSimple в придаточном предложении времени.

Future Perfect Будущее завершенное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I shall have finished

He will have
She finished

It

We shall have finished

You will have
They finished

Shall I have finished?

he

Will she have

it finished?

Shall we have finished?

Will you have

they finished?

I shall have not finished

He will have
She not
It finished.

We shall have not finished

You will have

They finished

FuturePerfectTense выражает действие, которое уже закончится ранее определенного момента будущего времени; переводится на русский язык будущим временем совершенного вида обычно в сочетании с такими наречиями, как already , before , after , предлогом by .

Past Perfect & Future Perfect

Ex. 81 Translate into Russian. Переведите на русский язык .1. We had already built this plant by the end of 1997. 2.I had already written my exercise by half past six. 3. At nine o'clock he had already left. 4 I had written my exercise before he came. 5. They had returned home long before I rang them up.

Ex . 82 Дополните предложения для обоснования использования глаголов в Past Perfect Tense . Образец : We had lived here for six years. Then we moved to Bruges.

1.I had worked at this ministry for two years.

2. He had eaten his breakfast.

3. Tom had been a student for 5 years.

4. The dog had eaten the meat. 5

5. Nick had told the whole story.

6. Tom had done his lessons.

7. He had called the managers.

8. He had bought a new brief- case. 9. He had chopped the firewood. 10. He had got a job offer.

SIMPLE

простое

PROGRESSIVE

длительное

Действие регулярное ,

обычное, постоянное,

констатация факта.

Действие, происходящее

в данный момент, заплани-

рованное действие.Процесс.

PRESENT

настоящее

V,Vs(гл. в I ф. без частицы to)

I write letters every day.

He writes letters every day.

Do, does (3л. ед.ч.) вспом.гл

Do you write letters?

He doesn’t write letters.

Always(всегда), every

day ( week, month ) ,

often [ofn] часто,usually обычно

to be(am, is, are) + V-ing

I am writing a letter now.

He is writing a letter now.

Are you writing a letter?

They are not writing a letter

now (сейчас).

Now, at this moment , right now

Спряжение глагола to be

Ед. ч. 1 л. I am Мн. ч. We are

2 л. You are You are

3 л. He, she, it is They are

PAST

прошедшее

V-ed (regular verb),

V2(II form of irregular

verb (неправильный гл.)

I wrote a letter yesterday.

He asked last year(в пр. году).

Did he write a letter?

You didn’t ask that.

Yesterday(вчера),last year(в

прошлом году),

a month ago(месяц назад).

to be (was,were ) + V-ing

I was writing a letter at that time.

They were (мн.ч) writing a letter at

5 o’clock yesterday.

Were (мн. ч.) you writing a letter

at that time?

He was not writing at that time.

At that time, at 5 o’clock,

all the time, while you were

reading.

FUTURE

будущее

Shall(1л. ед. ч), will+V

I shall write a letter tomorrow.

He will write a letter next month.

When will we write a letter?

Will he write a letter?

She will not write tomorrow.

Tomorrow(завтра), next week(на след. неделе),

in two years(через 2 года).

Shall(will) be + Ving

I shall be writing a letter at 7

o’clock in the evening.

Will he be writing a letter when I

come?

He will not be writing a letter while

he will be writing an article.

At 7 o’clock tomorrow,when I

come, while he’ll be doing it.

PERFECT

завершенное

PERFECT

PROGRESSIVE

завершено- длительное

Действие, завершенное

к данному моменту.

(связано с настоящим)

Действие, длящееся в течение определенного периода времени.

to have (has- 3л. ед.ч.)

+V-ed (regular verb- прав. гл.)

+V3 (III form of irregular verb)

I have already written a letter.

He has just answered this letter

Has she done this task?

You haven’t written this task .

Already(уже) ,yet(еще-отриц предл.),

Just (только что) ,this week( на этой

неделе), today( сегодня), never(никогда),

ever(когда-либо), lately(недавно).

to have(has)been +

+ V-ing

I have been writing this letter

for 2 hours.

Since when has he been

writing this letter?

He hasn’t been writing this

Letter for 5 hours.

Since 5 o’clock (с 5 часов) , for 2

hours (a month, a day)

Had + V3(III form of irregular

verb), + V-ed(regular verb)

I had written a letter by that time.

He had answered this questions by

5 o’clock.

Had you written a letter by that

time?

She hadn’t written a letter by that time

By that time( к тому времени),

by 5 o’clock,

Before he came.

Had been + V-ing

I had been studying English for an hour when you came.

Had he been studying English since 2 o’clock

when he came?

For an hour, since 5

o’clock (when you came)

Shall(will) have+V3, +V-ed

I shall have written the letter by 7

o’clock tomorrow.

Will you have written this letter before

I come?

He will not have written this letter

before I come.

By 2 o’clock tomorrow, before

you come.

Shall(will)have been + Ving

She will have been writing for

two hours by the time he

comes.

Shall we have been studying

English next year for 5 years?

For 2 years, when I finish my work.

Ex. 83 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Past Simple и Past Perfect.

1.Не (to study) better than his father (to do). 2. They (to spend) their vacation last year at the same . village where they (to live) many years ago. 3. When we (to come) she already (to send) the children away and (to be free) to speak to us. 4. Yesterday I (to buy) a new watch as I (to lose) my old one. 5. He (to take) the boy to the door by which he himself (to enter) the room. 6. He (to open) his eyes (to look) around and (think) for some time, trying to remember what (to happen) to him. 7. After they travelled in the Caucasus they (to decide) to make a sea voyage. 8. They (to see) at once that the man (to travel) a lot. 9. He could go to the seaside in June because he (to pass) all his examination. 10. He (to eat) all the cakes after she (to tell) him not to do it. 11. The day after the party he (to ask) why we (to leave) so early. 12. After they (to go) at last I (to go) to bed. 13 I (have) nothing to eat and felt very hungry. 14. As soon as he quite (finish), he looked round. 15. I ... never (see) him in my life, so of course I couldn't recognize him. 16. He (eat) quickly, then he got up and walked out.

Ex . 84 Переведите на русский язык.

1. Will you have come home by 5 o'clock? 2. We shall have erected this dam by 2002.3. Inthree years' time I shall have taken my degree. 4. John will not have signed the contract before we come. 5. Will you have repaired the watch by Friday? 6. John will have examined the car well before he buys it.

Ex . 85 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect .

1. By next winter he (to sold) all his things. 2. He (to leave) when you arrive. 3. By next month he (to write) his fourth play. 4. We (to solve) this difficult problem by the end of the week. 5. The wind (to drop) by then. 6. When the sun sets I (to read) this book. 7. If you come at nine they (to have) dinner. 8. If you ring me up after nine o'clock, I (to speak) to the doctor. 9. We (to travel) twenty miles more before we cross the frontier 10. Next year we (to be) together for ten years.

Вместо Future Perfect Tense вобстоятельственныхпридаточныхпредложенияхпослеafter, when, as soon as, before, if употребляется Present Perfect.

Ex . 86 Переведите на русский язык 1.I shall leave for Moscow as soon as I have finished my business here. 2. He will not see you before I spoken to him. 3. She will return this magazine after she has read it. 4. Don't come here before you have finished writing this letter. 5.I shall lend you this journal as soon as I have read it. 6. As soon as I have come home, I will call you. 7. After you have finished writing this document, please, call the manager about it 8. When you have done the work, you still will have plenty of time. 9. As soon as you have got any news, let me know.

Ex. 87 Fill in the verbs.

Could, is going, didn’t walk, would, began, is playing, are, have been, will travel, haven’t

finished

1) They … never … to London.

2) I think he … to watch TV.

3) … you like some apple juice?

4) They … not rich enough to buy a new house.

5) The boy … the guitar now.

6) My parent … by plane next week.

7) … you help me, please?

8) We … this exercise now.

9) I … school when I was six years old.

10) They … to school yesterday.

Ex. 88 Fill in the verbs.

Will travel, wrote, would, could, haven’t got, are drinking, has cooked, have polluted, recycle, is going

1) Factories and cars … the air. 8) … you like a cap of coffee?

2) … you turn the TV down, please. 9) I … enough money for this dress.

3) He … a dictation yesterday. 10) We … there by plane.

4) They usually … unnecessary things.

5) We … coffee now.

6) Her family … to buy a car.

7) My mother … already … dinner.

Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее завершено - длительное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I

He

She had
It

We been
You waiting

They

I
he

she
it
Had we been
you waiting?

they

He

She
It

We had not
You been
They waiting

Типичный предлог для Past Perfect Progressive — for. Past Perfect Progressive выражает действие, длившееся в определенный период времени в прошлом до указанного момента или включая этот момент.

Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее завершено - длительное время

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I shall have been waiting

He will have
She been
It waiting

We shall have been waiting

You have
They been

waiting

Shall I have been waiting?

he have
Will she been

it waiting?

Shall we have been waiting?

you have

Will they been

waiting?

I shall have not been

waiting

He will have
She not been
It waiting

We shall have not
been waiting

You will have
They not been waiting

Типичныйпредлогдля Future Perfect Progressive — for. FuturePerfectProgressive выражает действие, которое будет происходить в определенный период времени в будущем до указанного момента или включая этот момент.

Ex. 89 Choose the right tense .

1) I .... at the University since September . a) study b) am studying c) have been studying

2) He .... already this film . a) saw b) has seen c) had seen

3) We .... on the blackboard with a peace of chalk . a) are writing b) write c) have been writing

4) He ..... this film last week . a) has seen b) had seen c) saw

5) Don`t come to the room . The students from our group ..... a test here .

a) write b) have been writing c) are writing

Ex. 90 Ask questions .

She teaches English at the University . a) does b) where c) what d) who

Last summer he went to the Caucasus . a) did b) where c) when d) who

Ex. 91 Fill in the gaps .

1) Ann and all other students are in the lecture hall . They ..... (do) a test .

It started four hours ago . They .... (do) it for four hours .

2) Hello , Pete , I ....(see) you for ages . – I was on holiday . I ... (come back) last night .- .... you ....(have) your holiday this year yet , Mary ? - Not yet . I am taking it at the end of July . Where are you going ? I think of going to the Crimea . But you .... (be) there twice .

3) Peter and Mary walked on to the station half an hour ago . They ....(wait) for a train They ....(wait) for half an hour.

4) - Where ... (go) ? – Oh , hello , Pete . We`re off to the theatre .- ...(go) to the theatre

often ? - Yes , we usually .... (go) there every week . What about you ? – Well , I do

not often find time , I`m afraid . – Bye . –Bye . Have a good time .

5) How long .... you ... ( learn) English ? What ... you (do) now ? I .... (write) a test .

I ... (write) a test for ten minutes .Where is Tom ? I ....(not see) him today . Where

is Tom ? I ..... (not see) him at school yesterday . I ... (be) to Leningrad several times. I ... (be) in Leningrad twice last year .

7) Dear Boris ,

I (receive) your letter about a month ago , but I couldn`t find time to answer it .

I (be) very busy lately . Three days ago I (fail) in History , as I (miss) many lectures and (not attend) seminars . In general I (not to work) hard . Right now it is 6 p.m. and I (sit) at my desk . I (sit) here for five hours doing my work . I (decide) to have a few hour`s rest , so I (write) you . Please write soon . Sincerely yours , Pete .

Ex. 92 Choose the right answer .

1) I .... school 2 years ago . a) left b) have left c) had left

2) What article .... you now ? a) translate b) have been translating c) are translating

3) Yesterday at 5 o `clock I .... an article . a) translated b) will translate c) was translating

4) How many articles ..... you this year . a) have translated b) translated c) had translated

5) He ..... articles very well. a) is translating b) translates c) translated

6)Tomorrow at 7 o`clock I ..... an article .a) shall translate b) shall have translated c) shall be

translating

7) I .... this article since Monday. a) translate b) have been translating c) am translating

8) I ... this article soon . a) shall translate b) shall be translating c) was translating

9) Yesterday I .... this article . a) translated b) was translating

10) I .... this article before you came . a) had translted b) was translating c) translated

11) I ..... this article for an hour already when you came .a) had been translating b) was translating c) had translated

12) Tomorrow will be a month , when I .... this article . a) shall have been translating

b) shall translate c) shall be translating .

Ex . 93 Translate into English .

1) Я учусь в университете уже несколько месяцев. (study)

2) Я окончил школу в прошлом году.(leave)

3) В конце каждого семестра мы будем сдавать несколько экзаменов.(term, totake)

4) Мы часто работаем в лингафонном кабинете .(languagelaboratory)

5) К концу года мы представим курсовую работу нашему куратору .(topresent, coursepaper,tutor)

Past Perfect Progressive & Future Perfect Progressive

Ex. 94 Translate into Russian.( Переведите на русский язык . )

1. Не had been sitting here for 40 minutes when the telephone rang. 2.I had been trying to get him on the phone all day. 3. At eight in the morning we had bee driving for six hours. 4. It was clear that they had bee gossiping again. 5. He'd probably been brooding over it day and night — he was that sort. 6. We had been walking in the rain for many hours when we saw house. 7. She had been sitting there for half an hour before it started raining. 8. He had been looking for the glasses for an hour before he realized he had them in his pocket. 9. He had been waiting for her for a long time before she came. 10. Tom had been doing his homework for an hour when his friend came to see him.

Ex . 95 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы. 1. I thought you had been working here for five years. 2. John said the children had been playing in the garden since nine o'clock. 3. By that time she had already been studying at the university for three year 4. He told me he had been working at his translation since the morning. 5. They had been sleeping for six hours when the noise began. 6. She had finished her work before she went out.

Ex. 96 Translate into Russian.( Переведите на русский язык . ) 1. They will have been sitting here for 20 minutes when I come. 2. In ten minutes' time I shall have been hanging around here for exactly four hours! 3. When they finish I will have been waiting for them for 30 minutes. 4. Tomorrow it will be a month as they have been working on this project. 5. When the boss will see me, I will have been waiting for him for 2 hours. 6. He will have been repairing his car for two weeks on Wednesday. 7. He will have been working on his book for a year soon.

Ex. 97 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect Progressive .

1.Не (to study) in London for two years when I come here. 2. He (to teach) German for two years when I begin to teach English. 3. By next July she (to live) here for five years. 4. At six o'clock I (to work) for five hours. 5. I (to work) at the library for 3 hours when you come there.

Ex. 98 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Simple, Present Progressive, Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Progressive.

It ... (rain) all day today. I ... (suspect) it ... always (rain) on Sundays in England. Anyhow, it ... (rain) every Sunday since I... (arrive) here three months ago. I ... just (begin) to get used to it but I ... (find) it rather monotonous! I ... (live) in a boarding-house in Bayswater as I ... (not, possess) enough money to stay in a hotel or a flat of my own. However, I... (enjoy) my stay here as I ... already (have) many opportunities to meet interesting people who ... (come) from all over the world. Like me, they ... (study) English or else they ... (work) with foreign firms that have branches or agencies here. Some of them ... (live) here for quite a long time but even they ... (not, all, speak) English very well. My friend Peter, for instance, who ... (come) from Basel, and ... (come) here a year ago, ... still (speak) with a strong Swiss accent. He says this is because he ... (work) long hours with an export-import firm where they ... (speak) little English. Although I ... (be) here only three months, I ... (pick) up enough English to be able to correct Peter frequently, but as I ... (learn) English at school here, I have an unfair advantage over Peter, who is a good fellow, and ... (be) most helpful in showing me about London during the first weeks of my stay.

Ex.99 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Simple , Present Progressive, Present Perfect, Future Simple, Future Progressive, Future Perfect, Future Perfect Progressive.

1.I ... (wait) for you at the hotel at midday tomorrow. 2. All the time you are toiling(трудиться) in the office next week, I... (enjoy) myself on the beach! 3."Don't worry," said the doctor, "your bones ... (mend-заживать) nicely in a few days." 4.I ... (finish) everything by the time you get back tomorrow. 5.I... (have) an operation then, so don't come until some weeks later. 6.1 wonder what I... (do) at this time tomorrow. 7.I hope you ... (work) at this time tomorrow. 8. Please show me the painting when you ... (complete) it. 9.I ... (live) here twenty years next September.10. When you ... (do) your homework, pay particular attention to neatness (аккуратность). 11. When you ... (live) in London as long as I, you will know its geography fairly well. 12 ... I (see) you next week? I'd like to know for certain.

Ex. 100 Ask questions

1)The contract had been signed by the end of last month.(What)2)The suitcase was being packed when she called.(Was)3)The letter is being translated from Russian into English at the moment by our translator.(By whom)4)The flat has been already sold.(Has)5)The house will be renovated next month.(When)6)The first telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876.(When)(By whom).

Сопоставление Present Simple, Present Progressive, Present Perfect и Present Perfect Progressive

1. Present Simple (действие происходит вообще, не в момент разговора)

Не usually goes to the Institute.

Он обычно ходит в институт.

2. Present Progressive (действие еще про-
исходит в момент разговора)

Не is still going to the Institute.

Он все еще идет в институт.

3. Present Perfect (действие уже произошло к моменту разговора)

Не has gone to the Institute.

Он уже ушел в институт.

4. Present Perfect Progressive (действие уже продолжалось до момента разговора и
все еще происходит)
This has been going on for two hours. Это продолжается
уже 2 часа.

Сопоставление Past Simple, Past Progressive, Past Perfect и Past Perfect Progressive

1. Past Simple (действие проис-
ходило в прошлом, не в момент разговора)

Не went to the Institute yesterday.

Он ходил в институт вчера.

2. Past Progressive (действие все еще происходило в определенный момент прошедшего времени) Не was going to the Institute when I met him. Он шел в институт, когда я его встретил.
3. Past Perfect (действие уже
произошло к определенному моменту прошедшего времени)

Не had gone to the Institute before I came.

Он уже ушел в институт до того, как я
пришел.

4. Past Perfect Progressive

(действие уже происходило до определенного момента
в прошлом и все еще продолжало
происходить)

This had been going on for 2 hours when you arrived. Это продолжалось уже 2 часа, когда вы приехали.

Сопоставление Future Simple, Future Progressive, Future Perfect и Future Perfect Progressive

1. Future Simple (действие будет
происходить в будущем)

She will go to the Institute next year.

Она будет ходить в институт в будущем году.

2. Future Progressive (действие все еще
будет происходить в определенный
момент будущего)
Не will be going to the Institute when I
meet him.Он будет идти в институт, когда я его встречу.
3. Future Perfect (действие уже
произойдет к определенному моменту в будущем)
Не will have gone to the Institute before I come. Он уже уйдет в институт до того, как я приду.
4. Future Perfect Progressive (действие уже будет происходить до определенного момента в будущем и все еще будет продолжаться) This will have been going on for 2 hours when you arrive. Это будет продолжаться уже в течение 2 часов, когда вы приедете.

Ex. 101 Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present Simple, Present Progressive, Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Progressive.

1.I ... still not (find) the stocking I lost last week.

2. What... you (eat)? Your lips and chin are purple!

3.My family ... (live) in the same house for 3 years now.

4.... you (finish) the book I lent you last week?

5.Who ... (sing) in the bath when I came in?

6.It started to rain while I... (weed) the rockery.

7.While I... (weed), Jack ... (mow) the lawn. He finished long before I did.

8.My wound ... (ache) ever since it started to rain.
9. My ankle (лодыжка) is swollen: I... (think) I have sprained it.

10. I... (think) about it and I fancy I have found the answer.

11. As it is raining, I... (not, go) out.

12. Ah, there you are! I hope you ... (not, wait) for me for a long time.

13 . ... anyone here (lose) a silver pencil?

14.I ... (sleep) badly recently, doctor. What can I do about it?

15.I... (try) to finish this exercise for the last hour.

16.... your friends (arrive) in South Africa yet?

17.Yes, they ... (arrive) there ten days ago.
18.I... (order) you to do it at once!

19. Go on, I... (listen) attentively.

20. What... you (do) when I came in a moment ago?

21. He ... (fish) a long time but hasn't caught even a minnow yet.

22. I ... (wait) for you for ages. Thank heavens you're here at last.

23. As I ... (go) down the street just now, I saw an odd(странный) scene.

24.I... (go) to see Uncle Charles quite a lot recently.

25.I ... (go) to see him again on Friday but I was kept late at the office.

26.Uncle Charles ... (make) money ever since he was a boy. He's enormously rich!

27.I'm feeling unwell so I... (not, eat) anything today.

28.I... (hope) nothing untoward has happened to you.

29.Our firm ... (make) biscuits ever since the reign of Charles II.

30.Our firm ... (make) the biscuits Wellington ate before the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

31. ... you ever (see) any elephants when you were in Africa?

32... (work) rather hard and I feel tired.

33. We ... (learn) several new idioms today.

34. When I ... (do) my homework, I listen to the wireless before going to bed,,

35.I.. (know) him for a long time; in fact he is my oldest friend.

36.I shall have to walk as I... (miss) the last bus.

37. Your English ... (improve) since I started to teach you.

38 ... you (solve) that problem yet?

39 friend ... already (find) a good job in the city.

40 Why ... you not (speak) to him when he passed just now?

41.What a mess! What ... you (do), you naughty child?

42. ... you (see) John this week?

43. What ... Caesar (say) when he crossed the Rubicon?

Test

Ex . 102 Раскройте скобки, ставя глаголы в соответствующем времени.

1.And now the trade of this town (develop) with extreme rapidity and the ambition of the inhibitions (grow) along with it.

2.Have you any idea what she (do) when I (ring) her up tomorrow?

3.We (know) him a long time before we (give) him a position in the accounts department.

4.I want the full programme you (show) in the afternoon of the 4th October. I want to see these pictures as your audiences (see) them the week before last. That (not be) possible here, but perhaps the identical programme (run) now in some other picture-house.

5. He parted from them in the firm conviction that he (receive) far more information than he (impart).

6. When your case (come) on the stroke of the appointed hour, it (be followed) a minute later by that of the chairman.

7. He knew he (must) do it though he (not need) to worry about the consequences.

8. When I was living in England I often (think) how unexcited these English always (be).

9. I (stay), I am determined to stay here for the present, until the end of June at any rate.

10."I thought there (may) be something for me," she said opening the envelope. "I (have) anonymous

letters before now and there (be), not one of them that (not mean) something."

11. Nothing satisfies him, he always (complain)!

12. By that time you (learn) that nobody can really help you but yourself.

13. Is it the same lady I (see) you with yesterday?
14. I (notice) a number of improvements done in this town since I last was here.

15. They (add) a new wing to the library since spring.

16.I'm afraid he (not realize) the importance of this question.

17. I (dream) that I (walk) in a marvelous garden when the telephone wakened me.

18. He never (be) the same since his accident.

19. He got there sooner than he (expect).

20. He is still a very poor singer for all he (do) to rain his voice.

21. I have sworn that I (not go) back till I (see) all he marvels of this oriental city.

22. I (see) him last week and he told me he (quit) his b in the dispatch department and that he (act)

as assistant director of the invoice department from the beginning of the month.

23. By the end of summer the greater part of our к (be completed).

24. What did you do when you (find) out you (lose) your wallet?

25. Look! I believe it is Mrs. Stern who (cross) the street.

26 … you ever (hear) of an honest thief?

27. These orphans (live) here ever since the cruelty of man (deprive) them of their homes.

28. "What's the matter?" — "Someone (scribble) in my book!"

29. Can you imagine that at 6.30 the two teams (fight) for 2 hours!

30. Hardly he (glance) at the letter when he dashed it impatiently on the ground.

31. The scientist died without realizing that he (make) a discovery which (revolutionize) the whole

world.

32. I (take) to her the moment I saw her and very soon we (decide) to marry.

33. I was afraid Diana (break) down when she (be informed) of Alan's accident.

34 After you (leave) I (must) apologize for your behavior.

35. The militarization of science means the open abandonment of the high ideals by which scientists

(be nurtured).

36. I never (have) such a terrifying experience in my life!

37. That clerk (lose) his place because he (prove) dishonest.

38. She (have) dinner here if she comes tomorrow.

39. Listen, somebody (knock) at the door! I (suppose) it's the chairwoman. She usually (come) before nine.

40. After she (speak) to the policeman she knew where she was.

Adding . Приложение.

At the airport . В аэропорту

Terminal – аэровокзал Entrance – вход

Flight – рейс самолета Exit – выход

Arrivals – прибытие

Departures – отправление Landing – посадка самолета

Information – справочное бюро Timeofdeparture – время отправления

Check-in – регистрация Passportcontrol – паспортный контроль

Gate – выход на посадку Customs – таможня

Luggageclaim – выдача багажа Lost & (and) Found – бюро забытых вещей

Delay – опоздание, рейс откладывается Duty-freeShop – магазин беспошлинной торговли

Security – служба безопасности Toilet, WC – туалет

Phrases. Фразы

Hello! Here is my ticket / passport – Здравствуйте! Вот мой билет / паспорт

Here’sahotelreservation – Вот бронирование гостиницы

I am here on business – Яздесьподелам

I’m here on a holiday / as a tourist – Яздесьвотпуске / кактурист

The purpose of my visit is personal – Цельмоеговизиталичная

I’m here for a week – Яздесьнанеделю

I shall stay at a hotel/ at my friends – Яостановлюсьвгостинице / удрузей

Thisbagismyhandluggage - Эту сумку я хочу взять в самолет

Here is my customs declaration - Вотмоятаможеннаядекларация

I have nothing to declare - Мненечегодекларировать

All these things are for my use - Этомоиличныевещи

I have with me Russian roubles / US dollars /euros -Уменяссобойроссийскиерубли/$/евро

My luggage is missing - Уменяпропалбагаж

I need an interpreter - Мненуженпереводчик

Phonethisnumber, please - Позвоните по этому телефону, пожалуйста

Where can I take the carriage for my luggage? - Гдеямогувзятьтележкудлябагажа?

Where do passengers of flight … receive luggage? - Гдевыдачабагажапассажирамрейса…?

Icannotfindmysuitcase? - Я не нахожу своего чемодана

Unfortunately, nobodyhasmetme - К сожалению, меня никто не встретил

How can I get to the city / the hotel? - Какмнедобратьсядогорода / гостиницы?

Where is an information service of the airport?-гденаходитсясправочнаяслужбааэропорта?

Where is the indicator-board of departures/ arrivals?- Где находится табло вылета / прилета?

What an excess weight of luggage I have? - Какойуменяперевесбагажа?

How much should I pay for excess weight of the luggage?- Сколько я должен заплатить за перевес?

What’s the boarding gates for the flight? - Гдепроизводитсяпосадканарейс?

At the airplane. В самолете

Emergency exit - АварийныйвыходNo smoking - Некурить

Fasten Seat Belts - ПристегнутьремниVacant - Свободно

Occupied – ЗанятоBusiness-class - Бизнес-класс

Economy-class - Эконом-классAisle [ail] – Проход

Seat – МестоSeat back - Спинкакресла

Air vent – ВентиляторLife jacket - Спасательныйжилет

Phrases. Фразы

Please, give me a blanket / a pillow / a paper bag - Дайте, пожалуйста, плед / подушку / пакетик

Help me, please to fasten the belts / to tip up the seat - Помогитемне, пожалуйста,

пристегнутьремни / откинутькресло

Bring me, please juice / mineral water(with ice) / tea / coffee - Принесите, пожалуйста, сок /

минеральную воду (со льдом) / чай / кофе

I am not well. Help me, please. - Мнеплохо. Помогите, пожалуйста

At the hotel .В гостинице

B&B ( bedandbreakfast) - ночлег и завтрак Reception - регистрация

Manager – администратор Adoubleroom - двухместный номер

Donotdisturb - не беспокоить Fireexit - запасный выход

Service – обслуживаниеMoney / Currency exchange - обменденег / валюты

No vacancies - местнетRoom number - номеркомнаты

Maid – горничнаяHalfboard - полупансион

Room service - обслуживаниевномерKey - ключ

Shower –душBathroom - ванная

Balcony – балконConditioner - кондиционер

Bathrobe – халатSlippers - тапочки

Porter - носильщик

Phrases .Фразы

Doyouhavevacantrooms? - У вас есть свободные номера?

Ihaveareservation. - У меня забронирован номер

I’dlikeasingleroom. - Мне нужен одноместный номер

Howmuchisitpernight? - Сколько стоит номер в сутки?

I’d like to see the room. - Можнопосмотретьномер?

It’stooexpensive. - Это слишком дорого

I’ll take this room. Key, please. - Яберуэтотномер. Ключ, пожалуйста.

I’llstayhereforoneweek. - Я остановлюсь на неделю.

I need a safe. - Мненуженсейф.

When is breakfast here? - Когдаздесьзавтрак?

Please, wakemeupat 7 a. m. - Разбудите меня в семь часов утра, пожалуйста.

Please, call a taxi for me at 10.00 p.m. - Закажитетакси, пожалуйста, на 10 часоввечера.

The toilet is out of order. - Туалетплохоработает.

The TV is out of order. - Телевизорсломался.

I’m sick, I need a doctor. - Яболен, мненуженврач.

We are leaving. Here is the key. - Мыуезжаем. Вот ключ от номера.

Thebill, please - Счет, пожалуйста.

Can I pay by credit card? - Можнооплатитькредитнойкартой?

Give me, please, the key of my room / one more towel. - Дайтемне, пожалуйста, ключот

моего номера / еще одно полотенце.

Changebed-linen, please. - Смените, пожалуйста, постельное белье.

A switch has broken / A bulb has burnt out in my room. - Уменявномересломался

выключатель / перегорела лампочка

At the restaurant . В ресторане

Restaurant – ресторанPub - паб

Snack bar – закусочнаяTeashop, tea room - чайная

Bar – барBreakfast - завтрак

Lunch, dinner – обедSupper - ужин

Menu – менюVegetarian menu - вегетарианскоеменю

Wine list - картавинBill - счет

Waiter – официантA dish of the day - дежурноеблюдо

Sandwiches – бутербродыA plate - тарелка

A cup - чашкаA spoon - ложка

A fork – вилкаA knife - нож

A glass – бокалA napkin – салфетка

Salt – сольSugar - сахар

Pepper – перецMustard - горчица

Ashtray – пепельницаA toothpick - зубочистка

Salad –салатAppetizer – закуска

Herring – селедкаCaviar - икра

Sausage - колбасаWine - вино

Mineralwater - вода минеральная Juice - сок

Bread – хлебThe first course - первое (блюдо)

Soup – супBroth - бульон

The main course - второе (блюдо) Meat - мясо

Beef – говядинаPork - свинина

Lamb – баранинаChop - отбивная

Chicken – курицаVeal - телятина

Fish – рыбаSalmon - лосось

Fresh-water fish - речнаярыбаEggs - яйца

Seafood – морепродуктыShrimps - креветки

Lobster –омарOysters [‘oistƏs] - устрицы

Localdish - национальное блюдо Potatoes - картофель

Rice – рис Vegetables - овощи

Cucumbers – огурцы Tomatoes - помидоры

Sauce [so:s] – соусDessert [de’sƏ:t] - десерт

Coffee – кофеTea - чай

A cake – пирожноеSweets - конфеты

Jam – вареньеFruit - фрукты

Ice-cream – мороженоеHot - горячий

Cold – холодныйFresh - свежий

Boiled – вареныйFried - жареный

Smoked – копченыйSalted - соленый

Spicy – острыйNo salt - безсоли

Sweet – сладкийSparkling - газированный

Still - негазированныйA bottle - бутылка

Phrases .Фразы

Atableforone / two, please - Мне нужен столик на одного / на двоих .

Give me a menu, please - Дайтеменю, пожалуйста

Do you have a menu in Russian? - Увасестьменюнарусскомязыке?

What do you recommended for dinner? - Чтолучшевзятьнаобед?

I would like to order … - Яхочуещезаказать …

Where is the toilet? - Гдездесьтуалет?

The bill, please - Счет, пожалуйста

Thank you, the meal was very good - Спасибо, всебылооченьвкусно

Shops and Shopping. Магазины и покупки .

Open – открытоOpening hours - часыработы

Close – закрытоSale - распродажа

Groundfloor - цокольный этаж Food - продукты

Men’swear - мужская одежда Women’swear - женская одежда

Customer services -обслуживаниепокупателей

Department store – универмагShopping centre - торговыйцентр

Supermarket – супермаркетMarket - рынок

Basket – корзинаPlastic bag - пакет

Shop assistant – продавецCustomer - покупатель

Things – вещиSize - размер

Pay desk – кассаMoney - деньги

Change – сдачаCoins - монеты

Credit card - кредитнаякартаCheque - чек

Price – ценаDiscount – скидка

Clothes – одеждаShoes - обувь

Hats – шляпыChildren clothes - товарыдлядетей

Toys – игрушкиChina - посуда

Camera – фотоаппаратыHousehold goods - хозтовары

Electric goods – электротоварыSports - спорттовары

Underwear - нижнеебельеSouvenirs - сувениры

Jeweller’s - ювелирныеизделияPerfumes - духи

Groceries – бакалеяConfectionary - кондитерскиеизделия

Phrases. Фразы

Where is a shopping centre? – Гдездесьторговыйцентр?

I want to buy … - Яхочукупить …

Ineed … - Мне нужно …

Ihave … - У меня есть …

I’mjustlooking – Я просто смотрю.

How much is it? – Сколькостоит?

Give me, please … - Дайтемне …

Where is a fitting room? – Гдездесьпримерочная?

Where is a lift? – Гделифт?

Show me, please … - Покажитемне …

Could you help me? – Непоможетемне?

I’ll take it – Яэтоберу.

It’s too small/big for me – Этомнемало / велико.

My size is … - Мойразмер …

I want the same but of other colour – Мненужендругойцвет.

CanIuseacreditcard? – Я могу заплатить кредитной карточкой?

Can I change this thing? – Можнообменятьэтувещь?

Where is the sale here? – Гдездесьраспродажа?

Shall I get my money back? – Мневернутденьги?

At the chemist’s. В аптеке

Chemist’s, drugstore – АптекаChemist’s shop open - Дежурнаяаптека

Where is the chemist’s / drugstore (амер.) here? - Гдездесьаптека?

Ineed - Мне нужен …

Haveyou … - Есть у вас …?

Antibiotic - антибиотик

Iodine - йод

A bandage - бинт

An adhesive - лейкопластырь

A syringe - шприц

Painkiller - болеутоляющее

Medicine against an allergy - средствопротиваллергии

Febrifuge - жаропонижающее

Nose drops - капливнос

Give me, please, something for … - Дайтемне, пожалуйста, что-нибудьот …

A headache [hedeik] - головнойболи

A cold – простуды, насморка

A cough [kof] - кашля

Stomachache [stLmƏkeik] - боливжелудке

Can I get here a medicine according to the prescription? - Увасестьлекарствопоэтомурецепту?

How much must I pay? - Сколькосменя? (напишите, пожалуйста)

At the doctors. У врача

I’mnotwell - Я плохо себя чувствую.

I’m ill - Язаболел.

I need a doctor - Мненуженврач.

Could you help me, please? - Помогитемне, пожалуйста.

Idon’tspeakEnglish - Я не говорю по-английски.

Call an ambulance, please - Вызовитескоруюпомощь.

I have medical insurance [in’∫uƏrƏns] certificate - Уменяестьмедицинскаястраховка.

How could I take this medicine?(write it down, please) - Какприниматьлекарство? (напишитепожалуйста)

before meal - доедыafter meal - послееды

I have … - Уменя ..

A fever - температура, жар

An ache [eik] in the throat - болитгорло

A pain in the back - больвспине

Ahigh / lowbloodpressure [‘pre∫Ə] - повышенное / пониженное кровяное давление

Disordered stomach - расстройствожелудка

Could I see a dentist? - Мненужензубнойврач.

CouldIhaveabloodtest? - Мне нужно сделать анализ крови.

Taxi . Такси

Taxi stand / taxi rank - стоянкатакси

I need a taxi -Мненужнотакси.

Are you free? - Высвободны?

This address, please - Отвезитеменяпоэтомуадресу.

To the city centre, please - Отвезитеменявцентргорода.

Stop here, please - Остановитесьздесь.

Wait here, please - Подождитездесь.

A receipt [risit], please - Квитанцию, пожалуйста.

A post office. A telephone .Почта . Телефон

Postbox, mailbox - почтовыйящикPostal code - почтовыйиндекс

Letter – письмоTo send a letter - послатьписьмо

A stamp – маркаAn envelop - конверт

A postcard - почтоваяоткрыткаA telegram - телеграмма

A register letter - заказноеписьмоTo send by E-mail - послатьпоэлектроннойпочте

Express delivery - срочнаядоставкаA sender - отправитель

An addressee – получательAn address - адрес

Tosendafax - отправить факс Payphone - платный таксофон (монетный)

Phonecard - телефонная карточка Cardphone - карточный таксофон

Mobilephone - мобильный телефон Telephonedirectory - телефонный справочник

Todial - набрать номер Engaged / busy - линия занята

Reversechargecall - звонок за счет вызываемого абонента

Phrases. Фразы

Where is a telephone here? - Гдездесьтелефон?

I want to make a phone call to Russia - МненужнопозвонитьвРоссию

Give me, please the phone number for - Мненуженномертелефонав …

What dialing code for … - Какойкодв …?

We have been cut off - Насразъединили.

Надписи и указатели

At the city В городе Bank Банк

Square – ПлощадьCash machine (dispenser) – Банкомат

City centre - ЦентргородаCommission fee – Комиссионныйсбор

Pedestrians only - ТолькодляпешеходовTraveler’s cheques – Дорожныечеки

Keepleft - Держитесь левой стороны Banktransfer – Банковский перевод

Keepright - Держитесь правой стороны Bankaccount – Банковский счет
Underground – Метро Todrawmoneyfromthebankaccount - Снять деньги со счета

Taxistand - Стоянка такси Payment - Выплата

No Trespassing - ПроходзапрещенTo cash - Обналичить

Private ( Property ), no admittance - Постороннимвходвоспрещён

Danger – Опасно для жизни! Moneyorder – Денежный перевод

Press here – НажмитекнопкуIn a train В поезде

Push - От себя Tickets – Билетные кассы

Pull- К себе Left-luggage – Камера хранения

Rent a car (car rental) - ПрокатавтомобилейTrack - Путь

Monday – Friday only – ТолькопобуднямIn a bus В автобусе

Admission – Входная плата Coach – Междугородный автобус

Admissionfree - Вход бесплатный Coachstation – Автовокзал ( для междугор. авт)

Ex. 104 Fill in the gaps with the proper words .

Cooks, wakes, an hour, an early riser, ironing, lunch break, tired, a late riser, o’clock, oversleep.

1) … is a period of time of sixty minutes.

2) Smoothing clothes is … .

3) The alarm clock … me up at seven o’clock.

4) At one p. m. we have an hour’s … .

5) When you have a late night you take a risk to … next morning.

6) It is difficult to get up in the morning if you are … .

7) The work is very hard and I’m awfully … .

8) Jim usually leaves university at two … .

9) She is … , so it is not a problem for her to get up at six in the morning.

10) Who … breakfast for you in the morning.

Word list

To keep to schedule/ to be behind schedule – идтипорасписанию/опаздывать

To catch/to miss the train – успеть/опоздатьнапоезд

Half fare – льготная плата

Full fare – балет за полную стоимость

To go ashore – сойтинаберег

To call a port – зайтивпорт

To be / get seasick – страдать от морской болезни

To hitch - hike – добираться «автостопом»

Waiting-room – заложидания

Tire (Am.)/ tyre (Br.) – шина

Spare tire – запасноеколесо

Rear/front tire – задняя/передняяшина

To fill tires with air – накачатьшины

Ex. 105 Fill in the sentences with the following words.

Behind schedule, missing, fare, in advance, hitch-hiking, lower, tire, gets seasick, go ashore, destination.

1) I want a ticket to Glasgow. How much is the … ?

2) Fred is leaving on Monday. His … is New York.

3) Jane doesn’t like sea voyages, she always … .

4) Where is my suitcase? I’m afraid it may be … .

5) It’s very difficult to get a ticket in summer, you should book it … .

6) The train is due to arrive at six, it’s a quarter past six. The train is … .

7) If the ship calls at a port the passengers can … .

8) … can be rather dangerous for young women.

9) If the … is flat you’ll have to stop at the nearest service station and fill it with air.

10) Some people think the upper berth is less comfortable than the … one.

Ex. 106 Fill in the sentences with the verbs in the infinitive.

Speak, not buy, arrive, go, bring, see, get, take, have, make, translate, give, redecorate.

1) As Barbara was short if time she decided … a taxi.

2) My niece would like … a new baby doll and I promised … her one for her birthday.

3) My granny learnt … French when she was living in Switzerland.

4) Jerry wants … a two-week trip to the Caucasus in June.

5) Melissa refused … to this party even though her friends insisted on it.

6) My wife and I agreed … a new computer but decided … our kitchen instead.

7) John forgot … me my copybook so I can’t hand in my exercises today.

8) Liz hoped … at the airport at 3.40 but because of the traffic jams she managed … there only at 4.

9) Alec hoped … all his classmates at the reunion.

10) Kathleen failed … the sentences at the exam and got a poor mark.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Location

Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Great Britain is separated from the Continent by the English Channel. "Great Britain" is a geographical expression but "The United Kingdom" is a political expression. The name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelands. Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland.

Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total is 242,534 sq. km. Britain is just under 1,000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland, and just under 500 km across in the widest part.

The population of the United Kingdom is 57 million people. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland, with its capital in Dublin. The larger, with London as its capital, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This long title is the result of a complicated history. The Island of Great Britain contains three "nations" which were separated at earlier stages of their history: England, Scotland and Wales. Wales had become part of the English administrative system the 16th century. Scotland was not completely united with England until 1707. The United Kingdom is a name which was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain became united with Ireland.

England

The largest and most densely populated part of the United Kingdom is England. The population of England is 47,837 million people. England is washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The name "England" is derived from the Angles. Roman rule lasted for over 300 years from A. D. 43. The last invasion of England took place in 1066 when Duke William of Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. At that time the English language was very much transformed.

The capital of England is London, which is the largest city in Britain. It is situated on the River Thames (the most important one). There are many rivers in England, the longest is the Severn. England is mostly a lowland country. Upland regions are in the north and the south-west. Northern England, Midland and South England — each part is different but very picturesque.

The English like to spend their holiday in the Lake District, which is in the Northern England.

The main industries in England are the wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and Bradford), heavy machinery, shipbuilding, the cotton industry (the centre is Manchester).

Scotland

Scotland is the most northern part of the island of Great Britain. Its population is over 5 million people. Scotland was inhabited mainly by the Picts.

In the 6th century, the Scots from Ireland (or Scotia) settled in what is now Argyll, giving their name to the present-day Scotland. During the 9th century, the various parts of Scotland united in defence against the Vikings. The powerful monarchy which existed in England threatened Scottish independence throughout

the Middle Ages. In 1603 James VI of Scotland became also James I of England when Queen Elizabeth I of England died without children. In 1651 Scotland was united with England, although

Scotland kept its own parliament. In 1707, both countries, realizing the benefits of closer political and economic union, agreed on a single parliament for Great Britain.

The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and Scotland. The greater part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. Scotland includes the Hebrides off the west coast and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast. It is bounded by the North Sea on the east.

Scotland is divided into three parts: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Highlands are among the oldest mountains in the world. There are a lot of valleys and lakes in this region, the best known lake is Loch Ness.

Most of the population of Scotland is concentrated in the Lowlands. The biggest city is Glasgow. It is an industrial city and an important port in the United Kingdom. Shipbuilding is the leading industry. But other industries such as iron and steel, engineering and coal-mining are highly developed too. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. It is the cultural centre of Scotland.

Wale s

In 1301 after defeating the native princes of Wales, King Edward I of England named his son Prince of Wales. Since then the eldest son of the King or Queen of England has traditionally been given this title. In 1536 Wales was brought into the English system of national and local government by the Act of Union.

Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts until the 4th century. Welsh and English are both official languages in Wales now.

The population of Wales is over 3 million people. About 75% of the people of Wales live in urban districts.

Wales is a highland country of old, hard rocks. North Wales is a country of mountains and deep valleys. South Wales is a land of high hills. The capital of Wales is Cardiff (an industrial city and a port). Cardiff is an administrative and educational centre. Such industries as coal-mining, steel production, electronics, electrical engineering are developed in this part of the country.

The Welsh are fond of folk music, singing and poetry. Welsh literature is one of the oldest in Europe.

Northern Ireland

A number of kingdoms had emerged in Ireland before the Christian era. Ireland didn't escape the invasion of the Vikings, who dominated the country during the 10th century. In 1169 Henry II of England launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been granted its overlordship by the English Pope Adrian IV who wanted to bring the Irish church into full obedience to Rome.

The English Civil Wars (1642—1651) led to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed by Cromwell. During the 18th century various efforts were made by British Government to achieve stability. In 1800 the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was signed. The "Irish question" continued as one of the major problems of

British politics during the 19th century. In 1985 the Angle-Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland. The population of Northern Ireland is about 1.5 million people. It occupies one-sixth of the territory of the United Kingdom. 53% of the population live in urban areas. The largest industry is agriculture. The main industrial centre and a large port is Belfast.

Exercises

1) Answer the questions .

1) When did Scotland and Wales start being governed from London?

2) What are the Welsh fond of?

3) Why is Britain warmer than other countries on the same latitude?

4) How can you explain that London is drier than continental cities?

5) Why is the south of Great Britain better suited to farming than the west or the north?

6) Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. Where does this title come from?

7) What are the main industries in England?

8) What regions is Scotland divided into?

9) When was the Act of Union between Great

Britain and Ireland signed?

2) Fill in the gaps.

1) "Great Britain" is a ... expression.

2) Great Britain is a group of islands which lies between ... and ... .

3) The total area of Great Britain is ....

4) The capital of the Republic of Ireland is ....

5) The name of the United Kingdom was introduced in ... .

6) Roman rule in England lasted for over ... years.

7) ... is an administrative and educational centre of Wales.

8) ... mark the boundary between England and Scotland.

9) ... dominated Ireland during the 10th century.

10) In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed in ....

3) Choose the right answer.

1.The longest river is

a) the Thames.

b) the Severn.

c) the Avon.

2. England is separated from Scotland by...

a) the Pennines.

b) the Southern Uplands.

c) the Cheviot Hills.

London

Read the text and answer the questions:

London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is two thousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it is also a huge port. London is situated upon both banks of the Thames. There 17 bridges across the river. The population of London is about 9 million people. London has got three parts: the City of London, the West End, the East End.

The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom.

The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben. It is interesting that the clock "Big Ben" came into service in 1859. Big Ben is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.

The other interesting place is Westminster Abbey, which was founded in 1050. It is situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin and others.

The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.

There are many nice squares in London. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of the West End. One can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square. There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was fond of paintings and collected many pictures.

The British Museum is a very interesting place in London. It was founded in 1753. The library of this museum has a lot of books. The East End of London is the district for the working people. There are many factories, workshops, docks there. There are many cars and buses in London. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too. It is a nice one. One can say that the City is the money of London, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is the hands of London.

Words

The Houses of Parliament – зданиепарламентаhuge - огромный

The Thames — p. Teмзa pavement - тротуар

Population – населениеworkshop – мастерская, цех

Questions

1. What is the capital of Great Britain?

2. What do you know about the population of Great Britain?

3. Are there any beautiful parks in London?

4. Name three main parts of London.

5. What kind of interesting places are there in London?

6. Where is Trafalgar Square?

7. What do you know about the British Museum?

8. Where is the official London residence of the Queen?

9. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London, isn't it?

10. Have you been to London

The British Museum

The British Museum was opened in 1753. It grew out of collections of three rich men. George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757. The collection is enormous, and covers ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China and Japan, as well as prehistoric times.

Victoria and Albert Museum

Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert. It grew out of the collection of objects bought for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851.

National Gallery

National Gallery has a collection of Italian, Dutch, German and French pictures. The National gallery is rich in paintings by Italian masters such as Raphael and Veronese. It has pictures of European schools of art such as works by Rembrandt, Rubens and El Greco. The gallery is open seven days a week and admission is free.

Tate Gallery

The Tate Gallery opened in 1897and is named after Sir Henry Tate, who donated his collection of 65 paintings to the nation. Now it is the National Gallery of Modern Painting. There is a large collection of European twentieth-century art there.

The Tower

The Tower of London is a very old building. It is more than 900 years old. English kings lived in it many years ago, but now it is a museum. People who come to London like to go to the Tower. It was a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. The ravens are another famous sign. The legend says that without them the Tower will fall.

Buckingham Palace

Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Queen. When the flag is flying on the top she is at home. The Buckingham Palace is the Royal residence. It was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. King George III bought the palace in 1761. It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth and the British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red carpet. Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar , two sport clubs, a disco, a cinema and a swimming pool. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work for the Palace.

Big Ben

Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament is the largest modern building in the richest Gothic style completed in 1857. It stands on the left bank of the river Thames and is 940 ft in length. Those who want to get a front view of the building should look at it from a boat on the Thames. Clock Tower, overlooking Westminster Bridge is 316 ft high and 40 ft square. People are allowed to get inside the Tower so they can see the works of Big Ben. There is no lift and there are three hundred and forty steps up to Big Ben. The faces of the clock are very large. The minute hand is 14 ft long, the hour hand is 9 ft, the figures are 2 ft long.

Nelson’s Column

Nelson's Column is named after the greatest admiral Lord Nelson. It is a very tall column and a figure of Nelson on top of it. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. This is the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde Park Corner. It is sometimes named as Number One, London. Like Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St Paul’s Cathedral.

1) Find the English equivalents in the text.

Королевская библиотека, огромный, древний, доисторический, назван в честь, картина, современное искусство, крепость, тюрьма, вороны, легенда, готический стиль, ступени, минутная стрелка, колонна, герцог.

2) Find in the text and put the words in the correct order.

1) gallery, open, the, days, admission, free, a week, is, and, is.

2) London, very, building, Tower, is, a, old, the, of.

3) flying, when, is, on, top, she, at home, the, flag, the, is.

3) True or False

1) Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria.

2) George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757.

3) National Gallery has a collection of Italian and Dutch pictures.

5) Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Prime Minister.

6) Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of

Buckingham Palace.

7) The legend says that without the ravens the Tower will fall.

8) People are not allowed to get inside the Tower.

9) Nelson's Column is named after the Duke of Wellington.

10) The Duke of Wellington led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Exchanges of Russia

There are different types of exchanges all over the world. They are commodity exchanges, currency exchanges and stock exchanges. The first exchanges in Russia were commodity exchanges as the country is rich in natural resources. Besides at the end of the 80s there was a growing shortage of goods and raw materials and the centrally planned system collapse d.Currency exchanges have been operating in this country since 1989. Their task is to fix the official rates of exchange . In the course of the trading sessions freely-convertible currency is bought and sold for Russian roubles.

The first stock exchange, the Moscow International Stock Exchange, was established in 1990. Among its founders were the Ministry of Finance and a number of banks. The other stock exchange is the Moscow Central Stock Exchange which is closely connected with the Commodity Exchange and the regional stock exchanges. Stock exchanges regulate the circulation of shares issued by joint stock companies . All these types of exchanges help Russia improve its financial system during its transition to a market economy.

Making a contract

Contract as a document

A contract is the most accepted form of formal document confirming the decision of the contracting parties to carry out mutual business obligations. The major contract clauses include articles on legal titles of the parties, subject of the contract, quality and quantity of the goods, terms of inspection, delivery and payment, requirements for parking and marking, claims and arbitration and other articles.

Enquiry

Dear Sirs,

We were greatly impressed by the samples of your goods which we saw on display at the exhibition last November. We were very interested in establishing contract with you and feel that we shall be able to do successful business provided your terms and conditions are acceptable for us. Please let us have your catalogues and latest price-lists quoting your best terms and prices. We are looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Offer

Dear Sirs,

Thank you for your enquiry of … which has given our careful attention. We enclose detailed quotations for a wide range of our product. We can make a firm offer to meet any delivery dates. The prices and the terms of payment will depend on our mutual agreement. If you place a big order we shall be able to give you a discount. Your early reply will be appreciated.

Your faithfully,

Preliminary discussion

F: Well, Mr. R., you’ve studied our offer and seen our samples, haven’t you? What’s your final decision?

R.: We like samples 5 and 8, they suit us. The quality is excellent and we think the goods will go down well in our market if the prices are reasonable.

F.: You are right. We’ve been selling out goods for two years and very successfully. Sample 8 is our latest modified model. Are you going to place a big order?

R.: Yes, … pieces for prompt delivery and … pieces for delivery in four equal lots of … per month within 4 months of signing the contract.

F.: We are quite able to meet the dates. We have a big stock. Do you prefer CAF terms?

R.: Yes, no insurance. And you remember my remark, don’t you, Mr. F.?I said: If the prices are competitive. We would like you to give us a discount of 5%.

F.: That’s too much. As a special concession to a new customer, we can give you a 3.5% discount. And payment by an irrevocable confirmed L/D(аккредитив) which you will open right after signing the contract.

R.: Good, it’s a deal. We’ll be able to sign the contract this week, I think.

Performing the contract

R.: Welcome to Moscow. Mr. F., I’m glad to see you, though the occasion is not quite pleasant.

F.: I hope we’ll settle everything. I hear you have problems with customs clearance?

R.: Yes, you see we couldn’t clear the goods because there was a discrepancy between the bill and your invoices.

F.: Yes, I’ve seen to that, everything will be all right. Anything else?

R.: Yes, in the first consignment some items proved to be of inferior quality and there was a short -delivery of 10 pieces.

F.: My best apologies, Mr. R.. May I have a copy of your report? It’s the first complaint we’ve ever had from your companies. We’ll arrange for immediate shipment of short-delivered items and replace the interior ones.

R.: Good. But I’m afraid we’ll have to revise some parts of the contract.

THE INTERNET

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1996 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packed switching. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out ( by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-switching network which has already survived a war is the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War. Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions worldwide, and their number is growing by thousands each month.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide-Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: users pay their service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider, and part of the fee received by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled – but inexpensive- Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers .However, because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being send over the Internet.

In spite of the fact that there are many good encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i. e. “in the clear”. But when it becomes necessary to send the important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems which will take time to be resolved.

Answer the questions: 1) What is the Internet? 2) What was the Internet originally designed for? 3) What country are most of the Internet host computers in? 4) What is the most popular Internet service? 5) Whom do you have to pay for sending e-mail messages?

Clothing Design

The conception of the design is the initial phase in clothing construction. The first consideration in design must be the function of the garment. Is it to be for a formal occasion, everyday wear, for work or for play? Once the purpose of the garment has been established the specific design can be developed. The idea for the design may come from the style that was seen on the street, a garment viewed in a store window, a sketch in a clothing catalog, or from the imagination of the designer. Many interesting designs can be created by combining various standard sleeve and collar patterns with basic body styles.

Pattern Drafting

Pattern Drafting is the first step in the process of turning a design conception into a reality. There are three basic elements to work with during drafting: 1. the sketch which shows the desired design, 2. the material which must be used, 3. the measurements of the person who will wear the clothes. Ready - to - wear designers will use the manufacturer's basic patterns which have been developed to fit as many people as possible.

Dressmaking

Most of our clothes, of course are produced in factories. They are made in a variety of standard sizes, so that they can fit people of any size and shape. These clothes are called ready - to wear clothes. But to get a perfect fit , you must go to a dressmaker. She takes your exact measurements and makes clothes specially for you. This process is called dressmaking. The dressmaker buys some dress material and a paper pattern of a design she likes. Then she makes the cutting. Then she sews the dress together on a sewing machine. She has to finish the seems, sew on pockets and buttons, make button holes and put in zippers.

Fashion

Fashion is an art and an industry. It has long played a secondary role in the history of applied arts, but the development of the fashion industry in the post-war period was connected with changing life-styles and tastes. The immediate post-war period was a difficult time for fashion: there was no atmosphere and there were shortages in everything, including materials. In the fifties the situation improved. A new trend appeared in fashion - the fashion of the young. Young people wanted inexpensive, ready-made clothes, sometimes even vulgar and shocking.

The sixties were famous for "fashion revolution". It was a decade of extremes. Youth demanded an end to rules in fashion, their idea was classless, casual style.

Put in the necessary word.

1) Most of our clothes are produced in …. . a)clothing industry b) factories c) dressmaking

2) They are called …. clothes. a) cutting b) factory c) ready-to-wear

3) The dressmaker makes clothes specially for you. The dressmaker buys some material and makes a ….. . a) design b) pattern c) shape

1. Find the synonyms.

1) clothes a) sewing industry

2) fit b) to be the right size

3) clothing industry c) mill

4) factory d) work out

5) develop e) manufacture

6) produce f) apply

7) use g) cloth, fabric

8) material h) garment, dress

2. Установите, в какой последовательности выполняет операции портниха.

- She finishes the seams

- She sews the dress together on a sewing machine

- She makes the cutting

- She buys a pattern of a design

- She buys some dress material

- The dressmaker takes your exact measurements.

I Thanks Благодарность

Thank you (very much). БольшоеспасибоThanks. Спасибо

Thank you for doing it. Спасибо за то, что вы это сделали. Thank you for coming. Спасибозато, чтовыпришлиThank you for telling me about it. Спасибо за то, что вы сказали мне об этом. Thankyouforthetroubleyou'vetaken. Спасибо за беспокойство, которое вы взяли на себя.

Thankyouforawonderfulevening. Спасибо за чудесный вечер

ThankyouinadvanceЗаранее благодарен вам.

It was very kind of you to do it Свашейстороныбылооченьлюбезносделатьэто.

I am very much obliged. Явамоченьпризнателен

I am very grateful to you. Я вам очень благодарен You' vedonemeagreatfavourВы мне сделали большое одолжение

Replies Ответы

You' re welcome. Пожалуйста (к вашим услугам). Don'tmentionit. Not at all. Нестоитблагодарности.

No trouble at all. Никакогобеспокойства.

The pleasure was all mine. Это вы мне доставили удовольствие.

II . Apologies Извинения

1. I'msorryИзвините, простите

2. Excuse me.

3. Ibedyourpardon.

4. Pardon (me).

5. Excusemydisturbingyou. Простите, что я вас беспокою

6. Excusemytroublingyou. Простите за беспокойство

7. I must apologize to you. Ядолженизвинитьсяпередвами

8. Apologize to Ann for me. ИзвинитесьпередЭннзаменя

9. Sorry? I' vekeptyouwaitingПростите, что заставил вас ждать

10.I didh't mean to hurt you. Я не хотел сделать вам больно

11.Don't be cross with me. Несердитесьнаменя

12. Forgiveme, pleaseПростите меня, пожалуйста

13. Sorry to interrupt you Простите, чтоперебиваювас

Replies Ответы That's all right Всевпорядке

No trouble at all. Никакого беспокойства.

NevermindНичего

ForgetitЗабудьте это

You needn't apologize. It's my fault. Вам нет нужды извиняться. Это моя вина

NoharmdoneВы не сделали никакого вреда

No offence taken Янеобиделся

III What We Say When Meeting People Чтомыговоримпривстречеслюдьми

How are you? Каквы?

How are you getting on? Какдела? How are you getting on with…? Как у вас дела с… ?

What' sthematter ? Что случилось?

What' s the matter with Pete? Что случилось с Питом?

I'm glad to meet you. Рад познакомиться с вами.

It' s long time since we met last. Прошло много времени с тех пор как мы встречались. Iwasmissingyou (badly). Я (очень) скучал по тебе (вас).

I haven't seen you for ages. Я не видел вас сто лет.

I don't see much of you. Я редко вас вижу.

Replies Ответы.

PositiveRepliesПоложительные ответы

1. Quite well Вполнехорошо.

2. Everything is all right Всевпорядке.

3. NottoowellНе слишком хорошо.

4. So-so Таксебе.

5. Middling Средне. .

6. Nothing to boast of Хвастатьсянечем

IV. Invitation. Arrangements Приглашение . Договоренность .

1. Нave you anything special (on) Sunday) ? Вы заняты чем-нибудь особенным в воскресенье?

2. Are you engaged ? Вызаняты?

3. What are you plans for…? Каковывашипланына…?

4. May I invite you to the party? Можно пригласить вас на вечер?

5. May I invite you for dance? Можно пригласить вас на танец?

6. Shall we dance? Потанцуем?

7. May I see you home? Можно проводить вас до дома?

8. Will it be all right with you? Вас это устроит?

Replies Ответы . Positive Replies Положительные ответы

1. AllrightХорошо.

2. WithpleasureС удовольствием.

3. Idon'tmindНе возражаю

4. That' sfineПрекрасно.

5. That' sgoodideaХорошая идея.

6. Not a bad idea Неплохаямысль.

7. I' Il be delighted Ябудурад (доволен).

8. That suits me very well Меняэтооченьустраивает.

9. That' s settled. (Settled) Решено.

10. Idon'tcare. Мне все равно.

Negative Replies Отрицательные ответы

1. I'mafraidIcan'tБоюсь что не смогу 2. I'mafraidI'mbusyБоюсь, что занят (а)

V. Congratulations and Wishes Поздравления и пожелания

Congratulations! Поздравляю!

Please accept my heartiest and sincerest wishes Примитемоисамыесердечныепожелания

My best congratulations to you on… Моипоздравленияс …

Many happy returns of the day! С днем рождения!

AhappyNewYear! С новым годом!

Best wishes to you! Наилучшиепожеланияк…

My best wishes to you! Моинаилучшиепожеланиявам!

May all the dreams come true. Пустьсбудутсявсевашимечты

I wish you all the happiness in the world. Желаю вам огромного счастья

I wish you good luck. Доброй удачи вам!

IwishyoueverysuccessЖелаю вам всяческих успехов (во всем)

I wish you success in passing your examination Желаюуспешнойсдачиэкзамена

VI. Knowlenge of Languages Знание языков

What does this word mean? Что означает это слово?

Speakslowly,pleaseГоворите медленно пожалуйста

Is my pronunciation correct? Моепроизношениеправильное?

I can read English a little bit Ямогучитатьпо-английскинемного

I read with the help of a dictionary Ячитаюспомощьюсловаря

Please, say it again Повторитепожалуйста

Spelltheword, pleaseНазовите слово по буквам пожалуйста

We need an interpreter Намнуженпереводчик

ShespeaksbrokenEnglishОна говорит на ломанном английском

HisEnglishispoorОн слабо знает английский

HisvocabularyisratherrichЕго словарный запас довольно богатый

Can you speak a bit louder? Вы можете говорить немного громче?

Don' t speak so fast. Не говорите так быстро

Ididn' tquitecatchwhatyousaidЯ не вполне уловил, что вы сказали

Look up the new word in a dictionary. Посмотрите новое слово в словаре

I would like to read the book in the original Ябыхотелпрочестькнигуворигинале

I'dliketotakeEnglishlessonsЯ бы хотела брать уроки английского языка

VII. Special Cases of Replies Особые случаи ответов

By all means Обязательно

To my regret Кмоемусожалению

It's nothing to speak of Неочемговорить

It's high time to Давнопора

So much the better Темлучше

Don'tworryНе беспокойтесь

AtallcostsЧего бы это ни стоило

Don't be in a hurry Неторопитесь

WithpleasureС удовольствием

Let'shopeforthebestДавайте надеяться на лучшее

O. K. Хорошо, ладно

TakeiteasyНе волнуйтесь (не переживайте)

I see Понятно

I can't make up my mind Янемогурешить

LooklikethatПохоже на то

Watch you language Выбирайтевыражения

Good for you! Молодец!

Mind your own business! Невмешивайтесь

I take it for granted. Я считаю это само собой разумеющимся

Pull yourself together Возьмитесебявруки

I am inclined to think… Я склонен думать что…

LeavemealoneОставьте меня в покое

It's a pity Жаль

Leave it to me Предоставьтеэтомне

VIII. Disagreement. Denial. Doubt. Несогласие . Отрицание.

Idon'tagreewithyouЯ не согласен с вами

Idon'tagreetoyouropinionЯ не согласен с вашим мнением

On the contrary! Наоборот!

Nothing of the kind Ничегоподобного!

I am afraid you are wrong Боюсь, чтовынеправы

I shouldn' t say so Ябынесказалэтого!

One never can tell Янеуверен

OneneverknowsНикогда нельзя сказать с уверенностью

IX. Surprise and Unexpectedness Удивление и неожиданность

Really? Да? Действительно?

Is that really so? Всамомделе?

Well, it is a surprise! Вотэтосюрприз!

You don’t say so! Дану! Чтовыговорите!

What a coincidence! [kou’ insidns] Какоесовпадение!

The world we live in! Ну и ну! Ну и дела (творятся в мире)!

Believe it or not. Хотитеверьте, хотитенет.

Justfancy! (разг.) Можете себе представить!

That beats everything! Ну, знаете! Такого я еще не слышал (не видел)!

It’snewstome. Это новость для меня.

Oh, dear! / Dear me! Нуину!

Do you really mean it? Вы это действительно имеете в виду?

X. Encourangement. Sympathy. Regret. Comfort

Ободрение . Симпатия. Сожаление. Утешение

Cheerup! Не унывайте!

Goahead. Продолжайте. (Действуйте.)

Don’tworry. Не беспокойтесь.

Pullyourselftogether. Возьмите себя в руки.

Take it easy! / Don’t take it Непринимайтеэтоблизко

very much to heart [ ha:t]! ксердцу

Don’t get upset (about it). Не расстраивайтесь (из-за этого)

Let’s hope for the best. Будемнадеятьсяналучшее.

Everything will come round. Все обойдется.

Thingshappen. Всякое бывает.

XI. Worry. Anxiety. Trouble Беспокойство . Волнение . Хлопоты

I am worried. Яобеспокоен.

I am (very much) upset. Яоченьрасстроен.

Things are bad with me. Дела у меня обстоят очень плохо.

I am in fix (разг.). Я в затруднительном положении.

That’sthetrouble. Вот в чем беда проблема.

Wewon’tmanageit. Мы не сумеем сделать (устроить) это.

Ifeeluneasy. Я чувствую себя неловко.

It’s quite a job (разг.). Эта работа не из легких.

I’m unwell. Мненехорошо.

What troubles you? Чтовасбеспокоит?

What achievements of your country are you proud of?

Our motherland, Russia, has great achievements in all fields: technology, science, culture and education. It is almost impossible to name the branch of science in the development of which Russian scientists haven’t played the greatest role.

M. Lomonosov was one of the most learned men in Europe. He was an outstanding innovator both in the humanities and sciences. He founded the first Russian University. Mendeleev’s greatest discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov invented radio. Sechenov and Pavlov were the world’s greatest physiologists.

Russia is rightly called the mother of aviation and interplanetary navigation. Tsiolkovsky is the father of rocket flying. He formulated the principles of jet propeller flying machines for interplanetary communication. Mozhaisky’s aeroplane was the first of the world.

One more great achievement of Russian science is Gagarin’s flight in space. He was the first man in space. People all over the world know his smile. Our scientists and technologists build modern spaceships of highest quality. They keep the traditions of Tsiolkovsky and Korolyov.

Our scientists build many combat machines of highest quality and very quickly during the Great Patriotic War. The courage of the soldiers was astonishing.

It is very interesting that Nobel, the Swedish inventor, and his sons built several mechanical plants in Russia. As well as science and technology, the culture of Russia is famous all over the world. When we speak about Russian culture, we must speak about opera and ballet, music, fine arts, literature, and circus.

As for the ballet, the Russian school of ballet is known for its well-trained and beautiful dancers, such as Anna Pavlova, Maya Plisetskaya, Ilse Liepa, Rudolf Nuriev, and beautiful ballets, such as “The Nutcracker” and “Swans’ Lake” by Tchaikovsky, “Spartak” by Hachaturyan. Russian ballet-dancers do very difficult elements.

Russian opera is well-known, too. Such masterpieces as “Ivan Sousanin” and “Ruslan and Ludmila” by Glinka are in the collection of the best operas of the world. Every year thousands of Russian citizens and tourists enjoy “Evgene Onegin” and “The Queen of Spades” by Tchaikovsky.

Russian composers Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Dunaevsky, Pakhmutova and others have created beautiful music. Russian modern composers follow their traditions.

Russian painters and schools of painting started centuries ago, beginning with icon- painting. Well-known icon-painters Pheophan Greek and Andrey Rublyov, as well as unknown artists, created masterpieces which attract tourists from all over the world. Russian painters always wanted to express the Russian soul and the beauty of Russia in their pictures. Landscapes of Levitan and Shishkin, historical canvases of Suricov and Repin, mythological pictures of Vrubel and Vasnetsov charm the visitors of the museums.

Russian literature is known as an example of good style. Since the first printing-house of Ivan Fyodorov began to work, the Russian people have never stopped to read. Our writers of the XIX century – Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, and Fyodor Dostoevsky – are studied at all Russian schools. The modern writers are appreciated not only in Russia, but in many countries. Michail Sholokhov was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1965. Modern detective novels by Vainer brothers, and Marinina are entertaining, their characters look like real people. Science fiction by Strugatsky brothers gives much food for thought. Nowadays, when our civilization is at cross-roads, their novels show us where we can come.

Verse of Russian poets, such as Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov, Yesenin, Mayakovsky, and Rozhdestvensky, are translated into many languages. Russian poet Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1987.

Russian circus was and is famous. Russian animal trainers the Durovs created a new school of animal training, which is called “emotional”, or “pain-free”. Since then Russian animal trainers have put up many difficult shows, for example, with elephants and tigers, who are natural enemies. Kuklachov has a great cat show, though, you know, it is believed, cats can not be trained. Russian conjurers Kio and Akopyan have created miracles on the stage.

Russian achievements in sport are great. Just remember the world chess champions Karpov, Kasparov and Kramnik, Russian figure skaters such as: Irena Sluzhkay, Evgene Plutchenko, and others; the Russian school of athletics and weight-lifting.


Irregular verbs Неправильные глаголы

Infinitive

(1 форма)

Past Indefinite

(2 форма)

Participle 2

(3 форма)

Перевод

To be

To become

To begin

To break

To bring

To build

To burn

To buy

To choose

To come

To cut

To do

To draw

To drink

To drive

To eat

To fall

To feel

To fight

To find

To fly

To forget

To get

To give

To go

To grow

To have

To hear

To hold

To keep

To know

To lead

To learn

To leave

To let

To light

To lose

To make

To mean

To meet

To put

To read

To run

To say

To see

To send

To set

To shut

To sing

To sit

To sleep

To speak

To spend

To stand

To take

To teach

To tell

To think

To throw

To understand

To win

To write

Was, were

Became

Began

Broke

Brought

Built

Burnt

Bought

Chose

Came

Cut

Did

Drew

Drank

Drove

Ate

Fell

Felt

Fought

Found

Flew

Forgot

Got

Gave

Went

Grew

Had

Head

Held

Kept

Knew

Led

Learnt, learned

Left

Let

Lit

Lost

Made

Meant

Met

Put

Read (red)

Ran

Said

Saw

Sent

Set

Shut

Sang

Set

Slept

Spoke

Spent

Stood

Took

Taught

Told

Thought

Threw

Understood

Won

wrote

Been

Become

Begun

Broken

Brought

Built

Burnt

Bought

Chosen

Come

Cut

Done

Drawn

Drunk

Driven

Eaten

Fallen

Felt

Fought

Found

Flown

Forgotten

Got

Given

Gone

Grown

Had

Heard

Held

Kept

Known

Led

Learnt, learned

Left

Let

Lit

Lost

Made

Meant

Met

Put

Read (red)

Run

Said

Seen

Sent

Set

Shut

Sung

Sat

Slept

Spoken

Spent

Stood

Taken

Taught

Told

Thought

Thrown

Understood

Won

written

Быть

Становиться

Начинать (ся)

Ломать

Произносить

Строить

Гореть, жечь

Покупать

Выбирать

Приходить

Резать

Делать

Тащить; рисовать

Пить

Везти

Есть

Падать

Чувствовать

Бороться

Находить

Летать

Забывать

Получать; становиться

Давать

Идти; ехать

Расти; выращивать

Иметь

Слышать

Держать

Держать; хранить

Знать

Вести

Учить (ся)

Оставлять

Позволять

Зажигать

Терять

Делать

Значить

Встречать

Класть

Читать

Бежать

Сказать; говорить

Видеть

Посылать

Помещать; класть

Закрывать

Петь

Сидеть

Спать

Говорить

Тратить

Стоять

Брать

Учить

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Где скачать еще рефератов? Здесь: letsdoit777.blogspot.com
Евгений07:51:04 19 марта 2016

Работы, похожие на Учебное пособие: Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку
Философия грамматики
THE PHILOSOPHY OF GRAMMAR by OTTO JESPERSEN О. ЕСПЕРСЕН ФИЛОСОФИЯ ГРАММАТИКИ Перевод с английского В.В. ПАССЕКА и С.П. САФРОНОВОЙ Под редакцией и с ...
If Hamlet from himseife be tane away, And when he"s not himselfe, do"s wrong Laertes, Then Hamlet does it not ("Гамлет", V. 2. 245); If he be a whoremonger, and comes before him ...
Косвенные вопросы очень часто употребляются не только для передачи прямых вопросов, но и (в качестве "первичных предложений" - clause primaries) при глаголах know "знать", doubt ...
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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Сборники вопросов и билетов по английскому и немецкому языку за первый ...
Для удобства просмотра и с целью сокращения объёма информации в байтах билеты объеденены. Содержание (сначала идут вопросы к билетам, а затем сами ...
She (to open) the presents as soon as she (to see) them.
When he arrived ___ the railway station, he went ___ the booking-office and bought a ticket.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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When she entered the room, the teacher saw the students writing.
If he were at home, we could go and see him.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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4. The Titanic had already gone down when another ship arrived.
1. When he comes to the office he will call the company.
Раздел: Топики по английскому языку
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2. When John saw Mary, she crossed the street [31;245].
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ стр ВВЕДЕНИЕ.............................4 Глава I Обучение грамматической стороне речи как важнейшей составляющей коммуникативной ...
Ex.3 In pairs, imagine that one of you is a chef of a computer firm , you are going to interview a person, who is eager to work for you.
Типичные ошибки при употреблении " Present Perfect& Present Perfect Continuous" были следующие: - употребление глаголов, не употребляющихся в Continuous; - использование пассивного ...
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I"ve got to go now.[34] На уровне лексики краткость проявляется в преимущественном употреблении одноморфемных слов, глаголов с постпозитивами: fill out, come out, check in, go down ...
... of us, the only thing left to discuss was what we should take with us; and this we had begun to argue, when Harris said he'd had enough oratory for one night, and proposed that we ...
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When I saw Liv, I understood that my dream had come true.
Even when we had days off, he took a horse and went practicing. ( V.M. looks very confused}
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ex- + n - N (ex-minister, ex-wife, exchampion);
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+ as, when, while used to mean although, but, seeing that
..He came out of a side road rather fast and a lorry crashed into him.
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Станете ли вы заказывать работу за деньги, если не найдете ее в Интернете?

Да, в любом случае.
Да, но только в случае крайней необходимости.
Возможно, в зависимости от цены.
Нет, напишу его сам.
Нет, забью.



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